Science.gov

Sample records for abuse social workers

  1. Child Abuse and Neglect: Handbook for Social Workers in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Inst. of Social Welfare Research, Athens, GA.

    The pamphlet provides guidelines for the social worker in reporting cases of suspected child abuse and neglect as required by Georgia law. Presented is information on the following topics: overview of the problem, understanding the parent, types of abuse and neglect, the social worker's duty to report, definition of protective services, how to…

  2. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  3. Between the empowered self and the social costs: Arab abused women's perceptions of their relationship with social workers in community health clinics in Israel.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Eli; Barakat, Rouzin

    2014-01-01

    Abused women seek help from medicine services extensively. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 married Arab-Israeli abused women about their relationships with social workers in community health clinics. Analysis reveals that women's evaluation of the impact of encounters with social workers is bipolar. On one pole are the difficulties and stressors derived from the cultural limitations that are placed on their ability to bring changes. On the other pole are the benefits--awareness in coping with repressive social powers and empowerment as competent choosers. The discussion elaborates the conflicts and paradoxes inherent in the nature of the interventions with abused women in a collectivistic culture.

  4. Addressing Wife Abuse in Mexican Immigrant Couples: Challenges for Family Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses wife abuse in undocumented Mexican immigrant couples and suggests an ecosystems treatment approach that takes into consideration the structural forces of oppression and discrimination on abusive behaviors in the home and combines individual, family and community level interventions to help immigrant men stop the abuse.…

  5. The 'dop' system, alcohol abuse and social control amongst farm workers in South Africa: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    London, L

    1999-05-01

    Many farm workers in South Africa continue to live and work under adverse conditions that are the legacy of apartheid policies. Despite its official prohibition, the arrangement by which workers are given alcohol' as a benefit of employment, known as the 'dop' system, appears to persist. Even though it is a minority of farms that currently actively practice the dop system, the ramifications of the historical 'institutionalisation of massive alcohol consumption are widespread. Heavy alcohol consumption is not only directly injurious to the health of farm workers and their families, but places them at risk to various social and environmental hazards. This is illustrated in a case of pesticide poisoning in which 24 workers were poisoned when given wine contaminated with the carbamate insecticide aldicarb. The case illustrates (i) the ongoing application of the dop system on farms in South Africa and (ii) the interaction between social factors and chemical exposures amongst farm workers. Public perceptions about the natural tendencies of 'coloured' people to drink heavily have much to do with perpetuating the dop system, and reinforcing a system geared towards the social control of rural farm workers and their families. The dop system poses a major challenge to the public health authorities in South Africa who are charged with the task of restructuring health services to address the human rights and health needs of marginal farming communities within a primary health care framework.

  6. Social Workers and Immunity from Civil Lawsuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolf, Alexander, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Supreme Court has ruled that certain professionals have immunity from civil rights lawsuits, but has not considered any cases involving social workers. A split view regarding the extent of social workers' immunity in investigating child abuse cases has appeared in two courts of appeals. Discusses immunity, the case in these two circuits, and…

  7. APS workers job requirements associated with elder abuse rates.

    PubMed

    Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J; Haigh, Kellie M; Leeney, Jennifer L; Dawson, Jeffrey D

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship of required educational background of APS workers to the 1999 rates of domestic elder abuse. Data were obtained from APS related statutes and regulations and questions to the National Center for Elder Abuse list serve. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests were used for analyses. Those states whose legislations required a social work degree for APS caseworkers did have higher elder abuse investigation rates. A lower substantiation ratio was found for those states requiring a social work degree or license. These findings suggest that social work education may lead to an emphasis on investigation and interventions and de-emphasis on the criminal aspects of elder abuse evaluation substantiations.

  8. Perspectives about Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Mark E.; And Others

    Previous research has shown that career preferences are dependent upon the words and images that individuals associate with various occupations. The present study sought to identify differences and similarities between college students' and social workers' views toward social work. College students majoring in psychology (N=25) and social workers…

  9. Barriers Preventing the Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Comparison of School Social Workers in Public and Private Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgus, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Timely and accurate reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect is essential to protect victimized children; however, there are barriers to such reporting. The importance of barriers may be based on organizational theories that suggest structure has an impact on behavior independent of individual factors and on identity theory which suggests…

  10. A Qualitative Study of School Social Workers' Clinical and Professional Relationships when Reporting Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanmugam, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study explored school social workers' relationships during instances of abuse and neglect reporting, focusing on reports made for children and adolescents already receiving school social work services. Although school social workers frequently file abuse and neglect reports, little is known about how they manage clinical and…

  11. Institutional Denial or Minimization: Substance Abuse Training in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Gregorio

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse in the United States has reached catastrophic proportions. 23.6 million people needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem (1). According to the National Association of Social Workers, 60% of all mental health services are carried out by social workers (3). Therefore, social workers are in a critical and unique…

  12. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  13. Establishing a Computerized Substance Abuse Surveillance System for District Social Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Methods, Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan; Parry, Charles; Carelse, Jermaine

    2011-01-01

    The provision of accurate, in-depth data on substance abuse trends and service needs has become increasingly important in light of the growing wave of substance abuse in South Africa and particularly in the Western Cape Province. This article describes the design and implementation of an electronic substance abuse surveillance system (SASS)…

  14. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bride, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers are increasingly being called on to assist survivors of childhood abuse, domestic violence, violent crime, disasters, and war and terrorism. It has become increasingly apparent that the psychological effects of traumatic events extend beyond those directly affected. Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is becoming viewed as an…

  15. School Social Workers' Intent to Stay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caselman, Tonia D.; Brandt, Mary D.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents findings from a survey that examined school social workers' intent to stay in the field of school social work. Forty-eight school social workers from a midwestern state participated in the study. Effect size estimates were used to examine the relationship between social workers' intent to stay and years of experience,…

  16. Ombudsman Roles for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, James E.

    1972-01-01

    In Scandinavia the ombudsman has long been respected as a mediator who protects the rights of individual citizens and works to assure governmental agencies' fairness in dealing with them. This article examines the concept and considers various ombudsman roles for social workers in the United States. (Author)

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect: Social Service Reader I [and] Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Bernadette, Ed.

    Intended to provide new caseworkers with an introduction to child abuse and neglect, the two part document presents information from a multidisciplinary perspective. Twenty-three articles in the first book and seven in the second are included on the social worker's role, assessment and counseling of abusive and neglecting parents, the impact of…

  18. Collaboration of School Social Workers and Drug Prevention Staff in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factors that are related to collaboration between high school social workers and substance abuse prevention/intervention counselors in New York State high schools (except for New York City high schools). Constructs that were analyzed were high school social workers' perceived adequacy in working with high school students'…

  19. Changing Social Work Students' Attitudes toward Substance Abusers through the Use of an Abstinence Assignment: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaid, Wanda M.; Squires, Stuart P.

    2005-01-01

    Per se, increased knowledge about substance abuse has not been effective in altering social workers' negative attitudes towards substance abusers or their failure to recognize or address substance abuse problems among clients. In this paper, we describe an experiential abstinence assignment integrated with the content of an elective substance…

  20. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. PMID:12321536

  1. History of abuse and psychological distress symptoms among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Semple, Shirley J; Rao, Swati; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel A; Bucardo, Jesus; De la Torre, Adela; Salázar-Reyna, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that all forms of past abuse predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms. Social support was also significantly associated with fewer symptoms of distress; however, it was not shown to moderate the relationship between abuse history and distress.

  2. History of Abuse and Psychological Distress Symptoms among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica; Semple, Shirley J.; Rao, Swati; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel A.; Bucardo, Jesus; De la Torre, Adela; Salazar-Reyna, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization, and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that all forms of past abuse predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms. Social support was also significantly associated with fewer symptoms of distress; however, it was not shown to moderate the relationship between abuse history and distress. PMID:19634364

  3. A Descriptive Profile of Abused Female Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A.K.; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F.; Celentano, David

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample, 76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping women to stay safe from adverse effects on health. PMID:20635631

  4. Political Correctness, Social Work, and the Breakdown of the Child Abuse System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Howard Jacob; Stoesz, David

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between political correctness, social work, and breakdown of the child abuse system. Examines groups that stand to gain from perpetuating the myth of classlessness. Investigates high turnover rates among social workers, declassification of public welfare jobs, and problems in screening and provision of services to…

  5. Editorial: Social Support and Coping Strategies as Mediators of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David P. H.

    1997-01-01

    This editorial discusses two studies in this journal issue that explore mediating functions of coping strategies and social support in long-term outcomes of child abuse and neglect. It is argued that these studies provide empirical evidence of interest to social workers and mental health practitioners by identifying specific factors and strategies…

  6. Correlates of partner violence among female street-based sex workers: substance abuse, history of childhood abuse, and HIV risks.

    PubMed

    El-Bassel, N; Witte, S S; Wada, T; Gilbert, L; Wallace, J

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse by intimate and commercial sexual partners among street-based sex workers and explores correlates of partner abuse by commercial partners using the following factors: sociodemographics, substance abuse, sexual behavior, and physical and sexual childhood abuse. One hundred thirteen street sex workers were recruited from December 1996 through May 1997 while receiving services from the Foundations for Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (FROST'D), a nonprofit organization based in New York City. Partner abuse is a common occurrence among street sex workers. Two of three street prostitutes have experienced lifetime physical or sexual abuse by either an intimate or commercial partner. In addition, one of eight reported physical and sexual abuse by both intimate and commercial partners during her lifetime. Women who were homeless in the last year, those who reported exchanging for drugs and money as their main source of income, used injection drugs in the past year and had sex in crack houses, and who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive were more likely to be report combined physical and sexual abuse. Understanding the relationship between partner violence, victim's substance abuse, and HIV-risk behavior is important for the development of public policies and treatment and prevention strategies to address the constellation of problems that drug-using female street sex workers face.

  7. Presence of social workers in nongovernment organizations.

    PubMed

    Claiborne, Nancy

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the job categories full-time social workers occupy in 20 international nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Social workers holding BSW or higher degrees account for 95 percent of the program director and coordinator positions, indicating that now there may be greater use of these professionals. But non-social workers filled 83 percent of the direct services positions. Also disconcerting was the small representation of social workers in administration and development. Thus, social workers are used in program coordination, but underused in leadership and services provision. Organizational resources and programs, when linked to larger annual budgets, may indicate an NGO's ability to provide specialized direct services using social work expertise. PMID:15124961

  8. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving

  9. Social Workers in Child Welfare: Ready for Duty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Tracy; Clark, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    This article responds to "Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?" by Dr. Robin E. Perry. The article articulates National Association of Social Workers' support for a professional social work labor force to serve children and their families and for continued federal investment in the training of these workers.…

  10. The Impact of a Post-Master's Program in Substance Abuse on Social Work and Other Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.; Vairo, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major problem encountered by social workers in all settings. This study investigated the impact of a postmaster's program in the treatment of substance-abusing clients on the domains of "Attitudes and Values," "Knowledge and Skills," and "Behaviors" of its graduates. Overall, 91 percent of respondents found the program to be…

  11. Charles Dickens, Social Worker in His Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    As the world marks the 200th anniversary of Charles Dickens's birth, social workers may take note of the contributions Dickens made to 19th century social reform. Ever the advocate for people who were poor and oppressed, Dickens, in his timeless fictional narratives, continues to have relevance for contemporary social justice advocacy. This…

  12. Comparing Social Worker and Non-Social Worker Outcomes: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a review of the literature comparing the outcomes of social workers with those of non-social workers. The review was commissioned by NASW's Texas Chapter to examine empirical evidence regarding the comparative effectiveness of social work to possibly support efforts to educate employers and the public about the value of…

  13. The Production of Therapy: The Social Process of Construction of the Mother of a Sexually Abused Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    This study qualitatively examined the perspectives of clinical social workers on non-offending mothers of sexually abused children. The study examined whether clinicians still used collusion to explain mothers' behavior, despite research refuting collusion. Findings revealed that, although workers did not use collusion, they still constructed…

  14. Comparing social worker and non-social worker outcomes: a research review.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle E

    2012-10-01

    This article reports on a review of the literature comparing the outcomes of social workers with those of non-social workers. The review was commissioned by NASW's Texas Chapter to examine empirical evidence regarding the comparative effectiveness of social work to possibly support efforts to educate employers and the public about the value of social work. Because of the limited number of internally valid studies that have compared social workers and non-social workers on actual client outcomes, studies were also included if they examined practitioner variables that might be associated with client outcomes. The mixed findings point to a lack of compelling evidence supporting the superiority of social work in the child welfare field. However, in the mental health and aging fields, the limited evidence suggests that social workers do at least as well as non-social workers regarding practitioner retention, mental health court intervention, efforts to maintain older adult independence in the community, and attitudes toward evidence-based practice. Implications are presented to guide NASW in promoting rigorous research comparing social workers and non-social workers on actual client outcomes, especially in the field of child welfare.

  15. Data collection: are social workers reliable?

    PubMed

    O'Brien, N; McClellan, T; Alfs, D

    1992-01-01

    Social workers are required to collect a considerable amount of personal information about clients and their families which may be unrelated to direct clinical work. Administrators often use this for the purpose of payment, service documentation, agency planning, and accountability. The worker's concern about the appropriateness of collecting this data may result in poor compliance or even falsification of information. In a survey of Minnesota social workers, noncompliance with data collection requirements was substantial. The authors also found a significant degree of conflict about privacy and confidentiality issues. These findings suggest a basis of concern for those who must rely on accurate data for administrative planning.

  16. A School Social Worker's Impact on a Human Sexuality Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crolley-Simic, Josie; Vonk, M. Elizabeth; Ellsworth, William

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the roles and skills of a school social worker assisting a school district in developing a human sexuality education program. Specific challenges faced by the social worker are discussed, and alternatives to several of the social worker's decisions are explored. Specifically, decisions made by the social worker regarding…

  17. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical social worker services. 410.73 Section 410... Clinical social worker services. (a) Definition: clinical social worker. For purposes of this part, a clinical social worker is defined as an individual who— (1) Possesses a master's or doctor's degree...

  18. Social Workers as Family Educators about Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the issue of educational interventions for families of the chronically mentally ill. Advocates that, because of their psychosocial orientation and case management expertise, social workers are best qualified as family educators. Recommends covering diagnostic and medication issues, information on social service networks, an overview of…

  19. After Abuse: Child Coping Patterns and Social Work Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Elizabeth M.

    The hypothesis that abused children develop a life style of overt expression of aggression and depression was examined in a study of 56 physically abused first grade children who were placed in foster care due to parental physical abuse. As no test instrument existed, the Childhood Social Functioning Inventory was developed, pretested, and used to…

  20. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) Students' Prior Sexual Abuse Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…

  1. National Association of Social Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 22/2016) NASW Health Care Standards Social Workers’ Perception of Workforce Challenges Executive Summary Findings Report (June ... Women’s Issues, conducted a survey on Social Workers’ Perception of Workforce Challenges. Click to read the findings. ' }] ...

  2. Charles Dickens, social worker in his time.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-10-01

    As the world marks the 200th anniversary of Charles Dickens's birth, social workers may take note of the contributions Dickens made to 19th century social reform. Ever the advocate for people who were poor and oppressed, Dickens, in his timeless fictional narratives, continues to have relevance for contemporary social justice advocacy. This article draws on Dickens's biography and writing to highlight select lessons of relevance to social work. The focus is on developing a professional lens, changing social norms, and interpreting case studies across ecological systems. PMID:23285830

  3. Using the theory of planned behavior to examine residential substance abuse workers intention to use evidence-based practices.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Lovett, Megan J

    2012-09-01

    There is considerable discrepancy between what is considered evidence-based practice (EBP) and what is actually delivered in substance abuse treatment settings. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) is a well-established model that may assist in better understanding clinician's intentions to use EBPs. A total of 106 residential substance abuse workers employed by The Salvation Army participated in the current study. The workers completed an anonymous survey that assessed attitudes toward EBP and examined the constructs within the TpB. A linear regression analysis was used to predict clinicians' intentions to use EBPs. Overall, the model accounted for 41% of the variance in intentions, with attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control all significant predictors. The discussion highlights the potential for social reinforcement in the workplace to promote the implementation of EBPs.

  4. Using the theory of planned behavior to examine residential substance abuse workers intention to use evidence-based practices.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Lovett, Megan J

    2012-09-01

    There is considerable discrepancy between what is considered evidence-based practice (EBP) and what is actually delivered in substance abuse treatment settings. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) is a well-established model that may assist in better understanding clinician's intentions to use EBPs. A total of 106 residential substance abuse workers employed by The Salvation Army participated in the current study. The workers completed an anonymous survey that assessed attitudes toward EBP and examined the constructs within the TpB. A linear regression analysis was used to predict clinicians' intentions to use EBPs. Overall, the model accounted for 41% of the variance in intentions, with attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control all significant predictors. The discussion highlights the potential for social reinforcement in the workplace to promote the implementation of EBPs. PMID:22686963

  5. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  6. Paraprofessional Social Workers in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Phylis Johnson

    1977-01-01

    Describes an 8-week, inservice, college-level course for paraprofessional social workers employed in day care centers. Bi-weekly classes, supplemented by on-site observation and consultation, covered child development, attitudes, systems, resources, roles and practice skills. Opportunities were also provided to test roles and techniques on the…

  7. [Social workers in the commitment procedure].

    PubMed

    Schröder, S; Straub, R; Stolz, K; Frick, E

    1993-09-01

    Regular inclusion of a social worker alongside the expertising physician whenever a judge has to decide on committing a person to a psychiatric hospital, is known in German legal practice as "Stuttgart model". Our experiences with this procedure are discussed on an interdisciplinary level. In our opinion this model agrees with the spirit of the new German law governing guardianship and care.

  8. Homophobia and heterosexism in social workers.

    PubMed

    Berkman, C S; Zinberg, G

    1997-07-01

    Evidence suggests that social workers may be biased when dealing with gay and lesbian populations. The study discussed in this article attempted to measure the extent of homophobia and heterosexist bias and their correlates in a cohort of 187 social workers using the Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuality, the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scales, and a newly created scale to measure heterosexist bias. We found that 10 percent of respondents were homophobic and that a majority were heterosexist. Levels of homophobia and heterosexism were negatively correlated with amount of social contact with homosexual men and women. Religiosity was associated with higher levels of homophobia and heterosexism, and having been in psychotherapy was associated with more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Amount of education on topics related to homosexuality was not correlated with levels of homophobia and heterosexism.

  9. The cleft team social worker.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Alison; Lybrand, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The birth of a child with significant medical problems poses challenges for most families. Congenital orofacial clefting is a common condition affecting families worldwide. Orofacial clefting requires long-term medical care and can affect multiple body systems. Having a child with a chronic medical condition such as cleft lip or palate creates many psychosocial ramifications for a family. This article describes the importance of medical social work involvement in the coordinated care for children with cleft lip and palate. Specific cases spanning prenatal care through adolescence are used to highlight the variety of complex psychosocial situations encountered in the multidisciplinary cleft team setting.

  10. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    PubMed

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  11. Defining Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannoni, Jeanne M.; Becerra, Rosina M.

    In seeking to clarify the meaning of the terms "child abuse" and "child neglect" it has been assumed that, like other forms of social deviance, they are socially defined phenomena. Interviews were conducted with those professionals (lawyers, pediatricians, police officers, and social workers) who daily handle the problems of abuse and neglect for…

  12. Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

  13. Sex offender polygraph examination: an evidence-based case management tool for social workers.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2009-10-01

    This article will review the use of polygraphy in the assessment and treatment of sexual perpetrators. Such information can be utilized by social workers who are involved in the treatment and case management of child sexual abuse cases. First, the controversial literature regarding the validity and reliability of polygraph examination in general will be reviewed. Next, an emerging body of evidence supporting the utility of polygraph testing with sex offenders will be discussed. Finally, ways that social workers can incorporate this knowledge into their case management and clinical roles will be offered.

  14. Sex offender polygraph examination: an evidence-based case management tool for social workers.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2009-10-01

    This article will review the use of polygraphy in the assessment and treatment of sexual perpetrators. Such information can be utilized by social workers who are involved in the treatment and case management of child sexual abuse cases. First, the controversial literature regarding the validity and reliability of polygraph examination in general will be reviewed. Next, an emerging body of evidence supporting the utility of polygraph testing with sex offenders will be discussed. Finally, ways that social workers can incorporate this knowledge into their case management and clinical roles will be offered. PMID:20183683

  15. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses…

  16. Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To empirically examine whether the educational background of child welfare workers in Florida impacts on performance evaluations of their work. Method: A proportionate, stratified random sample of supervisor and peer evaluations of child protective investigators and child protective service workers is conducted. ANOVA procedures are…

  17. The nurse as a social worker.

    PubMed

    La Motte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    In the early twentieth century the role of the public health nurse (PHN) was expanding to meet the needs of individuals, families, and communities. Among the ideas discussed in the early nursing literature was that of the social nurse. This role was conceptualized as a combined nurse and social worker. Much of the PHNs work was with people of the poorer classes who needed assistance with both the medical aspects of their disease, as well as help with social needs such as food, rent money, and bedding. In this reprint from The Visiting Nurse Quarterly (1911), Ellen La Motte, Nurse-in-Chief with the Tuberculosis Division of the Baltimore Health Department, argued for this combined role based on economic efficiency. As she pointed out, it was "economic waste" to have two sets of workers going into homes when the nurse was capable, with additional education, of carrying out both roles. Additionally, from La Motte's perspective the only way the nurse could move beyond her role as the "physician's handmaiden" was through "social training" that prepared her for a broader scope of practice than that received in the hospital-based nursing schools. In the end, however, she left it open to nurses as "reasonable beings" to determine the direction the profession would take on this issue. La Motte's words provide historical context for issues contemporary public health nursing leaders are addressing, such as inter-professional boundaries between nurses and public health workers, reductions in the public health workforce, and economic constraints faced by the healthcare system. The Institute of Medicine mandate for inter-professional practice within the healthcare system, however, presents opportunities for exploring new roles and practice models for nurses in conjunction with our partners in public health.

  18. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resources; (c) Refer any child requiring medical, substance abuse, or behavioral (mental) health services to... established case plan; (f) Immediately report any occurrences of suspected child abuse or neglect in a foster... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must the social services worker do when a child...

  19. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... resources; (c) Refer any child requiring medical, substance abuse, or behavioral (mental) health services to... established case plan; (f) Immediately report any occurrences of suspected child abuse or neglect in a foster... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must the social services worker do when a child...

  20. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... resources; (c) Refer any child requiring medical, substance abuse, or behavioral (mental) health services to... established case plan; (f) Immediately report any occurrences of suspected child abuse or neglect in a foster... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must the social services worker do when a child...

  1. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... resources; (c) Refer any child requiring medical, substance abuse, or behavioral (mental) health services to... established case plan; (f) Immediately report any occurrences of suspected child abuse or neglect in a foster... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What must the social services worker do when a child...

  2. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... resources; (c) Refer any child requiring medical, substance abuse, or behavioral (mental) health services to... established case plan; (f) Immediately report any occurrences of suspected child abuse or neglect in a foster... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must the social services worker do when a child...

  3. Crisis Intervention by Social Workers in Fire Departments: An Innovative Role for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Joanne; Carlson, Bonnie; Michaelis, Elizabeth; Klimek, Barbara; Steffan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a unique use of social workers as crisis response team (CRT) members in a nontraditional host setting, municipal fire departments in Arizona. The role of modern-day firefighters has changed dramatically and now includes responding to a wide variety of crises and emergencies other than fires, such as motor vehicle accidents,…

  4. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  5. Training Social Workers in Personal Finance: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despard, Mathieu R.; Chowa, Gina A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Social workers have opportunities to help individuals and families with their financial problems in a variety of practice settings, yet receive no formal training to do so. Using data from an online survey of social workers and other human service professionals ("N"?=?56) who completed or expressed interest in a financial social work…

  6. Social Factors in Relation to Physical Abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Mohd Sham; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This report details demographic factors associated with 119 cases of physical child abuse occurring in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Findings address severity of abuse, age factors, perpetrator characteristics, family social class, family problems, psychological disorders, and substance abuse. (DB)

  7. Social Context, Sensation Seeking, and Teen-age Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire examined alcohol use, the social context of drinking, and sensation seeking among rural seventh through 12th graders. The sensation-seeking trait proved of moderate importance in distinguishing among different alcohol abuse practices. Social context measures were effective in distinguishing among levels on each indicant…

  8. Job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover in health care social workers.

    PubMed

    Siefert, K; Jayaratne, S; Chess, W A

    1991-08-01

    The findings of two consecutive surveys of job satisfaction and burnout in national samples of health care social workers are presented. Between 1979 and 1989, there were significant increases in the proportion of social workers employed in private versus public agencies, in quantitative workload, and in social workers' perceptions of the challenges presented by their jobs. Role conflict and role ambiguity, lack of comfort, and dissatisfaction with financial rewards emerged as significant predictors of depersonalization and burnout. However, a significant increase in social workers' feelings of personal accomplishment also occurred, and high challenge emerged as a significant predictor of sense of effectiveness. PMID:1894206

  9. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  10. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage.

  11. We Really Should Get on with It: An Argument for Not Assuming Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Being in full support of asking the question, "Do social workers make better child welfare workers?" we must be open to what we might find. It may bring us closer to what practices work and what practices do not work for children and families. By framing the issue in this way, we remove the debate about social worker usefulness in child welfare…

  12. A Profession at Risk: A Comparison of School Social Workers and Attendance Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, P. David

    Although school social workers (SSW's) are one of the few resources in the schools primarily designated to prevent and remediate personal and social problems that contribute to underachievement and deviant student behavior, many SSW's in Georgia are being replaced by noncertified attendance workers. Some educators claim that these attendance…

  13. A comparative study of attitudes toward child sexual abuse among social work and judicial system professionals.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E J

    1988-01-01

    To meet the needs of mutual clients, perpetrators and victims, social service and judicial system professionals share an obligation to collaborate in cases of child sexual abuse. Unknown is the extent to which individuals in counter professions share common beliefs about perpetrators and victims of child sexual abuse. This paper reports an inquiry into the attitudes of five professional groups within an urban criminal justice system specific to victim credibility, victim culpability, offender culpability, and the crime and punishment of child sexual abuse. As predicted, statistically significant differences in attitudes were found among child welfare social workers, police officers, district attorneys, public defenders, and judges. In particular, groups differed in their beliefs about victim credibility and punishment of offenders, suggesting conflict in addressing two fundamental questions in these cases: (1) Can a child be believed when he or she reports sexual abuse? and (2) How should the system deal with offenders? Both questions beg the continuing attention of all professionals invested in these cases, ultimately benefiting victims and offenders. Both quantitative and qualitative findings are provided in this report.

  14. Burnout in Hospital Social Workers Who Work with AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Julianne S.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…

  15. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  16. Commitment of Licensed Social Workers to Aging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kelsey; Bonifas, Robin; Gammonley, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify client, professional, and employment characteristics that enhance licensed social workers' commitment to aging practice. A series of binary logistic regressions were performed using data from 181 licensed, full-time social workers who reported aging as their primary specialty area as part of the 2004 NASW's national…

  17. The Demand for Immigrant Workers: Labor Scarcity or Social Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, J. Craig

    1978-01-01

    This article analyzes the two perspectives, social control and labor scarcity. Immigrant workers are argued to be tied to social control functions in the peripheral sectors of the United States economy. The historical experience of farm workers in southwestern agriculture is drawn upon to illustrate the argument. (Author/EB)

  18. Adolescent Fathers Involved with Child Protection: Social Workers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from…

  19. Political Content in Social Work Education as Reported by Elected Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    As a profession, social work has encouraged its members to run for public office to translate the values and ethics of social work into public policy. This study of 416 elected social workers around the country provides insight into the experiences of these elected social workers in their social work education. The classes, skills, activities,…

  20. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses how to assess for levels of acculturation; examines cultural values; and highlights salient work issues and health disparities that Latinos experience. Recommendations on how agencies and universities can recruit and promote bilingual practitioners are introduced. Finally, culturally responsive strategies for professional use of self and fostering the therapeutic alliance are discussed. PMID:19366165

  1. Structured Stories: Reinforcing Social Skills in Rural Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leukefeld, Carl G.; Godlaski, Ted; Clark, James; Brown, Cynthia; Hays, Lon

    2002-01-01

    Describes how structured stories can be used as a part of a therapy for rural substance abusers and discusses how this approach can complement social skills training. Presents an example of a structured story focused on negative thinking and concludes with a discussion of the possibilities of using structured stories and implications for social…

  2. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... social work; (2) After obtaining the degree, has performed at least 2 years of supervised clinical social work; and (3) Either is licensed or certified as a clinical social worker by the State in which the... years or 3,000 hours of post master's degree supervised clinical social work practice under...

  3. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... social work; (2) After obtaining the degree, has performed at least 2 years of supervised clinical social work; and (3) Either is licensed or certified as a clinical social worker by the State in which the... years or 3,000 hours of post master's degree supervised clinical social work practice under...

  4. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... social work; (2) After obtaining the degree, has performed at least 2 years of supervised clinical social work; and (3) Either is licensed or certified as a clinical social worker by the State in which the... years or 3,000 hours of post master's degree supervised clinical social work practice under...

  5. A dentist's social responsibility to diagnose elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Because of the high prevalence of dental disease and consequent need for dental care in the elderly, dentists are in frequent contact with the elderly, thus providing an opportunity for realizing their social obligation to become more involved in diagnosing and reducing elder abuse. Current estimates of the incidence of elder abuse in the US indicate that nearly 10% of the elderly population is affected, and this incidence rate is steadily increasing. Problems of vague definitions regarding abuse, elusiveness of the problem, and limited interest on the part of health care professionals may have deterred dentists from more involvement in the past. Apathy, tunnel vision, and vested interests of dental professionals may also contribute to the poor oral health of the elderly and consequently decrease the elders' quality of life. However, by developing a clear understanding of possible etiologies and by knowing physical and behavioral indicators of abuse, dentists can better fulfill their moral and social obligations and greatly reduce the incidence of elder abuse.

