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Sample records for abuse social workers

  1. Social Workers' Reflections on the Therapeutic Encounter With Elder Abuse and Neglect.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Band-Winterstein, Tova; Alon, Sara

    2016-02-24

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore social workers' reflections on their experience of the therapeutic encounter with victims and perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect. The research questions were as follows: How do social workers tune themselves toward the therapeutic encounter with elder abuse? How do they position themselves vis-à-vis the clients? How do social workers describe the meaning of the intervention both for the clients and for themselves? What is the added value of the therapeutic encounter in this field for the social workers? Participants were 17 experienced women social workers, who worked with abusers and with abused and neglected older adults in Israel. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were later transcribed and content analyzed. Two main themes emerged from the findings, emphasizing two key aspects of the social workers' reflective process experienced during the therapeutic encounter: (a) focus on the client: "This is the journey of their lives"-reflection on the therapeutic "journey"; (b) focus on the social worker's inner and professional world: "'There is nothing to be done' is no longer in my vocabulary"-a personal and professional maturation process. The social workers expressed a positive attitude toward their elder clients. A unique dialogue developed in the therapeutic encounter, whereby the social workers considered any change as valuable if it allowed the elders a sense of control and self-worth, whereas the social workers were enriched by the elders' life experience, and matured both personally and professionally. Thus, both sides benefited from this reciprocal relationship. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.

  2. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  3. Addressing Wife Abuse in Mexican Immigrant Couples: Challenges for Family Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses wife abuse in undocumented Mexican immigrant couples and suggests an ecosystems treatment approach that takes into consideration the structural forces of oppression and discrimination on abusive behaviors in the home and combines individual, family and community level interventions to help immigrant men stop the abuse.…

  4. Social Workers and Immunity from Civil Lawsuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolf, Alexander, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Supreme Court has ruled that certain professionals have immunity from civil rights lawsuits, but has not considered any cases involving social workers. A split view regarding the extent of social workers' immunity in investigating child abuse cases has appeared in two courts of appeals. Discusses immunity, the case in these two circuits, and…

  5. Substance abuse among oral healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, J C; van Zyl, A W

    2014-05-01

    The abuse of both licit and illicit substances by the general population affects at least one in ten people. Research shows that the oral healthcare worker has at least the same prevalence of substance abuse, perhaps even higher. The emergence of prescription drug abuse is one of the most worrying and dangerous aspects for the healthcare worker, due to ease of access to such drugs. According to the United Nations, prescription drug abuse is amongst the top three practices of substance abuse. We have an obligation to incorporate the evidence of substance abuse among oral healthcare professionals in our undergraduate dental curricula in order to combat this phenomenon. As the stress of daily survival in single practitioner practices increase, so will the danger of substance abuse. This may lead to impairment of the healthcare worker and ultimately loss of registration. It will take a combined effort from organised dentistry and academic institutions to establish a national strategy to ensure we address this important issue at undergraduate level and provide support at practitioner level. This paper will deal with substance abuse and the implications of impairment it holds for the oral healthcare worker.

  6. Barriers Preventing the Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Comparison of School Social Workers in Public and Private Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgus, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Timely and accurate reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect is essential to protect victimized children; however, there are barriers to such reporting. The importance of barriers may be based on organizational theories that suggest structure has an impact on behavior independent of individual factors and on identity theory which suggests…

  7. Social hazards on the job: workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination--a study of Black, Latino, and White low-income women and men workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Bates, Lisa M; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence of workplace abuse, sexual harassment at work, and lifetime experiences of racial discrimination among the United for Health cohort of 1,202 predominantly black, Latino, and white women and men low-income union workers in the Greater Boston area. Overall, 85 percent of the cohort reported exposure to at least one of these three social hazards; exposure to all three reached 20 to 30 percent among black women and women and men in racial/ethnic groups other than white, black, or Latino. Workplace abuse in the past year, reported by slightly more than half the workers, was most frequently reported by the white men (69%). Sexual harassment at work in the past year was reported by 26 percent of the women and 22 percent of the men, with values of 20 percent or more in all racial/ ethnic-gender groups other than Latinas and white men. High exposure to racial discrimination was reported by 37 percent of the workers of color, compared with 10 percent of the white workers, with black workers reporting the greatest exposure (44%). Together, these findings imply that the lived--and combined-experiences of class, race, and gender inequities and their attendant assaults on human dignity are highly germane to analyses of workers' health.

  8. Institutional Denial or Minimization: Substance Abuse Training in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Gregorio

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse in the United States has reached catastrophic proportions. 23.6 million people needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem (1). According to the National Association of Social Workers, 60% of all mental health services are carried out by social workers (3). Therefore, social workers are in a critical and unique…

  9. A Qualitative Study of School Social Workers' Clinical and Professional Relationships when Reporting Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanmugam, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study explored school social workers' relationships during instances of abuse and neglect reporting, focusing on reports made for children and adolescents already receiving school social work services. Although school social workers frequently file abuse and neglect reports, little is known about how they manage clinical and…

  10. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  11. National Association of Social Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Urgent Attention Clinical Social Workers: Medicare PQRS Negative Payment Adjustment December 2016 Preparing a Professional Will ... Issue Fall 2016 PQRS Ends December 31, 2016 Negative PQRS Payment Adjustment for 2017 (10/14/2016) ...

  12. The social construction of social problems: the case of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Eisikovits, Zvi; Koren, Chaya; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2013-08-01

    The interaction and inter-penetrability overlap of abuse and neglect has been previously described. Therefore, the question is not whether a distinction can be made between the two, but how specific events are constructed into abuse and/or neglect based on how each of the protagonists involved (researchers, professional workers, family members, and the older persons themselves) make sense of abuse and neglect. The purpose of this paper is to explore the social and psychological construction of elder abuse and neglect and illustrate the theoretical constructs using case material and its application to the field.

  13. Establishing a Computerized Substance Abuse Surveillance System for District Social Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Methods, Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan; Parry, Charles; Carelse, Jermaine

    2011-01-01

    The provision of accurate, in-depth data on substance abuse trends and service needs has become increasingly important in light of the growing wave of substance abuse in South Africa and particularly in the Western Cape Province. This article describes the design and implementation of an electronic substance abuse surveillance system (SASS)…

  14. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bride, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers are increasingly being called on to assist survivors of childhood abuse, domestic violence, violent crime, disasters, and war and terrorism. It has become increasingly apparent that the psychological effects of traumatic events extend beyond those directly affected. Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is becoming viewed as an…

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect: Social Service Reader I [and] Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Bernadette, Ed.

    Intended to provide new caseworkers with an introduction to child abuse and neglect, the two part document presents information from a multidisciplinary perspective. Twenty-three articles in the first book and seven in the second are included on the social worker's role, assessment and counseling of abusive and neglecting parents, the impact of…

  16. Collaboration of School Social Workers and Drug Prevention Staff in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factors that are related to collaboration between high school social workers and substance abuse prevention/intervention counselors in New York State high schools (except for New York City high schools). Constructs that were analyzed were high school social workers' perceived adequacy in working with high school students'…

  17. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.

  18. Assessing the Consequences for Children and Families when a Parent Has a Problem with Substance Use and Abuse: Considerations for Social Workers and Other Helping Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimberley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to contribute to scholarship, knowledge and public policy regarding child maltreatment and parenting capacity within the context of parental substance use and abuse. One goal is to give voice to the children who have moved to, or who are approaching, the threshold for needing a type of protection that is neither…

  19. History of Abuse and Psychological Distress Symptoms among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica; Semple, Shirley J.; Rao, Swati; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel A.; Bucardo, Jesus; De la Torre, Adela; Salazar-Reyna, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization, and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that all forms of past abuse predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms. Social support was also significantly associated with fewer symptoms of distress; however, it was not shown to moderate the relationship between abuse history and distress. PMID:19634364

  20. Editorial: Social Support and Coping Strategies as Mediators of the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David P. H.

    1997-01-01

    This editorial discusses two studies in this journal issue that explore mediating functions of coping strategies and social support in long-term outcomes of child abuse and neglect. It is argued that these studies provide empirical evidence of interest to social workers and mental health practitioners by identifying specific factors and strategies…

  1. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving

  2. Household Income of Retired Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Conducted study which attempted to estimate the average household income of recently retired social workers and to compare it with that of retired professionals from similar occupations (nurses, teachers, doctors, and lawyers). Found retired social workers received the lowest income, on average, of all groups studied. (Author)

  3. Social Workers in Child Welfare: Ready for Duty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Tracy; Clark, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    This article responds to "Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?" by Dr. Robin E. Perry. The article articulates National Association of Social Workers' support for a professional social work labor force to serve children and their families and for continued federal investment in the training of these workers.…

  4. The Impact of a Post-Master's Program in Substance Abuse on Social Work and Other Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.; Vairo, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major problem encountered by social workers in all settings. This study investigated the impact of a postmaster's program in the treatment of substance-abusing clients on the domains of "Attitudes and Values," "Knowledge and Skills," and "Behaviors" of its graduates. Overall, 91 percent of…

  5. [Training health workers to deal with sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Suely; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to identify initiatives for training staff in the municipal healthcare system in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, to deal with cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. The reference for this exploratory study was the training program provided by the municipal government in 2010-2012 for administrators and health professionals in the public healthcare system in Fortaleza. At the time, the issue of sexual abuse was low in the system's training programs, despite recognition of its importance. Federal and State programs have provided input for such training programs in the various municipal health departments. The main strategy was to invest in training for health workers in primary care. Social workers were found to have insufficient training, aggravated by temporary work contracts and high staff turnover. The study suggests the need for training to deal with violence, particularly sexual abuse.

  6. A Comparative Study of Attitudes toward Child Sexual Abuse among Social Work and Judicial System Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Edward J.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences in attitudes toward perpetrators and victims of child sexual abuse were found among child welfare social workers, police officers, district attorneys, public defenders, and judges (N=132). In particular, professional groups differed in their beliefs about victim credibility and punishment of offenders. (JW)

  7. Linking Schools and Social Services; The Case of Child Abuse Reporting. A RAND Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.

    Findings of a study on child abuse reporting practices are presented in this paper. A survey of 1,196 professionals (social workers, psychologists, and doctors) and 267 elementary and secondary principals yielded response rates of 59 and 69 percent, respectively. Findings indicate that although school district policy and resource limitations…

  8. Charles Dickens, Social Worker in His Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    As the world marks the 200th anniversary of Charles Dickens's birth, social workers may take note of the contributions Dickens made to 19th century social reform. Ever the advocate for people who were poor and oppressed, Dickens, in his timeless fictional narratives, continues to have relevance for contemporary social justice advocacy. This…

  9. Intellectual, Emotional and Social Deficits of Abused Children: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryan, John R.

    1985-01-01

    This research review examines the findings of those studies of empirically sound methodology which compare matching groups of abused and non-abused children. The evidence consistently demonstrates detrimental consequences in intellectual, emotional, and social development. (Author/DST)

  10. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical social worker services. 410.73 Section 410... Clinical social worker services. (a) Definition: clinical social worker. For purposes of this part, a clinical social worker is defined as an individual who— (1) Possesses a master's or doctor's degree...