  6. Female sex workers and the social context of workplace violence in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Lopez, Vera; Durfee, Alesha; Robillard, Alyssa

    2010-09-01

    Gender-based violence in the workplace impacts the physical and emotional wellbeing of sex workers and may lead to other health problems, such as PTSD and depression, drug abuse, and a greater likelihood of sexually transmitted infections. This study examines the social context of workplace violence and risk avoidance in the context of legal regulations meant to reduce harms associated with the industry. Ethnographic research, including 18 months of extended field observations and interviews with 190 female sex workers, is used to illustrate how sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, experience and manage workplace violence. Multiple subthemes emerge from this analysis, including deciding where to work, working with a third party, avoiding theft, and dealing with police. These findings support the idea that the risk of violence is part of a larger "hierarchy of risk" that can result in a "tradeoff" of harms. PMID:20949840

  7. Female sex workers and the social context of workplace violence in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Lopez, Vera; Durfee, Alesha; Robillard, Alyssa

    2010-09-01

    Gender-based violence in the workplace impacts the physical and emotional wellbeing of sex workers and may lead to other health problems, such as PTSD and depression, drug abuse, and a greater likelihood of sexually transmitted infections. This study examines the social context of workplace violence and risk avoidance in the context of legal regulations meant to reduce harms associated with the industry. Ethnographic research, including 18 months of extended field observations and interviews with 190 female sex workers, is used to illustrate how sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, experience and manage workplace violence. Multiple subthemes emerge from this analysis, including deciding where to work, working with a third party, avoiding theft, and dealing with police. These findings support the idea that the risk of violence is part of a larger "hierarchy of risk" that can result in a "tradeoff" of harms.

  8. Compassion fatigue and the adult protective services social worker.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara Bergel

    2009-04-01

    Compassion fatigue is a relatively new term that describes the symptoms that are experienced by social workers and other helping professionals who work with clients experiencing trauma. This article defines the concept of compassion fatigue and relates compassion fatigue to Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers. It is proposed that APS social workers may be susceptible to the deleterious effects of compassion fatigue due to the nature of their work and environment. Suggestions for avoidance of compassion fatigue are also discussed, including self-care strategies and the need for continuing education regarding this phenomenon.

  9. Community health workers and their value to social work.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Michael S; Gunter, Kathryn E; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-04-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work practice and research literature has been largely absent. Thus, this article introduces social workers to CHWs, their role in promoting culturally appropriate practice, and their utility in collaboration with social workers in community settings. This integrative review also discusses current challenges identified by the CHW literature, including potential barriers to the expansion of CHW programs, as well as issues of training, certification, and sustainability. The review also discusses the close alignment of CHWs with social work values and principles of social justice, suggesting opportunities for enhanced social work practice and research.

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Social Interest, Social Bonding, and Collegiate Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse continues to be prevalent on college campuses. This study explored the relationships between social interest, social bonding, and hazardous drinking and marijuana use among college students. Results indicate that the social bonding elements of religious commitment, respect for authority, and acceptance of conventional beliefs,…

  11. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Janet E.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  12. Barriers to health and social services for street-based sex workers.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Kiley, Marion C; Inciardi, James A

    2005-05-01

    Homelessness, poverty, drug abuse and violent victimization faced by street-based women sex workers create needs for a variety of health and social services, yet simultaneously serve as barriers to accessing these very services. The present study utilized interview (n = 586) and focus group (n = 25) data to examine the service needs and associated barriers to access among women sex workers in Miami, Florida. Women most often reported acute service needs for shelter, fresh water, transportation, crisis intervention, and drug detoxification, as well as long-term needs for mental and physical health care, drug treatment, and legal and employment services. Barriers included both structural (e.g., program target population, travel costs, office hours, and social stigma) and individual (e.g., drug use, mental stability, and fear) factors. Bridging these gaps is tremendously important from a public health perspective given the disease burden among this population. Recommendations include service staff training, outreach, and promising research directions. PMID:15937397

  13. Social Workers Training Primary Care Physicians: Essential Psychosocial Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayas, Luis H.; Dyche, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that growth of primary care medicine is opening new roles for social worker in medical education. Describes family-oriented, community-based medical residency program in which social work faculty plays prominent role in education of young physicians. Discusses relevance of core social work principles to medicine and how they are introduced…

  14. Action Research for Developing Social Workers' Research Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, Neil; Fouche, Christa

    2009-01-01

    We reflect on the action research process implemented in assisting the development of a culture of practitioner inquiry amongst social workers in social services agencies, and highlight the overall outcomes of the intervention. The paper outlines the rationale and process for undertaking an action research process with social services…

  15. Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-01-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

  16. An Invitation for Social Workers To Employ Conflict Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at how a social worker is able to use conflict management as described by William Purkey and John Schmidt in their book on invitational counseling in order to better engage the hardest to reach clients. (GCP)

  17. Adjustment or Change: Attitudes Among Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Thomas Owen; Jung, Marshall

    1972-01-01

    Many in the social work profession today are calling for social change and social action. Social work educators and students say they agree with this viewpoint. But their attitudes and actions in specific areas tend to favor traditional practice. (Author)

  18. Job Satisfaction Among Gerontological Social Workers in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Simons, Kelsey; An, Sofiya

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about job satisfaction among Canada's social work workforce in aging, although social workers remain a key component of interdisciplinary care in health and social service settings. This study begins to address this gap in knowledge by examining individual, interpersonal, and job-design factors influencing the job satisfaction of gerontological social workers in Ontario. Data were collected via two online surveys with a sample drawn from the Ontario Association of Social Workers' membership list (N = 104). A multiple regression model explained 37% of the variance in job satisfaction, F = 5.47[10, 93], p < .001). Three independent variables were significant (positive affect, β = .21; promotional chances, β = .21; and client acuity, β = -.18). The results suggest the importance of promoting strategies for enhancing job satisfaction, advancing promotional opportunities for social work clinicians, and providing educational and clinical supports to clinicians. PMID:26156048

  19. Thinking Like a Social Worker: Examining the Meaning of Critical Thinking in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, John

    2015-01-01

    "Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…

  20. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  1. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  2. Irregular brood patterns and worker reproduction in social wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Jennifer L.; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

    2007-12-01

    The potential for reproductive conflict among colony members exists in all social insect societies. For example, queens and workers may be in conflict over the production of males within colonies. Kin selection theory predicts that in a colony headed by a multiply-mated queen, worker reproduction is prevented by worker policing in the form of differential oophagy. However, few studies have demonstrated that workers actually lay eggs within queenright colonies. The purpose of this study was to determine if workers laid male eggs within unmanipulated queen-right colonies of the polyandrous social wasps Vespula maculifrons and V. squamosa. We focused our analysis on an unusual brood pattern within colonies, multiple egg cells. We were primarily interested in determining if individuals reared in these irregular circumstances were queen or worker offspring. To address this question, we genotyped 318 eggs from eight V. maculifrons and two V. squamosa colonies . No worker-reproduction was detected in any of the queenright colonies; all of the eggs found in multiple egg cells were consistent with being queen-produced. However, the frequency of multiple egg cells differed among colonies, suggesting that queens vary in the frequency of errors they make when laying eggs within cells. Finally, we suggest that workers may not be laying eggs within queenright colonies and that worker reproduction may be controlled through mechanisms other than differential oophagy in polyandrous Vespula wasps.

  3. Child Abuse Is a Family Social Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Charles T.

    1973-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a social disease due to a breakdown in family dynamics and parent child relationships. The family doctor is closest to the family. As such he is the most suitable and effective professional for the prevention and management of the syndrome. This article outlines the types of injury common to this syndrome, with frequently heard complaints from parents. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:20468964

  4. Developing effective leadership competencies in military social workers.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Jennifer L; Howard, Reginald W

    2014-01-01

    Military social workers are facing transformative times in that demand for military social work has increased and become more complex, challenging, and diverse due to the last 13 years of combat experiences. Developing military social work leaders must be deliberate, continuous, and progressive in order to impact and improve organizational performance in the healthcare delivery system. The transformational leadership model has been proven to be effective in both the military and social service organizations. The strength of this leadership model coincides well with the values of the social work profession. Incorporating leadership development in a clinical Master of Social Work program has the potential to improve service provision and offer strategies for military social workers to effectively manage the ongoing challenges in the field of social work.

  5. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  6. Transracial Adoption in Black and White: A Survey of Social Worker Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Judy

    2002-01-01

    Assessed attitudes of U.S. social workers regarding transracial adoption (TRA), specifically black children being adopted by white parents. Found that white social workers were more in favor of TRA than black social workers. African American respondents who were members of the National Association of Black Social Workers had less favorable…

  7. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

  8. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims.

  9. Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work…

  10. Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Social Workers, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), originally adopted in 1979 and revised in 1990 and again in 1993. The preamble notes that the code is intended to serve as a guide to the everyday conduct of members of the social work profession and as a basis for the adjudication of issues in ethics…

  11. Social Workers' Attitudes about Psychotropic Drug Treatment with Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tally; Kirk, Stuart A.

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable controversy among mental health professionals and the public about the proper role of psychotropic medications in the treatment of youths. Within social work, too, there have been sharp differences of opinion. There have been few studies, however, about the views of practicing clinical social workers on the use of psychiatric…

  12. Moral Development and Social Worker Ethical Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groessl, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the moral development levels using the Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT--2) and ethical decision-making using the Professional Opinion Scale (POS) of social workers who provide field supervision to students within accredited social work programs in Wisconsin. Using the moral development theory of Kohlberg (1981) which defined…

  13. School Social Workers and a Renewed Call to Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Alfred L., Jr.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article calls for school social workers to work in schools to reform school systems that have historically failed and are currently failing African American children. While the hope of education is to assist students to realize their potential, school systems across the nation are not reaching this goal. School social work has a duty, a…

  14. Violent Events: School Social Workers' Perception and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article reports findings from a national web-based survey of 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America (SSWAA). This study examines the types of violent events reported by school social workers and the practitioner's perception of the problem of interpersonal violence in the school context. It identifies interventions being…

  15. Prevalence and correlates of client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-04-01

    History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence (IPV), psychological distress, and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs. PMID:24686125

  16. Prevalence and correlates of client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-04-01

    History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence (IPV), psychological distress, and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs.

  17. PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF CLIENT-PERPETRATED ABUSE AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN TWO MEXICO-U.S. BORDER CITIES

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence, psychological distress and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs. PMID:24686125

  18. Workplace Congruence and Occupational Outcomes among Social Service Workers

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Nicholas, David

    2016-01-01

    Workplace expectations reflect an important consideration in employee experience. A higher prevalence of workplace congruence between worker and employer expectations has been associated with higher levels of productivity and overall workplace satisfaction across multiple occupational groups. Little research has investigated the relationship between workplace congruence and occupational health outcomes among social service workers. This study sought to better understand the extent to which occupational congruence contributes to occupational outcomes by surveying unionised social service workers (n = 674) employed with the Government of Alberta, Canada. Multiple regression analysis shows that greater congruence between workplace and worker expectations around workloads, workplace values and the quality of the work environment significantly: (i) decreases symptoms related to distress and secondary traumatic stress; (ii) decreases intentions to leave; and (iii) increases overall life satisfaction. The findings provide some evidence of areas within the workplace of large government run social welfare programmes that can be better aligned to worker expectations to improve occupational outcomes among social service workers. PMID:27559216

  19. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Sarah; Syvertsen, Jennifer; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse. PMID:23375570

  20. Oral health of foreign domestic workers: exploring the social determinants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Chan, Chi Wai; Mak, Siu Lun; Ng, Zevon; Kwong, Wai Hang; Kot, Ching Ching Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Foreign domestic helpers constitute a significant proportion of migrant workers worldwide. This population subgroup provides an opportunity for understanding social determinants of oral health in immigrant community. A random sample of 122 Indonesian domestic helpers in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire on their demographic background, social characteristics (competency in local languages, immigration history, living condition, social connections, and leisure activities) and oral health behaviours (knowledge, attitudes, practice and self-efficacy). Their tooth status and periodontal health were assessed. Participants tended to start flossing after settling in Hong Kong. Favourable oral health knowledge was found in more acculturated participants, as indicated by proficiency in local languages and immigration history. Engagement in social and/or religious activities and decent living condition provided by employers were associated with favourable oral health behaviours and/or better oral health. Social determinants explained 13.2 % of variance in caries severity. Our findings support the significant impact of social circumstances on oral health of domestic workers.

  1. The Development of a Substance Abuse Curriculum in a Master's of Social Work Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.; Bill, M. Louise; Slater, Judith R.

    2009-01-01

    Substance abuse has been identified as a significant social problem. Social work is uniquely positioned to affect this problem. Kennesaw State University has established a substance abuse concentration as part of its master's of social work program. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of this curriculum. The curriculum is…

  2. Incarcerated sex workers and HIV prevention in China: social suffering and social justice countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph; Ren, Xin; Sapio, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Sex workers in China are routinely coercively detained through administrative mechanisms outside of legal procedures, but very little is known about the anthropologic and public health context of these policies. This biosocial analysis of female Chinese sex worker detention uses ethnographic, legal, and public health data to describe social suffering and countervailing social justice responses among incarcerated sex workers (ISW) in China. Compared to sex workers not detained in China, ISW face substantive inequalities inscribed in physical and psychological suffering. Chinese sex worker detention camp practices may not only systematically increase HIV/syphilis risk among ISW, but also work to narrow women's social spheres of influence, a particularly cruel tragedy in a Chinese social system that highly values social and personal connections. A limited empiric analysis of Guangxi Province STI clinic data shows that cities detaining sex workers have higher mean HIV prevalence compared to cities that do not detain sex workers. While incipient medical and legal movements in China have generated momentum for expanding ISW services and resources, there is still substantial variation in the implementation of laws that ensure basic life-saving medical treatments. Post-incarceration social justice programs for sex workers linking women to essential STI/HIV resources, reconnecting broken social lives, and helping restore interpersonal relationships are urgently needed.

  3. Social workers' use of spiritual practices in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Dane, Barbara; Moore, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined client use of spiritual and/or religious practices to cope with illness and adversity. This study explores social workers' use of spiritual practices as reflected in their work with palliative care clients. Survey results (n = 327) indicated significant relationships of spiritual practices such as yoga, prayer and meditation to working with palliative care clients. The total number of these approaches is predicted by factors such as theoretical orientation and the social workers' own struggles with palliative care and other issues. Our study supports the need for additional investigation of spiritual issues in practice.

  4. Support workers in social care in England: a scoping study.

    PubMed

    Manthorpe, Jill; Martineau, Stephen; Moriarty, Jo; Hussein, Shereen; Stevens, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the findings of a scoping study designed to describe the evidence base with regard to support workers in social care in the United Kingdom and to identify gaps in knowledge. Multiple bibliographic databases were searched for studies published since 2003. The results revealed that the support worker role, though not well-defined, could be characterised as one aimed at fostering independence among service users, undertaking tasks across social and health-care, and not being trained in, or a member of, a specific profession. The studies identified were predominantly small-scale qualitative projects which considered issues such as role clarity, training and pay, worker satisfaction, service user views and the amount of time support workers are able to spend with service users compared to other staff. The review concluded that the research base lacks longitudinal studies, there is definitional confusion and imprecision, and there is limited evidence about employment terms and conditions for support workers or about their accountability and performance. The desirability and value of training and how it is resourced need further analysis. It is concluded that moves to self-directed support or personalisation and the increased reliance on and use of support workers, in the form of personal assistants, call for closer scrutiny of the role. PMID:20345887

  5. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  6. Sexual hazards, life experiences and social circumstances among male sex workers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okanlawon, Kehinde; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Titilayo, Ayotunde

    2013-01-01

    The sexual health and rights needs of male sex workers in Nigeria remain poorly understood and served. Men who sell sex are at high risk of discrimination and violation because of laws criminalising same-sex activity and sex work. This paper examines the experiences, social circumstances, vulnerabilities and sexual hazards experienced by male sex workers in Nigeria. In-depth interviews were used to explore the experiences of six male sex workers who were selected by means of convenience sampling from among those who came for counselling. Findings reveal that economic disadvantage drives some men to engage in sex work and risky sexual behaviour. Subsequently, sex work may put their lives and health at risk as a result of violation by the police and clients, including ritual murder. Men's extreme vulnerability points to the need for appropriate interventions to improve well-being. Sexual health and rights programmes must identify ways of making male sex workers less vulnerable to abuse, and devise strategies for protecting their health and human rights, while empowering them economically to reduce their dependency on often risky sexual behaviour for livelihoods. PMID:23252939

  7. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  8. Social Physics and the Flow of Migrant Peasant Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Li; Yun-Lin, Wang

    Social physics is an old and new discipline. In the seventeenth century, when physics as we know it was gradually taking shape, natural philosophers were attempting to apply the concepts and methods of statistical physics to society as a whole. The social physics is the use of natural way of thinking, the basic principles of universal rules, systems and methods of calculation means the social, economic and other complex issues of qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex subjects. In the direction of natural and social sciences Cross-full, it could be easy to understand the flow of migrant peasant workers preference choice of this complex issue.

  9. Social determinants of child abuse: evidence of factors associated with maternal abuse from the Egypt demographic and health survey

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Braithwaite, Patrick; Clerk., George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Child abuse or maltreatment is a significant global public health problem of unknown global prevalence. About 40 million children aged 0 - 14 years require health and social care globally. The prevalence, determinants, and trends of national or global rates of child abuse and maltreatment are largely unknown. Methods: Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS), and included 19474 women aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses by stepwise regression, backward method were used to determine the independent contribution of the possible social determinants of child abuse, with the direction and magnitude of associations expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confident interval levels (95% CI). Results: Identified determinants of child abuse included exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), justifying wife beating, exposure to generational IPV, and such factors as younger age of the women, male sex, partners’ lower education, poverty, residence in urban areas, younger children, and residence in households with 3 - 5 children. Conclusions: Experience of IPV, mothers’ justification of wife beating, and generational IPV were associated with elevated odds of child abuse. Findings indicate possible high levels of unmet child protection needs, and stress the need for professionals working with children to employ culturally-sensitive methods in investigating social determinants of child abuse. PMID:26401957

  10. Suicide Awareness and Prevention Workshop for Social Workers and Paraprofessionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Aaron J.; Lorenzo, Julie; Yu, Van; Wean, Caren; Miller-Solarino, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Social workers and paraprofessionals serve psychiatric populations at high risk for suicide, but may receive little training related to suicidality. This study evaluated a suicide awareness and prevention training workshop for providers working with mentally ill homeless and previously homeless adults. Trainees attended a half day of training, and…

  11. Components of Job Satisfaction in Psychiatric Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Anne; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 188 psychiatric social workers, finding overall positive level of job satisfaction. Overall job satisfaction was found to be primarily determined by position satisfaction. Major correlate of position satisfaction was professional respect received from other disciplines and not specific tasks performed. Results showed importance of…

  12. Resident Transitions to Assisted Living: A Role for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Noelle LeCrone; Koenig, Terry; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly

    2012-01-01

    This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide,…

  13. Social Workers in Home Care: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Baum, Nehami

    2010-01-01

    In Israel, the government partially supports personal home care services (grooming, feeding, assistance with transfers) as a means to maintain frail individuals in their home environment for as long as possible. Social workers capture a prominent position in these arrangements as initiators and supervisors of personal home care services. This…

  14. Helping Social Workers Address the Educational Needs of Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetlin, A.G.; Weinberg, L.A.; Kimm, C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The main aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Education Initiative, an intervention program in one of the largest urban counties in the US seeking to increase the responsiveness of social workers to the educational needs of foster children. Method:: A pre-post test control group design was used. Data from case files and social…

  15. AIDS and Ethics: The Agenda for Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses critical ethical issues for social workers concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): (1) mandatory testing for AIDS; (2) the confidentiality of information related to AIDS; and (3) the delivery of services to persons with AIDS, their families, and their partners. (ABL)

  16. School Social Workers and Multiculturalism: Changing the Environment for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Alfred L.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne; Webster, Paula Sunanon

    2012-01-01

    Dropping out, a phenomenon heavily concentrated in communities of color, hampers the academic success of multicultural students. Multiculturalism can help make school an inviting place for vulnerable youths, and school social workers (SSWRs) are in a position to advocate for school environments that are conducive to academic success. The present…

  17. Social Service Worker Programs Transfer Guide Matrix and Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Phyllis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identity the transferability of Social Service Worker (SSW) certificate and diploma level courses/programs among British Columbia (BC) post- secondary institutions. Although it continues to be necessary for receiving institutions to review courses a student completed at the sending institution, a matrix has been…

  18. Women's alcohol dependence and abuse: the relation to social network and leisure time.

    PubMed

    Thundal, K L; Granbom, S; Allebeck, P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of alcohol dependence and abuse in relation to variables reflecting social network and leisure time, social class, education, occupation and family conditions. The study was based on the second wave of interviews performed within the longitudinal study of Women and Alcohol in Göteborg. In this present study we analysed 416 face-to-face interviews performed in 1995 96. Women with only one or no friends for support had higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse than did women with more friends. Women with high rates of alcohol dependence or abuse did not take part in cultural events as much as women with low rates of alcohol dependence and abuse. Women with homemaking skills and gardening as leisure time interests had lower prevalences of alcohol dependence and abuse. In general, women with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and abuse in this population-based sample were not alone and without a social network. However, their pattern of activity differed slightly from those without such diagnoses. The association between women with alcohol dependence and abuse and leisure time activities is probably circular: a poor social network and low participation in social activities increase the risk of alcohol dependence and abuse, and alcohol dependence and abuse lead to low participation in social activities.

  19. Social factors in relation to physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Shafie, H M; Cheah, I

    1994-05-01

    Available evidence has shown that the type of abuse perpetrated on children depends considerably on the social and other factors inherently faced by these children. A total of 119 cases of physical abuse was detected by the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) Team of General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur in 1991. Eighty-two cases were categorized as mild and 37 as severe. The average age of those mildly abused was 7.9 years, for those severely abused the average age was 4.2 years. The perpetrators of those mildly abused were often their own parents. However, among those severely abused, the child-minder was the most frequent abuser. Ninety-two of all cases were in families of social classes IV and V. In 47 cases, there was definite evidence of family disharmony or disruption. Among the 37 severely abused, the parents were either divorced or separated in 14 cases. There was a personality disorder in seven of the cases. Six of the abusers were also using drugs and nine were alcoholics. This paper shows that, even in a developing country, the social milieu is important in the type of abuse inflicted.

  20. Social Workers in Combat: Application of Advanced Practice Competencies in Military Social Work and Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Michael W.; Weiss, Eugenia L.

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates the types of situations that U.S. uniformed social workers have experienced in combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan with the purpose of preparing current and future social workers to effectively serve military and veteran clients in either military or civilian settings. Vignettes demonstrate the application of the…

  1. Certification of School Social Workers and Curriculum Content of Programs Offering Training in School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumm, Ann Marie; Bye, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the status of certification requirements for school social workers across the United States and the policy context in which certification is embedded. The article also details findings of a study on the curriculum available at various schools of social work offering training in school social work. The article makes a case for…

  2. Educating Today's School Social Workers: Are School Social Work Courses Responding to the Changing Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; O'Connor, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    School social work takes place within the dynamic context of the educational landscape, yet research indicates that school social work practice has been slow to adjust to the demands of that landscape. Little research has assessed whether school social workers are being adequately prepared to address the educational shifts that underlie today's…

  3. Using Social Constructionist Thinking in Training Social Workers Living and Working under Threat of Political Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamai, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence, such as war and terrorism. Uses a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a…

  4. Agency Social Workers Could Monitor Hypertension in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Francoeur, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension is highly prevalent, presents without symptoms, and constitutes a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Several factors impede individuals from adhering to treatment, while others work against physician monitoring and medication adjustment as the condition changes. As family counselors and leaders of self-help and mutual aid groups, social workers are among the best positioned professionals to help individuals, couples, and families improve psychosocial dynamics associated with hypertension, secure support, and overcome barriers to lifestyle changes or medication adherence. An important case is made for training social workers from community social service agencies to engage and guide their clients in accurate self-screenings for hypertension and to refer those with elevated blood pressure for follow-up care. PMID:20521206

  5. Burnout among Social Workers in Iran: Relations to Individual Characteristics and Client Violence

    PubMed Central

    Padyab, Mojgan; Richter, Jörg; Nygren, Lennart; Ghazinour, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Social workers are considered a professional group at high risk of burnout. Noticing the insufficient human resource management and understaffed social work centers, Iranian social workers are faced with a considerable level of physical and mental stress, which can lead to burnout. A national study on 390 social workers was conducted. Among social workers, 10.9% had experienced burnout and 17.4% are at risk of developing burnout. Social workers scored higher in burnout if they were dissatisfied with their income, had experienced violence, or had lower self-esteem. Findings are discussed with regard to Iranian context and recommendations for authorities of Iranian state welfare organizations are made. PMID:23777730

  6. Social Workers' Observations of the Needs of the Total Military Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jodi J.; Collins, Kathryn S.; Pastoor, Jennifer; Linde, Linnea

    2014-01-01

    Researchers surveyed licensed social workers from 5 Mid-Atlantic states to explore their perspectives on the current state of mental health and service delivery for military service workers, families, and contractors. Social workers identified needs in the following areas: mental health, physical health and wellness, social and environmental,…

  7. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or clinical social worker professional services to be payable under this subpart, the services must be—...

  8. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or clinical social worker professional services to be payable under this subpart, the services must be—...

  9. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or clinical social worker professional services to be payable under this subpart, the services must be—...

  10. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or clinical social worker professional services to be payable under this subpart, the services must be—...

  11. Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers against Compassion Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-01-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…

  12. Nurses' and Social Workers' Attitudes and Beliefs about and Involvement in Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Perla; Carmel, Sara; Ziedenberg, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    Data were collected from 213 nurses and 61 social workers at major hospitals across Israel. Whereas nurses reported being more involved in the daily care of terminally ill patients, social workers reported being more involved in discussions with patients and family members. Nurses were more willing than social workers to use artificial feeding and…

  13. The School Social Worker: A Marginalized Commodity within the School Ecosystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Megan Callahan

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century, social workers have been a life force within the education system. Throughout recent history school social workers have had an array of responsibilities within the school community. They have served as counselors, mediators, and advocates. Traditionally, school social workers have been primary facilitators of communication…

  14. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or clinical social worker professional services to be payable under this subpart, the services must be—...

  15. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  16. The Army Social Work Internship Program: training today's uniformed social worker.

    PubMed

    Howard, Reginald W

    2014-01-01

    Uniformed social workers are involved in ensuring the well-being of Soldiers and their families during peace and war. The Army Medical Department Center and School is charged with the educational development of uniformed social workers. This article focuses on a relatively new approach to preparing social work officers for their dual role of providing garrison and operational behavioral health services to Soldiers and families. In the 4 years since implementation, this 2-year training program has become the model for the professional development of new uniformed social work graduates. PMID:24488870

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  18. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico. PMID:23737808

  19. Understanding the Interplay between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g. disadvantage) and social processes (e.g. interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multi-level modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment. PMID:26251328

  20. Understanding the Interplay Between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    This article seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g., disadvantage) and social processes (e.g., interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multilevel modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign-born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to the frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse, while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment. PMID:26251328

  1. Experiences with pregnancy of adolescents with disabilities from the perspectives of the school social workers who serve them.

    PubMed

    Linton, Kristen Faye; Rueda, Heidi Adams

    2014-05-01

    Adolescents with disabilities are more likely than adolescents without disabilities to become pregnant, although very little is known about the lived contexts of their sexual and pregnancy experiences. Such youths are often deprived of sexual health information across a range of potential sources, although school social workers are in a unique position to provide them services. Thirteen school social workers working primarily with adolescents with disabilities were interviewed using a phenomenological study design to offer their perspectives concerning the sexual and pregnancy experiences of such youths. Inductive content analysis revealed that school social workers provided services for pregnant and parenting adolescents with a range of disabilities in areas that included making decisions about sex, deciphering whether they were pregnant, and making decisions once they were pregnant. These experiences were complicated by cognitive impairments; emotional struggles; desires to fit in with peers; histories of sexual abuse; and issues with communication, self-esteem, and impulsivity. School social workers play an integral role in preventing pregnancy and supporting adolescents with disabilities who are pregnant. Recommendations pertaining to the provision of sexual health services for adolescents with disabilities are provided. PMID:24946425

  2. Long-Term Effects of Incestuous Child Abuse in College Women: Social Adjustment, Social Cognition, and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephanie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated family and social cognitive characteristics as mediators of social adjustment among college women. Indicated decreased cohesion and adaptability in the family of origin, increased perception of social isolation, and poorer social adjustment among subjects abused as children. Family characteristics and especially increased perceptions…

  3. Social workers confront terrorist victims: The interventions and the difficulties.

    PubMed

    Fraidlin, Nelly; Rabin, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with unremitting stress experienced by social workers dealing with terror victims. The article will describe the activity of social workers responsible for setting up a hospital information center. It will describe how they assist families searching for their loved ones and the process of identifying victims. The process in which the uncertainty is treated, the anxiety is contained, bad news are conveyed and concrete solutions are provided, will be elaborated on. Special emphasis will be placed on the multifaceted complimentary relationship between team members and between the provision of support, role exchange and the opportunity to share difficult experiences. The team is expert in identifying both personal and collective signs of distress. This is of particular significance and importance in connection with compassion fatigue, survival guilt, anxiety, depression and on- going burnout, regarding themselves and their colleagues. The article will propose organizational and clinical solutions, which could also be of service to other frameworks within the health system.

  4. Social support, collective efficacy, and child physical abuse: does parent gender matter?

    PubMed

    Price-Wolf, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Social support and collective efficacy are related to child physical abuse. However, little is known about whether these relationships differ by gender, although mothers and fathers differ in the quantity and quality of time spent with children. This study examined whether the relationship between social support, collective efficacy, and physical abuse is stronger for mothers than fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with parent respondents in 50 California cities (N = 3,023). Data were analyzed via overdispersed multi-level Poisson models. Results suggest that high levels of emotional support were inversely associated with physical abuse for women and men, although this effect was stronger for women. High levels of companionship support were positively associated with physical abuse for women; however, the opposite was true for men. There were no significant interactions between collective efficacy variables and gender. The relationships between some types of social support and physical abuse appear to vary for men and women suggesting possibilities for more targeted intervention.

  5. Social Workers' Perspectives Regarding the DSM: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Tara

    2014-01-01

    There is a decades-old debate in social work regarding the appropriateness of the use of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) by clinicians in this profession. Despite often contentious perspectives, there has been very little study regarding clinical social workers' experiences, attitudes, and beliefs…

  6. Child Physical Abuse: The Relevance of Language and Social Interaction Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that language and social interaction (LSI) scholars can contribute to interdisciplinary efforts aimed at understanding and responding to child physical abuse. Discusses reasons why LSI scholars might shy away from such study and considers links between face-to-face family interaction and child physical abuse, demonstrating the relevance…

  7. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  8. Are Males and Females Sexually Abused as Children Socially Anxious Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N.