  11. [Social psychiatry of migrant workers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Binder, J; Simoes, M

    1978-06-01

    A review of literature about psychic illness in migrant workers (with special reference to the situation in Europe) is presented, including the problems of incidence and prevalence, course of the illness, typical syndromes and treatment. Results concerning incidence and prevalence of psychic disease in migrant workers are contradictory and partly--for methodological reasons--of questionable quality. It cannot be take for granted, that migrant workers suffer more often from psychiatric disturbances than either of the two possible control groups: the populations of the emigration or immigration countries respectively. There are two high risk periods for migrants: shortly after the migration and after a longer period in the guest country. Differences between the migrant's culture and that of the immigration context (language, mythical beliefs, illness behavior) influence the manifestations of psychiatric syndromes. The following syndromes are typical for migrant workers: paranoid reactions, hypochondric-depressive syndromes, psychosomatic conditions and sexual neurosis. Special attention requests the treatment of migrant workers with psychiatric problems; the aspects of psychotherapy, accompanying social measures and the return as therapeutic measure are discussed. In the second part, a general frame of reference for the sociological analysis of the problem of migrant workers is presented. Reasons for the mass immigration of foreign workers to the industrialized countries of central Europe were the demand of labor force and the large gap in socio-economic development between the countries. In the immigration context, the foreign workers find themselves in the lowest social strata and numerous problems accumulate there. Empirical evidence for different sociological explanations of mental illnes of migrant workers ist presented: hypotheses of social selection vs. social causation (low socio-economic status, goal-striving-stress, culture-shock theory, theory of culture

  12. Psycho-social Profile of Abused Children in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Aparajita; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the child abuse cases in India under categories based on different forms of child abuse, marital issues involved, parent child interactions, social and psychological characteristics, trends associated with the abused children, and remedial measures. Concludes with an emphasis on the need for empirical data on the extent and nature of child…

  13. After Abuse: Child Coping Patterns and Social Work Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Elizabeth M.

    The hypothesis that abused children develop a life style of overt expression of aggression and depression was examined in a study of 56 physically abused first grade children who were placed in foster care due to parental physical abuse. As no test instrument existed, the Childhood Social Functioning Inventory was developed, pretested, and used to…

  14. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) Students' Prior Sexual Abuse Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…

  15. Using the theory of planned behavior to examine residential substance abuse workers intention to use evidence-based practices.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Lovett, Megan J

    2012-09-01

    There is considerable discrepancy between what is considered evidence-based practice (EBP) and what is actually delivered in substance abuse treatment settings. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) is a well-established model that may assist in better understanding clinician's intentions to use EBPs. A total of 106 residential substance abuse workers employed by The Salvation Army participated in the current study. The workers completed an anonymous survey that assessed attitudes toward EBP and examined the constructs within the TpB. A linear regression analysis was used to predict clinicians' intentions to use EBPs. Overall, the model accounted for 41% of the variance in intentions, with attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control all significant predictors. The discussion highlights the potential for social reinforcement in the workplace to promote the implementation of EBPs.

  16. Motivating the Potential Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Clavner, Catherine

    Recently, there have been some major changes in the theory and practice of social services, social welfare, and social work. However, instead of the major educational modifications necessary to accompany these changes, minor curriculum changes have taken place. The need to modify education programs is severe at the undergraduate level, and…

  17. Charles Dickens, social worker in his time.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-10-01

    As the world marks the 200th anniversary of Charles Dickens's birth, social workers may take note of the contributions Dickens made to 19th century social reform. Ever the advocate for people who were poor and oppressed, Dickens, in his timeless fictional narratives, continues to have relevance for contemporary social justice advocacy. This article draws on Dickens's biography and writing to highlight select lessons of relevance to social work. The focus is on developing a professional lens, changing social norms, and interpreting case studies across ecological systems.

  18. Running between the raindrops: the obligation dilemma of the social worker in the nursing home.

    PubMed

    Lev, Sagit; Ayalon, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The authors examined perspectives of social workers working in nursing homes concerning their obligation to the older adult, the family, and the facility, and identified the dilemmas and difficulties that arise from these sometimes conflicting obligations. Authors conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with 15 social workers employed in nursing homes in Israel. Inter-theme consistencies and contradictions were elucidated, and descriptive and then interpretive categories were created to represent interview data. Social workers acknowl- edged their multiple, often contradictory loyalties to the older resident, the management of the institution, the staff, and the resident's family. The obligation dilemma was particularly evident in relocation decisions and suspected cases of elder abuse. The findings highlight the importance of the obligation dilemma in the work experience of social workers. Potential, implications for the care provided to older adults in nursing homes are discussed.

  19. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  20. Social Worker's Role in Teenage Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Lillian Pike

    1979-01-01

    An adolescent's request for an abortion raises many ethical and practical issues. The social worker must help the girl weigh the various alternatives, resolve the abortion crisis to her own satisfaction, and view the experience as one episode in her growth toward adulthood. (Author)

  1. The Undocumented Mexican Worker: A Social Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca-Ramirez, Reynaldo; Bryan, Dexter Edward

    1980-01-01

    Although presented by the press as a new phenomenon, the presence of undocumented Mexican workers in the United States is deeply rooted in history. While current policies tend to view illegal immigration as a social problem, the phenomenon persists because it benefits, politically and economically, both Mexico and the U.S. (Author/GC)

  2. School Social Workers' Perceptions of Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen; Singer, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    Although cyberbullying is a growing concern among students, parents, and school personnel, there has been little research exploring school social workers (SSWs) at the elementary, middle, and high school levels about their perceptions of the seriousness and pervasiveness of this issue as well as their responses to it. Data for this study came from…

  3. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    PubMed

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  4. Sexual abuse, parental bonding, social support, and program retention for women in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Cosden, M; Cortez-Ison, E

    1999-03-01

    Residential programs that provide safe environments and child care can attract perinatal women into treatment. Other factors, however, may prevent some women from benefiting from these programs. Attachment theory suggests that one's early history determines the effectiveness with which one can utilize available social supports. Lower levels of program retention were predicted for women who had been sexually abused and for those who had poor early bonding. Eighty-four women in residential substance abuse treatment programs were studied. Clients who reported sexual abuse also reported lower parental care. Parental care and overprotection were inversely related, and related, in predicted directions, to perceptions of social supports. Sexual abuse alone was associated with time in treatment and the likelihood of graduation. Implications for developing effective counseling programs for women in substance abuse treatment are discussed.

  5. Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

  6. Understanding the Impact of Sexual Abuse. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; Hartzell, Wenda

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module describes what sexual abuse is, why sexual abuse occurs, and how counties report and investigate cases of alleged sexual abuse. The module's learning objectives address: (1) ways of improving the child placement and…

  7. Insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress in victims of sexual abuse: the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics.

    PubMed

    Steine, Iris M; Krystal, John H; Nordhus, Inger H; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Harvey, Allison G; Eid, Jarle; Grønli, Janne; Milde, Anne M; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-06-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics, insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Results show that higher levels of perceived social support were related to lower scores on all symptom outcome measures. Abuse involving oral, genital, or anal penetration was related to more insomnia symptoms. Longer duration of abuse and threatening conducted by the perpetrator were related to higher nightmare frequency, while threats and abuse involving penetration were related to higher degrees of distress associated with nightmares. In conclusion, the present study provides preliminary data indicating that perceived social support may affect the nature of sleep difficulties in sexual abuse victims. Also, more severe forms of sexual abuse are related to higher levels of sleep difficulties.

  8. Social Resource Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Abuse Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Peter W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…

  9. Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To empirically examine whether the educational background of child welfare workers in Florida impacts on performance evaluations of their work. Method: A proportionate, stratified random sample of supervisor and peer evaluations of child protective investigators and child protective service workers is conducted. ANOVA procedures are…

  10. Conceptual framework for estimating the social cost of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    French, M T; Rachal, J V; Hubbard, R L

    1991-01-01

    Drug abuse imposes costs on individuals and society. Researchers have produced several studies on a subset of tangible costs of drug abuse and other illnesses, but key tangible costs sometimes have been overlooked and, even when recognized, rarely have been estimated. An assortment of intangible costs also have received very little research attention. This study outlines a comprehensive conceptual framework for estimating the social cost of drug abuse. We address both the tangible and intangible costs for the drug-abusing and non-drug-abusing population. Our conceptual framework is based on critical reviews of new and traditional methods for estimating the costs of illness and disease including cost-of-illness methods, averting behavior methods, and utility valuation techniques. We show how the proposed methods can be combined with existing data to estimate the total social cost of drug abuse. Using social cost estimates will enable policymakers to more accurately assess the total burden of drug abuse and related problems on society.

  11. The social worker. A member of the primary care team?

    PubMed

    Falloon, D

    1998-12-01

    The primary health care team at present does not include social workers as routine members. If however, we, accept the World Health Organization definition of health, which includes social well being, then it follows that the social worker should be considered as a member of the health team to attend to this aspect of health in the service delivery mix. This paper presents the experience of a social worker assigned to the August Town/Hermitage Type III health centre during the period March 1995 to February 1996 and her contribution to patient welfare. The expected roles of the social worker and his or her contribution to the health team are outlined.

  12. Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Psychosocial Functioning of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strean, Herbert S.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research on effects of childhood sexual abuse in adulthood. Describes individualizing assessment of adults who have been abused and aspects of treatment illustrated by case studies. Concludes social workers need to expand definition of childhood sexual abuse. (ABL)

  13. [Social and medical problems of occupational health of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, O N

    2000-01-01

    The article "Social and medical problems of healthcare in railway transport" presents principal factors influencing railway workers' health. The factors are those of social importance and influencing occupational suitability, general morbidity and morbidity with transitory disablement, disability in railway transport and its causes. The article shows therapeutic, sanitary and epidemiologic, social measures of prophylaxis for better work conditions and preservation of railway workers' health.

  14. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  15. Training Social Workers in Personal Finance: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despard, Mathieu R.; Chowa, Gina A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Social workers have opportunities to help individuals and families with their financial problems in a variety of practice settings, yet receive no formal training to do so. Using data from an online survey of social workers and other human service professionals ("N"?=?56) who completed or expressed interest in a financial social work…

  16. Crisis Intervention by Social Workers in Fire Departments: An Innovative Role for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Joanne; Carlson, Bonnie; Michaelis, Elizabeth; Klimek, Barbara; Steffan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a unique use of social workers as crisis response team (CRT) members in a nontraditional host setting, municipal fire departments in Arizona. The role of modern-day firefighters has changed dramatically and now includes responding to a wide variety of crises and emergencies other than fires, such as motor vehicle accidents,…

  17. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage.

  18. We Really Should Get on with It: An Argument for Not Assuming Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Being in full support of asking the question, "Do social workers make better child welfare workers?" we must be open to what we might find. It may bring us closer to what practices work and what practices do not work for children and families. By framing the issue in this way, we remove the debate about social worker usefulness in child welfare…

  19. Drinking, Drugs & Youth: Use and Abuse. Fostering Families. A Specialized Training Program Designed for Foster Care Workers & Foster Care Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; And Others

    This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module examines substance abuse by children aged 10 years and above. The module's learning objectives address: (1) family rules and coping mechanisms relevant to substance-abusing youth; (2) characteristics of adolescent…

  20. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  1. School Law for Counselors, Psychologists, and Social Workers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; Sorenson, Gail Paulus

    A variety of laws and regulations apply to school counselors, psychologists, and social workers in their work. This book presents information on legal issues of particular interest to counselors, psychologists, and social workers. Each chapter concludes with at least one relevant court case. Ten chapters provide indepth information on the…

  2. Informal Learning of Social Workers: A Method of Narrative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gola, Giancarlo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate social workers' processes of informal learning, through their narration of their professional experience, in order to understand how social workers learn. Informal learning is any individual practice or activity that is able to produce continuous learning; it is often non-intentional and…

  3. Commitment of Licensed Social Workers to Aging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kelsey; Bonifas, Robin; Gammonley, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify client, professional, and employment characteristics that enhance licensed social workers' commitment to aging practice. A series of binary logistic regressions were performed using data from 181 licensed, full-time social workers who reported aging as their primary specialty area as part of the 2004 NASW's national…

  4. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  5. Burnout in Hospital Social Workers Who Work with AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Julianne S.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…

  6. Political Content in Social Work Education as Reported by Elected Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    As a profession, social work has encouraged its members to run for public office to translate the values and ethics of social work into public policy. This study of 416 elected social workers around the country provides insight into the experiences of these elected social workers in their social work education. The classes, skills, activities,…

  7. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses how to assess for levels of acculturation; examines cultural values; and highlights salient work issues and health disparities that Latinos experience. Recommendations on how agencies and universities can recruit and promote bilingual practitioners are introduced. Finally, culturally responsive strategies for professional use of self and fostering the therapeutic alliance are discussed. PMID:19366165