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250…

  9. The School's Role in the Prevention/Intervention of Child Abuse and Neglect. A Manual for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandau-Christopher, Debra

    This handbook on child abuse and neglect was written to assist school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school nurses, and school social workers in defining abuse and neglect and in developing policy and training programs to best address the abuse issue. Topics addressed include: (1) understanding child abuse and neglect;…

  10. Child abuse: a black perspective utilizing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Butts, H F

    1979-09-01

    The majority of models utilized in the formulation of the dynamics of child abuse rely upon an individual psychopathological frame of reference. Not only is this approach limited, but it renders primary preventive approaches virtually impossible. The author presents a social-psychological model, with the recommendation that it be applied among blacks. Essential to the model's applicability is the vulnerability of blacks to institutionalized racism and to the universal and destructive institutional abuse to which blacks are subjected. While often quite covert, this abuse is nonetheless extremely noxious, and serves to potentiate the view blacks have of themselves as undervalued individuals, and as individuals who have no alternative other than to commit abuse to others. Child abuse in blacks is viewed as reactive in nature-reactive to societal abuse. This adaptational model of child abuse, rather than precluding an individual psychopathological model, complements it. Use of this model should facilitate primary prevention with respect to child abuse. Current approaches to child abuse are comparable to "an ambulance service at the bottom of a cliff." What is lacking is an approach that will "fix the road on the cliff that causes the accidents." Only by examining the intricate interplay between individual and society can the factors that lead to child abuse be modified.

  11. Clinician Responses to Sexual Abuse Allegations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Helene; Nuttall, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 656 social workers, pediatricians, psychiatrists, and psychologists rated the credibility of vignettes alleging child sexual abuse. Seven case factors affected credibility: perpetrator's race, relationship to victim, and history of substance abuse; and victims' race, affect, age, and behavioral changes. Several clinician factors were…

  12. Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse among Social Work Colleagues and Their Families: Impact on Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewell, Christine Huff; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 198 social workers to determine prevalence of alcohol and other drug problems among colleagues, family members, and friends. Forty-three percent of respondents reported knowing at least one social worker who had alcohol or drug problem; 60% had close friends or family with problems; 39% had nuclear family member with problem; and 11% were…

  13. Disabled workers and the indexing of Social Security benefits.

    PubMed

    Strand, Alexander; Rupp, Kalman

    2007-01-01

    We examine how benefit amounts and family income would change in response to changing the Social Security (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance, OASDI) benefit indexing scheme. We are interested in a class of reform options designed to gradually slow the growth of benefits across the board. These options include the "price indexing" and "longevity indexing" proposals that have been part of the recent Social Security reform debate in the United States as well as a range of proposals developed in Europe. In this article, we focus on the distributional effects on the disabled. This focus leads to two comparisons. First, we compare disabled-worker beneficiaries to another group that would be affected by the changes, retired-worker beneficiaries. Second, we examine relative changes for particularly vulnerable subgroups of disabled workers. In the empirical analysis, we use two illustrative examples of potential indexing changes: Shifting from wage indexing to price indexing of the initial level of OASDI benefits; and Adjusting the initial benefit level for changes in life expectancy at retirement, that is, longevity indexing. We employ a historical counterfactual simulation to evaluate outcomes that would have resulted from changing the indexing scheme at one particular point in time. The hypothetical implementation period begins with the historical start of the current regime of indexing in 1979 and ends with one of the reference periods of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), a 17-year period. However, we briefly assess the extent to which the results would be applicable to other time horizons. The analysis uses a cross-sectional sample of OASDI beneficiaries from the 1996 SIPP matched to Social Security administrative records. Further, we use total income from the SIPP (as adjusted to correspond to the calculated OASDI benefit amounts) to simulate eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and SSI benefit amounts. Our overall

  14. Disabled workers and the indexing of Social Security benefits.

    PubMed

    Strand, Alexander; Rupp, Kalman

    2007-01-01

    We examine how benefit amounts and family income would change in response to changing the Social Security (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance, OASDI) benefit indexing scheme. We are interested in a class of reform options designed to gradually slow the growth of benefits across the board. These options include the "price indexing" and "longevity indexing" proposals that have been part of the recent Social Security reform debate in the United States as well as a range of proposals developed in Europe. In this article, we focus on the distributional effects on the disabled. This focus leads to two comparisons. First, we compare disabled-worker beneficiaries to another group that would be affected by the changes, retired-worker beneficiaries. Second, we examine relative changes for particularly vulnerable subgroups of disabled workers. In the empirical analysis, we use two illustrative examples of potential indexing changes: Shifting from wage indexing to price indexing of the initial level of OASDI benefits; and Adjusting the initial benefit level for changes in life expectancy at retirement, that is, longevity indexing. We employ a historical counterfactual simulation to evaluate outcomes that would have resulted from changing the indexing scheme at one particular point in time. The hypothetical implementation period begins with the historical start of the current regime of indexing in 1979 and ends with one of the reference periods of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), a 17-year period. However, we briefly assess the extent to which the results would be applicable to other time horizons. The analysis uses a cross-sectional sample of OASDI beneficiaries from the 1996 SIPP matched to Social Security administrative records. Further, we use total income from the SIPP (as adjusted to correspond to the calculated OASDI benefit amounts) to simulate eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and SSI benefit amounts. Our overall

  15. Social Network Characteristics of Urban Adolescents in Brief Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…

  16. Protective Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment and Child Abuse Injury in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Yang, Hye Lin; Yoo, Changgeun; Yoo, Jieun; Jang, Ja Kyung

    2015-11-01

    Previous findings on the relationship between neighborhood informal social control and child abuse have been mixed. We implemented a scale created by Emery, Trung, and Wu to study protective informal social control of child maltreatment (ISC_CM) by neighbors in a three-stage random cluster sample of 541 families in Seoul, South Korea. Random-effects regression models found that protective ISC_CM significantly moderated the relationship between very severe abuse and child injuries. Very severe abuse was associated with fewer injuries when levels of protective ISC_CM were higher. Implications are discussed.

  17. Making the invisible visible: are health social workers addressing the social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Craig, Shelley L; Bejan, Raluca; Muskat, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which health social workers (HSW) address the social determinants of health (SDH) within their social work practice. Social workers (n = 54) employed at major hospitals across Toronto had many years of practice in health care (M = 11 years; SD = 10.32) and indicated that SDH were a top priority in their daily work; with 98% intentionally intervening with at least one and 91% attending to three or more. Health care services were most often addressed (92%), followed by housing (72%), disability (79%), income (72%), and employment security (70%). Few HSW were tackling racism, Aboriginal status, gender, or social exclusion in their daily practice.

  18. Spanish Language Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Spanish-Speaking Social Workers: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists about Spanish-speaking social workers that provide bilingual social work services. To date, studies have not exclusively focused on actual language competence of bilingual social workers or even their self-perceived language beliefs. This study reviews the results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey exploring…

  19. The Impact of MSW Education on Social Worker Empowerment and Commitment to Client Empowerment through Social Justice Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Voorhis, Rebecca Morrison; Hostetter, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes among graduate students (N=52) in perception of social worker empowerment and commitment to client empowerment through social justice advocacy. Pre-post data showed that most entering MSW students possessed important beliefs about empowerment for themselves as social workers and for members of oppressed population…

  20. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  1. The social ecology of adolescent-initiated parent abuse: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is applied, which examines the risk and protective factors for adolescent-initiated parent abuse within micro- (maltreatment, domestic violence, parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies), meso- (peer influence), exo- (media influence), macro- (gender role socialization), and chronosystem (change in family structure) levels. Findings from our review suggest that older and White children are significantly more likely to abuse their parents. Females are selective in the target of their aggression, while males target family members in general. Mothers are significantly more likely to be abused than fathers. However, researchers also report variations in the association between SES and parent abuse. Domestic violence and child maltreatment are risk factors, while findings on parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies are mixed. Peer influence, exposure to media violence, gender role socialization, and change in family structure can potentially increase the risk of parent abuse. Practice and research implications are also discussed. An ecological systems framework allows for an examination of how various contexts interact and influence parent abuse behavior, and can provide needed directions for further research.

  2. [Applicants for disability pensions in the municipality of Tårnby before and after the pension reform of 1984. Social characteristics and abuse of alcohol and drugs].

    PubMed

    Andersen, J S; Ostergård, B M; Andersen, P; Mortensen, E M

    1989-06-26

    One hundred and eighty-eight and 167 first applications for disability pensions in 1981 and 1985 respectively were examined. Social parameters, diagnoses and the occurrence of alcohol and drug abuse were studied. There was a decrease in the number of male applicants and a small increase of female applicants from 1981 til 1985. Unskilled workers were overrepresented. Most applicants had been working within the last two years before the pension was awarded, and generally they had had long job periods. In 1985, had only 27% of the applicants under 50 attempted rehabilitation, and 12% had received social security allowances. The new types of social pensions were mostly awareded to married women of more than 50 years of age. Pensioning caused by a combination of social and health circumstances was rare. Female applicants were generally awarded lower pensions than male applicants. More than half of the diagnoses included mental diseases, diseases of the musculo-skeletal system and disease of the circulation. In 1985, 15% of the applicants were abusers, mainly of alcohol. 50% of male applicants younger than 50 years of age were abusers. The abusers were very disabled.

  3. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…

  4. Advocacy Week: A Model to Prepare Clinical Social Workers for Lobby Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbane, Teresa; Pryce, Julia; Hong, Philip Young P.

    2013-01-01

    Legislative advocacy is an important and long-standing skill in social work. However, this role cannot be left solely to social workers who specialize in macro and policy practice. Rather, clinical social workers who assist clients as they face "private" troubles (Mills, 1959) also need to face the structural barriers that contribute to…

  5. 25 CFR 20.318 - What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.318 What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have? In working with each recipient, you, the social services worker must: (a) Assess the general employability of...

  6. 25 CFR 20.318 - What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.318 What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have? In working with each recipient, you, the social services worker must: (a) Assess the general employability of...

  7. 25 CFR 20.318 - What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.318 What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have? In working with each recipient, you, the social services worker must: (a) Assess the general employability of...

  8. Male Social Workers Working with Men Who Batter: Dilemmas in Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through…

  9. Bouncers, Brokers, and Glue: The Self-Described Roles of Social Workers in Urban Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Shelley L.; Muskat, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Social workers delivering services in health care settings face unique challenges and opportunities. The purpose of this study was to solicit input from social workers employed in urban hospitals about their perceptions of the roles, contribution, and professional functioning of social work in a rapidly changing health care environment. Using…

  10. Earnings History of Social Workers: A Comparison to Other Professional Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Law, Simon Wai-on

    1993-01-01

    Used data from 1982 New Beneficiary Survey and from Social Security Administration to trace experience of social workers and members of four other professional groups who started to receive Old Age Insurance benefits or became Medicare-only beneficiaries in 1980-81. Found that earnings capacity of social workers consistently lagged far behind two…

  11. The Early Professional Experience of a New Social Worker in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Qiuling; Chapman, Mimi V.

    2014-01-01

    Social work is emerging as a rapidly developing profession in mainland China, a unique context that affects how these new social workers view themselves, their professional identity, and their work. Few studies explore the lived experiences of these new social workers as they enter agencies and begin working with clients while interacting with…

  12. Social determinants of workers' health in Central America.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Aurora; Partanen, Timo; Felknor, Sarah; Corriols, Marianela

    2011-01-01

    This communication summarizes the available data on work-related determinants of health in Central America. The Central American working population is young and moving from agriculture toward industry and services. Ethnicity, gender, migration, subemployment and precarious work, informality, rural conditions, low-level educational, poverty, ubiquitous worksite health hazards, insufficient occupational health services, low labor inspection density, and weak unions define the constellation of social determinants of workers' health in Central America. Data are, however, scanty both for hazards and work-related illnesses and injuries. Governments and industries have the responsibility of opening decent work opportunities, especially for those facing multiple inequalities in social determinants of health. A first step would be the ratification and implementation of the ILO Convention (187) on occupational safety and health by the seven national governments of the region. PMID:21905391

  13. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. PMID:25620319

  14. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution.

  15. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.

  16. School Social Work Journal. Illinois Association of School Social Workers. Volume 3, Number l, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertts, Jeanne, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, P.L. 94-142, and its impact on the role of school social workers, including relationships with students, school personnel, parents, and community service agencies. Other articles address the following areas of concern: (1) truancy and due process; (2) play therapy; (3) issues of…

  17. Living Up to the Code's Exhortations? Social Workers' Political Knowledge Sources, Expectations, and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.

  18. Are social workers required to engage in participatory practices? An analysis of job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lia; Weiss-Gal, Idit

    2009-03-01

    The participatory approach is depicted as inherent to the social work profession in social workers' theoretical literature, codes of ethics and practical discourse. The current study examined whether, and to what degree, social workers in Israel are indeed formally required to engage in participatory practices in the job descriptions of diverse social care services. A quantitative content analysis of 78 formal social workers' job descriptions revealed this requirement to be very limited. Most participatory actions required of social workers represented low-level service-user participation, pertained only to the initial and concluding stages of intervention, and referred to professional domains in which service-user participation is already required by law. A greater emphasis on participatory practice was found in job descriptions in the health field and those relating to community social workers. Various interpretations and implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Value differences between social workers and members of the working and middle classes.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R

    2003-01-01

    Although significant differences in values between social workers and clients are widely understood to affect the efficacy of service provision, no studies have sought to examine how the values affirmed by social workers may differ from those held by members of the working and middle classes. Therefore, this study examines the degree of value similarity between social workers and consumers. Based on "new-class" theory, two hypotheses are proposed. First, graduate social workers affirm value positions to the left of working- and middle-class clients. Second, bachelor's-level social workers affirm value positions in between those of graduate workers and clients. Both hypotheses were supported. The implications for the divergence in value frameworks for advocacy, practice, and education are discussed.

  20. [Community Health Workers: a perspective of the social capital].

    PubMed

    Santos, Cleberson Williams Dos; Farias Filho, Milton Cordeiro

    2016-05-01

    This article reports on a survey of community health workers in Brazilian municipalities. The scope is to verify the influence of the network of social relations of agents in the daily work of the Family (FHS) teams. The theoretical base is addressing the social capital and the method is the analysis of social networks and their density measurements and EI-Index. In the data gathering, a questionnaire of the name generator type, with 266 agents in six municipalities in three different regions of Brazil (coded as Amazon 1 and 2, North Central 1 and 2, Central South 1 and 2) was used. Secondary data were also used. The results indicate that the profile of the community health agents is still a training limiter and they do not see themselves as a link between the community, the FHS teams and health facilities. The conclusion drawn is that the agents do not have the perception of their importance and that their internal networks have low density, with few external relations (other members of the FHS), which limits the expansion of social capital and hampers the dissemination of knowledge and experiences of actions of prevention. PMID:27166913

  1. Affective, behavioral, and social-cognitive dysregulation as mechanisms for sexual abuse revictimization.

    PubMed

    Lutz-Zois, Catherine J; Phelps, Carolyn E Roecker; Reichle, Adam C

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 1117 female college students, this study examined emotional, behavioral, and social-cognitive mechanisms of sexual abuse revictimization. It was hypothesized that numbing, alexithymia, alcohol problems, mistrust, and adult attachment dimensions would mediate the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual abuse (ASA). Aside from the close adult attachment dimension, the results indicated that all of the hypothesized mediators were associated with CSA. However, only alcohol problems and mistrust met the necessary conditions of mediation. The results with respect to mistrust are especially unique in that it is one of the first empirical demonstrations of a social-cognitive mechanism for sexual abuse revictimization. Thus, these results enhance our understanding of interpersonal mediators of the relationship between CSA and ASA and provide a new direction for future research.

  2. An Initial Validation of a Measure of Personal and Social Perceptions of the Sexual Abuse of Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Abell, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Objective/Method: The Sexual Abuse of Males Perceptions Scale (SAMPS) is a measure designed to assess an individual's personal and projected social perceptions of myths about the sexual abuse of boys and men. Myths are rigid, stereotypical beliefs that invalidate the experiences and minimize the profound effects of sexual abuse on boys and men.…

  3. Social Support: A Mixed Blessing for Women in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Elizabeth M.; Munson, Michelle R.; Peterson, Lance T.; Floersch, Jerry E.

    2010-01-01

    Using a personal social network framework, this qualitative study sought to understand how women in substance abuse treatment describe their network members' supportive and unsupportive behaviors related to recovery. Eighty-six women were interviewed from residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. Positive and negative aspects of women's social networks were assessed via open-ended questions. Analysis was guided by grounded theory techniques using three coders. The findings extend classic social support concepts such as emotional, tangible, and informational support. Practice implications are presented in light of the potential roles network members may play in substance use and recovery. PMID:20953326

  4. Regulation of host workers' oviposition by the social parasite ant Polyergus samurai.

    PubMed

    Tsuneoka, Yousuke

    2014-07-01

    Polyergus samurai, an obligatory social parasite ant, lacks the ability to perform usual colony tasks. It depends completely on host Formica japonica workers. In the mixed colony, arrhenotokous reproduction by host workers must be detrimental to the parasites. This study, conducted under artificial rearing conditions, investigated the behavioral influence by P. samurai worker on the production of host workers' male eggs. Host workers started laying eggs when the P. samurai queen was removed, but most eggs were destroyed by P. samurai workers. In a queenless condition, P. samurai workers showed frequent intraspecific dominance interactions, but few interspecific ones. After a short while the P. samurai worker started laying eggs, the F. japonica worker stopped laying eggs. The ovary had no mature oocyte. These results suggest that both the P. samurai queen and dominant workers can inhibit host workers' oviposition. A mesh experiment revealed that the dominant P. samurai workers were able to inhibit host workers' oviposition without contacts. The dominant workers and queens of P. samurai frequently received grooming and trophallaxis from host workers just as a host queen does, suggesting that the parasites secreted similar products to those of the host queen to inhibit the host workers' oviposition. PMID:25001911

  5. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  6. Child Physical Abuse and Self-Perceived Social Isolation among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Gregory C.; Cunningham, Susan M.; Linder, Meadow; Colangelo, Melissa; Gross, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This research examines the connection between physical abuse and social isolation. Using data from the National Youth Survey, a measure of self-perceived social isolation was constructed indicating the extent to which respondents feel detached from their friends and from school. Those who had experienced violence were predicted to be more isolated…

  7. The protective effect of neighborhood social cohesion in child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Showalter, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Relations between parents within a neighborhood have the potential to provide a supportive environment for healthy and positive parenting. Neighborhood social cohesion, or the mutual trust and support among neighbors, is one process through which parenting may be improved. The current study investigates the association between neighborhood social cohesion and abuse and neglect, as well as specific types of abuse and neglect. The sample for the study is comprised of 896 parents in one urban Midwestern County in the United States. Participants were recruited from Women, Infants, and Children clinics. Negative binomial regression is used to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and child maltreatment behaviors, as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent-to-Child Version (Straus et al., 1998). In this sample of families, neighborhood social cohesion is associated with child neglect, but not abuse. In examining the relationship with specific types of abuse and neglect, it was found that neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective role in some acts of neglect, such as meeting a child's basic needs, but not potentially more complex needs like parental substance abuse. PMID:26774530

  8. Social interactions and their connection to aggression and ovarian development in orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    PubMed

    Sibbald, E D; Plowright, C M S

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the social dynamics of reproductive conflict. Orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) with comparatively high or low levels of social activity were paired to determine whether aggression and reproduction could be traced to earlier social interactions. The workers were paired according to their levels of social activity (a socially active+another socially active worker, socially active+socially inactive, and two socially inactive workers). The presence or absence of brood was also manipulated. The absence of brood increased both aggression and ovarian development, suggesting that aggression and reproduction are associated or that there is a third variable that affects both. Socially active pairs were significantly more aggressive: here, social activity can be taken as an early indicator of aggression. No such effect, however, was obtained on ovarian development as the socially active pairs did not differ on their degree of ovarian development compared to the others. Within the socially active+socially inactive pairs, the socially active worker did not have more developed ovaries and was not more aggressive than her socially inactive partner. Results highlight that environmental conditions (the absence of brood) can predict ovarian development and although social activity can be observed prior to aggression, differences in aggression do not translate into differences in ovarian development under these conditions.

  9. Intellectual Workers and Their Work in Social Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuvillier, Rolande

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of intellectual work and the relationship between intellectual workers and their work, the quality of intellectual work, and worker's rights demonstrates there are far greater differences between intellectual workers and other workers than commonly supposed. Their work must not be dehumanized--a present danger. (AG)

  10. An Exploration of Social Circles and Prescription Drug Abuse Through Twitter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. Objective To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Methods Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. Results From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, P<.001). Conclusions Twitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it—potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm. PMID:24014109

  11. From misery to mission: forensic social workers on multidisciplinary mitigation teams.

    PubMed

    Guin, Cecile C; Noble, Dorinda N; Merrill, Thomas S

    2003-07-01

    Social workers are well-equipped by experience and education to play a pivotal role in death penalty mitigation teams. They offer expertise in researching complete social histories, providing for people under threat of execution, and helping those individuals cope with that threat. The social worker's primary role is to develop the client's story through an extensive empirical inquiry into the person's life. An equally important role for social workers is to work with the multidisciplinary defense team to ensure that the client's life story becomes a part of the defense. This article, through a case example of a condemned prisoner, examines the mitigation team concept, focusing on the social work role.

  12. Social aspects of high-risk notification among chromium-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Needleman, C

    1993-01-01

    This study, based on 169 telephone interviews, explores how a sample of chromium-exposed workers responded to notification of their cohort's elevated risk of lung cancer. It is important to recognize that notified workers do not react as isolated individuals. Their responses are social, actively constructed through interaction with others, unfolding over time within a context of relationships and shared symbols that mediate the risk information. This report illustrates some of the ways that socially-based beliefs and interaction with the social environment can influence worker response, and suggests a more sociologically sophisticated concept of notification to fit the realities of workers' lives.

  13. Social Worker Perceptions of the Portrayal of the Profession in the News and Entertainment Media: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugazaga, Carole B.; Surette, Raymond B.; Mendez, Monica; Otto, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study describes social workers' perceptions of the depiction of the social work profession found in the news and entertainment media. A random sample of 665 MSW social workers who were members of the Florida Chapter of the National Association of Social Workers were surveyed regarding how they felt the profession was depicted in…

  14. Challenges Faced by Social Workers as Members of Interprofessional Collaborative Health Care Teams.

    PubMed

    Ambrose-Miller, Wayne; Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2016-05-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is increasingly being seen as an important factor in the work of social workers. A focus group was conducted with Canadian social work educators, practitioners, and students to identify barriers and facilitators to collaboration from the perspective of social work. Participants identified six themes that can act as barriers and facilitators to collaboration: culture, self-identity, role clarification, decision making, communication, and power dynamics. These findings carry important implications for interprofessional collaboration with social workers in health practice. PMID:27263200

  15. Job satisfaction and turnover intent among hospital social workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Greg L

    2016-08-01

    Feelings of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among social workers affect work quality for both social workers and the people for whom they provide services. Existing literature on job satisfaction among hospital social workers is limited, and is overly focused on issues of compensation. There is job satisfaction research with hospital nurses available for comparison. Other informative social work research on job satisfaction and turnover exists in mental health and generally, across settings. Research on turnover intent in social work is primarily from child welfare settings and may not generalize. The literature notes gaps and contradictions about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intent. Using a large national dataset of hospital social workers, this research clarifies and fills gaps regarding hospital social workers, and explores how Herzberg's theory of work can clarify the difference between sources of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. Findings include hospital social workers reporting high job satisfaction and that demographics do not contribute to the predictive models. The findings do support centralized social work departments and variety in the job functions of hospital social workers, and are consistent with the theoretical framework. PMID:27322030

  16. Job satisfaction and turnover intent among hospital social workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Greg L

    2016-08-01

    Feelings of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among social workers affect work quality for both social workers and the people for whom they provide services. Existing literature on job satisfaction among hospital social workers is limited, and is overly focused on issues of compensation. There is job satisfaction research with hospital nurses available for comparison. Other informative social work research on job satisfaction and turnover exists in mental health and generally, across settings. Research on turnover intent in social work is primarily from child welfare settings and may not generalize. The literature notes gaps and contradictions about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intent. Using a large national dataset of hospital social workers, this research clarifies and fills gaps regarding hospital social workers, and explores how Herzberg's theory of work can clarify the difference between sources of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. Findings include hospital social workers reporting high job satisfaction and that demographics do not contribute to the predictive models. The findings do support centralized social work departments and variety in the job functions of hospital social workers, and are consistent with the theoretical framework.

  17. Social Workers' Orientation toward the Evidence-Based Practice Process: A Dutch Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zwet, Renske J. M.; Kolmer, Deirdre M. Beneken genaamd; Schalk, René

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers' orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the EBP Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS), along with…

  18. School Social Workers' Experiences with Youth Suicidal Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jonathan B.; Slovak, Karen

    2011-01-01

    No published studies have explored school social workers (SSWs) experiences with, or beliefs and attitudes about, working with suicidal youths at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. The authors surveyed SSWs (N = 399) who were members of the 11-state Midwest Council on School Social Workers. Results indicated significant SSW…

  19. Social Workers and the NASW "Code of Ethics": Belief, Behavior, Disjuncture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFranks, Nikki Nelson

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative descriptive survey of a national sample of social workers (N = 206) examined discrepancies between belief in the NASW "Code of Ethics" and behavior in implementing the code and social workers' disjunctive distress (disjuncture) when belief and behavior are discordant. Relationships between setting and disjuncture and ethics…

  20. Women Clerical Workers: Sex-Role Socialization, Work Attitudes, and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Hilary M.; Kahn, Sharon E.

    1989-01-01

    Explored differences in sex-role socialization, personality orientation, and work attitudes and values of two groups of women clerical workers (N=91) who made their initial career choices in different historical time frames (the 1950s and 1970s). Results suggest that women clerical workers with differing sex-role socialization experiences may have…

  1. Value Differences between Social Workers and Members of the Working and Middle Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Significant differences in values between social workers and clients are widely understood to affect the efficacy of service provision. This study examines the degree of value similarity between social workers and consumers, specifically, members of the working and middle classes. Based on "new-class" theory, two hypotheses are proposed. (Contains…

  2. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Peer-Reviewed Literature: The Evidence Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Social workers from one state chapter of the National Association of Social Workers were surveyed to assess their use of and attitudes toward the peer-reviewed literature and their engagement in evidence-based practice. Results reveal that, in general, the practitioners in this study did not read the peer-reviewed literature, particularly articles…

  3. Learning to Facilitate Advance Care Planning: The Novice Social Worker's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla; Bowland, Sharon; Mueggenburg, Kay; Pederson, Margaret; Otten, Sheila; Renn, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Professional leaders have identified clear roles for social workers involved in advance care planning (ACP), a facilitated process whereby individuals identify their preferences for future medical care; yet information about effective teaching practices in this area is scant. This study reports on the experiences of 14 social workers who…

  4. Results from a National Study of Social Workers Sanctioned by State Licensing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland-Prom, Kim W.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a descriptive study, synthesizing the reports of 27 state regulatory boards about their actions against certified and licensed social workers (N = 874) during the period of 1999 to 2004. The purpose of this study was to examine the unprofessional behavior of certified and licensed social workers, the results of…

  5. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the…

  6. Thinking Processes in Social Workers' Use of a Clinical Decision Support System: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnickendam, Menachem; Savaya, Riki; Waysman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the thinking processes in the use of a decision support system (DSS) by social workers in a human services agency to determine whether they used the system to improve their case reasoning. Information was obtained from in-depth interviews with eight social workers who used a DSS in their work and from content analysis of…

  7. A Quest for Meaning: Hospice Social Workers and Patients with End-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Sara; Swails, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that few social workers are interested in working with cognitively impaired older adults, such as those with Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia. As the number of individuals with dementia grows, the demand for social workers to provide services to patients with dementia will increase. Although much attention has been given to…

  8. Training Social Workers, Clients, and Students in the Use of Rural Natural Helping Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Judson H.; Hilbert, Judith Cicero

    A manual, geared toward training social workers going into rural areas, provides a brief discussion of the natural helping relationships found in rural communities and a simulation game to be used in acquainting social workers, clients, and students with the rural network. Objectives of the simulation game, Nets and Links, are to train people to…

  9. The Growing Admissibility of Expert Testimony by Clinical Social Workers on Competence to Stand Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Expert testimony by clinical social workers concerning a criminal defendant's competence to stand trial has increasingly been admitted in certain state courts over the past two decades, yet most state laws still require that court-appointed competence evaluators be psychiatrists or psychologists. Pressure to admit social workers' testimony will…

  10. School Social Workers Sanctioned by State Departments of Education and State Licensing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland-Prom, Kim; Alvarez, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the unprofessional conduct of school social workers who have been sanctioned by state regulatory boards (boards of education and licensing boards). The data represent information from 14 states and the District of Columbia. Results indicate that school social workers are rarely sanctioned at the…

  11. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  12. Ethical Issues in the Social Worker's Role in Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manetta, Ameda A.; Wells, Janice G.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of an exploratory study of social workers' views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), situations in which PAS would be favored, and whether there is a difference in education or training on mental health issues, ethics, or suicide between social workers who favor PAS and those who oppose PAS. (BF)

  13. Opportunities for Exploring and Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse Through Social Media.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kevin R; Nelson, Lewis; Meisel, Zachary; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    The rising toll of opioid overdoses in the past decade has been declared a prescription drug epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control. In that same period, Internet platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, have grown exponentially, being used primarily by a population similar to new initiates of substance abuse. Researchers have utilized social media to gain insights into use patterns and prevailing attitudes about various substances. Social media has potential to enhance screening, prevention, and treatment of addiction. With future funding, they should be leveraged to advance understanding of prescription drug use and improve treatment and prevention of abuse.