  8. The Treatment of Wife Abuse in Recent Social Science Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardell, Laurie; And Others

    This paper reviews the social science literature dealing with gender relations in marriage and the issues of wife abuse. It is argued that the old anti-woman biases of the literature have not really diminished under the impact of feminism. The sexist assumptions and victim-blaming focus of the new battery literature are examined through…

  9. Occupational Disease, Workers' Compensation, and the Social Work Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Renee

    1983-01-01

    Charges that the overwhelming majority of victims of work-related illnesses are not receiving their entitlements. Describes ways in which social workers and health professionals may become advocates to broaden the effectiveness of the workers' compensation system, illustrated by case studies from the Montefiore Project. (Author/JAC)

  10. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Janet E.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Social Interest, Social Bonding, and Collegiate Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse continues to be prevalent on college campuses. This study explored the relationships between social interest, social bonding, and hazardous drinking and marijuana use among college students. Results indicate that the social bonding elements of religious commitment, respect for authority, and acceptance of conventional beliefs,…

  12. Barriers to health and social services for street-based sex workers.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Kiley, Marion C; Inciardi, James A

    2005-05-01

    Homelessness, poverty, drug abuse and violent victimization faced by street-based women sex workers create needs for a variety of health and social services, yet simultaneously serve as barriers to accessing these very services. The present study utilized interview (n = 586) and focus group (n = 25) data to examine the service needs and associated barriers to access among women sex workers in Miami, Florida. Women most often reported acute service needs for shelter, fresh water, transportation, crisis intervention, and drug detoxification, as well as long-term needs for mental and physical health care, drug treatment, and legal and employment services. Barriers included both structural (e.g., program target population, travel costs, office hours, and social stigma) and individual (e.g., drug use, mental stability, and fear) factors. Bridging these gaps is tremendously important from a public health perspective given the disease burden among this population. Recommendations include service staff training, outreach, and promising research directions.

  13. Action Research for Developing Social Workers' Research Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, Neil; Fouche, Christa

    2009-01-01

    We reflect on the action research process implemented in assisting the development of a culture of practitioner inquiry amongst social workers in social services agencies, and highlight the overall outcomes of the intervention. The paper outlines the rationale and process for undertaking an action research process with social services…

  14. Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-01-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

  15. The social worker as moral citizen: ethics in action.

    PubMed

    Manning, S S

    1997-05-01

    Social workers today face some of the most complex ethical dilemmas in the history of the profession. This article presents a framework of moral citizenship to guide ethical social work practice. The framework includes the action philosophies of philosopher Hannah Arendt and Lutheran theologian Paul Tillich integrated with concepts of professional responsibility and the unique contributions of social work pioneer Charlotte Towle. Social conscience and social consciousness, including awareness, thinking, feeling, and action, are major components of the framework.

  16. Job Satisfaction Among Gerontological Social Workers in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Simons, Kelsey; An, Sofiya

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about job satisfaction among Canada's social work workforce in aging, although social workers remain a key component of interdisciplinary care in health and social service settings. This study begins to address this gap in knowledge by examining individual, interpersonal, and job-design factors influencing the job satisfaction of gerontological social workers in Ontario. Data were collected via two online surveys with a sample drawn from the Ontario Association of Social Workers' membership list (N = 104). A multiple regression model explained 37% of the variance in job satisfaction, F = 5.47[10, 93], p < .001). Three independent variables were significant (positive affect, β = .21; promotional chances, β = .21; and client acuity, β = -.18). The results suggest the importance of promoting strategies for enhancing job satisfaction, advancing promotional opportunities for social work clinicians, and providing educational and clinical supports to clinicians.

  17. Thinking Like a Social Worker: Examining the Meaning of Critical Thinking in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, John

    2015-01-01

    "Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…

  18. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  19. Irregular brood patterns and worker reproduction in social wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Jennifer L.; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

    2007-12-01

    The potential for reproductive conflict among colony members exists in all social insect societies. For example, queens and workers may be in conflict over the production of males within colonies. Kin selection theory predicts that in a colony headed by a multiply-mated queen, worker reproduction is prevented by worker policing in the form of differential oophagy. However, few studies have demonstrated that workers actually lay eggs within queenright colonies. The purpose of this study was to determine if workers laid male eggs within unmanipulated queen-right colonies of the polyandrous social wasps Vespula maculifrons and V. squamosa. We focused our analysis on an unusual brood pattern within colonies, multiple egg cells. We were primarily interested in determining if individuals reared in these irregular circumstances were queen or worker offspring. To address this question, we genotyped 318 eggs from eight V. maculifrons and two V. squamosa colonies . No worker-reproduction was detected in any of the queenright colonies; all of the eggs found in multiple egg cells were consistent with being queen-produced. However, the frequency of multiple egg cells differed among colonies, suggesting that queens vary in the frequency of errors they make when laying eggs within cells. Finally, we suggest that workers may not be laying eggs within queenright colonies and that worker reproduction may be controlled through mechanisms other than differential oophagy in polyandrous Vespula wasps.

  20. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  1. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  2. Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Aim: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Settings and Design: Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 200 subjects (100 subjects each from rural and urban area respectively) of age 60 years and above was drawn by cluster sampling technique and interview method was used to collect data by using Likert scale. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out with SPSS package. Results: Results of the present study revealed that perceived physical abuse (25%) was higher among elderly residing in rural and it was found significantly higher among female elderly who were illiterate, widow/widower and partially dependent on caregiver whereas perceived psychological abuse (71%), financial abuse (37%) and social neglect (74%) were higher among elderly residing in urban. A significant association was found between psychological abuse and educational status, which inferred that as the level of education increases perception of psychological abuse also increases. The perceived financial abuse was significantly higher among male elderly who were financially independent. Conclusion: It was concluded that social neglect was most common, followed by psychological abuse and financial abuse among elderly residing in urban whereas physical abuse was more prevalent among elderly residing in rural. PMID:26816425

  3. PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF CLIENT-PERPETRATED ABUSE AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN TWO MEXICO-U.S. BORDER CITIES

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence, psychological distress and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs. PMID:24686125

  4. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.