  14. Psychiatric Advance Directives and Social Workers: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Scheyett, Anna; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) are legal documents that allow individuals to express their wishes for future psychiatric care and to authorize a legally appointed proxy to make decisions on their behalf during incapacitating crises. PADs are viewed as an alternative to the coercive interventions that sometimes accompany mental health crises for persons with mental illness. Insofar as coercive interventions can abridge clients’ autonomy and self-determination -- values supported by the Profession’s Code of Ethics -- social workers have a vested interest in finding ways to reduce coercion and increase autonomy and self-determination in their practice. However, PADs are also viewed as having the potential to positively affect a variety of other clinical outcomes, including but not limited to treatment engagement, treatment satisfaction, and working alliance. This article reviews the clinical and legal history of PADs and empirical evidence for their implementation and effectiveness. Despite what should be an inherent interest in PADs, and the fact that laws authorizing PADs have proliferated in the past decade, there is little theoretical or empirical research in the social work literature. PMID:20408357

  15. Defining the impact of high patient/staff ratios on dialysis social workers.

    PubMed

    Bogatz, Steve; Colasanto, Rebecca; Sweeney, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    In the beginning of 2003, the renal provider in Connecticut with the largest market share systematically reduced the hours of social workers and dietitians throughout its units. This change was part of a larger strategy of "leveraging and maximizing... organizational and management structure to improve patient, employee, and business care, including increased management emphasis on improving return on invested capital." For social workers in this company, the target ratio appeared to be 160 patients per 1 full-time equivalent. Soon after this increase in case ratio, the Connecticut Council of Nephrology Social Workers (CT CNSW) became concerned about the reduced level of social work services available to patients. PMID:15717576

  16. Social support, collective efficacy, and child physical abuse: does parent gender matter?

    PubMed

    Price-Wolf, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Social support and collective efficacy are related to child physical abuse. However, little is known about whether these relationships differ by gender, although mothers and fathers differ in the quantity and quality of time spent with children. This study examined whether the relationship between social support, collective efficacy, and physical abuse is stronger for mothers than fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with parent respondents in 50 California cities (N = 3,023). Data were analyzed via overdispersed multi-level Poisson models. Results suggest that high levels of emotional support were inversely associated with physical abuse for women and men, although this effect was stronger for women. High levels of companionship support were positively associated with physical abuse for women; however, the opposite was true for men. There were no significant interactions between collective efficacy variables and gender. The relationships between some types of social support and physical abuse appear to vary for men and women suggesting possibilities for more targeted intervention. PMID:25520320

  17. Caring for Children and Youth Who Have Been Sexually Abused: A Training Manual for Child and Youth Care Workers and Foster Parents. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Linda

    This facilitator's guide is part of an overall program developed as a resource for child and youth care workers and foster parents. Those using the facilitator's guide must possess considerable knowledge and training in the areas of child abuse, child welfare, child laws, human development, and group and family dynamics. Facilitators must be able…

  18. Caring for Children and Youth Who Have Been Sexually Abused: A Training Manual for Child and Youth Care Workers and Foster Parents. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Linda

    This manual, which incorporates a developmental perspective, targets child and youth care workers and foster parents who are ready to enhance their practical skills in providing care and treatment for young people who have been sexually abused. Users of this manual should have some previous understanding in human growth and development, effective…

  19. Options in Education, Transcript for December 8, 1975: Private School Desegration, Community College of Vermont, Child Abuse and Paralegal Worker Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript of the show contains discussions of the Supreme Court decision on private-school desegregation, the Community College of Vermont, child abuse, and learning how to be a paralegal worker. Participants in the program include John Merrow…

  20. Zen practice: a training method to enhance the skills of clinical social workers.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    The use of Zen Buddhist meditation in clinical practice has received specific attention from mental health disciplines in the West. A study was undertaken to examine the influence of a personal practice of Zen on the professional work of clinical social workers. Ten experienced clinical social workers who were long-term Zen practitioners were interviewed. Findings from this qualitative study suggest that Zen meditation has direct application to clinical social work in three areas: (1) cultivating Awareness, (2) enhancing Acceptance, and (3) nurturing Responsibility. This article reports on the findings in the area of Awareness. Awareness increases a social worker's focus on the present moment with the client, providing for a suspension of preconceived ideas about the client. Building on the view that social work is both art and science, the author proposes the use of Zen in the training of clinical social workers.

  1. Placing Evidence-Based Interventions at the Fingertips of School Social Workers.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Humberto López; Rivers, Tommi; Randall, Catherine; Gaughan, Ken; Ojanen, Tiina; Massey, Oliver Tom; Burton, Donna

    2016-07-01

    Through a university-community collaborative partnership, the perceived needs of evidence-based practices (EBPs) among school social workers (SSWs) in a large school district in central Florida was assessed. A survey (response rate = 83.6%) found that although 70% of SSWs claim to use EBPs in their everyday practice, 40% do not know where to find them, which may partially explain why 78% of respondents claim to spend 1 to 4 h every week looking for adequate EBPs. From this needs assessment, the translational model was used to address these perceived needs. A systematic review of the literature found 40 tier 2 EBPs, most of which (23%) target substance use, abuse, and dependence. After discussion with academic and community partners, the stakeholders designed, discussed, and implemented a searchable, online, password-protected, interface of these tier 2 EBPs, named Evidence-Based Intervention Toolkit (eBIT). Lessons learned, future directions, and implications of this "one-stop shop" for behavioral health are discussed. PMID:26659382

  2. 42 CFR 405.2452 - Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2452 Section 405.2452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... clinical social worker services. (a) Services and supplies incident to a clinical psychologist's or clinical social worker's services are reimbursable under this subpart if the service or supply is— (1) Of...

  3. Social isolation among Latino workers in rural North Carolina: exposure and health implications.

    PubMed

    Mora, Dana C; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Anderson, Andrea M; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A; Marín, Antonio J; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-10-01

    Immigrant Latinos frequently experience social isolation in their receiving communities. This paper investigates the prevalence of social isolation among immigrant workers in a new settlement area and delineates the association between social isolation and physical and mental health outcomes. Interviews were conducted in Spanish with immigrant Latino manual workers (N = 743) in western North Carolina. The CES-D and the SF-12 questionnaires assessed health outcomes. A social isolation scale was used to assess degree of social isolation. Nearly 1 in 5 workers (19.5 %) reported the highest level of social isolation. Social isolation was associated with higher depressive symptoms and poorer physical and mental health, related to quality of life. Social isolation is a common experience among immigrant Latinos that may have negative implications for physical and mental health. Community outreach efforts to minimize experiences of isolation may be useful in protecting immigrant physical and mental health.

  4. [Changes in workers' rehabilitation procedures under the Brazilian social security system: modernization or undermining of social protection?].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Iguti, Aparecida Mari

    2008-11-01

    This article describes the changes in workers' rehabilitation practices under the Brazilian National Social Security Institute (INSS) in the 1990s, in the context of neoliberal economic adjustment measures, based on an analysis of INSS documents from 1992 to 1997. The INSS plan for "modernization" of workers' rehabilitation led to: (1) dismantling of multidisciplinary teams; (2) induction of workers to accept proportional retirement pensions and voluntary layoffs; (3) under-utilization of the remaining INSS professional staff; (4) elimination of treatment programs for workers' rehabilitation; and (5) dismantling of INSS rehabilitation centers and clinics. The changes in the Brazilian social security system undermined the county's social security project and hegemony and reduced social security reform to a mere management and fiscal issue. Current "rehabilitation" falls far short of the institution's original purpose of social protection for workers, while aiming at economic regulation of the system to contain costs of workers' benefits. Workers that suffer work-related accidents are denied occupational rehabilitation, which aggravates their social disadvantage when they return to work. PMID:19009146

  5. Social and legal factors related to drug abuse in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Greberman, S B; Wada, K

    1994-01-01

    This article is an overview of social and legal differences in the United States and in Japan that are related to patterns of current drug abuse epidemics in these countries. These two nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and take different approaches currently to handling illicit drug marketing and use. Histories of opiate and cocaine abuse in the United States and of stimulant and inhalant abuse in Japan are discussed. The United States has experienced three heroin epidemics in the last three decades; cocaine addiction began to merit national concern by the end of the 1980s. In Japan, the first methamphetamine epidemic began after World War II; it was controlled in the 1950s. The current inhalant epidemic began in the late 1960s and was followed by the second methamphetamine epidemic that began in 1970; both are continuing to the present. The criminal justice system is always given first consideration when assessing societal measures employed to reduce drug use. Legal penalties for illicit drug offenses reflect the societal differences of these two nations with respect to the seriousness of particular types of crimes. Characteristics of the health care system of a nation may also influence patterns of drug abuse, particularly where functions of criminal justice and health care systems overlap. Health care systems in the United States and in Japan are based on different treatment philosophies and patients' expectations; these differences are discussed along with explanations of their potential influence on the epidemiology of drug abuse. PMID:7800780

  6. Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

  7. Social and Demographic Factors Affecting Psychopathology and Substance Abuse in a Spanish Family Clinic Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Robert A.

    This report presents findings on the social and demographic factors associated with drug abuse, alcoholism, and major psychological impairment in a population of Cuban American patients presenting at the Spanish Family Guidance Clinic (Miami, Florida) in 1974-75. The analysis indicates a number of factors operating to increase the likelihood of…

  8. Molecular and social regulation of worker division of labour in fire ants.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Fabio; Lucas, Christophe; Nicolas, Michael; Keller, Laurent; Shoemaker, Dewayne; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive and worker division of labour (DOL) is a hallmark of social insect societies. Despite a long-standing interest in worker DOL, the molecular mechanisms regulating this process have only been investigated in detail in honey bees, and little is known about the regulatory mechanisms operating in other social insects. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, one of the most studied ant species, workers are permanently sterile and the tasks performed are modulated by the worker's internal state (age and size) and the outside environment (social environment), which potentially includes the effect of the queen presence through chemical communication via pheromones. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes are unknown. Using a whole-genome microarray platform, we characterized the molecular basis for worker DOL and we explored how a drastic change in the social environment (i.e. the sudden loss of the queen) affects global gene expression patterns of worker ants. We identified numerous genes differentially expressed between foraging and nonforaging workers in queenright colonies. With a few exceptions, these genes appear to be distinct from those involved in DOL in bees and wasps. Interestingly, after the queen was removed, foraging workers were no longer distinct from nonforaging workers at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, few expression differences were detected between queenright and queenless workers when we did not consider the task performed. Thus, the social condition of the colony (queenless vs. queenright) appears to impact the molecular pathways underlying worker task performance, providing strong evidence for social regulation of DOL in S. invicta. PMID:24329612

  9. [Evolution of worker's health in the social security medical examination in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pinto Júnior, Afrânio Gomes; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia; Roselli-Cruz, Amadeu

    2012-10-01

    In order to analyze the practice of the social security medical examination starting from the introduction of the worker's health paradigms, data was gathered on the granting of social security disability benefits to assess worker illness based on notification of work-related accidents in the cement industries of Rio de Janeiro. From 2007 to 2009 there was only one notification, which involved a worker handling toxic waste instead of the energy matrix. However, the analysis revealed sources and mechanisms of illness overlooked in the social security medical examination, which is still focused on the one-cause-only logic of occupational medicine. To achieve the worker's health paradigms, changes are required to alter the way of conducting the social security medical examination, by re-establishing partnerships, training human resources, adopting epidemiological indicators, as well as setting and assessing social security goals that transcend the mere granting of disability benefits.

  10. Predictors of Ethical Stress, Moral Action and Job Satisfaction in Health Care Social Workers

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Patricia; Farrar, Adrienne; BrintzenhofeSzoc, Karlynn; Conrad, Ann Patrick; Danis, Marion; Grady, Christine; Taylor, Carol; Ulrich, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Value conflicts can be a source of ethical stress for social workers in health care settings. That stress, unless mediated by the availability of ethical resource services, can lead to social workers' dissatisfaction with their positions and careers, and possibly result in needed professionals leaving the field. This study explored social workers' experiences in dealing with ethical issues in health care settings. Findings showed the inter-relationship between selected individual and organizational factors and overall ethical stress, the ability to take moral actions, the impact of ethical stress on job satisfaction, and the intent to leave position. PMID:18551828

  11. Examining self-protection measures guarding Adult Protective Services social workers against compassion fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from experiencing the deleterious symptoms and effects of compassion fatigue. Implications center around the elements needed to implement boundaries in order to maintain a separation between the work and home environment. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  12. Opinions of Social Workers in Turkey About the Principles on Die with Dignity.

    PubMed

    Duyan, Veli; Serpen, Ayşe Sezen; Duyan, Gülsüm; Yavuz, Sutay

    2016-12-01

    The conditions how people will spend their very last moments are an increasingly debated topic in Turkey. This study is planned to learn the opinions of Social Workers in Turkey on "Principles of a good death." The results of this study reveal that social workers in Turkey agree with principles of a good death in general. The degree of support for some specific principles changes by the sex and age of the participants. Despite the significant support given to principles by social workers, majority of them do not think that these principles are currently followed in medical and care institutions in Turkey.

  13. The School's Role in the Prevention and Intervention of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Manual for School Personnel. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandau-Christopher, Debra

    Because of the large number of children being maltreated, Colorado law mandates that suspected cases of child abuse be reported. It is essential that professionals working with children understand how to recognize and report suspected abuse. This handbook was written to assist teachers, counselors, and social workers in defining child abuse and…

  14. Ethical dilemmas in general hospitals: social workers' contribution to ethical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Landau, R

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-two hospital social workers, fourteen of them directors of social work services and eighteen direct practitioners, were interviewed about their perception of the factors influencing social workers' contribution to the resolution of ethical dilemmas in general hospitals in Israel. Findings revealed that while ethical decision-making in hospitals is an interdisciplinary process, social workers' contribution to the process is affected by rivalry between social workers and other members of the health team, personality differences, type of ward and the nature of the ethical dilemma. Participants of the study had quite a clear perception of their role and of the unique knowledge-base social work can offer, including knowledge of the individual and family life course, understanding and skills in coping with diseases, and systems thinking. In order to increase their influence in ethical decision-making, the hospital social workers felt they must put more effort into developing their relationships with the other professionals involved in ethical decision-making both by making themselves more indispensable and by making their contribution explicit through greater documentation of their activities. The findings also implied that in order to gain more power and be accepted as equal partners in multidisciplinary teams, hospital social workers should improve their communication skills when interacting with representatives of other heath care professions.

  15. Legal needs of the ill: the social worker's role on an interdisciplinary team.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, B E

    1980-08-01

    The social worker in a medical setting is in a unique position to become aware of a patient's legal needs. The worker must therefore be able to furnish information about the patient's right to die a natural death, the donation of the body to science, powers of attorney, joint bank accounts, and the importance of a comprehensive estate plan. The author discusses how the worker can bring together professionals to best serve patients' needs.

  16. PREDOSE: A Semantic Web Platform for Drug Abuse Epidemiology using Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Delroy; Smith, Gary A.; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit P.; Dave, Drashti; Chen, Lu; Anand, Gaurish; Carlson, Robert; Watkins, Kera Z.; Falck, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The role of social media in biomedical knowledge mining, including clinical, medical and healthcare informatics, prescription drug abuse epidemiology and drug pharmacology, has become increasingly significant in recent years. Social media offers opportunities for people to share opinions and experiences freely in online communities, which may contribute information beyond the knowledge of domain professionals. This paper describes the development of a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE (PREscription Drug abuse Online Surveillance and Epidemiology), which is designed to facilitate the epidemiologic study of prescription (and related) drug abuse practices using social media. PREDOSE uses web forum posts and domain knowledge, modeled in a manually created Drug Abuse Ontology (DAO) (pronounced dow), to facilitate the extraction of semantic information from User Generated Content (UGC). A combination of lexical, pattern-based and semantics-based techniques is used together with the domain knowledge to extract fine-grained semantic information from UGC. In a previous study, PREDOSE was used to obtain the datasets from which new knowledge in drug abuse research was derived. Here, we report on various platform enhancements, including an updated DAO, new components for relationship and triple extraction, and tools for content analysis, trend detection and emerging patterns exploration, which enhance the capabilities of the PREDOSE platform. Given these enhancements, PREDOSE is now more equipped to impact drug abuse research by alleviating traditional labor-intensive content analysis tasks. Methods Using custom web crawlers that scrape UGC from publicly available web forums, PREDOSE first automates the collection of web-based social media content for subsequent semantic annotation. The annotation scheme is modeled in the DAO, and includes domain specific knowledge such as prescription (and related) drugs, methods of preparation, side effects, routes of

  17. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual´s own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Methods Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Conclusions Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation between different authorities

  18. Social role negotiation skills for substance-abusing adolescents: a group model.

    PubMed

    Blume, T W; Green, S; Joanning, H; Quinn, W S

    1994-01-01

    A group model for therapeutic early intervention (secondary prevention) with nonaddicted adolescent substance abusers is proposed, based on a Social Role Negotiation model of substance abuse integrating concepts form role theory and cognitive developmental theory. The description of the group model, a structured short-term approach, includes a variety of exercises which promote developmental improvement in the essential skills of role-taking, role-making, and definition of the situation. An individualized intervention strategy is proposed for each group member, based on a theory-based taxonomy of substance-related problems. Strategies for using family involvement to support an adolescent group are described.

  19. Abuses and Mysteries at the Association of Social Work Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Under contract with the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB), Pearson VUE reportedly performs much of the work of developing and administering the social work licensing exams required by most states. ASWB charges substantial fees for such exams and, after paying Pearson, has been able to bank considerable sums. One of the key contributions to…

  20. What Is My Role? Establishing Teacher and Youth Worker Responsibilities in Social Action Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Shira Eve

    2013-01-01

    In this research, I analyze the roles of teachers and youth workers from a community-based organization in the context of two high school social action projects. Both the teachers and the youth workers assumed distinct roles while working together during the civic project enactments. The teachers were largely positioned as responsible for…

  1. [Concomitant influence of occupational and social risk factors on health of workers engaged into powder metallurgy].

    PubMed

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Kostarev, V G; Lebedeva-Nesevria, N A; Shliapnikov, D M

    2012-01-01

    Results of health risk evaluation in workers engaged into powder metallurgy, using complex of hygienic, medical, epidemiologic and sociologic studies, enable to define priority occupational and social risk factors, to assess degree of their influence on the workers' health and to identify occupationally induced diseases.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Consensus-Based Child Abuse Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbeck, L.; Laib-Koehnemund, A.; Fegert, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the effects of expert-assisted child abuse and neglect case management in the German child welfare and healthcare system as perceived by the case workers themselves. Methods: Case workers with different professions (social workers, counselors, clinic-based and office-based psychotherapists, and physicians)…

  3. The Process of Pedagogical Culture Formation in the Future Social Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minzhanov, Nurlan A.; Ertysbaeva, Gaukhar N.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the features of pedagogical culture formation in future social workers and developing methods to improve the professional and pedagogical preparation quality of students in the "Social work" specialty. In the study, a survey of students in the "Social work" specialty (n = 400), and a standardized…

  4. 25 CFR 20.318 - What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What case management responsibilities does the social... HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.318 What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have? In...

  5. Faithful but Different: Clinical Social Workers Speak Out about Career Motivation and Professional Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Carolyn; Maschi, Tina; O'Brien, Helen; Morgen, Keith; Ward, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe licensed clinical social workers' (LCSWs) professional motivation to pursue a social work career and the decision to enter clinical practice. It used a probability sample of 245 New Jersey LCSWs and the Social Work Values Survey as part of an anonymous self-administered mail survey. Descriptive analyses…

  6. Embracing the Village and Tribe: Critical Thinking for Social Workers from an African-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Yarneccia D.; Brice, Tanya Smith

    2016-01-01

    The social work department at a small historically Black college implemented an African-centered approach to the course Critical Thinking for Social Workers for freshmen students who declared social work as their major. We firmly believe that knowing and understanding the history and legacy of people of African descent is extremely important in…

  7. 25 CFR 20.318 - What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What case management responsibilities does the social... HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.318 What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have? In...

  8. The Collaborative Engagement of Preservice Special Education Teachers and Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.; Giesler, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" (IDEA) and related accrediting agencies (e.g., The Council for Exceptional Children) dictate the training of preservice teachers. Likewise, the accrediting agencies in the field of social work (e.g., The Council for Social Work Education) specify the content for aspirant school social workers,…

  9. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  10. Development and Validation of the Social Worker's Attitudes toward Disability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Leah P.; Abell, Neil; Kim, Hyejin

    2015-01-01

    Disability scholars have recently highlighted social work professional organizations' lagging pace in adopting disability advocacy within diversity agendas and have questioned the adequacy of disability content within accredited social work curricula. Amid growing concerns, measures to assess attitudes of social workers toward disability and…

  11. The "Assimilation" of Unauthorized Mexican Workers: Another Social Science Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Reynaldo; Bryan, Dexter

    1983-01-01

    Examining the adaptation of unauthorized Mexican workers in Los Angeles (California), the study revealed a binational life-style. Rather than giving up ties to Mexico, these workers maintained residences in both countries. Extended residence in the United States resulted in an awareness of the advantages of living in both countries. (NQA)

  12. Social construction of disability and substance abuse within public disability benefit systems.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Debra L

    2009-09-01

    Federal legislation passed in 1996 in the United States changed the eligibility criteria for public disability benefit programmes. After 1996, persons with a primary diagnosis of substance abuse no longer qualified to receive disability benefits. Using a framework of social construction, a qualitative comparative analysis examines how the national disability systems of eight countries - Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the US - address issues of substance abuse. The US is the only country among the focal countries that does not currently allow disability benefits to be awarded to those with primary conditions of substance use disorders. International experience in providing disability benefits to persons with substance use disorders can inform US policy makers as to how the current US federal disability benefit system might be expanded to be more inclusive of persons with substance abuse disorders. PMID:18977648

  13. Ageism and the abuse of older people in health and social care.

    PubMed

    Ward, D

    Ageing is a natural process and yet ageism, ageist practice and abuse of older people occur among not only the general public but also in health and social care settings. Recent media reports have highlighted delays in meeting the needs of older people, physical and psychological abuse and that decisions are being made about whether or not to resuscitate an older patient without consultation with the patient and his/her family (e.g. British Journal of Nursing, 2000). This article looks at ageism and the abuse of older people and discusses what can be done to achieve quality care for older people while dealing with obstacles such as poor collaboration between agencies, a lack of support for carers and the belief that the needs of older people are less important than those of the young.

  14. Direct Care Workers in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: Characteristics, Opinions, and Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret E.; Arfken, Cynthia; Miller, Michael; Nunes, Edward V.; Edmundson, Eldon; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Forman, Robert; Laws, Reesa; Magruder, Kathy M.; Oyama, Mark; Sindelar, Jody; Wendt, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Individuals with direct care responsibilities in 348 drug abuse treatment units were surveyed to obtain a description of the workforce and to assess support for evidence-based therapies. Methods Surveys were distributed to 112 programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Descriptive analyses characterized the workforce. Analyses of covariance tested the effects of job category (counselors, medical staff, manager-supervisors, and support staff) on opinions about evidence-based practices and controlled for the effects of education, modality (outpatient or residential), race, and gender. Results Women made up two-thirds of the CTN workforce. One-third of the workforce had a master’s or doctoral degree. Responses from 1,757 counselors, 908 support staff, 522 managers-supervisors, and 511 medical staff (71% of eligible participants) suggested that the variables that most consistently influenced responses were job category (19 of 22 items) and education (20 of 22 items). Managers-supervisors were the most supportive of evidence-based therapies, and support staff were the least supportive. Generally, individuals with graduate degrees had more positive opinions about evidence-based therapies. Support for using medications and contingency management was modest across job categories. Conclusions The relatively traditional beliefs of support staff could inhibit the introduction of evidence-based practices. Programs initiating changes in therapeutic approaches may benefit from including all employees in change efforts. PMID:17287373

  15. Overcoming Barriers to Eye Care: Patient Response to a Medical Social Worker in a Glaucoma Service.

    PubMed

    Fudemberg, Scott J; Amarasekera, Dilru C; Silverstein, Marlee H; Linder, Kathryn M; Heffner, Paul; Hark, Lisa A; Waisbourd, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the patient response to a medical social worker in a glaucoma clinic. The literature suggests that medical social workers are effective in a variety of health care settings, yet the efficacy of a medical social worker in an adult ophthalmic setting has not been studied. We present the results of a retrospective chart review of 50 patients with glaucoma referred to a medical social worker between January 5, 2015 and June 31, 2015 in an outpatient clinic of an urban eye hospital. Clinical and demographic data, as well as the data from a quality of care questionnaire, were collected for each patient. Patients rated their interaction with the medical social worker as highly positive (mean = 4.75, 5-point Likert scale), and nearly 90 % of patients expressed interest in future contact with the social worker. Additionally, most patients reported that the social worker resolved the issues they were facing (61.1 %), supported them in seeing their ophthalmologist (70.6 %), and helped them to manage their glaucoma (69.7 %). Reported barriers to glaucoma care were emotional distress; cost of office visits and medications; lack of medical insurance; transportation; poor medication adherence; impairment of daily activities; follow-up adherence; and language. As vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible, it is important to detect and treat patients at early stages of the disease. Therefore, it is imperative for patients to regularly visit their eye care providers and adhere to treatment and follow-up recommendations. This study suggests that a medical social worker could play a pivotal role in helping patients with glaucoma overcome barriers to treatment and facilitate disease management. PMID:26860278

  16. Reducing Social Disparities in Tobacco Use: A Social-Contextual Model for Reducing Tobacco Use Among Blue-Collar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Hunt, Mary Kay; Emmons, Karen

    2004-01-01

    In the United States in 1997, the smoking prevalence among blue-collar workers was nearly double that among white-collar workers, underscoring the need for new approaches to reduce social disparities in tobacco use. These inequalities reflect larger structural forces that shape the social context of workers’ lives. Drawing from a range of social and behavioral theories and lessons from social epidemiology, we articulate a social-contextual model for understanding ways in which socioeconomic position, particularly occupation, influences smoking patterns. We present applications of this model to worksite-based smoking cessation interventions among blue-collar workers and provide empirical support for this model. We also propose avenues for future research guided by this model. PMID:14759932

  17. Coping with the Obligation Dilemma: Prototypes of Social Workers in the Nursing Home

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Sagit; Ayalon, Liat

    2016-01-01

    We examined the ways in which the social worker is coping with obligation dilemma in an Israeli nursing home. The research was conducted using semi-structured, in-depth interviews carried out with fifteen social workers employed in nursing homes. The interviews were analysed thematically, using constant comparisons. The three themes were concerned with the social worker's place in the nursing home, her relationship with the management and staff, and her coping with the obligation dilemma. These themes highlighted the difference between the interviewees. On the background of this difference, four prototypes of nursing home's social workers were defined: the managerial, the contented, the fighter and the frustrated. From analysing the findings, the significant place of the personal and environmental factors that influence the ways in which the social worker deals with these four themes emerges. Our findings suggest that the strengthening, empowerment and support of social workers in institutions can directly enhance the health, security, emotional well-being and quality of life of nursing home residents. PMID:27559230

  18. Using Art as a Self-Regulating Tool in a War Situation: A Model for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Ephrat; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie

    2010-01-01

    War poses a challenge for social workers, adding exposure to direct risk of personal harm to the general stress of social work practice. Artworks are frequently used in health care settings with people in high distress. This study had three goals: (1) to characterize the stressors of social workers living in a war zone, (2) to teach social workers…

  19. The dark side of social support: understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors.

  20. The dark side of social support: understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors. PMID:24726583

  1. Individual Differences and Social Influences on the Neurobehavioral Pharmacology of Abused Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Neisewander, J. L.; Kelly, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of drugs with biologic targets is a critical area of research, particularly for the development of medications to treat substance use disorders. In addition to understanding these drug-target interactions, however, there is a need to understand more fully the psychosocial influences that moderate these interactions. The first section of this review introduces some examples from human behavioral pharmacology that illustrate the clinical importance of this research. The second section covers preclinical evidence to characterize some of the key individual differences that alter drug sensitivity and abuse vulnerability, related primarily to differences in response to novelty and impulsivity. Evidence is presented to indicate that critical neuropharmacological mechanisms associated with these individual differences involve integrated neurocircuits underlying stress, reward, and behavioral inhibitory processes. The third section covers social influences on drug abuse vulnerability, including effects experienced during infancy, adolescence, and young adulthood, such as maternal separation, housing conditions, and social interactions (defeat, play, and social rank). Some of the same neurocircuits involved in individual differences also are altered by social influences, although the precise neurochemical and cellular mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated fully. Finally, some speculation is offered about the implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse. PMID:23343975

  2. Colony insularity through queen control on worker social motivation in ants.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Raphaël; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Vander Meer, Robert K; Hefetz, Abraham

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony insularity in the Carpenter ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (colonial deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups, allowing only worker-worker interactions (queen deprived, QD) or in queenright (QR) groups. Two weeks post-separation QD and QR workers were amicable towards each other but both rejected their CD nestmates, which suggests that the queen does not measurably influence the colony recognition cues. By contrast, aggression between QD and QR workers from the same original colony was apparent only after six months of separation. This clearly demonstrates the power of the Gestalt and indicates that the queen is not a dominant contributor to the nestmate recognition cues in this species. Aggression between nestmates was correlated with a greater hydrocarbon (HC) profile divergence for CD than for QD and QR workers, supporting the importance of worker-worker interactions in maintaining the colony Gestalt odour. While the queen does not significantly influence nestmate recognition cues, she does influence colony insularity since within 3 days QD (queenless for six months) workers from different colony origins merged to form a single queenless colony. By contrast, the corresponding QR colonies maintained their territoriality and did not merge. The originally divergent cuticular and postpharyngeal gland HC profiles became congruent following the merger. Therefore, while workers supply and blend the recognition signal, the queen affects worker-worker interaction by reducing social motivation and tolerance of alien conspecifics.

  3. Colony insularity through queen control on worker social motivation in ants.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Raphaël; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Vander Meer, Robert K; Hefetz, Abraham

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony insularity in the Carpenter ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (colonial deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups, allowing only worker-worker interactions (queen deprived, QD) or in queenright (QR) groups. Two weeks post-separation QD and QR workers were amicable towards each other but both rejected their CD nestmates, which suggests that the queen does not measurably influence the colony recognition cues. By contrast, aggression between QD and QR workers from the same original colony was apparent only after six months of separation. This clearly demonstrates the power of the Gestalt and indicates that the queen is not a dominant contributor to the nestmate recognition cues in this species. Aggression between nestmates was correlated with a greater hydrocarbon (HC) profile divergence for CD than for QD and QR workers, supporting the importance of worker-worker interactions in maintaining the colony Gestalt odour. While the queen does not significantly influence nestmate recognition cues, she does influence colony insularity since within 3 days QD (queenless for six months) workers from different colony origins merged to form a single queenless colony. By contrast, the corresponding QR colonies maintained their territoriality and did not merge. The originally divergent cuticular and postpharyngeal gland HC profiles became congruent following the merger. Therefore, while workers supply and blend the recognition signal, the queen affects worker-worker interaction by reducing social motivation and tolerance of alien conspecifics. PMID:12803913

  4. Social Influences, Social Norms, Social Support, and Smoking Behavior among Adolescent Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Pebbles; Eisenberg, Marla; Stoddard, Anne M.; Frazier, Lindsay; Sorensen, Glorian

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between worksite influences and smoking and quitting behavior among adolescent grocery employees. Surveys on interpersonal, intrapersonal, and organizational factors indicated that regular smokers were 30 percent more likely to receive co-worker encouragement to quit than occasional and experimental smokers. Compared to…

  5. Drivers of change: Learning from the lived experiences of nursing home social workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Lee, Sharon Narae; Armour, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    In response to the growing attention to integrated health care and the cultural change movement in nursing homes, this study examines the lived experiences of nursing home social workers to better understand their role perceptions, job satisfaction, and relationship with other staff members. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used in order to understand the lived experience of being a nursing home social worker. Ten nursing home social workers were recruited from a southern state and individual interviews were conducted. From the interviews, four themes emerged: challenge, coping, mattering, and rewarding. Guided by identity negotiation theory and social identity theory, these findings are discussed. Also, implications for social work education, nursing home administration, and policy is discussed.