  5. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

  6. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims.

  7. Workplace Congruence and Occupational Outcomes among Social Service Workers

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Nicholas, David

    2016-01-01

    Workplace expectations reflect an important consideration in employee experience. A higher prevalence of workplace congruence between worker and employer expectations has been associated with higher levels of productivity and overall workplace satisfaction across multiple occupational groups. Little research has investigated the relationship between workplace congruence and occupational health outcomes among social service workers. This study sought to better understand the extent to which occupational congruence contributes to occupational outcomes by surveying unionised social service workers (n = 674) employed with the Government of Alberta, Canada. Multiple regression analysis shows that greater congruence between workplace and worker expectations around workloads, workplace values and the quality of the work environment significantly: (i) decreases symptoms related to distress and secondary traumatic stress; (ii) decreases intentions to leave; and (iii) increases overall life satisfaction. The findings provide some evidence of areas within the workplace of large government run social welfare programmes that can be better aligned to worker expectations to improve occupational outcomes among social service workers. PMID:27559216

  8. Violent Events: School Social Workers' Perception and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article reports findings from a national web-based survey of 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America (SSWAA). This study examines the types of violent events reported by school social workers and the practitioner's perception of the problem of interpersonal violence in the school context. It identifies interventions being…

  9. Perceptions of Female Social Workers toward Administrative Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Carlton E.

    This paper discusses a study to determine attitudes among women in the field of social work regarding opportunities for professional advancement. Specifically, the study investigated whether female social workers noticed differences in opportunity among males and females to be recruited to management positions and to hold management positions once…

  10. Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work…

  11. Moral Development and Social Worker Ethical Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groessl, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the moral development levels using the Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT--2) and ethical decision-making using the Professional Opinion Scale (POS) of social workers who provide field supervision to students within accredited social work programs in Wisconsin. Using the moral development theory of Kohlberg (1981) which defined…

  12. School Social Workers' Perceptions of Graduate Education Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen; Joseph, Alfred Louis, Jr.; Broussard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of school social workers' (SSWers') graduate education training on contemporary issues facing students in schools as well as issues related to this host practice setting. SSWers who completed a specific school social work program were compared with those who did not on perceived graduate education preparation…

  13. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Sarah P; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-07-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse.

  14. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Sarah; Syvertsen, Jennifer; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse. PMID:23375570

  15. Oral health of foreign domestic workers: exploring the social determinants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Chan, Chi Wai; Mak, Siu Lun; Ng, Zevon; Kwong, Wai Hang; Kot, Ching Ching Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Foreign domestic helpers constitute a significant proportion of migrant workers worldwide. This population subgroup provides an opportunity for understanding social determinants of oral health in immigrant community. A random sample of 122 Indonesian domestic helpers in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire on their demographic background, social characteristics (competency in local languages, immigration history, living condition, social connections, and leisure activities) and oral health behaviours (knowledge, attitudes, practice and self-efficacy). Their tooth status and periodontal health were assessed. Participants tended to start flossing after settling in Hong Kong. Favourable oral health knowledge was found in more acculturated participants, as indicated by proficiency in local languages and immigration history. Engagement in social and/or religious activities and decent living condition provided by employers were associated with favourable oral health behaviours and/or better oral health. Social determinants explained 13.2 % of variance in caries severity. Our findings support the significant impact of social circumstances on oral health of domestic workers.

  16. The Development of a Substance Abuse Curriculum in a Master's of Social Work Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.; Bill, M. Louise; Slater, Judith R.

    2009-01-01

    Substance abuse has been identified as a significant social problem. Social work is uniquely positioned to affect this problem. Kennesaw State University has established a substance abuse concentration as part of its master's of social work program. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of this curriculum. The curriculum is…

  17. Whom Do Migrant Home Care Workers Contact in the Case of Work-Related Abuse? An Exploratory Study of Help-Seeking Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Green, Ohad; Ayalon, Liat

    2015-05-18

    Migrant home care workers constitute an "invisible" and vulnerable group in society, as they work in isolation in the homes of frail older adults. Past research has shown that this population is particularly vulnerable to work-related abuse. The aim of the present study was to explore the help-seeking behaviors of migrant home care workers who were exposed to work-related abuse. Overall, 187 Filipino home care workers completed a self-report questionnaire regarding four types of work-related abuse (sexual, physical, emotional, and exploitation), help-seeking strategies (i.e., formal and informal reporting), and reasons for not disclosing abusive incidents. A total of 56.7% reported some type of abuse. Of these, less than half reported the abuse, mostly informally to family and friends. None reported the abuse to the police. Main reasons for not disclosing the abuse were fears that things would get worse and the belief that it will take too much time and effort. The findings demonstrate that migrant home care workers are highly vulnerable to work-related abuse but are not likely to report work-related abuse and put an end to the cycle of abuse and violence. This calls for the development of further policy and interventions to protect this already vulnerable population.

  18. Social Support in Child Abuse and Neglect: Support Functions, Sources, and Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarracin, Dolores; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 101 Argentinean mothers of children who were hospitalized or attended an outpatient medical clinic examined the social support functions, sources, and temporal contexts of the mothers in relation to child abuse and neglect. Low-abuse/neglect mothers were found to have a stronger kin network than high-abuse/neglect mothers. (CR)

  19. Incarcerated sex workers and HIV prevention in China: social suffering and social justice countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph; Ren, Xin; Sapio, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Sex workers in China are routinely coercively detained through administrative mechanisms outside of legal procedures, but very little is known about the anthropologic and public health context of these policies. This biosocial analysis of female Chinese sex worker detention uses ethnographic, legal, and public health data to describe social suffering and countervailing social justice responses among incarcerated sex workers (ISW) in China. Compared to sex workers not detained in China, ISW face substantive inequalities inscribed in physical and psychological suffering. Chinese sex worker detention camp practices may not only systematically increase HIV/syphilis risk among ISW, but also work to narrow women's social spheres of influence, a particularly cruel tragedy in a Chinese social system that highly values social and personal connections. A limited empiric analysis of Guangxi Province STI clinic data shows that cities detaining sex workers have higher mean HIV prevalence compared to cities that do not detain sex workers. While incipient medical and legal movements in China have generated momentum for expanding ISW services and resources, there is still substantial variation in the implementation of laws that ensure basic life-saving medical treatments. Post-incarceration social justice programs for sex workers linking women to essential STI/HIV resources, reconnecting broken social lives, and helping restore interpersonal relationships are urgently needed.

  20. Sexual abuse, social stigma and HIV vulnerability among young feminised men in Lahore and Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W; Schunter, Bettina T; Iqbal, Qasim

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of 10 young feminised men in Pakistan. They face high levels of stigma, violence and sexual abuse. The average age of first sex was 11 years old and all reported having been been raped during childhood and early adolescence, often several times. While some mothers and siblings were quietly supportive, young feminised men often end up running away from home, finding support as a member of a hijra dera, a 'pseudo-household' led by an older feminised man or guru, in which they find employment as dancers or sex workers. After their entry into sex work there is little or no opportunity to use condoms. The hijra dera offer an important entry point for improved social support and sexual health programmes, including efforts to ensure young feminised men postpone their sexual debut and/or improve their sexual health, retain access to education, explore alternative forms of employment and improve access to health care.

  1. Sexual hazards, life experiences and social circumstances among male sex workers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okanlawon, Kehinde; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Titilayo, Ayotunde

    2013-01-01

    The sexual health and rights needs of male sex workers in Nigeria remain poorly understood and served. Men who sell sex are at high risk of discrimination and violation because of laws criminalising same-sex activity and sex work. This paper examines the experiences, social circumstances, vulnerabilities and sexual hazards experienced by male sex workers in Nigeria. In-depth interviews were used to explore the experiences of six male sex workers who were selected by means of convenience sampling from among those who came for counselling. Findings reveal that economic disadvantage drives some men to engage in sex work and risky sexual behaviour. Subsequently, sex work may put their lives and health at risk as a result of violation by the police and clients, including ritual murder. Men's extreme vulnerability points to the need for appropriate interventions to improve well-being. Sexual health and rights programmes must identify ways of making male sex workers less vulnerable to abuse, and devise strategies for protecting their health and human rights, while empowering them economically to reduce their dependency on often risky sexual behaviour for livelihoods.

  2. Oncology social workers' attitudes toward hospice care and referral behavior.

    PubMed

    Becker, Janet E

    2004-02-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care, yet the average proportion of terminally ill patients whom they referred to hospice was only 49.5 percent. The worker's HPS score was related significantly, although weakly, to the likelihood of referral. A follow-up study was undertaken to determine the reasons for the discrepancy between the workers' self-reported favorable attitudes toward hospice and their relatively low rate of patient referral. The factor identified most frequently was resistance from families because of the requirement that hospice patients discontinue active treatment.

  3. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  4. Social relationships in sexually abused children: self-reports and teachers' evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Dallaire, Claudia; Hébert, Martine

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the social relationships of child victims of sexual abuse using both self-reports and teachers' ratings. Participants were 93 child victims of sexual abuse and a comparison group of 75 nonvictims. Teachers' assessments revealed that sexually abused children displayed greater social skill problems compared to same-age, nonabused peers and were more likely to display social difficulties nearing clinical levels. Analyses indicated that sexually abused children presented lower levels of interpersonal trust in people surrounding them yet a marginally higher level of trust in peers compared to nonabused children. Sense of loneliness and feeling different from peers did not differ between groups.

  5. Social determinants of child abuse: evidence of factors associated with maternal abuse from the Egypt demographic and health survey

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Braithwaite, Patrick; Clerk., George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Child abuse or maltreatment is a significant global public health problem of unknown global prevalence. About 40 million children aged 0 - 14 years require health and social care globally. The prevalence, determinants, and trends of national or global rates of child abuse and maltreatment are largely unknown. Methods: Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS), and included 19474 women aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses by stepwise regression, backward method were used to determine the independent contribution of the possible social determinants of child abuse, with the direction and magnitude of associations expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confident interval levels (95% CI). Results: Identified determinants of child abuse included exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), justifying wife beating, exposure to generational IPV, and such factors as younger age of the women, male sex, partners’ lower education, poverty, residence in urban areas, younger children, and residence in households with 3 - 5 children. Conclusions: Experience of IPV, mothers’ justification of wife beating, and generational IPV were associated with elevated odds of child abuse. Findings indicate possible high levels of unmet child protection needs, and stress the need for professionals working with children to employ culturally-sensitive methods in investigating social determinants of child abuse. PMID:26401957

  6. Social Physics and the Flow of Migrant Peasant Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Li; Yun-Lin, Wang

    Social physics is an old and new discipline. In the seventeenth century, when physics as we know it was gradually taking shape, natural philosophers were attempting to apply the concepts and methods of statistical physics to society as a whole. The social physics is the use of natural way of thinking, the basic principles of universal rules, systems and methods of calculation means the social, economic and other complex issues of qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex subjects. In the direction of natural and social sciences Cross-full, it could be easy to understand the flow of migrant peasant workers preference choice of this complex issue.

  7. The "Flavor" of the Social Ecology Paradigm in Use: Building on Mutual Social Support in Preventing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsheim, Howard I.; Roberts, Bruce B.