  6. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations. PMID:26720584

  7. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O’Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants’ mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk. PMID:21532933

  8. Racism, Anti-Racist Practice and Social Work: Articulating the Teaching and Learning Experiences of Black Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainwright, John

    2009-01-01

    In the mid 1990s a Black practice teacher programme was established in Manchester and Merseyside with the primary aim to increase the number of Black practice teachers in social work organisations, and in turn provide a supportive and encouraging learning environment for Black student social workers whilst on placement. In the north-west of…

  9. Mothers' Perceptions of Social Work Helpgiving Practices: Implications for the Role of the School Social Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Kristina S.

    2012-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities Act has strengthened the role of parents in their children's special education. School social workers are one of the educational professionals in attendance at IEP staffings, yet their role definition continues to be poorly articulated. This qualitative study investigated school social work helpgiving…

  10. Barriers affecting access to and use of formal social supports among abused immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali; Humphreys, Janice

    2009-09-01

    Social support is critical for women dealing with intimate partner violence (IPV).When support from their informal sources, such as family, friends, and neighbours, is limited, women tend to access services provided by health professionals, social workers, and settlement workers. In this qualitative descriptive study, community leaders who were also first-generation immigrants describe the complexities of immigrant women's access to and use of formal supports to deal with IPV in Canada.The findings show that a number of factors negatively shape the experiences of these women: lack of familiarity with services, inappropriate services and intervention strategies, lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate services, lack of portability and coordination of services, confidentiality concerns, and discriminatory and racist practices embedded in services and service delivery. In order to improve care for women dealing with IPV in the post-migration context, health professionals must collaborate with social workers and settlement workers to address structural barriers that limit women's access to and use of formal social support.

  11. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. PMID:25846196

  12. Teaching Social Workers about Substance Use Problems via Temporary Abstinence from Normal Mood-Altering Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Paul Elliott

    2007-01-01

    Social work students enrolled in a graduate-level course in substance abuse (N = 450, over nine years) assessed their own "mood-altering" behaviors (i.e., stress-reduction strategies and leisure-time activities), abstained from one or more of these activities for one week, then completed a written summary of their personal bio-psycho-social…

  13. Internet-Related Problems Coming to the Attention of School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    The author provides a preliminary assessment of the extent to which a sample of 264 school social workers are aware of the Internet-related problems children are experiencing and proposes ways in which Internet-related problems could affect youths' social and academic competence and performance in a school setting. The findings have implications…

  14. Advocacy and Argumentation in the Public Arena: A Guide for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lens, Vicki

    2005-01-01

    Whether translating research findings for public consumption, or arguing for a policy position that reflects social work values, social workers engaged in cause advocacy need rhetorical skills. The author draws from the disciplines of linguistics, logic, and communications and provides a framework for making arguments in the public arena. The…

  15. Somatic Experiencing Treatment with Social Service Workers Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, M. Laurie; Vanslyke, Jan; Allen, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    In a disaster, social service workers are often survivors themselves. This study examines whether somatic intervention using a brief (one to two session) stabilization model now called the Trauma Resiliency Model[TM] (TRM), which uses the skills of Somatic Experiencing[R] (SE), can reduce the postdisaster symptoms of social service workers…

  16. A Partnership among a University, Foundation and Community Agencies for Training Gerontological Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutheil, Irene A.; Heyman, Janna C.

    2010-01-01

    Attention to preparing social workers for our aging society has increased with concern that there may be insufficient professionals to meet the need. Interest in training gerontologically-savvy social work students had led to the development of models to achieve this end. This article reports on a collaboration among a university's school of…

  17. Training Is an Investment with Return in Temporary Workers: A Social Exchange Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambel, Maria Jose; Sobral, Filipa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a social exchange relationship between temporary workers and organizations is possible. The authors aim to consider whether, when training is perceived by an employee as an organizational practice that promotes his or her employability, this entails a social exchange relationship.…

  18. Discussion of Late-Life Suicide: How Social Workers Perceive and Intervene in Elderly Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yujin

    2013-01-01

    As the prevalence of suicide among the elderly has developed in recent years into one of the more serious social problems in South Korea, preventing these elderly suicides has emerged as a national priority. Korean social workers play a major role in the recent elderly suicide prevention efforts that were implemented starting in 2007. The purpose…

  19. Perceptions of Cultural Competence among Urban School Social Workers: Does Experience Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell L.; Baffour, Tiffany D.; Tyson, Edgar H.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the contribution of social work experience and licensure to self-reported levels of cultural competence of social workers in urban public school systems. In addition, it examined the influence of practitioners race or ethnicity on perceived levels of culturally competent practice in urban schools. Using survey…

  20. Cross-Professional Partnerships: Innovation in Continuing Education for Social Workers and Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waites, Cheryl; Bearon, Lucille

    2007-01-01

    There is a need to train professionals across disciplines to work collaboratively on program development and implementation to address the caregiving issues prevalent in our aging society. The North Carolina State University Departments of Social Work and Family and Consumer Sciences provided a training opportunity for social workers and county…

  1. An Application of the Social Support Deterioration Deterrence Model to Rescue Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of social support in promoting quality of life in the aftermath of critical incidents involvement. Participants were a sample of 586 Italian rescue workers. Structural equation modelling was used to test the social support deterioration deterrence model. Results showed that the impact of critical incident involvement…

  2. Experiences and Implications of Social Workers Practicing in a Pediatric Hospital Environment Affected by SARS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearing, Robin Edward; Saini, Michael; McNeill, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study's purpose was threefold: to detail the experiences of social workers practicing in a hospital environment affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), to describe essential themes and structures of social work practices within this crisis environment, and to explore recommendations for better preparedness to…

  3. HIV-Affected Children and Adolescents: What School Social Workers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Dorie J.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of issues facing HIV-affected children and adolescents and aims to help school social workers become better equipped to recognize the secondary effects of the AIDS epidemic among HIV-affected children. Concludes with recommendations for addressing the needs of HIV-affected children and adolescents through school social work.…

  4. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  5. Factors in the Decision to Leave: Retaining Social Workers with MSWs in Public Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samantrai, Krishna

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 7 social workers with master's in social work (MSW) degrees who had left public child welfare and 20 who decided to stay. Found two factors that distinguished groups: inflexibility in job assignment and poor relationship with immediate supervisor. Academic preparation for this type of practice was not decisive factor. (Author/NB)

  6. Work Stress, Burnout, and Social and Personal Resources among Direct Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope…

  7. Perceived Levels of Cultural Competence for School Social Workers: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell L.; Archuleta, Adrian; Miller, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on findings from a follow-up study that examined the relationship among social work education programs, postgraduate professional development, and school social workers' perceived levels of cultural competence in practice with urban minority youth. The initial study demonstrated that African Americans…

  8. Perceptions of the hospital ethical environment among hospital social workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Greg L

    2015-01-01

    Hospital social workers are in a unique context of practice, and one where the ethical environment has a profound influence on the ethical behavior. This study determined the ratings of ethical environment by hospital social workers in large nationwide sample. Correlates suggest by and compared to studies of ethical environment with nurses are explored. Positive ratings of the ethical environment are primarily associated with job satisfaction, as well as working in a centralized social work department and for a non-profit hospital. Religiosity and MSW education were not predictive. Implications and suggestions for managing the hospital ethical environment are provided.

  9. Using social constructionist thinking in training social workers living and working under threat of political violence.

    PubMed

    Shamai, Michal

    2003-10-01

    This article describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence such as war and terrorism. The author used a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a recognition of the personal and professional knowledge acquired in the daily experience. The author used qualitative methods to evaluate the process and outcome. The narrative-holistic analysis focused on reconstructing meaning and adapting it to the new situation, the main thrust of the program. From the thematic analysis four main themes emerged: (1) loss as a result of political violence; (2) meaning of strength and weakness in situations of political violence; (3) preparation for terrorist attacks; and (4) definition of a safe place. The outcome evaluation describes the meaning of this kind of training program to the participants. The specific context of the training program is discussed as well as possibilities of using it in different contexts.

  10. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  11. Injection Drug Use as a Mediator Between Client-perpetrated Abuse and HIV Status Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-US Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Lozada, Remedios; Fraga, Miguel A.; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; De La Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; O’Campo, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    We examined relationships between client-perpetrated emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, injection drug use, and HIV-serostatus among 924 female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-US border cities. We hypothesized that FSWs’ injection drug use would mediate the relationship between client-perpetrated abuse and HIV-seropositivity. The prevalence of client-perpetrated emotional, physical, and sexual abuse in the past 6 months was 26, 18, and 10% respectively; prevalence of current injection drug use and HIV was 12 and 6%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that client-perpetrated sexual abuse was significantly associated with HIV-seropositivity and injection drug use, and that injection drug use was positively associated with HIV-seropositivity. Injection drug use partially mediated the relationship between client-perpetrated sexual abuse and HIV-seropositivity. Results suggest the need to address client-perpetrated violence and injection drug use when assessing HIV risk among FSWs. PMID:19636697

  12. Harm Reduction: A Social Work Practice Model and Social Justice Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, Jo; Wagner, Eric F.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how social workers may reduce ethical conflicts associated with efforts to address substance abuse by adopting a harm reduction approach to policy, practice, and research. Also examines current drug policies and their consequences and, in particular, how these policies affect social workers as practitioners, agents of social control, and…

  13. Ageism and abuse in the workplace: a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mebane

    2010-10-01

    The economic crisis in the United States has led to increased media coverage of older workers being laid off, forced to retire, or working longer than planned. Embedded in these reports are the intimations of workplace abuse. Social workers need to start taking into account ageism and abuse in the workplace as possible cooccurring issues to effectively implement policy, and organizational change that will address both issues. This brief article discusses ageism and abuse in the workplace using a human rights framework, the current state of the literature, and directions for future research. PMID:20865626

  14. Primary socialization theory: comments on racism, sexism, generational neglect, abuse, and abandonment.

    PubMed

    Garcia, S A

    1999-06-01

    This article asks whether primary socialization theory adequately deals with the most distressed and disadvantaged members of society, whether for most of them the family, school, and peers are the primary sources of socialization. Children who are subjected to the effects of racism, sexism, physical and mental abuse, inferior dangerous schools, and abandonment to foster care from birth may find other sources of primary socialization which can be either negative and positive. "Nihilism" and "anomie" are used to describe such children's position in their societies, and the article asks if those without benefit of the three primary sources of socialization can find ways to create new and positive norms, or whether they are doomed to lives of hopelessness and deviance. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.

  15. [Social and hygienic factors for health state in female poultry workers].

    PubMed

    Ianbukhtina, G A; Masiagutova, L M; Gaĭnullina, M K

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of analysis of social and hygienic factors for health state in female poultry workers of Bashkortostan Republic, obtained through polling in 179 female workers. Findings are that most of the female poultry workers' lifestyle includes factors with unfavorable influence on their health state: no possibility of adequate rest after the work (66.7%) because of involvement into household activities; using vacations for work for personal farming (85.3%); unbalanced nutrition (36.4%); alcohol intake (78.6%); unavailable sanatorium-and-spa treatment (94%).

  16. Community Health Workers: Social Justice and Policy Advocates for Community Health and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Leda M.; Martinez, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Community health workers are resources to their communities and to the advocacy and policy world on several levels. Community health workers can connect people to health care and collect information relevant to policy. They are natural researchers who, as a result of direct interaction with the populations they serve, can recount the realities of exclusion and propose remedies for it. As natural researchers, they contribute to best practices while informing public policy with the information they can share. In this light, community health workers may also be advocates for social justice. PMID:18048789

  17. Findings from an Elder Abuse Forensic Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiglesworth, Aileen; Mosqueda, Laura; Burnight, Kerry; Younglove, Ted; Jeske, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The first Elder Abuse Forensic Center (EAFC) in the United States was instituted in 2003. People from a variety of disciplines, including Adult Protective Services social workers, law enforcement, the district attorney's office, a medical response team, public guardian deputies, ombudsmen, mental health services, a victim advocate, and a…

  18. Abuse and Neglect of Healthy Newborn by Parents: A Social Problem with a Long History

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Ahmadshah; Ghasemi, Ali; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    A Two-day-old girl who was found in garbage by police and transferred to hospital. She was irritable and dehydrated; also there were burn injuries around her knees and right cheek. Her weight was 3100 grams and physical examinations were normal. Opium was found in urine. Phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day intravenous every 12 hours) was started for her irritability. After 20 days, infant was entrusted to a welfare organization with coordination of social support of hospital. The prevention of child abuse and neglect is an urgent public health concern. Home visit by welfare organization has been proposed as a promising approach to prevent health and developmental problems among children. We report this case of an abused and neglected newborn. PMID:26675006

  19. Abuse and Neglect of Healthy Newborn by Parents: A Social Problem with a Long History.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Ahmadshah; Ghasemi, Ali; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf; Sezavar, Majid

    2015-11-01

    A Two-day-old girl who was found in garbage by police and transferred to hospital. She was irritable and dehydrated; also there were burn injuries around her knees and right cheek. Her weight was 3100 grams and physical examinations were normal. Opium was found in urine. Phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day intravenous every 12 hours) was started for her irritability. After 20 days, infant was entrusted to a welfare organization with coordination of social support of hospital. The prevention of child abuse and neglect is an urgent public health concern. Home visit by welfare organization has been proposed as a promising approach to prevent health and developmental problems among children. We report this case of an abused and neglected newborn. PMID:26675006

  20. Nursing home social worker skills and end-of-life planning.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Little empirical information exists on nursing home social worker's involvement in advance care planning and end-of-life decision- making with nursing home residents and their family members. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold: (1) to identify the frequency of skills associated with advance care planning that social workers use, and (2) to explore the factor structure of the scale used in the study. Results from 138 nursing home social worker respondents from New York State showed high frequency of advance directive discussions, care planning, and conflict resolution with families. The instrument factors clustered around administrative duties, and grief issues. There was substantial interest in continuing education in grief counseling with families. PMID:15911502

  1. The Compassion Fatigue Scale: Its Use With Social Workers Following Urban Disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2008-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study has two goals: to assess the difference between secondary trauma and job burnout and to examine the utility of secondary trauma in predicting psychological distress. METHOD: The data come from a survey of social workers (N = 236) living in New York City 20 months following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC). RESULTS: Social workers' involvement in WTC recovery efforts is related to secondary trauma but not burnout. Analyses also reveal that both secondary trauma and burnout are related to psychological distress after controlling for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: This study supports the importance of compassion fatigue as a risk factor for social workers counseling traumatized clients and its association with psychological problems.

  2. Male social workers working with men who batter: dilemmas in gender identity.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-06-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through semistructured interviews. The main theme emerging from the interviews describes the reconstruction and renegotiation of the worker's professional and personal self in light of his experiences with violent clients. Two major motifs describing their experience emerged: The first is self-doubt arising from adopting a broad definition of violence, thus creating increased sensitization to and inclusion of a wide range of behaviors under the term violence . The second motif is related to compromising with reality by renegotiating their identity as aggressive, at times, but not violent. Findings were discussed in the light of the constructionist perspective.

  3. U.S. Social Worker Workforce Report Card: Forecasting Nationwide Shortages.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vernon W; Lin, Joyce; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Using age-based projected changes in population, the authors developed demand and supply models of the social worker workforce to project the shortage of social workers in all 50 states and assigned letter grades based on shortage ratios. According to the projections, the number of states with shortage ratios more severe than the current national ratio will increase from 11 states in 2012 to 30 states by 2030 and the nation will experience a total shortfall of over 195,000 social workers, with the most severe shortages occurring in the western and southern regions of the United States. Further efforts are recommended to investigate shortage dynamics and develop strategies to counter its causes. PMID:26897994

  4. Professional competencies and training needs of professional social workers in integrated behavioral health in primary care.

    PubMed

    Horevitz, Elizabeth; Manoleas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act has led to a widespread movement to integrate behavioral health services into primary care settings. Integrated behavioral health (IBH) holds promise for treating mild to moderate psychiatric disorders in a manner that more fully addresses the biopsychosocial spectrum of needs of individuals and families in primary care, and for reducing disparities in accessing behavioral health care. For behavioral health practitioners, IBH requires a shift to a brief, outcome-driven, and team-based model of care. Despite the fact that social workers comprise the majority of behavioral health providers in IBH settings, little research has been done to assess the extent to which social workers are prepared for effective practice in fast-paced primary care. We conducted a survey of social workers (N = 84) in IBH settings to assess the following: (1) Key competency areas for social work practice in IBH settings and (2) Self-rated preparedness for effective practice in IBH settings. Online snowball sampling methods were used over a period of 1 month. Results indicate that social workers feel prepared for general practice in IBH settings, but would benefit from additional training in IBH-specific competency areas identified in the survey. Findings can help guide social work training to improve workforce preparedness for practice in IBH settings in the wake of health care reform. PMID:24028739

  5. A crisis worker's observations on the psychosocial support for victims and families following child sexual abuse; a case study.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Daniel R; Jones, Alyson

    2014-10-01

    The Lancashire Sexual Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) centre in Preston saw 204 children aged 16 and under for examination following allegation of sexual assault in 2013. The psychological impact on the child is well known but not always addressed correctly or appropriately; the impact and resulting difficulties faced by the parent/carer of the child can also easily go un-noticed. Mrs A attended the centre with her 2 year old daughter in 2013, where I was the crisis worker in the case. She was contacted five months later and the support they received after attending the centre discussed. Her experiences, along with my own anecdotal experiences are discussed. Independent Sexual Assault Advisors (ISVAs) offer support following attendance at the centre, and various charitable organisations offer counselling, emotional and practical support. Health visitors, paediatricians, school nurses and social workers also play a role in looking after children and families following allegations of assault. However, the organisations and agencies involved in psychological aftercare for victims and parents are hindered by strict referral criteria and lack of funding or appropriate specialist expertise. The psychological, educational and behavioural support for parents and children, and specifically pre-trial counselling for children need significant improvement if we are to offer the best support for victims. PMID:25287795

  6. Social Workers and Delivery of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    WELLS, ELIZABETH A.; KRISTMAN-VALENTE, ALLISON N.; PEAVY, K. MICHELLE; JACKSON, T. RON

    2013-01-01

    Social workers encounter individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) in a variety of settings. With changes in health care policy and a movement toward integration of health and behavioral health services, social workers will play an increased role vis-a-vis SUD. As direct service providers, administrators, care managers and policy makers, they will select, deliver, or advocate for delivery of evidence-based SUD treatment practices. This paper provides an overview of effective psychosocial SUD treatment approaches. In addition to describing the treatments, the article discusses empirical support, populations for whom the treatments are known to be efficacious, and implementation issues. PMID:23731420

  7. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  8. A Critical Pedagogy of Social Justice for Today's Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The author has attempted over the years to make a case for educators to work within a revolutionary critical pedagogy that examines the economic, cultural, social, and political purposes of education. Acknowledging the fact that education is a necessary but not sufficient weapon in history's arsenal of social revolution, it is clear that educators…

  9. Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

  10. Training and Knowledge of Professionals on Specific Topics in Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James A.; Carlson, Karen

    1995-01-01

    Examines the training background and self-reported knowledge levels held by a group of professionals on specific topics in child sexual abuse. It was found that many professionals working in the area of child abuse treatment, including social workers, medical personnel, and psychologists, have not had training on topics directly related to their…

  11. Social worker assessment of bad news delivery by emergency medicine residents: a novel direct-observation milestone assessment.

    PubMed

    Min, Alice Ann; Spear-Ellinwood, Karen; Berman, Melissa; Nisson, Peyton; Rhodes, Suzanne Michelle

    2016-09-01

    The skill of delivering bad news is difficult to teach and evaluate. Residents may practice in simulated settings; however, this may not translate to confidence or competence during real experiences. We investigated the acceptability and feasibility of social workers as evaluators of residents' delivery of bad news during patient encounters, and assessed the attitudes of both groups regarding this process. From August 2013 to June 2014, emergency medicine residents completed self-assessments after delivering bad news. Social workers completed evaluations after observing these conversations. The Assessment tools were designed by modifying the global Breaking Bad News Assessment Scale. Residents and social workers completed post-study surveys. 37 evaluations were received, 20 completed by social workers and 17 resident self-evaluations. Social workers reported discussing plans with residents prior to conversations 90 % of the time (18/20, 95 % CI 64.5, 97.8). Social workers who had previously observed the resident delivering bad news reported that the resident was more skilled on subsequent encounters 90 % of the time (95 % CI 42.2, 99). Both social workers and residents felt that prior training or experience was important. First-year residents valued advice from social workers less than advice from attending physicians, whereas more experienced residents perceived advice from social workers to be equivalent with that of attending physicians (40 versus 2.9 %, p = 0.002). Social worker assessment of residents' abilities to deliver bad news is feasible and acceptable to both groups. This formalized self-assessment and evaluation process highlights the importance of social workers' involvement in delivery of bad news, and the teaching of this skill. This method may also be used as direct-observation for resident milestone assessment. PMID:26892405

  12. Social worker assessment of bad news delivery by emergency medicine residents: a novel direct-observation milestone assessment.

    PubMed

    Min, Alice Ann; Spear-Ellinwood, Karen; Berman, Melissa; Nisson, Peyton; Rhodes, Suzanne Michelle

    2016-09-01

    The skill of delivering bad news is difficult to teach and evaluate. Residents may practice in simulated settings; however, this may not translate to confidence or competence during real experiences. We investigated the acceptability and feasibility of social workers as evaluators of residents' delivery of bad news during patient encounters, and assessed the attitudes of both groups regarding this process. From August 2013 to June 2014, emergency medicine residents completed self-assessments after delivering bad news. Social workers completed evaluations after observing these conversations. The Assessment tools were designed by modifying the global Breaking Bad News Assessment Scale. Residents and social workers completed post-study surveys. 37 evaluations were received, 20 completed by social workers and 17 resident self-evaluations. Social workers reported discussing plans with residents prior to conversations 90 % of the time (18/20, 95 % CI 64.5, 97.8). Social workers who had previously observed the resident delivering bad news reported that the resident was more skilled on subsequent encounters 90 % of the time (95 % CI 42.2, 99). Both social workers and residents felt that prior training or experience was important. First-year residents valued advice from social workers less than advice from attending physicians, whereas more experienced residents perceived advice from social workers to be equivalent with that of attending physicians (40 versus 2.9 %, p = 0.002). Social worker assessment of residents' abilities to deliver bad news is feasible and acceptable to both groups. This formalized self-assessment and evaluation process highlights the importance of social workers' involvement in delivery of bad news, and the teaching of this skill. This method may also be used as direct-observation for resident milestone assessment.

  13. Social Support as a Mediator between Internalized Stigma and Coping Behaviors of Individuals with Substance Abuse Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Robb, Jayci Lynn; Clay, Matthew Christopher; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 51 individuals from online substance abuse support groups were surveyed to investigate the mediating role of social support on the relationship between internalized stigma and coping. Regression and bootstrapping were conducted to perform mediation analysis. Findings suggest that social support mediates the negative impact of…

  14. Job stress, social support at work, and insomnia in Japanese shift workers.

    PubMed

    Nakata, A; Haratani, T; Takahashi, M; Kawakami, N; Arito, H; Fujioka, Y; Shimizu, H; Kobayashi, F; Araki, S

    2001-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to clarify the contribution of psychological job stress to insomnia in shift workers. A self-administered questionnaire concerning job stress, sleep, depressive symptoms and lifestyle factors was submitted to a sample of 530 rotating shift workers of age 18-59 years (mean age 27) in an electric equipment manufacturing company. Perceived job stress, i.e., job demands, job control and social support at work, was assessed using the Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Insomnia was regarded as prevalent if the workers had at least one of the following symptoms in the last year; less than 30 minutes to fall asleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, or early morning awakening almost everyday. Overall prevalence was 37.8%. Logistic regression analyses while adjusting relevant factors showed that lower social support at work was significantly associated with a greater risk of insomnia than the higher social support (adjusted OR 2.5). Higher job strain with lower social support at work increased the risk, compared to lower strain with higher support at work (crude OR 1.8; adjusted OR 1.5). Our findings suggest the low social support at work independently associated with insomnia in shift workers.

  15. Current practice and policy realities revisited: undertrained nursing home social workers in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Allen, Priscilla D; Nelson, H Wayne; Netting, F Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Despite a nearly 20-year-old legislation to strengthen social work (SW) coverage within nursing homes and decades of literature exploring the need for SW training, untrained and undertrained social workers dominate American nursing homes. Many persons who call themselves social workers are not educated as such, but nevertheless, must work in complex, conflict-ridden nursing homes without assessment and advocacy skills essential to address the symptoms and to fully respond to subjugated residents' needs. The call for more qualified social workers to be employed in nursing homes is a recognition that the residents' psychosocial needs are not being met. We examine how inconsistent national requirements, inadequate professional educational preparation, and work overload are all symptoms of a general societal unwillingness to recognize residents' needs. The authors utilize a morphogenic systems perspective to describe the open interaction between all disciplines, which can be unduly strained without properly trained workers. The social work literature is reviewed with a renewed interest in addressing the problem profession-wide.

  16. Social desirability and change following substance abuse treatment in male offenders.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher G; Doherty, Sherri; Moser, Andrea E

    2014-09-01

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment for substance abuse is contingent on changing clients' attitudes, beliefs, and expectancies. Assessing such change with self-report instruments may be problematic in offenders to the extent that they perceive that treatment success may secure privileges. This study assesses the extent to which increases in social desirability predict improvement in self-efficacy, perceptions of control, and perceived ability to cope and resist use of drugs. Male offenders in a moderate-intensity (N = 1,431) and a high-intensity (N = 316) substance abuse program were assessed before and after treatment on a range of beliefs and attitudes targeted in treatment, along with a measure of social desirability. Regression analyses indicate that those reporting the greatest increase in social desirability also reported the greatest improvement in attitudes and beliefs about drug and alcohol use, thereby suggesting that such self-report measures of change should be regarded with a degree of skepticism. PMID:25222175

  17. Social Capital Theory: Another Lens for School Social Workers to Use to Support Students Living in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Altshuler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Schools have a wide range of connections with the child welfare system, with common interests in the care, well-being, and future life opportunities of children living in foster care. Children in foster care are often the most vulnerable students in the school system, and school social workers often serve as important resources for these children.…

  18. Social support and problem-solving as moderators of the relationship between childhood abuse and suicidality: applications to a delinquent population.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Christianne L; Clum, George A

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between childhood abuse, social support, and problem-solving appraisal within a juvenile delinquent sample. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess whether childhood abuse, social support, and problem-solving appraisal were independently predictive of suicidality, and further, whetherproblem-solving appraisal and social support moderated the childhood abuse-suicidality relationship. Childhood sexual abuse was found to be an independent predictor of suicidal ideation and behavior. In addition, both problem-solving confidence and social support moderated the relationship between childhood abuse and suicidal ideation. The results of this study underscore the importance of both problem-solving appraisal and social support to suicidality in adolescents with a history of abuse.

  19. Psychiatric disorders, spouse abuse and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bland, R C; Orn, H

    1986-01-01

    The results of 2000 standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews of randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton showed that having had any psychiatric diagnosis increased the risk for being involved in spouse and child abuse, particularly for those with alcohol abuse/dependence plus anti-social personality or depression. Altogether 56% of spouse abusers and 69% of child abusers had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis.

  20. An evidence-based case for the value of social workers in efficient hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Galati, Monika; Wong, Hannah J; Morra, Dante; Wu, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    A study was undertaken to make an evidence-based case for the value of social workers in efficient discharge of patients from acute care hospitals and to assist hospital managers in making informed staffing decisions. Hospital administrative databases from March 1 to November 30, 2008, were used for the analysis of inpatient discharges on days when social workers were on vacation compared with days fully staffed with social workers. Two performance measures, daily discharge rate and average length of stay, were evaluated. During the study period, 1825 patients were discharged from the General Internal Medicine inpatient service. Team discharge rates were significantly lower on social work vacation Fridays versus regular Fridays. In contrast, the average length of stay for patients discharged on social work vacation Fridays was significantly shorter than that for patients discharged on regular Fridays. It was concluded that daily discharge rate better quantified the role of social work in patient discharge. More generally, these results provide preliminary support for the need for adequate social work staffing in timely and efficient patient discharge.

  1. Disentangling life events, stress and social support: implications for the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Howze, D C; Kotch, J B

    1984-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature linking stress and child abuse and neglect, but the relationship is not unambiguously supported by empirical data. Two considerations regarding Garbarino's ecological model of child abuse and neglect may explain this research problem. First, any of the predisposing factors, which are grouped into four levels called individual, familial, social, and cultural, may either positively or negatively affect the potential for child abuse and neglect depending upon the quality of social networks and social supports available to families. Second, these factors operate most importantly, not between the perception of stress and the act of abuse or neglect, but through the interpretation of whether a given life event is stressful or not. This clarification of the ecological model points the way to redefining interventions for the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect. Existing support systems can be strengthened in order to increase a family's ability to cope with untoward events before these become stressful. In addition, advocacy activities which support children and families in general can be major components in the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect.

  2. The School Social Worker As A Policy-Maker In The Schools--A Recent Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Katherine B.; Anderson, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    This review of the literature examines the school social worker's role and the area of policy. In the area of policy the focus will be on the school social worker as a change agent, theories of change, strategies and difficulties in initiating change, and accountability. (Author)

  3. Social Workers' Orientations toward the Evidence-Based Practice Process: A Comparison with Psychologists and Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Rubin, Allen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results from a large, cross-sectional survey of social workers, psychologists, and licensed marriage and family therapists (LMFTs) in Texas (N = 865) regarding their orientation toward and implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP). All social workers were recruited by e-mail using the state NASW Listserv (analysis…

  4. School Social Workers' Needs in Supporting Adolescents with Disabilities toward Dating and Sexual Health: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Rueda, Heidi; Linton, Kristen F.; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2014-01-01

    School social workers approach their direct practice from ecological systems and justice-oriented perspectives. As such, they may hold a critical role in providing needed sexual health and dating education and services to adolescents with disabilities. Thirteen high school social workers who work closely with adolescents with disabilities were…

  5. Dealing with the Aftermath: A Qualitative Analysis of Mental Health Social Workers' Reactions after a Client Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Sanders, Sara; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Power, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Social workers provide services to populations with mental health issues, including suicidal ideations and are thus at risk of experiencing a client suicide at some point during their career. Limited research using quantitative methods has explored the effect of client suicide on social workers, but little is known about their reactions from a…

  6. The decision to exclude agricultural and domestic workers from the 1935 Social Security Act.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias.

  7. What social workers can do about violence: learnings from the lives of 37 men.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    Descriptive results of a study of the lives of 37 men who were executed for capital murder reveal the complex and multi-varied problem of violence at individual, institutional, and societal levels. The role of social workers is discussed in relation to prevention of violent crime rather than focusing on punishment. The study provides support for an anti-death penalty policy stance by the social work profession.

  8. How Do New Critical Pedagogies Develop? Public Education, Social Change, and Landless Workers in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlau, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past 30 years, the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST), one of the largest social movements in Latin America, has developed a series of pedagogical practices for public schools that support the movement's struggle for agrarian reform in the Brazilian countryside. The MST's educational initiatives can be viewed in terms…

  9. Measuring Personal Growth of New Grandparents: A Practical Tool for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman--Ben-Ari, Orit; Ben Shlomo, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined the validity of using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) to assess growth following the transition to grandparenthood as an aid for social workers seeking to promote strengths-based interventions for this population. Method: In Study 1 (n = 210 grandparent/offspring pairs), first-time grandparents'…

  10. Managed Care and the Evolving Role of the Clinical Social Worker in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses developments for practitioners in mental health care with the advent of managed care. With managed care's influence and new cost-containment strategies, the roles of clinical social workers, clinical psychologists, and psychiatrists are evolving, creating role conflict and competition. This article outlines the changes that have occurred…

  11. Perspectives of Foster Parents and Social Workers on Foster Placement Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Brian J.; McQuillan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The potential human and financial costs of foster placement disruption for the children, families, professionals and agencies involved are widely accepted. This service evaluation identified and described perspectives of foster parents and social workers regarding placement disruptions in order to identify the main issues of concern and to derive…

  12. Using Standardized Clients to Train Social Workers in Intimate Partner Violence Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgey, Mary Ann; Badger, Lee; Gilbert, Tracey; Hansen, Johna

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment in intimate partner violence (IPV) is critical to the accurate understanding of risk and to the development of interventions that increase safety. In this study standardized clients (actors) were used to train Army civilian social workers in evidence-based assessment of IPV and in the evaluation of the curriculum's…

  13. Care Orders as Successful Interventions: The Social Workers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pösö, Tarja; Eronen, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the outcomes of care orders from the point of view of social workers. The aim is to cast light on the "black box" of substitute care by analysing the practice-based view on outcome in order to contribute to the complex debate on the relations of care and outcome. The article is based on a study using a survey, focus…

  14. Feasibility and Acceptability of the TALK Social Worker Intervention to Improve Live Kidney Transplantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyer, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2012-01-01

    Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with…

  15. Adoption and the American Indian Child: A Manual for Social Service Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zokan delos Reyes, Louise

    Written for social service workers involved with Indian child welfare cases in which adoption through a state court is being considered, this manual presents basic information about the requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) in cases of Indian adoption. Background material explains that the ICWA--intended to establish…

  16. Improving Child Welfare Practice through Improvements in Attorney-Social Worker Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul; Cahn, Katharine

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the "Children Can't Wait" project, aimed at improving child welfare practice through improvements in attorney-social worker relationships. Describes seminars held to facilitate the project's goals. Identifies two ways to improve such relationships: multidisciplinary training and interagency collaboration. Attributes the success of the…

  17. The Korean Teachers and Educational Workers Union: Collective Rights as the Agency of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synott, John

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the development of Jeongyojo or the Korean Teachers and Educational Workers Union from its emergence as a social movement in the late 1980s to its current status and prominent campaigns. The article identifies certain aspects of South Korean history and culture that have shaped the distinctive identity of this…

  18. Should Social Workers Use "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Allen; Jones, K. Dayle

    2014-01-01

    Up until now, social workers have depended on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") as the primary diagnostic classification for mental disorders. However, the "DSM-5" revision includes scientifically unfounded, inadequately tested, and potentially dangerous diagnoses that may lead them…

  19. Use of Psychosocial Services Increases after a Social Worker-Mediated Intervention in Gynecology Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Yuko; Shah, Nina R.; Ward, Kristy K.; McHale, Michael T.; Alvarez, Edwin A.; Saenz, Cheryl C.; Plaxe, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of psychosocial services to gynecologic oncology outpatients by a social worker increases service use. During the initial six weeks (phase I), patients were referred for psychosocial services by clinic staff. During the second six weeks (phase II), a nurse introduced available…

  20. Through the Eyes of Hollywood: Images of Social Workers in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Miriam L.; Valentine, Deborah P.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on research that investigated the images of social workers as portrayed in movies as a major medium of popular culture. Findings from an analysis of 44 movies spanning the period from 1938 to 1998 are presented with particular attention to the themes of gender, race, and class. Using the concept of motivated representations in…

  1. Political Activities of Social Workers: Addressing Perceived Barriers to Political Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political…

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological and Physiological Illnesses: A Systematic Review for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Katherine L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Franklin, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to…

  3. Client Violence toward Social Workers: The Role of Management in Community Mental Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Patricia C.; Munch, Shari

    2003-01-01

    Examines job-related, client-perpetrated threats or physical violence against social workers in general, and community outreach mental health professionals in particular. Highlights the critical role of supervisors and administrators in developing proactive prevention and postincident response policies and procedures that create an organizational…

  4. Social Workers' Perceptions of Older Parents Caring at Home for Sons and Daughters with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallion, Philip; Tobin, Sheldon S.

    1995-01-01

    Social workers (n=395) were surveyed concerning their role in assisting older parents of developmentally disabled individuals with permanency planning. Practitioners, administrators, and educators similarly perceived ease in counseling aging families, but also noted their need for additional resources and specialized training. Recommendations…

  5. The Role of Empathy in Burnout, Compassion Satisfaction, and Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers.

    PubMed

    Wagaman, M Alex; Geiger, Jennifer M; Shockley, Clara; Segal, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    Social workers are at risk for experiencing burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of the nature of their work and the contexts within which they work. Little attention has been paid to the factors within a social worker's control that may prevent burnout and STS and increase compassion satisfaction. Empathy, which is a combination of physiological and cognitive processes, may be a tool to help address burnout and STS. This article reports on the findings of a study of social workers (N = 173) that explored the relationship between the components of empathy, burnout, STS, and compassion satisfaction using the Empathy Assessment Index and the Professional Quality of Life instruments. It was hypothesized that higher levels of empathy would be associated with lower levels of burnout and STS, and higher levels of compassion satisfaction. Findings suggest that components of empathy may prevent or reduce burnout and STS while increasing compassion satisfaction, and that empathy should be incorporated into training and education throughout the course of a social worker's career.

  6. Department of Health and Human Services Changes: Implications for Hospital Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Annemarie; Aldredge, Patti A.

    2013-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama issued a directive to the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) regarding patient visitation, advance directives, and other initiatives to improve the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and their families. The HHS response to this directive has implications for hospital social workers. The…

  7. The Compassion Fatigue Scale: Its Use with Social Workers Following Urban Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study has two goals: to assess the difference between secondary trauma and job burnout and to examine the utility of secondary trauma in predicting psychological distress. Method: The data come from a survey of social workers (N = 236) living in New York City 20 months following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the…

  8. Association for Specialists in Group Work: Multicultural and Social Justice Competence Principles for Group Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Merchant, Niloufer; Skudrzyk, Bogusia; Ingene, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) is committed to understanding how issues of multiculturalism and social justice affect all aspects of group work. This document reflects the updating and revision of a previous document entitled, "Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers," which was endorsed by ASGW in 1998 and published…

  9. Are anxious workers less productive workers? It depends on the quality of social exchange.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Trougakos, John P; Cheng, Bonnie Hayden

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we draw from Conservation of Resources Theory to advance and test a framework which predicts that emotional exhaustion plays an explanatory role underlying the relation between workplace anxiety and job performance. Further, we draw from social exchange theories to predict that leader-member exchange and coworker exchange will mitigate the harmful effects of anxiety on job performance. Findings across a 3-wave study of police officers supported our model. Emotional exhaustion mediated the link between workplace anxiety and job performance, over and above the effect of cognitive interference. Further, coworker exchange mitigated the positive relation between anxiety and emotional exhaustion, while leader-member exchange mitigated the negative relation between emotional exhaustion and job performance. This study elucidates the effects of workplace anxiety on resource depletion via emotional exhaustion and highlights the value of drawing on social resources to offset the potentially harmful effects of workplace anxiety on job performance. PMID:26375962

  10. The National Science Foundation: Funding Opportunities for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskyte, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the National Science Foundation as a potential funding source for social work researchers and describes the experience of one faculty member in seeking funding from this source. The author provides an overview of the foundation, discusses its programmatic structure, proposal preparation, selection criteria, and review…

  11. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  12. The human genome project: an historical perspective for social workers.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    Having mapped the human genome, the Human Genome Project maintains that certain genes can be linked to specific diseases and certain forms of human behavior. This breakthrough, it is hoped, will lead to the effective treatment, even the elimination of serious, debilitating illnesses for all groups of people. However, because the project conjures up memories of eugenics, the project raises concerns about its potential for identifying and linking diseases and social conditions (e.g., criminal behavior) to certain groups. This article places the Human Genome Project in historical context in terms of its resemblance to the eugenics movement in America and a period in social work history when the profession embraced eugenics and was guided by the movement's premises in its response to poor people.

  13. Educating social workers to meet the challenge of an aging urban population: a promising model.

    PubMed

    Volland, Patricia J; Berkman, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    As Americans live longer, they will require more health and social services to address the onset of acute and chronic conditions. The persistent changes in health care delivery and the increasingly diverse older adult population in urban settings, coupled with the high expectation for families to be responsible for home care needs, challenge social workers, who work alongside physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals, to provide services effectively. Because social workers are becoming more essential, social work education must increase the numbers of social workers with the knowledge and skills necessary for practice in the current U.S. health, mental health, and social service systems, particularly in caring for the aging populations in urban settings. A New York Academy of Medicine study identified the need for increased synergy between the two components of graduate social work education: the field experience and classroom instruction. One educational model, the Practicum Partnership Program, which is designed to better integrate field and classroom, is being tested at six sites. Early results from over 300 graduates are encouraging, with evidence that students' knowledge and skills regarding aging adults have increased, their satisfaction with the experience was very high, and those who were trained reflect the diversity of the population of older adults. The early success of this program suggests that innovative educational models that expose graduate social work students to diverse populations across the continuum of care are possible. Such models will be essential for the nation to be successful in producing a social work labor force qualified to meet the challenge of an aging urban population.

  14. The social worker as primary psychiatric consultant to the general hospital emergency room.

    PubMed

    Wallace, S R; Ward, J T; Goldberg, R J; Slaby, A E

    1985-01-01

    Providing coverage for the increasing number of psychiatric and social crises presenting in general hospital emergency rooms presents a challenge during this era of economic contraction. A model is presented for the development of a crisis team without additional funding, utilizing half-day shifts contributed by clinical social workers who hold full-time positions elsewhere in the hospital. Effective and efficient emergency clinical work required that the social workers be taught about biomedical issues pertinent to presentations, along with instruction as to why and when to seek consultation from backup psychiatrists. Quality of care and continued skill development are addressed through the use of a systematic data base and interdisciplinary case conferences using the psychiatrist as a consultant regarding psychopharmacological and diagnostic issues.

  15. The Compassion Fatigue Scale: Its Use With Social Workers Following Urban Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The present study has two goals: to assess the difference between secondary trauma and job burnout and to examine the utility of secondary trauma in predicting psychological distress. Method The data come from a survey of social workers (N = 236) living in New York City 20 months following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC). Results Social workers’ involvement in WTC recovery efforts is related to secondary trauma but not burnout. Analyses also reveal that both secondary trauma and burnout are related to psychological distress after controlling for other risk factors. Conclusion This study supports the importance of compassion fatigue as a risk factor for social workers counseling traumatized clients and its association with psychological problems. PMID:18458750

  16. Social Influence and Individual Risk Factors of HIV Unsafe Sex among Female Entertainment Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei; Li, Xiaoming; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David

    2010-01-01

    Female entertainment workers in China are at increased sexual risk of HIV, but causes of their unprotected sex remain poorly understood. We develop a model that integrates information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) with social influences and test the model in a venue-based sample of 732 female entertainment workers in Shanghai. Most IMB and social influence measures are statistically significant in bivariate relationships to condom use; only HIV prevention motivation and behavioral self-efficacy remain significant in the multiple regressions. Self-efficacy in condom use is the most proximate correlate, mediating the relationship between information and motivation and condom use. Both peer and venue supports are important, but their influences over condom use are indirect and mediated through prevention motivation and/or self-efficacy. Behavioral intervention is urgently needed and should take a multi-level approach, emphasizing behavioral skills training and promoting a supportive social/working environment. PMID:20166789

  17. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    PubMed

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K

    2016-04-01

    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration.

  18. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    PubMed

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K

    2016-04-01

    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration. PMID:27180523

  19. Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Latting, J K

    1991-01-01

    A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers.

  20. Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Latting, J K

    1991-01-01

    A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers. PMID:10114292

  1. Parent gender as a moderator: The relationships between social support, collective efficacy, and child physical abuse in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-01-01

    Social support and collective efficacy are related to child physical abuse. However, little is known about whether these relationships differ for women and men, although mothers and fathers differ in the quantity and quality of time spent with children. This study examined whether the relationship between social support, collective efficacy, and physical abuse is stronger for mothers than fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with parent respondents in 50 California cities (n=3,023). Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results suggest that high levels of emotional support were inversely associated with physical abuse for women and men, although this effect was stronger for women. High levels of companionship support were positively associated with physical abuse for women; however the opposite was true for men. There were no significant interactions between collective efficacy variables and gender. The relationships between some types of social support and physical abuse appear to vary for men and women suggesting possibilities for more targeted intervention. PMID:25520320

  2. Factors influencing decision-making by social care and health sector professionals in cases of elder financial abuse.

    PubMed

    Davies, Miranda L; Gilhooly, Mary L M; Gilhooly, Kenneth J; Harries, Priscilla A; Cairns, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors that have the greatest influence on UK social care and health sector professionals' certainty that an older person is being financially abused, their likelihood of intervention, and the type of action most likely to be taken. A factorial survey approach, applying a fractional factorial design, was used. Health and social care professionals (n = 152) viewed a single sample of 50 elder financial abuse case vignettes; the vignettes contained seven pieces of information (factors). Following multiple regression analysis, incremental F tests were used to compare the impact of each factor on judgements. Factors that had a significant influence on judgements of certainty that financial abuse was occurring included the older person's mental capacity and the nature of the financial problem suspected. Mental capacity accounted for more than twice the variance in likelihood of action than the type of financial problem. Participants from social care were more likely to act and chose more actions compared to health sector participants. The results are discussed in relation to a bystander intervention model. The impact of the older person's mental capacity on decision-making suggests the need for training to ensure action is also taken in cases where older people have full mental capacity and are being abused. Training also needs to highlight the more subtle types of financial abuse, the types that appear not to lead to certainty or action.

  3. Responding to Child Abuse: A Handbook = Guide sur l'intervention en cas de mauvais traitements infliges aux enfants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This handbook, in English and French, provides guidelines for reporting and investigating child abuse and neglect by child care providers, law enforcement officials, social workers, health care providers, educators, and others as required by Alberta's Child Welfare Act. The handbook addresses: (1) how to recognize abuse and neglect; (2) how to…

  4. Juvenile hormone, reproduction, and worker behavior in the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis

    PubMed Central

    Giray, Tugrul; Giovanetti, Manuela; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the division of labor in colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera (wasps and bees) have led to two hypotheses regarding the evolution of juvenile hormone (JH) involvement. The novel- or single-function hypothesis proposes that the role of JH has changed from an exclusively reproductive function in primitively eusocial species (those lacking morphologically distinct queen and worker castes), to an exclusively behavioral function in highly eusocial societies (those containing morphologically distinct castes). In contrast, the split-function hypothesis proposes that JH originally functioned in the regulation of both reproduction and behavior in ancestral solitary species. Then, when reproductive and brood-care tasks came to be divided between queens and workers, the effects of JH were divided as well, with JH involved in regulation of reproductive maturation of egg-laying queens, and behavioral maturation, manifested as age-correlated changes in worker tasks, of workers. We report experiments designed to test these hypotheses. After documenting age-correlated changes in worker behavior (age polyethism) in the neotropical primitively eusocial wasp Polistes canadensis, we demonstrate that experimental application of the JH analog methoprene accelerates the onset of guarding behavior, an age-correlated task, and increases the number of foraging females; and we demonstrate that JH titers correlate with both ovarian development of queens and task differentiation in workers, as predicted by the split-function hypothesis. These findings support a view of social insect evolution that sees the contrasting worker and queen phenotypes as derived via decoupling of reproductive and brood-care components of the ancestral solitary reproductive physiology. PMID:15728373

  5. Does Workplace Social Capital Associate with Hazardous Drinking Among Chinese Rural-Urban Migrant Workers?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R.; Fua, Hua; Pan, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD) among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW). Methods A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking. Results Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04–1.23), 1.17(95%CI: 1.05–1.56) and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13–1.72), respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking. Conclusions Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population. PMID:25502013

  6. Exploring the Sacred-Secular Dialect in Everyday Social Work Practice: An Analysis of Religious Responses to Managerialism among Outreach Social Workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Julian M.; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

    2016-01-01

    We examine the recent proliferation of religious discourses among front line social workers in the former British Colony of Hong Kong in order to explore the nature of ‘re-enchantment’ in modern social work practice. In-depth qualitative interviews with twenty social workers who identify as ‘Christian social workers’ in a variety of social work organisations (both religious and secular) reveal the adoption of religious identities and discourses to navigate the encroachment of managerialism. A systematic analysis of these narratives suggests that Christian social workers evoke religion to reclaim feelings of authenticity in their work, to facilitate more personalised relationships with their clients, and to empower themselves following the introduction of managerialist policies. We illuminate the dialectical relationship between religious discourses and managerialism to critique claims in the literature about a ‘re-enchantment’ in social work, and to understand the essence of religion in modern social work practice. PMID:27559235

  7. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive. PMID:12294976

  8. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive.

  9. Attitudinal and Social Normative Factors as Predictors of Intended Alcohol Abuse among Fifth- and Seventh-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, F. Betty

    1982-01-01

    Using a model of behavior intention, a study attempted to identify attitudinal and social normative factors which might predict the behavioral intentions of preadolescents to alcohol abuse. Findings of the study indicate the importance of students' personal attitudes in their decision to drink alcoholic beverages. (JN)

  10. Siblings, Parents, and Peers: A Longitudinal Study of Social Influences in Adolescent Risk for Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Reuter, Martha A.

    1996-01-01

    Early adolescent alcohol use and abuse has become a public health issue. Research studies indicate that early adolescent drinking may lead to emotional, social, and academic impairments, health and developmental problems, and even death. This study emphasized the need to better understand the predisposing triggers of adolescent alcohol use…

  11. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  12. Burnout, social support, and coping at work among social workers, psychologists, and nurses: the role of challenge/control appraisals.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to compare stress appraisals, coping strategies, social resources, and burnout at work between social workers, psychologists and nurses; and (2) to assess the effectiveness of appraisals and support in reducing burnout and enhancing effective coping strategies. Questionnaires containing assessments of work stress appraisals, coping strategies used to deal with problems at work, and social support at work, as well as burnout measures of exhaustion, depersonalization, and accomplishment were completed by 249 female professionals (age range 25-61). No differences were observed between the three professions on most psychological measures, except for the depersonalization outcome of burnout, which was significantly lower among psychologists than among nurses or social workers. High challenge/control appraisal of the job was directly related to all burnout outcomes, contributing to less exhaustion and depersonalization and to more personal accomplishment. The challenge/control appraisal was also negatively associated with emotion-focused coping. By comparison, the stress/load appraisal contributed to more exhaustion at work, while emotion-focused coping contributed to higher depersonalization. Social support was associated with higher challenge/control appraisal, with the latter mediating support effects on burnout. These data suggest that the perception of challenge/control in one's work may be an important factor in preventing work burnout in the three professions tested in the study. PMID:17954449

  13. Substance Abuse and America: Historical Perspective on the Federal Response to a Social Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lawrence S.

    1981-01-01

    Much more often than is commonly given credit, factors other than a substance's therapeutic efficacy contribute to its affect on the individual experience, its own proliferation, and society's response. To explore these dynamics, American history is examined from the perspective of analyzing the development of substance abuse. Of the conclusions borne out by this historical perspective, foremost was that psychoactive substance use has been an element in the American social ecology from its earliest beginnings. The health professions have not always exhibited behavior in the interest of public health, and, most importantly, the federal response has often been plagued with outcomes that have been less desirable than many of the problems. This historical review supports the thesis that drug-seeking behavior and the response it elicits are in a constant state of flux and cannot be adequately appreciated in isolation from the sociocultural and historical contexts in which they occur. PMID:7017155

  14. Workers on the move: seasonal migration and changing social relations in rural India.

    PubMed

    Rogaly, B

    1998-03-01

    Seasonal and other temporary out-migration for manual work from India's rural areas is a major component of the livelihoods of poor rural workers and their employers in most parts of the country. However, members of India's population who migrate around the country looking for manual work challenge development policymakers because of the difficulty of including such people in geographically-based interventions. The number of temporary migrants has nonetheless increased during the 1980s and 1990s in western and eastern India. Seasonal migration in different parts of India is considered, while the author argues the need for a better understanding of social and economic relations and the circumstances under which migration can affect them to the benefit of poor migrant workers. Seasonal migration is both a part of and an outcome of those social and economic structures in the Indian countryside. PMID:12321533

  15. Conserved class of queen pheromones stops social insect workers from reproducing.

    PubMed

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Oliveira, Ricardo Caliari; Holman, Luke; van Zweden, Jelle S; Romero, Carmen; Oi, Cintia A; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Billen, Johan; Wäckers, Felix; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wenseleers, Tom

    2014-01-17

    A major evolutionary transition to eusociality with reproductive division of labor between queens and workers has arisen independently at least 10 times in the ants, bees, and wasps. Pheromones produced by queens are thought to play a key role in regulating this complex social system, but their evolutionary history remains unknown. Here, we identify the first sterility-inducing queen pheromones in a wasp, bumblebee, and desert ant and synthesize existing data on compounds that characterize female fecundity in 64 species of social insects. Our results show that queen pheromones are strikingly conserved across at least three independent origins of eusociality, with wasps, ants, and some bees all appearing to use nonvolatile, saturated hydrocarbons to advertise fecundity and/or suppress worker reproduction. These results suggest that queen pheromones evolved from conserved signals of solitary ancestors. PMID:24436417

  16. Exploring the controversy in child abuse pediatrics and false accusations of abuse.

    PubMed

    Gabaeff, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need

  17. Somatic experiencing treatment with social service workers following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Leitch, M Laurie; Vanslyke, Jan; Allen, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    In a disaster, social service workers are often survivors themselves.This study examines whether somatic intervention using a brief (one to two session) stabilization model now called the Trauma Resiliency Model (TRM), which uses the skills of Somatic Experiencing (SE), can reduce the postdisaster symptoms of social service workers involved in postdisaster service delivery.The study was implemented with a nonrandom sample of 142 social service workers who were survivors of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, two to three months after the disasters. Ninety-one participants received SE/TRM and were compared with a matched comparison group of 51 participants through the use of propensity score matching. All participants first received group psychoeducation. Results support the benefits of the brief intervention inspired by SE. The treatment group showed statistically significant gains in resiliency indicators and decreases in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Although psychological symptoms increased in both groups at the three to four month follow-up, the treatment group's psychological symptoms were statistically lower than those of the comparison group.

  18. The Functions of Social Support in the Mental Health of Male and Female Migrant Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Leung, Grace

    2008-01-01

    The study reported herein adopted a stress and coping framework to examine the functions of social support in protecting the mental health of migrant workers who experience migration stress during settlement in Shanghai, China. A total of 475 migrant workers from four major districts in Shanghai were recruited for a survey through multistage…

  19. Advocacy and argumentation in the public arena: a guide for social workers.

    PubMed

    Lens, Vicki

    2005-07-01

    Whether translating research findings for public consumption, or arguing for a policy position that reflects social work values, social workers engaged in cause advocacy need rhetorical skills. The author draws from the disciplines of linguistics, logic, and communications and provides a framework for making arguments in the public arena. The structure and components of arguments are analyzed, and strategies for choosing persuasive empirical evidence and using values to support an argument are described. The use and misuses of language are discussed. Excerpts from published op-ed pieces are used for illustration.

  20. [The social and hygienic aspects in the protection of the health of forest industry workers].

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanov, L M

    1990-01-01

    The study of social and hygiene aspects in the industry of forest exploitation permitted to point out the changes that occurred in the field of mechanization and automation of production processes, which radically influenced the working conditions and characteristics, as well as the health indices. The study approaches some economic, social and hygiene problems. Proposals are made regarding the improvement of medical care organization for workers, for example the drawing up of a complex programme of prophylaxis of diseases in the enterprises for wood industrialization and of utilization of the computation technique.

  1. Public Service Advertising and Social Problems: the Case of Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, William J.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    This paper explores certain findings of a DAIR (Drug Abuse Information Research) project undertaken at the University of Connecticut which is investigating the dissemination and impact of drug abuse information. Specifically, findings regarding audience response to persuasive antidrug abuse messages on television are discussed. On the basis of the…

  2. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying.

  3. Emotional valence and context of social influences on drug abuse-related behavior in animal models of social stress and prosocial interaction

    PubMed Central

    Neisewander, J.L.; Peartree, N.A.; Pentkowski, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Social factors are important determinants of drug dependence and relapse. Objectives We reviewed preclinical literature examining the role of social experiences from early life through the development of drug dependence and relapse, emphasizing two aspects of these experiences: 1) whether the social interaction is appetitive or aversive and 2) whether the social interaction occurs within or outside of the drug-taking context. Methods The models reviewed include neonatal care, isolation, social defeat, chronic subordination, and prosocial interactions. We review results from these models in regard to effects on self-administration and conditioned place preference established with alcohol, psychostimulants, and opiates. Results We suggest that in general, when the interactions occur outside of the drug-taking context, prosocial interactions are protective against drug abuse-related behaviors whereas social stressors facilitate these behaviors. By contrast, positive or negative social interactions occurring within the drug-taking context may interact with other risk factors to enhance or inhibit these behaviors. Conclusions Despite differences in the nature and complexity of human social behavior compared to other species, the evolving animal literature provides useful models for understanding social influences on drug abuse-related behavior that will allow for research on the behavioral and biological mechanisms involved. The models have contributed to understanding social influences on initiation and maintenance of drug use, but more research is needed to understand social influences on drug relapse. PMID:22955569

  4. Job stress, social support, and prevalence of insomnia in a population of Japanese daytime workers.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Haratani, Takashi; Takahashi, Masaya; Kawakami, Norito; Arito, Heihachiro; Kobayashi, Fumio; Araki, Shunichi

    2004-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between perceived job stress, social support and prevalence of insomnia in Japanese daytime workers, 1161 male white-collar employees of an electric equipment manufacturing company (age, 23-60 years, mean age of 37.0) were surveyed by means of a mailed questionnaire. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic NIOSH job stress questionnaire. Insomnia was diagnosed if workers had at least 1 of 3 types of symptoms on an almost nightly basis. The symptoms were (1) taking more than 30 min to fall asleep (Difficulty Initiating Sleep, DIS), (2) difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), or (3) early morning awakening (EMA). The overall prevalence of insomnia was 23.6% and the prevalences of the three subtypes were 11.3% for DIS, 14.2% for DMS, and 1.9% for EMA. Workers with high intragroup conflict (OR 1.6), high job dissatisfaction (OR 1.5), and high symptoms of depression (OR 2.0) (CES-D > 16) had a significantly increased risk for insomnia after adjusting for multiple confounding factors. Low employment opportunities, physical environment and low coworker support also were weakly associated with risk for insomnia among workers. Furthermore, high depressive symptoms significantly increased the risk of DIS (OR 2.4). Therefore in white-collar male daytime workers, psychological job stress factors such as interpersonal conflicts with fellow employees, job satisfaction, and social support were independently associated with a modestly increased risk of insomnia that included three different subtypes that were considered to be defining for the disorder.

  5. Medical evaluation of abused and neglected children.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, E G; Weiss, H

    1990-03-01

    Children who have been abused and neglected may have a variety of medical problems not apparent to a social worker or other nonmedical professional investigating the allegations. A joint project between a state child protective agency and an urban teaching hospital was undertaken to provide for the systematic medical screening of all children brought to the agency before their placement in foster care. These children received a complete medical evaluation with emphasis on documenting the abuse and neglect and also were screened for other medical problems. A total of 5181 children were evaluated. Forty-four percent of these children had some medical problem, including anemia, otitis media, sexually transmitted infections, and lead poisoning. Additional instances of abuse and neglect were identified and documented. This systematic evaluation allows for the optimal identification, documentation, and treatment of abuse, neglect, and other medical problems that may affect a child's outcome and adaptation. PMID:2305740

  6. The influence of the family preservation model on child sexual abuse intervention strategies: changes in child welfare worker tasks.

    PubMed

    Skibinski, G J

    1995-01-01

    There is no easy solution for child sexual abuse. Various innovations have been tried. Most are based on the belief that punishment without treatment is counterproductive in cases of intrafamilial child sexual abuse because it further disrupts the family. Many counties have developed strategies that divert offenders into treatment rather than prison. Professionals in those counties apparently believe that treatment with the threat of prosecution or imprisonment is faster, cheaper, less traumatic for the child, and more effective in reducing recidivism. Ideally, it will also help preserve families. To make such strategies work, child sexual abuse intervention professionals have adapted their activities through all phases of contact with the victim, offender, and the family. They must be collaborators, consultants, liaisons, counselors, and advocates. Finally, there is little research on the effectiveness of the innovative intervention strategies. To discern if those strategies are more effective than traditional approaches in reducing child sexual abuse, in helping the family to cope with the problem, and in minimizing system-induced trauma to the child, continued research is necessary.

  7. Between the professional and the private: the meaning of working with intimate partner violence in social workers' private lives.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi; Arizon-Mesinger, Ilana

    2009-03-01

    This qualitative study examines the impact of working with intimate partner violence on therapists' marital relationships and gender identity. Data were collected by in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 experienced women social workers working in domestic violence treatment centers in Israel. Findings indicate that the boundaries between workers' private and professional lives are blurred and work experiences influence their intimate relationships and gender role identities, leading to overall questioning of their relationships. This newly rediscovered consciousness reshapes the meaning of workers' couple relationships. Such shift between private and professional should be considered when training workers to intervene with intimate partner violence.

  8. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context. PMID:26906641

  9. Methamphetamine Abuse and Manufacture: The Child Welfare Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Oliver, Rhonda; Wright, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is on the rise, particularly by women of child-bearing age. This article describes the history and effects of methamphetamine use. The authors examine the ways exposure to the manufacture of this drug affects clients and social workers in the course of their work. Because children are frequently found at the scene of a…

  10. The role of the social worker in the adult critical care unit: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hartman-Shea, Katherine; Hahn, Anne P; Fritz Kraus, Joanne; Cordts, Grace; Sevransky, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Social workers provide care to patients and families in the adult critical care unit. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to more clearly identify the role of the social worker practicing in the intensive care unit. We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature using the Pubmed, Embase, ISI, Scopus, and Social Work Abstracts databases using the terms "intensive care," "critical care," and "social work." Articles were selected for review if they met the following criteria: formal studies or opinion papers whose primary focus was the role or scope of practice of the social worker in the adult critical care unit. Articles were selected and reviewed independently by two social work investigators. Our search retrieved 550 potentially relevant articles. Twelve full-text articles were deemed eligible for abstracting. Three of the articles were studies that examined different aspects of social work practice including implementation of a family assistance program, social work response to anxiety levels of families in critical care and common activities of critical care social workers. Nine articles were primarily opinion pieces. All of the opinion articles described psychosocial support and counseling as a primary role of critical care social work. Other frequently identified roles were crisis intervention, psychosocial assessment, facilitating communication, end-of-life care, and practical assistance. There is little empiric data describing the role of the critical care social worker. Consistent themes from the articles identified include the role of social workers as counseling professionals, facilitators of communication, and resource agents. Further research to identify formal assessment tools and outcome studies of specific counseling techniques will provide important information for best practice guidelines in this area.

  11. Sex workers in HIV prevention: From Social Change Agents to Peer Educators.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M; Biradavolu, Monica R; Dhungana, Nimesh; Tankasala, Nehanda

    2015-01-01

    We utilised a comparative ethnographic approach to study the implementation of a community mobilisation intervention addressing HIV risk among female sex workers (FSWs) in India, as implemented first by an non-governmental organisation and after oversight of the intervention was transitioned to the government. We demonstrate that the work of peer outreach workers changed from Social Change Agents within a community-led structural intervention (CLSI) to Peer Educators within a targeted intervention (TI). In the CLSI approach, built on the assumption that FSW risk for HIV is rooted in power inequality and structural vulnerability, peer outreach workers mobilised their peers through community-based organisations to address underlying conditions of inequality and vulnerability. In contrast, the TI approach, which views FSW risk as a function of limited knowledge and barriers to services, addressed peers' access to information and health services. Analysis of changes in the function of peer outreach workers reveals critical differences of which we discuss four: assumptions about conditions that produce HIV risk; degree of emphasis placed on collective mobilising and building collective power; extent to which community mobilisation and HIV prevention goals are linked; and the intervention's use of peer input. We discuss the implications of these findings for HIV prevention programming.

  12. ‘Often there is a Good Deal to be Done, But Socially Rather Than Medically’: The Psychiatric Social Worker as Social Therapist, 1945–70

    PubMed Central

    LONG, VICKY

    2011-01-01

    Seeking to align psychiatric practice with general medicine following the inauguration of the National Health Service, psychiatric hospitals in post-war Britain deployed new treatments designed to induce somatic change, such as ECT, leucotomy and sedatives. Advocates of these treatments, often grouped together under the term ‘physical therapies’, expressed relief that the social problems encountered by patients could now be interpreted as symptomatic of underlying biological malfunction rather than as a cause of disorder that required treatment. Drawing on the British Journal of Psychiatric Social Work, this article analyses the critique articulated by psychiatric social workers based within hospitals who sought to facilitate the social reintegration of patients following treatment. It explores the development of ‘psychiatric social treatment’, an approach devised by psychiatric social workers to meet the needs of people with enduring mental health problems in hospital and community settings that sought to alleviate distress and improve social functioning by changing an individual’s social environment and interpersonal relationships. ‘Physical’ and ‘social’ models of psychiatric treatment, this article argues, contested not only the aetiology of mental illness but also the nature of care, treatment and cure. PMID:21461311

  13. SOCIAL COSTS OF ROBBERY AND THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Anirban; Paltiel, A. David; Pollack, Harold A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Reduced crime provides a key benefit associated with substance abuse treatment (SAT). Armed robbery is an especially costly and frequent crime committed by some drug-involved offenders. Many studies employ valuation methods that understate the true costs of robbery, and thus the true social benefits of SAT-related robbery reduction. At the same time, regression to the mean and self-report bias may lead pre–post comparisons to overstate crime reductions associated with SAT. Using 1992–1997 data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), we examined pre–post differences in self-reported robbery among clients in five residential and outpatient SAT modalities. Fixed-effect negative binomial regression was used to examine incidence rate reductions (IRR) in armed robbery. Published data on willingness to pay to avoid robbery were used to determine the social valuation of these effects. Differences in IRR across SAT modalities were explored to bound potential biases. All SAT modalities were associated with large and statistically significant reductions in robbery. The average number of self-reported robberies declined from 0.83/client/year pre-entry to 0.12/client/year following SAT (p < 0.001). Under worst-case assumptions, monetized valuations of reductions in armed robbery associated with outpatient methadone and residential SAT exceeded economic costs of these interventions. Conventional wisdom posits the economic benefits of SAT. We find that SAT is even more beneficial than is commonly assumed. PMID:17992708

  14. National Study of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Workers, Work, and Organizational Contexts. Research Report No. 1: Overview Study of the Dynamics of Worker Job Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Rehabilitation Service (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The goals of this study were to review what is known about worker job mobility in the social welfare and rehabilitation services fields, to organize this knowledge, and to suggest improvements in career design and employee management in these fields. To supplement the review of research and theoretical literature, two sets of personal interviews…

  15. The use and costs of health and social services in patients with longstanding substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Persons with longstanding substance abuse might become increasingly dependent on help by the public, eventually requiring permanent care. In 2006 the municipality of Stavanger established a so-called addiction ward for these clients, comprising 17 beds at the largest municipal nursing home. We assumed that the residents of this ward were high consumers of health care and social services during the last months preceding their admission. The aim of the study was to register the type and extent of services that were claimed by this client group during the last six months prior to admission, and to calculate the costs that were caused. Further, we estimated the incremental costs for nursing home placement. Methods In 15 residents from the addiction ward the use of all welfare services during the six months prior to admission were registered. Costs were calculated by unit costs from a municipal, national and societal perspective. Results Mean total costs during this period were €32 474. Approximately half of these costs were borne by state-funded institutions, and half were borne by the municipality. The clients used a great variety of services aimed at subsistence, health care and support in independent living, while services aimed at drug withdrawal were not claimed. There was no correlation between costs and the level of functioning. The incremental costs for nursing home admission were borne by the municipalities. Conclusion Persons with longstanding substance abuse represent a group with a high use of welfare resources and hence cause high costs. However, our findings do not indicate any correlation between the amount of services rendered and the level of functioning. Further research should focus on the identification of the clients’ need for support in order to facilitate targeted interventions that might prevent further deterioration and, finally, the need for permanent care. PMID:23692822

  16. Professional and educational needs of hospice and palliative care social workers.

    PubMed

    Weisenfluh, Sherri M; Csikai, Ellen L

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade much growth has occurred in the numbers of patients and families served by hospices and palliative care services. Thus, not surprisingly, these services have also been subject to increasing regulation by governmental and accrediting entities. In order to stay up-to-date in this ever-changing environment and to continue to provide effective interventions, social workers must stay engaged in the professional community and continuing education. In this quantitative study, 1,169 practicing hospice and palliative care social workers provided information about their practice activities and agency characteristics, professional affiliations and certification, and ongoing educational needs. About one-half of respondents carried a caseload of 21-50 and were most engaged in communicating the psychosocial needs of the patient and family to other members of the team and assessing for grief and bereavement issues. The most important educational needs pertained to the psychological and social needs of patients and families and psychosocial interventions. Most were members of professional organizations and three-quarters were members of NASW. Although many were aware of the joint NASW-NHPCO social work hospice specialty certification, few held this certification yet. The results of this survey can be utilized in the design of continuing education programs and advocacy for programmatic and policy change within agencies and the industry. PMID:23438645

  17. Preparing School Social Work for the Future: An Update of School Social Workers' Tasks in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckover, Christopher A.; Vasquez, Matthew L.; Van Housen, Stephanie L.; Saunders, Jeanne A.; Allen, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The authors begin this article by highlighting clinical social casework as a historic trend in school social work practice. They then identify two major shifts in current education policy related to school social work practice. One shift is an emphasis on a multilevel intervention approach, and the other is the differentiation between academic and…

  18. Social and relational identification as determinants of care workers' motivation and well-being.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Kirstien; Haslam, S Alexander; Morton, Thomas; Ryan, Michelle K

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research in the field of health and social care indicates that the quality of the relationship between the person giving care and the person receiving it contributes significantly to the motivation and well-being of both. This paper examines how care workers' motivation is shaped by their social and relational identification at work. Survey findings at two time points (T1, N = 643; T2, N = 1274) show that care workers' motivation increases to the extent that incentives, the working context (of residential vs. domiciliary care), and the professionalization process (of acquiring vs. not acquiring a qualification) serve to build and maintain meaningful identities within the organization. In this context care workers attach greatest importance to their relational identity with clients and the more they perceive this as congruent with their organizational identity the more motivated they are. Implications are discussed with regard to the need to develop and sustain a professional and compassionate workforce that is able to meet the needs of an aging society.

  19. Improving service practices: collaborative care for women of abuse.

    PubMed

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    This original qualitative research inquiry is based on a phenomenological research dissertation case study. This article information and content that is gathered helps to better inform providers in the field of social services and those who are social workers and administrators in social services. This research investigated key factors, traits, or attributes that strive to improve service care for women of domestic violence abuse. Findings support current and relevant research to enhance aid to women of abuse. Results strongly detail that professionals must work more cooperatively as an all-channels network of comprehensive care to women. Because women of domestic violence abuse require such multifaced complex care due to the interwoven issues familial abuse brings, results support that service practitioners can best meet the needs of these women through an ecological or life-space understanding for improved care, achieved by infusing an inter-disciplinary systems-based, inter-agency and intra-agency framework.

  20. The Relationship of Social Support and Economic Self-Sufficiency to Substance Abuse Outcomes in a Long-Term Recovery Program for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Thomas K.; Snively, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Explores outcomes for 59 women who attended long term substance abuse treatment in a women's facility that emphasized employment and economic self sufficiency. Results revealed that reductions in substance abuse were associated with an increase in economic self sufficiency. Additionally, women living in drug free social environments had high rates…

  1. Sexual Abuse: Therapeutic & Systems Considerations for the Child and Family. [Report of] Colorado State Department of Social Services Conference (Denver, Colorado, July 7-8, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Claudia A., Ed.; Gottlieb, Bruce, Ed.

    This publication presents papers from a 1982 child sexual abuse conference sponsored by the Colorado State Department of Social Services, designed to identify major issues and trends and to stimulate the exchange of perspectives and practices among persons concerned about preventing and treating child sexual abuse. The first section of the…

  2. Screening workers for genetic hypersusceptibility: potential ethical, legal, and social implications from the Human Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Wicks, A C; Sever, L E; Harty, R; Gajewski, S W; Marcus-Smith, M

    1999-01-01

    One of the potential outcomes of the Human Genome Project will be the ability to identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health effects following exposure to hazardous substances in the workplace because of genetic hypersusceptibility. The ability to identify such individuals is likely to lead to the inclusion of genetic screening in worker protection programs. This technology and its applications will have a number of potential ethical, legal, and social implications. In this commentary, the authors examine five broad topics relating to the use of screening for genetic hypersusceptibility in the workplace: (1) issues of risk; (2) the rationale and legal basis for screening; (3) the privacy concerns of workers; (4) the confidentiality of test results; and (5) potential discrimination. The authors close by suggesting some guidelines for developing policies regarding genetic screening.

  3. Social desirability and partner agreement of men's reporting of intimate partner violence in substance abuse treatment settings.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew J; Schumacher, Julie A; Coffey, Scott F

    2015-02-01

    Estimates indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs in approximately 30% of relationships and up to 85% of the relationships of men in substance abuse treatment. However, partners consistently display poor agreement in reporting the presence of IPV. Social desirability is frequently offered as the primary reason for under-reporting of IPV by perpetrators. The goal of the current study was to explicitly test the social desirability hypothesis using both partners' reports of negotiation, psychological aggression, physical aggression, sexual aggression, and injuries in a substance abuse treatment sample. A total of 54 males and their female partners were recruited from a residential adult substance use treatment facility. Consistent with prior literature, partners displayed poor agreement about the presence of different types of IPV. The male partner's social desirability was not associated with his reporting of male-to-female physical aggression, psychological aggression, or injuries. Men who engaged in higher levels of self-deceptive enhancement and lower levels of impression management were more likely to under-report male-to-female sexual coercion. Overall, the findings question the generalized importance of social desirability in IPV reporting in substance abuse treatment populations. PMID:24923888

  4. How Was the Weekend? How the Social Context Underlies Weekend Effects in Happiness and Other Emotions for US Workers.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, John F; Wang, Shun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the size of weekend effects for seven emotions and then explore their main determinants for the working population in the United States, using the Gallup/Healthways US Daily Poll 2008-2012. We first find that weekend effects exist for all emotions, and that these effects are not explained by sample selection bias. Full-time workers have larger weekend effects than do part-time workers. We then explore the sources of weekend effects and find that workplace trust and workplace social relations, combined with differences in social time spent with family and friends, together almost fully explain the weekend effects for happiness, laughter, enjoyment and sadness, for both full-time and part-time workers, with significant but smaller proportions explained for the remaining three emotions-worry, anger and stress. Finally, we show that workplace trust and social relations significantly improve emotions and life evaluations on both weekends and weekdays for all workers.

  5. Developing the role of the social worker as coordinator of services at the surrogate parenting center.

    PubMed

    Gagin, Roni; Cohen, Miri; Greenblatt, Lee; Solomon, Hanah; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A law permitting couples to conceive biological children through surrogacy was legislated in Israel in March 1996. The Rambam Medical Center has established the only nonprofit Surrogate Parenting Center at a public hospital in Israel. The multidisciplinary teamwork at the Center is case managed by a social worker. An important role of the social work intervention is consultation and support for the couple and the surrogate at all stages of the process. The case study presented in the article illustrates the need for sensitive and professional intervention due to the complexity of the surrogacy process and the crisis it involves for both the surrogate and the couple. In light of the growing parenting surrogacy cases in the United States, Europe, and Israel, a structured social work intervention model is described, which may be implemented at public or private surrogate parenting centers.

  6. Promoting the psychosocial health of the elderly- the role of social workers.

    PubMed

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin

    2007-01-01

    With the ageing of the global population, the wellbeing of older people in different parts of the world merits special attention. However, recent findings on certain aspects of the psychosocial health of the elderly are far from reassuring. The first problem is the inconsistency in psychosocial indicators, which give simultaneous high life satisfaction scores and high suicide rates. The second problem is the significant weakening of the social support network of the elderly. This article analyses the service and policy implications of these two problems. Suggestions are then made on the role of social workers in promoting the psychosocial health of the elderly at different levels of intervention, which include the individual level, the family and social network level, the community level and the international level.

  7. NEUROTROPHINS IN THE VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA: ROLE IN SOCIAL STRESS, MOOD DISORDERS AND DRUG ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Nikulina, Ella M.; Johnston, Caitlin E.; Wang, Junshi; Hammer, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of neurotrophins and other trophic factors, including fibroblast growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, on mood disorders, weight regulation and drug abuse, with an emphasis on stress- and drug-induced changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neurotrophins, comprising nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophins 3 and 4/5 play important roles in neuronal plasticity and the development of different psychopathologies. In the VTA, most research has focused on the role of BDNF, because other neurotrophins are not found there in significant quantities. BDNF originating in the VTA provides trophic support to dopamine neurons. The diverse intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF may underlie precise physiological functions specific to the VTA. In general, VTA BDNF expression increases after psychostimulant exposures, and enhanced BDNF level in the VTA facilitates psychostimulant effects. The impact of VTA BDNF on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants relies primarily on its action within the mesocorticolimbic circuit. In the case of opiates, VTA BDNF expression and effects seem to be dependent on whether an animal is drug-naïve or has a history of drug use, only the latter of which is related to dopamine mechanisms. Social defeat stress that is continuous in mice or intermittent in rats increases VTA BDNF expression, and is associated with depressive and social avoidance behaviors. Intermittent social defeat stress induces persistent VTA BDNF expression that triggers psychostimulant cross-sensitization. Understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of neurotrophin effects may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of substance use and mood disorders. PMID:24875178

  8. Child Abuse: What We Know about Prevention Strategies. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine strategies for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. Witnesses include the director of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, several representatives from Parents Anonymous, a psychiatric social worker who is also a…

  9. Exploring definitions of financial abuse in elderly Korean immigrants: the contribution of traditional cultural values.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Sang E; Eaton, Charissa K

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the cultural definitions of financial abuse from the perspective of 124 elderly Korean immigrants and to examine the role of traditional cultural values in their definitions by using a mixed methods approach. The qualitative analysis generated four themes relevant to definition of financial abuse. A binary logistic regression indicated that those with stronger cultural adherence to traditional values had higher odds of providing culture-based definitions of financial abuse. Education is needed for health professionals, social service providers, and adult protective workers to increase their understanding of culture-specific experiences of financial abuse among ethnic minority elders.

  10. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Methods Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013–February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Results Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Conclusions Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization

  11. Listening to the rural health workers in Papua New Guinea - the social factors that influence their motivation to work.

    PubMed

    Razee, Husna; Whittaker, Maxine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Yap, Lorraine; Brentnall, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Despite rural health services being situated and integrated within communities in which people work and live, the complex interaction of the social environment on health worker motivation and performance in Low Middle Income Countries has been neglected in research. In this article we investigate how social factors impact on health worker motivation and performance in rural health services in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 health workers from three provinces (Central, Madang, and Milne Bay) in PNG between August and November 2009. They included health extension officers, community health workers and nursing officers, some of whom were in charge of the health centres. The health centres were a selection across church based, government and private enterprise health facilities. Qualitative analysis identified the key social factors impacting on health worker motivation and performance to be the local community context, gender roles and family related issues, safety and security and health beliefs and attitudes of patients and community members. Our study identified the importance of strong supportive communities on health worker motivation. These findings have implications for developing sustainable strategies for motivation and performance enhancement of rural health workers in resource poor settings.

  12. Social-Environmental Factors and Protective Sexual Behavior Among Sex Workers: The Encontros Intervention in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Angela; Díaz, Juan; Chinaglia, Magda; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the association of social–environmental factors with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 420 sex workers participating in an STI/HIV prevention study in Corumbá, Brazil, to inform future intervention efforts. Methods. Participants provided urine samples for polymerase chain reaction testing of chlamydia and gonorrhea and responded to multi-item scales addressing perceived social cohesion, participation in networks, and access to and management of resources. We conducted multivariate log-linear and negative binomial regression analyses of these data. Results. Increased social cohesion was inversely associated with number of unprotected sex acts in the preceding week among women (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.80; P < .01), and there was a marginal association among men (adjusted IRR = 0.41; P = .08). Women's increased participation in social networks was associated with a decrease in frequency of unprotected sex acts (adjusted IRR = 0.83; P = .04), as was men's access to and management of social and material resources (IRR = 0.15; P = .01). Social–environmental factors were not associated with STIs. Conclusions. The social context within which populations negotiate sexual behaviors is associated with condom use. Future efforts to prevent STI/HIV should incorporate strategies to modify the social environment. PMID:19762673

  13. [Discussion of the Roles of Medical Social Workers in the Response to the Explosion Incident at Formosa Fun Coast].

    PubMed

    Yueh, Hsin-Tien; Sung, Hsien-Yi; Wu, Chia-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Medical social workers apply the theories of "person in the environment" (PIE) and "ecological perspective" as practical foundations. Furthermore, they emphasize the people, the environment, and the interactions between these two. When burn patients from the explosion at Formosa Fun Coast were sent to hospitals, social workers not only provided care and assessed the impact on burn patients but also assisted in supporting the family members of these patients. This article discusses the various roles of social workers within different systems. In the individual system, we use Eric Erickson's theory of psychosocial development to evaluate the patient's crisis and the tasks of social workers. Secondly, in the systems of family, school, and work, we assess the relationships between a patient, his/her significant others, and caregivers as well as the interactions among sub-systems in the family. In the community and cultural systems, we focus on the social resources that may be utilized by the burn patients after discharge. Moreover, we add a time frame to examine our major tasks, including the initial stage, the middle stage, and the preparation-for-discharge stage. We explore the roles of social workers, the applicable theories, and the goals for each stage. PMID:26813060

  14. Using art as a self-regulating tool in a war situation: a model for social workers.

    PubMed

    Huss, Ephrat; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie

    2010-08-01

    War poses a challenge for social workers, adding exposure to direct risk of personal harm to the general stress of social work practice. Artworks are frequently used in health care settings with people in high distress. This study had three goals: (1) to characterize the stressors of social workers living in a war zone, (2) to teach social workers in crisis situations to identify stress and resilience factors in their artworks, and (3) to develop a general self-care model for arts intervention for professionals in these situations. Common stressors experienced by participants were anxiety and fear as a result of bombs, sirens, worry over loved ones, and overexposure to media. These were layered onto professional stressors, including constant work communication on cell phones during war and dilemmas related to work-family conflicts. Allowing social workers to name and identity the sources of their stress and then change their artwork to enhance resilience helped them to gain a sense of control over diffuse sources of anxiety. The authors propose this method as an effective intervention model with social workers in high-stress situations.

  15. An Intensive Continuing Education Initiative to Train Social Workers for Military Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Specific standards exist for social work practice with service members, military families, and veterans, whether in civilian or military practice settings. Based on these standards, a continuing education certificate for practitioners was designed with companion military social work coursework in the advanced graduate curriculum and field…

  16. Corporate culture and employment of people with disabilities: role of social workers and service provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Samant, Deepti; Soffer, Michal; Hernandez, Brigida; Adya, Meera; Akinpelu, Omolara; Levy, Joel M; Repoli, Elizabeth; Kramer, Michael; Blanck, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Corporate culture reflects an organization's value system and impacts the recruitment, retention, and promotion of employees. Individuals with disabilities are positively impacted by a corporate culture that espouses and establishes a diverse workforce as a priority. This article provides an overview of corporate culture and the employment of individuals with disabilities, and presents a case example of the corporate culture of a large not-for-profit disability service organization. With an in-depth understanding of corporate culture and disability issues, social workers can be particularly helpful to applicants and employees with disabilities as well as employers.

  17. Divergent Drinking Patterns of Restaurant Workers: The Influence of Social Networks and Job Position

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Genevieve M.; Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.

    2013-01-01

    Restaurant workers have higher rates of problem drinking than most occupational groups. However, little is known about the environmental risks and work characteristics that may lead to these behaviors. An exploration of restaurant workers’ drinking networks may provide important insights into their alcohol consumption patterns, thus guiding workplace prevention efforts. Drawing from social capital theory, this paper examines the unique characteristics of drinking networks within and between various job categories. Our research suggests that these multiple, complex networks have unique risk characteristics, and that self-selection is based on factors such as job position and college attendance, among other factors. PMID:23687470

  18. Community Health Workers promoting physical activity: Targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, Jessica; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Burke, Kari Herzog; Elder, John P.; Montañez, Jacqueline; Arredondo, Elva M.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Community Health Workers (CHWs) as health educators and health promoters among Latino populations is widely recognized. The Affordable Care Act created important opportunities to increase the role of CHWs in preventive health. This article describes the implementation of CHW-led, culturally specific, faith-based program to increase physical activity (PA) among churchgoing Latinas. The current study augments previous research by describing the recruitment, selection, training, and evaluation of CHWs for a PA intervention targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model. PMID:26280587

  19. Factors associated with the recruitment and retention of social workers in Wales: employer and employee perspectives.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sherrill; Huxley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Despite acute staffing shortages in social work, workforce planning within the UK social care sector is compromised by poor workforce intelligence. This study aimed to inform the evidence base providing new data on recruitment and retention in Wales, examining what personal and organizational characteristics are associated with intentions to leave, and what initiatives or incentives might mediate that effect. A multi-method design facilitated comparisons between two data sources--a census of all 22 Welsh local authority employers about recruitment and retention practices and a survey of all social workers and senior practitioners employed in social services (n = 998; response rate 45.9%) about demography, workforce characteristics, working patterns, morale and plans and reasons for leaving one's job. Vacancy (mean 14.4%) and turnover (mean 15%) rates were statistically significantly higher in children's services than in adult services; vacancy rates were also higher in authorities that offered higher starting salaries. The provision of certain types of traineeship might also be associated with higher vacancy rates but these results should be treated with some caution. There was little evidence that recruitment and retention initiatives were associated with lower vacancy or turnover rates, despite employers' perceptions about their effectiveness. Social workers derived a lot of satisfaction from their work, but more than a quarter wanted to leave their job within 6 months, and almost as many were actively seeking alternative employment. Intention to leave was explained by job and employer satisfaction, and negative feelings about pay. Senior practitioners and staff members with longer lengths of service were less likely to want to leave, even if they were dissatisfied with their job or employer. Job and employer dissatisfaction was associated with retention initiatives related to facilities, good caseload management and home-working, suggesting that dissatisfied

  20. [A social-health care coordination reference in the fields of mental health and child abuse].

    PubMed

    García-Panal, Leticia; García-Panal, Javier; Delgado-Mata, Eulalia

    2016-01-01

    The intervention in families with children at risk of abuse stays as a clear example of the need for intersectional coordination mechanisms within the socio-health care framework. Different health services (such as primary care, paediatrics, mental health, community and social services, family support teams and schools) create a network in order to link their main goals in the interest of ensuring children's welfare and improving familieś situation. This essay aims at describing a performance based on the mentioned guidelines, even though there is no accepted and widespread protocol in this regard. We start our research with a one parent family with two children. The mother suffers from a mental health disorder and she fails to adhere to treatment. Both the father of the two children and his family took advantage of this situation to discredit the mother's capability of taking care of her children. This perception had a great impact in her self-esteem and therefore in her willingness and strength to recover. Meetings were held to share relevant information about both the family's general situation, the children's quality of life and the mother's health. Based on this information, the main goals were set in each professional field in order to develop the intervention project. This example of intersectional coordination shows the importance of its standardization for the sake of ensuring a comprehensive attention towards situations that involve initially individuals but that ends up affecting the whole family.

  1. [A social-health care coordination reference in the fields of mental health and child abuse].

    PubMed

    García-Panal, Leticia; García-Panal, Javier; Delgado-Mata, Eulalia

    2016-01-01

    The intervention in families with children at risk of abuse stays as a clear example of the need for intersectional coordination mechanisms within the socio-health care framework. Different health services (such as primary care, paediatrics, mental health, community and social services, family support teams and schools) create a network in order to link their main goals in the interest of ensuring children's welfare and improving familieś situation. This essay aims at describing a performance based on the mentioned guidelines, even though there is no accepted and widespread protocol in this regard. We start our research with a one parent family with two children. The mother suffers from a mental health disorder and she fails to adhere to treatment. Both the father of the two children and his family took advantage of this situation to discredit the mother's capability of taking care of her children. This perception had a great impact in her self-esteem and therefore in her willingness and strength to recover. Meetings were held to share relevant information about both the family's general situation, the children's quality of life and the mother's health. Based on this information, the main goals were set in each professional field in order to develop the intervention project. This example of intersectional coordination shows the importance of its standardization for the sake of ensuring a comprehensive attention towards situations that involve initially individuals but that ends up affecting the whole family. PMID:26549871

  2. A Leadership Opportunity for School Social Workers: Bridging the Gaps in School Reentry for Juvenile Justice System Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldkind, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Social work is frequently missing when policy and practice conversations turn to juvenile justice system youths. However, school social workers are well positioned to have a vital role in the readmission and reentry process for these young people. Formerly incarcerated youths present unique challenges for themselves, their families, and…

  3. Analysis of Social Worker and Educator's Areas of Intervention through Multimedia Concept Maps and Online Discussion Forums in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vázquez-Cano, Esteban; López Meneses, Eloy; Sánchez-Serrano, José Luis Sarasola

    2015-01-01

    This diachronic study describes an innovative university experience consisting of the development of multimedia concept maps (MCM) in relation to social educators and social workers main intervention areas and an active discussion in online forums about the results obtained. These MCMs were prepared by students who attended the Information…

  4. Female Clerical Workers' Occupational Stress: The Role of Person and Social Resources, Negative Affectivity, and Stress Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jodi E.; Long, Bonita C.

    2002-01-01

    Relations among person and social resources, work-stress appraisals, and depression were examined with data from 2 longitudinal studies of female clerical workers. Results were consistent with predictions that primary appraisals contribute to change in depression beyond the effects of person and social resources and negative affectivity. There was…

  5. Understanding the Assessment of Psychotropic Drug Harms in Clinical Trials to Improve Social Workers' Role in Medication Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to facilitate social work practitioners' understanding of how psychotropic drug harms are assessed in clinical trials and to make specific suggestions for social workers' increased involvement in detecting drug harms in their clients. The authors undertook a comprehensive review of interdisciplinary…

  6. Broadly Trained but Narrowly Used? Factors That Predict the Performance of Environmental versus Individual Tasks by School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupper, David R.; Rocha, Cynthia; Jackson, Rebecca F.; Lodato, Gayle A.

    2014-01-01

    National and state surveys over the past several decades have concluded that school social workers, despite an awareness of and training in macro level practice strategies, are highly individualistic in their practice focus. Although clinical skills are necessary, they are insufficient for effective school social work practice in the 21st century.…

  7. Do Social Workers Apply "Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself" to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transpersons in the South?

    PubMed

    Lennon-Dearing, Robin; Delavega, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Across the United States there has been a spate of legislative bills and initiatives that blatantly stigmatize and discriminate against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This study was a cross-sectional, exploratory survey designed to measure the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of Tennessee social workers and future social workers toward the LGBT population and toward proposed discriminatory legislation. A 3-way factorial ANOVA investigated the effects of political affiliation, religious affiliation, and social contact on the dependent measures. Significant main effects were found. Self-reported political affiliation was found to be the most important factor predicting LGBT acceptance and LGBT respect among this sample.

  8. Do Social Workers Apply "Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself" to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transpersons in the South?

    PubMed

    Lennon-Dearing, Robin; Delavega, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Across the United States there has been a spate of legislative bills and initiatives that blatantly stigmatize and discriminate against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This study was a cross-sectional, exploratory survey designed to measure the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of Tennessee social workers and future social workers toward the LGBT population and toward proposed discriminatory legislation. A 3-way factorial ANOVA investigated the effects of political affiliation, religious affiliation, and social contact on the dependent measures. Significant main effects were found. Self-reported political affiliation was found to be the most important factor predicting LGBT acceptance and LGBT respect among this sample. PMID:26849856

  9. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality.

  10. Archiving Social Policy: The Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, B. W.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of archiving state commission papers, documenting the formation of public policy, and allowing the public access to an organized collection of the data gathered by the Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Florida's citizens with mental illnesses or substance abuse disorders face a myriad of…

  11. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  12. The Social Ecology of Adolescent-Initiated Parent Abuse: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is…

  13. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  14. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  15. Social and Structural Factors Shaping High Rates of Incarceration among Sex Workers in a Canadian Setting.

    PubMed

    Socías, M E; Deering, K; Horton, M; Nguyen, P; Montaner, J S; Shannon, K

    2015-10-01

    In light of the emphasis on enforcement-based approaches towards sex work, and the well-known negative impacts of these approaches on women's health, safety and well-being, we conducted a study to investigate the prevalence and correlates of recent incarceration among a cohort of women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Data were obtained from an open prospective community cohort of female and transgender women sex workers, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations (GEE), were used to model the effect of social and structural factors on the likelihood of incarceration over the 44-month follow-up period (January 2010-August 2013). Among 720 sex workers, 62.5 % (n = 450) reported being incarcerated in their lifetime and 23.9 % (n = 172) being incarcerated at least once during the study period. Of the 172 participants, about one third (36.6 %) reported multiple episodes of incarceration. In multivariable GEE analyses, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04 per year younger, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), being of a sexual/gender minority (AOR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.13-2.34), heavy drinking (AOR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.20-3.29), being born in Canada (AOR = 3.28, 95 % CI 1.26-8.53), living in unstable housing conditions (AOR = 4.32, 95 % CI 2.17-8.62), servicing clients in public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments) (AOR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.05-5.17) and experiencing police harassment without arrest (AOR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.35-2.45) remain independently correlated with incarceration. This prospective study found a very high prevalence and frequency of incarceration among women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, with the most vulnerable and marginalized women at increased risk of incarceration. Given the well-known social and health harms associated with incarceration, and associations between police harassment

  16. Bridging the Professional Digital Divide: Comparative Analysis of Technology Usage Behaviors across the Working Lifespan of Professional Social Workers: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Aisha Ain

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is the mandatory use of Computer Based Technology (CBT) with social work professionals. Such a study is important in order to investigate which determinants are essential for social workers 45 and older to achieve adoption of CBT. The membership list of the National Association of Social Workers provided access to…

  17. Health care professionals' perspectives on barriers to elder abuse detection and reporting in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Schmeidel, Amy N; Daly, Jeanette M; Rosenbaum, Marcy E; Schmuch, Gretchen A; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore health care professionals' perspectives on elder abuse to achieve a better understanding of the problems of reporting and to generate ideas for improving the detection and reporting process. Through a mailed survey, nurses, physicians, and social workers were invited to participate in an interview. Nine nurses, 8 physicians, and 6 social workers were interviewed, and thematic analysis was used to identify the following core themes: preconceptions, assessment, interpretation, systems, and knowledge and education. Participants suggested a reorganization of the external reporting system. More frequent and pragmatic education is necessary to strengthen practical knowledge about elder abuse.

  18. A community health worker intervention to address the social determinants of health through policy change.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Sabo, Samantha J; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Gomez, Sofia; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health workers (CHWs) from five health agencies engaged their community in the process of making positive systems and environmental changes. Academic-community partners trained Acción CHWs in community advocacy and provided ongoing technical assistance in developing strategic advocacy plans. The CHWs documented community advocacy activities through encounter forms in which they identified problems, formulated solutions, and described systems and policy change efforts. Strategy maps described the steps of the advocacy plans. Findings demonstrate that CHWs worked to initiate discussions about underlying social determinants and environment-related factors that impact health, and identified solutions to improve neighborhood conditions, create community opportunities, and increase access to services. PMID:24363179

  19. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers

    PubMed Central

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21–57 years (M = 35.27; SD = 8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale – Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive – social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance. PMID:26323770

  20. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers.

    PubMed

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.

  1. How Do Genomes Create Novel Phenotypes? Insights from the Loss of the Worker Caste in Ant Social Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris R.; Helms Cahan, Sara; Kemena, Carsten; Brady, Seán G.; Yang, Wei; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Eriksson, Ti; Gadau, Juergen; Helmkampf, Martin; Gotzek, Dietrich; Okamoto Miyakawa, Misato; Suarez, Andrew V.; Mikheyev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of biology is to uncover the genetic basis for the origin of new phenotypes. A particularly effective approach is to examine the genomic architecture of species that have secondarily lost a phenotype with respect to their close relatives. In the eusocial Hymenoptera, queens and workers have divergent phenotypes that may be produced via either expression of alternative sets of caste-specific genes and pathways or differences in expression patterns of a shared set of multifunctional genes. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we investigated how secondary loss of the worker phenotype in workerless ant social parasites impacted genome evolution across two independent origins of social parasitism in the ant genera Pogonomyrmex and Vollenhovia. We sequenced the genomes of three social parasites and their most-closely related eusocial host species and compared gene losses in social parasites with gene expression differences between host queens and workers. Virtually all annotated genes were expressed to some degree in both castes of the host, with most shifting in queen-worker bias across developmental stages. As a result, despite >1 My of divergence from the last common ancestor that had workers, the social parasites showed strikingly little evidence of gene loss, damaging mutations, or shifts in selection regime resulting from loss of the worker caste. This suggests that regulatory changes within a multifunctional genome, rather than sequence differences, have played a predominant role in the evolution of social parasitism, and perhaps also in the many gains and losses of phenotypes in the social insects. PMID:26226984

  2. How Do Genomes Create Novel Phenotypes? Insights from the Loss of the Worker Caste in Ant Social Parasites.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris R; Helms Cahan, Sara; Kemena, Carsten; Brady, Seán G; Yang, Wei; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Eriksson, Ti; Gadau, Juergen; Helmkampf, Martin; Gotzek, Dietrich; Okamoto Miyakawa, Misato; Suarez, Andrew V; Mikheyev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A central goal of biology is to uncover the genetic basis for the origin of new phenotypes. A particularly effective approach is to examine the genomic architecture of species that have secondarily lost a phenotype with respect to their close relatives. In the eusocial Hymenoptera, queens and workers have divergent phenotypes that may be produced via either expression of alternative sets of caste-specific genes and pathways or differences in expression patterns of a shared set of multifunctional genes. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we investigated how secondary loss of the worker phenotype in workerless ant social parasites impacted genome evolution across two independent origins of social parasitism in the ant genera Pogonomyrmex and Vollenhovia. We sequenced the genomes of three social parasites and their most-closely related eusocial host species and compared gene losses in social parasites with gene expression differences between host queens and workers. Virtually all annotated genes were expressed to some degree in both castes of the host, with most shifting in queen-worker bias across developmental stages. As a result, despite >1 My of divergence from the last common ancestor that had workers, the social parasites showed strikingly little evidence of gene loss, damaging mutations, or shifts in selection regime resulting from loss of the worker caste. This suggests that regulatory changes within a multifunctional genome, rather than sequence differences, have played a predominant role in the evolution of social parasitism, and perhaps also in the many gains and losses of phenotypes in the social insects. PMID:26226984

  3. Sexual abuse of minors: emerging medical and social problem in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lema, V M

    1997-11-01

    Sexual abuse is one of the most dehumanising human offenses. There has been an increasing public concern and outcry regarding the escalating wave of sexual abuse of young girls in Malawi, in the recent past. Four young girls, aged between two and seven years who were sexually abused by adult males aged between 20 and 70 years seen and managed in the department within the past two years, are presented to illustrate the problem. Their physical injuries, varied reactions and those of their immediate families to the abuse; possible predisposing factors to the abuses; the related medical, psychosocial as well as legal management of such incidents, in the light of limited public awareness, and lack of adequately and appropriately trained personnel and facilities in Malawi are discussed. With the scare of AIDS and an increasing disintegration of the traditional family fabric, there is a high potential for an increase, not only of the prevalence of sexual abuse of minors in Malawi, but also the variety and severity of sequelae. It is therefore recommended that there is need to create public awareness about sexual abuse, train and equip the relevant personnel to appropriately manage such cases, as well as enact and enforce the relevant legal provisions, so as to curb the menace, for the well-being of the society. PMID:9557452

  4. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  5. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

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  6. Abuse, Neglect, and Violence Against Elderly Women in Ghana: Implications for Social Justice and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses.

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    A series of four documents address the definition and identification of child abuse and neglect. In the first, which is designed for professionals, a historical review is followed by discussion of clinical and social evidence of abuse. Resources for managing child abuse are described, and personnel functions are outlined. The second document,…

  8. Science-based prevention through communities that care: a model of social work practice for public health.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Kevin P; Shapiro, Valerie B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work's intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers.

  9. Science-Based Prevention Through Communities That Care: A Model of Social Work Practice for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work’s intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers. PMID:23731424

  10. Do Preschool Programs Affect Social Disadvantage? What Social Workers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Smith, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The majority of children from lower income families enter elementary school well behind their peers in reading, math, and general knowledge. Poor academic achievement in the early grades is associated with a range of social problems such as failure to complete high school, increased risk of unintended pregnancy, increased criminal activity, and…

  11. The roles of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the relationship between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving.

  12. Mentoring the Next Generation of Social Workers in Palliative and End-of-Life Care: The Zelda Foster Studies Program.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Daniel S; Gerbino, Susan; Walls, Jocelyn Warner; Chachkes, Esther; Doherty, Meredith J

    2015-01-01

    As Americans live longer with chronic illnesses, there is a growing need for social workers with the knowledge and skills to deliver quality palliative care to older adults and their families. Nevertheless, there remains a critical shortage of social workers prepared to provide quality palliative and end-of-life care (PELC) and to maintain the field into the next generation. Formal mentorship programs represent an innovative approach to enhancing practice, providing support and guidance, and promoting social work leadership in the field. This article reviews the literature on mentorship as an approach to professional and leadership development for emerging social workers in PELC. The Zelda Foster Studies Program in Palliative and End-of-Life Care bolsters competencies and mentors social workers in PELC over the trajectory of their careers, and enhances the capacity in the field. Findings from the first six years of two components of the ZF Program are examined to illustrate the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of formal mentorship programs. The authors describe the background, structure, and evaluation of the initiative's mentorship programs, and discuss the implications of mentorship in PELC for social work education, practice, and research. PMID:26380922

  13. Social Psychiatry in the Waiting Room: What a Physician Can Learn about Occupational Stress from Workers Waiting to Be Examined

    PubMed Central

    Magnavita, Nicola; Garbarino, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Work-related stress is a major problem for mental health. The occupational physician has the opportunity to gather information on the perception of stress from workers in the course of regular medical examinations. Method. 1,231 subjects, engaged in 6 different occupations, were invited to compile the Demand/Control/Support and the Effort/Reward/Imbalance questionnaires. Results. A specific profile of work-related stress emerged for each group of workers. Radiology physicians reported high control over work, but also exceedingly high demand and effort, high overcommitment, low social support, and low rewards from work. Health care workers were often overcommitted but had high levels of reward and social support. Low levels of social support and reward were recorded for mature workers, while special force policemen engaged in law enforcement during the G8 meeting had high levels of social support and regards, so that their resulting stress levels were closer to the reference group of employees in an insurance company with no front-office. Conclusion. The practice of administering questionnaires to groups of workers who are subject to medical surveillance is useful for monitoring mental health and well-being. PMID:24286068

  14. Social Psychiatry in the Waiting Room: What a Physician Can Learn about Occupational Stress from Workers Waiting to Be Examined.

    PubMed

    Magnavita, Nicola; Garbarino, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Work-related stress is a major problem for mental health. The occupational physician has the opportunity to gather information on the perception of stress from workers in the course of regular medical examinations. Method. 1,231 subjects, engaged in 6 different occupations, were invited to compile the Demand/Control/Support and the Effort/Reward/Imbalance questionnaires. Results. A specific profile of work-related stress emerged for each group of workers. Radiology physicians reported high control over work, but also exceedingly high demand and effort, high overcommitment, low social support, and low rewards from work. Health care workers were often overcommitted but had high levels of reward and social support. Low levels of social support and reward were recorded for mature workers, while special force policemen engaged in law enforcement during the G8 meeting had high levels of social support and regards, so that their resulting stress levels were closer to the reference group of employees in an insurance company with no front-office. Conclusion. The practice of administering questionnaires to groups of workers who are subject to medical surveillance is useful for monitoring mental health and well-being.

  15. Child sexual abuse as reported by Israeli adolescents: social and health related correlates.

    PubMed

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA. PMID:25542832

  16. Higher brain centers for social tasks in worker ants, Camponotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Michiko; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-05-01

    Ants, eusocial insects, have highly elaborate chemical communication systems using a wide variety of pheromones. In the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus, workers and queens have the female-specific basiconic sensilla on antennae. The antennal lobe, the primary processing center, in female carpenter ants contains about 480 glomeruli, which are divided into seven groups (T1–T7 glomeruli) based on sensory afferent tracts. The axons of sensory neurons in basiconic sensilla are thought to project to female-specific T6 glomeruli. Therefore, these sensilla and glomeruli are thought to relate to female-specific social tasks in the ants. By using dye filling into local neurons (LNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe, we neuroanatomically revealed the existence of an isolated processing system for signals probably relating to social tasks in the worker ant. In the antennal lobe, two categories of glomeruli, T6 glomeruli and non-T6 glomeruli, are clearly segregated by LNs. Furthermore, axon terminals of uniglomerular PNs from the respective categories of glomeruli (T6 uni-PNs and non-T6 uni-PNs) are also segregated in the secondary olfactory centers, the calyces of the mushroom body and the lateral horn: T6 uni-PNs terminate in the outer layers of the basal ring and lip of mushroom body calyces and in the posterior region of the lateral horn, whereas non-T6 uni-PNs terminate in the middle and inner layers of the basal ring and lip and in the anterior region of the lateral horn. These findings suggest that information probably relating to social tasks might be isolated from other olfactory information and processed in a separate subsystem.

  17. Higher brain centers for social tasks in worker ants, Camponotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Michiko; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-05-01

    Ants, eusocial insects, have highly elaborate chemical communication systems using a wide variety of pheromones. In the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus, workers and queens have the female-specific basiconic sensilla on antennae. The antennal lobe, the primary processing center, in female carpenter ants contains about 480 glomeruli, which are divided into seven groups (T1–T7 glomeruli) based on sensory afferent tracts. The axons of sensory neurons in basiconic sensilla are thought to project to female-specific T6 glomeruli. Therefore, these sensilla and glomeruli are thought to relate to female-specific social tasks in the ants. By using dye filling into local neurons (LNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe, we neuroanatomically revealed the existence of an isolated processing system for signals probably relating to social tasks in the worker ant. In the antennal lobe, two categories of glomeruli, T6 glomeruli and non-T6 glomeruli, are clearly segregated by LNs. Furthermore, axon terminals of uniglomerular PNs from the respective categories of glomeruli (T6 uni-PNs and non-T6 uni-PNs) are also segregated in the secondary olfactory centers, the calyces of the mushroom body and the lateral horn: T6 uni-PNs terminate in the outer layers of the basal ring and lip of mushroom body calyces and in the posterior region of the lateral horn, whereas non-T6 uni-PNs terminate in the middle and inner layers of the basal ring and lip and in the anterior region of the lateral horn. These findings suggest that information probably relating to social tasks might be isolated from other olfactory information and processed in a separate subsystem. PMID:22102363

  18. Childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among crack-using commercial sex workers in San Salvador, El Salvador: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gómez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Gueverra, Aradenia; Rodriguez, Karla; Mauricio, Gaborit

    2006-12-01

    This article explores the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later HIV risk. It draws on qualitative, in-depth interviews with 40 women who either used crack or engaged in commercial sex work in the greater metropolitan area of San Salvador, El Salvador, 28 of whom experienced CSA. Although the relationship between CSA and later HIV risk has been clearly demonstrated, the processes that lead women who have experienced CSA to experience HIV risk are unclear. The theoretical model presented here incorporates the psychological effects of CSA, particularly stigmatization, as well as its social consequences and the larger context of poverty in which these women live. The meanings women draw from past abuse experiences and their rationale for choices made help explain the association between CSA and later risk as mediated through sex work and crack addiction. Self-report data gathered in this study indicate that HIV prevalence may be considerably higher in this high-risk population than Salvadoran national rates.

  19. Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood) and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates). We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel of different immune stimulants (saline, Sephadex beads and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli). Results While only bacteria-injected bees elicited altered behavioral responses from healthy nestmates compared to controls, all treatments resulted in significant changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Immunostimulation caused significant changes in expression of hundreds of genes, the majority of which have not been identified as members of the canonical immune response pathways. Furthermore, several new candidate genes that may play a role in cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis were identified. Effects of immune challenge expression of several genes involved in immune response, cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we identified common genes regulated by pathogen challenge in honey bees and other insects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that honey bee genomic responses

  20. "When Things Are Really Complicated, We Call the Social Worker": Post-Hip-Fracture Care Transitions for Older People.

    PubMed

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Byrne, Kerry; Hicks, Elisabeth; Franke, Thea; Stolee, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Social workers play a key role in the delivery of interdisciplinary health care. However, in the past decade, concerns have been raised about social work's sustainability and contributions in a changing health care sector. These changes come at a time when older patients are more complex and vulnerable than ever before. In this article, using a strengths-based approach, the authors examine the key contributions made by social workers working with older patients with hip fracture as they strive to achieve successful care transitions. Twenty-five interviews with health care professionals (HCPs) were conducted and then analyzed using an analytical coding framework. Although social workers are vital, they are often underused and overlooked in the care of hip fracture patients. The authors sketch the important contributions that social workers make to care transitions after hip fracture, specifically informational continuity; patient-HCP relational continuity; conflict resolution; mediation among family, patient, and HCP (for example, doctors and nurses); collaboration with family caregivers and community supports; and relocation counseling. PMID:26638501

  1. Assessing the effectiveness of policy interventions to reduce the use of agency or temporary social workers in England.

    PubMed

    Cornes, Michelle; Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Blendi-Mahota, Saidah; Hussein, Shereen

    2013-05-01

    There has been growing concern that English local authorities are over reliant on temporary staff to meet the shortage of social workers. This has been criticised as inefficient and costly while leading to problems of continuity and consistency for people using social work services. Focussing on recent policy and the implementation of new administrative procedures for the procurement and management of temporary or agency staff, this article explores progress being made towards achieving the previous government's policy goal that by 2020 local authorities will no longer need to rely on agency workers to carry out tasks that would normally be carried out by a permanent social worker. The article draws on the findings of an exploratory study (2007-2010) commissioned by the Department of Health which comprised of the following: a survey of local councils in England with adult social services responsibilities; case studies in three different localities; and qualitative interviews with stakeholders (n = 93). The findings suggest that while local authorities have reduced the costs of employing temporary staff through the setting up of intermediary control mechanisms, agency social workers continue to play important roles in teams and services. PMID:23343114

  2. At the Time of Disclosure: A Manual for Front-Line Community Workers Dealing with Sexual Abuse Disclosures in Aboriginal Communities. Aboriginal Peoples Collection, Technical Series = A l'etape de la divulgation: guide pour les travailleurs communautaires de premiere ligne a qui des actes de violence sexuelle sont divulgues dans les collectivites Autochtones. Collection sur les Autochtones, serie technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Judie; Bopp, Michael

    This manual was developed to assist front-line community workers (including teachers) with issues concerning the disclosure and investigation of sexual abuse allegations in Canadian aboriginal communities. Written in English and French, this document examines the needs of individuals, families, and communities dealing with sexual abuse. Part 1…

  3. Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

    2007-01-01

    of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy or the tradeoffs between potential target effectiveness and administrative simplicity. Based on a series of simulations, we assess the FBR as a potential foundation for minimum Social Security benefits and we examine the tradeoffs between administrative simplicity and target effectiveness using microdata from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our empirical analysis is limited to Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries aged 65 or older. We start with the assessment of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy. We are particularly concerned about two types of error: (1) incorrectly identifying some Social Security beneficiaries as "economically vulnerable," and (2) incorrectly identifying others as "not economically vulnerable." Operationally we measure economic vulnerability by two alternative standards. One of our measures considers beneficiaries with family income below the official poverty threshold as vulnerable. Our second measure is more restrictive; it uses a family income threshold equal to 75 percent of the official poverty threshold. We find that a substantial minority of retired workers have Social Security benefits below the FBR. The results also show that the FBR-based measure of Social Security benefit adequacy is very imprecise in terms of identifying economically vulnerable people. We estimate that the vast majority of beneficiaries with Social Security benefits below the FBR are not economically vulnerable. Conversely, an FBR-level Social Security benefit threshold fails to identify some beneficiaries who are economically vulnerable. Thus an FBR-level minimum benefit would be poorly targeted in terms of both types of errors we are concerned about. An FBR-level minimum benefit would provide minimum Social Security benefits to many people who are clearly not poor. Conversely, an FBR-level minimum benefit would not provide any income relief to some who are poor. The

  4. Quantitative Neuropeptidome Analysis Reveals Neuropeptides Are Correlated with Social Behavior Regulation of the Honeybee Workers.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Hu, Han; Qi, Yuping; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-10-01

    Neuropeptides play vital roles in orchestrating neural communication and physiological modulation in organisms, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones. The highly evolved social structure of honeybees is a good system for understanding how neuropeptides regulate social behaviors; however, much knowledge on neuropeptidomic variation in the age-related division of labor remains unknown. An in-depth comparison of the brain neuropeptidomic dynamics over four time points of age-related polyethism was performed on two strains of honeybees, the Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica, ITb) and the high royal jelly producing bee (RJb, selected for increasing royal jelly production for almost four decades from the ITb in China). Among the 158 identified nonredundant neuropeptides, 77 were previously unreported, significantly expanding the coverage of the honeybee neuropeptidome. The fact that 14 identical neuropeptide precursors changed their expression levels during the division of labor in both the ITb and RJb indicates they are highly related to task transition of honeybee workers. These observations further suggest the two lines of bees employ a similar neuropeptidome modification to tune their respective physiology of age polyethism via regulating excretory system, circadian clock system, and so forth. Noticeably, the enhanced level of neuropeptides implicated in regulating water homeostasis, brood pheromone recognition, foraging capacity, and pollen collection in RJb signify the fact that neuropeptides are also involved in the regulation of RJ secretion. These findings gain novel understanding of honeybee neuropeptidome correlated with social behavior regulation, which is potentially important in neurobiology for honeybees and other insects.

  5. Potential consequences of raising the Social Security eligibility age on low-income older workers.

    PubMed

    Choi, N G

    2000-01-01

    To examine the potential consequences of raising the Social Security retirement age on future cohorts of low-income elders, this study, based on data from the Health and Retirement Study, 1992-1994, identifies factors that may hinder or facilitate continuous employment among older workers born between 1931 and 1941. Specifically, following the analysis of labor-force participation rates and self-reported reasons for non-work, multivariate logistic regression models tested the relationship between individual strengths and constraints, social-structural opportunities and constraints, and economic need variables and the likelihood of work. The findings show that for both men and women, having disabilities was the most significant predictor of non-work. Racial differences, especially in men's labor-force participation rates, appeared to be due in large part to significant racial differences in disability rates. A higher proportion of blacks and Hispanics than whites also reported that they were unemployed. Based on the findings, raising the Social Security eligibility age is likely to result in increased numbers of Disability Insurance (DI) claimants, and the fiscal impact of such an increase needs to be examined. The need to assist unemployed older persons is also discussed. PMID:11148829

  6. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries. PMID:26719732

  7. Health as a context for social and gender activism: female volunteer health workers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, Homa

    2010-01-01

    Having reversed its pronatalist policies in 1988, the Islamic Republic of Iran implemented one of the most successful family planning programs in the developing world. This achievement, particularly in urban centers, is largely attributable to a large women-led volunteer health worker program for low-income urban neighborhoods. Research in three cities demonstrates that this successful program has had a host of unintended consequences. In a context where citizen mobilization and activism are highly restricted, volunteers have seized this new state-sanctioned space and successfully negotiated many of the familial, cultural, and state restrictions on women. They have expanded their mandate from one focused on health activism into one of social, if not political, activism, highlighting the ways in which citizens blur the boundaries of state and civil society under restrictive political systems prevalent in many of the Middle Eastern societies.

  8. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Costello, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries. PMID:26719732

  9. Getting serious about the social determinants of health: new directions for public health workers.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    International interest in the social determinants of health and their public policy antecedents is increasing. Despite evidence that as compared to other wealthy nations Canada presents a mediocre population health profile and public policy environments increasingly less supportive of health, the Canadian public health gaze is firmly - and narrowly - focused on lifestyle issues of diet, physical activity and tobacco use. Much of this has to do with Canada being identified as being driven by a liberal political economy, a situation shared with a cluster of other developed nations. Reasons for Canada's neglect of structural and public policy issues are explored and ways by which public health workers in Canada and elsewhere can help to shift policymakers and the general public's understandings of the determinants of health are outlined.

  10. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Costello, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries.

  11. [Social representations about occupational risk in the perspective of the health worker].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joana D'Arc de Souza; Ferreira, Aurigena Antunes Araújo; Costa Feitosa, Maria do Socorro; Paredes Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva

    2009-03-01

    We aimed to identify the meanings constructed about occupational risk by health workers through the structural approach to social representation. 220 health professionals from a public hospital in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, participated in this research. The technique of free evocation of words was used and data were examined through an articulated analysis of frequency average and evocation order Results shows that central systems have different compositions in three groups: disease and death for doctors, perforating and danger for nurses and contamination, disease, infection and danger for dentists. The complexity of bond among work and risk suggests that strategies and alternatives of actions might be operationalized with integration of different professional categories and fields of knowledge towards a common objective starting from an interdisciplinary space and expanding the awareness level of these professionals concerning to consequences of their practices to health. PMID:19653562

  12. Social Work Students' Attitudes about Working with Involuntary Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Natalie D.; Kang, Byungdeok

    2011-01-01

    Social workers employed in areas such as public child welfare, substance abuse, and corrections often provide services to involuntary clients. These individuals do not seek social work services on their own volition and may be actively opposed to the services they are receiving. This study explores social work students' attitudes about working…

  13. [Concept of long-term social and economic development until 2020 ("Strategy 2020") and health preservation for workers in Russia].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2012-01-01

    The article represents goals set in a Concept of long-term social and economic development of Russian Federation until 2020 ("Strategy 2020") on transfer to innovative socially oriented type of economic development and human potential advancement in Russia, analysis of contemporary state of work conditions and workers' safety, ways to solve problems on health care and protection for working population as a basis for competitiveness of Russian economy.

  14. Children at Risk from Domestic Violence and Their Educational Attainment: Perspectives of Education Welfare Officers, Social Workers and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Dorothy; Taylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Children who witness domestic violence may have impaired educational attainment as well as facing other challenges such as struggles with self-esteem and forming relationships. This qualitative study set in Northern Ireland explored the perceptions of Education Welfare Officers, child protection social workers and teachers in post-primary schools…

  15. The Deaf-Blind Child and the Nutritionist, the Social Worker, and the Public Health Nurse. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouin, Carole

    Intended for parents and educators, the conference proceedings focus on the influence of the nutritionist, social worker, and public health nurse on the feeding of the deaf-blind child. Included are entries with the following titles: "Improving Nutrient Supply for Deaf-Blind Children" (J. Heffley), "Nutritional Care for the Handicapped" (M.…

  16. A Story Told: Organizing School Social Workers To Serve in the Public Schools of San Antonio, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Virginia Rondero; Pais, Lee, Jr.; Garza, M. Estella

    2002-01-01

    Article recounts how a loosely knit group of school social workers in San Antonio, Texas, organized themselves to survive and thrive in settings unfamiliar with their professional capacities. Describes the context and the steps taken to move from an informal activity to a formal organization that advocates for their interests. (Contains 55…

  17. A Comparison of the Reactions of Pre-Service and In-Service Social Workers to Microtraining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargie, Owen; Bamford, David

    1984-01-01

    Compares the attitudes of preservice and inservice social workers to a program of microtraining incorporating skills analysis and closed circuit television. It was found that while both groups were favorably disposed toward this form of training, the preservice students were significantly more positive in their reactions to the training…

  18. Children's Mental Health in Child Welfare: A Child-Focused Curriculum for Child Welfare Workers and Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiesen, Sally; Cash, Scottye; Barbanell Johnson, Lisa D.; Smith, Thomas E.; Graham, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a child-focused curriculum developed for child welfare workers and social work students. The results from a focus group evaluation are also provided that highlight how the content areas in the curriculum were perceived by participants in terms of interest, practicality, and importance. The major goal of the curriculum was to…

  19. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  20. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions. PMID:21692242