    The "Bottled Pain" project, a drug abuse prevention program in 24 Lutheran congregations in southern Minnesota, is based on a social ecology paradigm designed to prevent drug abuse through the development of socially supportive relationshps and through using the environment as a natural strength within the community. According to the…

  8. Components of Job Satisfaction in Psychiatric Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Anne; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 188 psychiatric social workers, finding overall positive level of job satisfaction. Overall job satisfaction was found to be primarily determined by position satisfaction. Major correlate of position satisfaction was professional respect received from other disciplines and not specific tasks performed. Results showed importance of…

  9. Tools to Reduce Overload in the School Social Worker Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyba, Erin Gleason

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses how school social workers can decrease overload in their roles. A two-step process of envisioning an ideal role is outlined: (1) indentifying priorities and activities that are effective or in need of expansion and (2) weeding out activities that could be done differently or no longer serve their purpose. The author…

  10. Social Workers in Home Care: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Baum, Nehami

    2010-01-01

    In Israel, the government partially supports personal home care services (grooming, feeding, assistance with transfers) as a means to maintain frail individuals in their home environment for as long as possible. Social workers capture a prominent position in these arrangements as initiators and supervisors of personal home care services. This…

  11. Resident Transitions to Assisted Living: A Role for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Noelle LeCrone; Koenig, Terry; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly

    2012-01-01

    This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide,…

  12. School Social Workers and Multiculturalism: Changing the Environment for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Alfred L.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne; Webster, Paula Sunanon

    2012-01-01

    Dropping out, a phenomenon heavily concentrated in communities of color, hampers the academic success of multicultural students. Multiculturalism can help make school an inviting place for vulnerable youths, and school social workers (SSWRs) are in a position to advocate for school environments that are conducive to academic success. The present…

  13. Professional Role Perceptions of School Social Workers, Psychologists, and Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agresta, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    School social workers, school psychologists, and school counselors were surveyed. They reported the actual proportion of their professional time that they devoted and would ideally dedicate to each of 21 professional roles. They rated the appropriateness of each role for members of the three professions and indicated how often they felt…

  14. I-E Scores of Drug-Abusing Offenders: The Influence of Social Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBridge, Kevin J.

    1982-01-01

    Tests the relationship between locus of control and drug abuse and the influence of test instructions and social desirability. Results of research with incarcerated offenders indicated test instructions aimed at heightening social desirability artificially inflated locus of control scores. Found no significant differences between drug abusers and…

  15. Social Workers in Combat: Application of Advanced Practice Competencies in Military Social Work and Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Michael W.; Weiss, Eugenia L.

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates the types of situations that U.S. uniformed social workers have experienced in combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan with the purpose of preparing current and future social workers to effectively serve military and veteran clients in either military or civilian settings. Vignettes demonstrate the application of the…

  16. Experiences of opioid-dependent women in their prenatal and postpartum care: Implications for social workers in health care.

    PubMed

    Howard, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of prescription opioid abuse has increased nationally in the last decade with increased incidence rates reported among pregnant women. This was a qualitative study designed to understand the role of pregnant women with an opioid use disorder participating in medical decision making regarding their prenatal care while addressing their addiction. Group interviews were conducted with postpartum women who self-identified as opioid dependent during their pregnancy, and the data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Social workers in the health care setting are an integral part of the interdisciplinary team in caring for pregnant and postpartum opioid-dependent women. Social workers are ideal in creating stigma reduction strategies, peer and professional supports, and comprehensive coordinated care. A social justice-based practice may be a framework to utilize when caring for this unique population.

  17. Certification of School Social Workers and Curriculum Content of Programs Offering Training in School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumm, Ann Marie; Bye, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the status of certification requirements for school social workers across the United States and the policy context in which certification is embedded. The article also details findings of a study on the curriculum available at various schools of social work offering training in school social work. The article makes a case for…

  18. Using Social Constructionist Thinking in Training Social Workers Living and Working under Threat of Political Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamai, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence, such as war and terrorism. Uses a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a…

  19. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  20. Nurses' and Social Workers' Attitudes and Beliefs about and Involvement in Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Perla; Carmel, Sara; Ziedenberg, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    Data were collected from 213 nurses and 61 social workers at major hospitals across Israel. Whereas nurses reported being more involved in the daily care of terminally ill patients, social workers reported being more involved in discussions with patients and family members. Nurses were more willing than social workers to use artificial feeding and…

  1. Social Workers' Observations of the Needs of the Total Military Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jodi J.; Collins, Kathryn S.; Pastoor, Jennifer; Linde, Linnea

    2014-01-01

    Researchers surveyed licensed social workers from 5 Mid-Atlantic states to explore their perspectives on the current state of mental health and service delivery for military service workers, families, and contractors. Social workers identified needs in the following areas: mental health, physical health and wellness, social and environmental,…

  2. The School Social Worker: A Marginalized Commodity within the School Ecosystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Megan Callahan

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century, social workers have been a life force within the education system. Throughout recent history school social workers have had an array of responsibilities within the school community. They have served as counselors, mediators, and advocates. Traditionally, school social workers have been primary facilitators of communication…

  3. Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers against Compassion Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-01-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…

  4. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico. PMID:23737808

  5. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

  6. The Army Social Work Internship Program: training today's uniformed social worker.

    PubMed

    Howard, Reginald W

    2014-01-01

    Uniformed social workers are involved in ensuring the well-being of Soldiers and their families during peace and war. The Army Medical Department Center and School is charged with the educational development of uniformed social workers. This article focuses on a relatively new approach to preparing social work officers for their dual role of providing garrison and operational behavioral health services to Soldiers and families. In the 4 years since implementation, this 2-year training program has become the model for the professional development of new uniformed social work graduates.

  7. Understanding the Interplay Between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    This article seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g., disadvantage) and social processes (e.g., interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multilevel modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign-born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to the frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse, while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment.

  8. Jewish Israeli social workers' responses to ethnic health inequality.

    PubMed

    Baum, Nehami

    2013-04-01

    In this study I explored the perceptions and responses of Jewish Israeli social workers to the health inequalities facing their Arab clients. Findings drawn from face-to-face, in-depth interviews with 26 Jewish Israeli social workers employed in the health field show that they were highly aware of the health inequalities. Although they uniformly insisted that there was no discrimination in the hospitals where they were employed, they observed extensive structural and individual discrimination outside the hospital and linguistic and sociocultural impediments to health equality within it. The discrimination provoked feelings of anger and moral outrage, guilt, and shame. Both the discrimination and the linguistic and sociocultural impediments filled them with frustration and led them, both individually and in concert with colleagues, to try to alleviate, circumvent, correct, or compensate for the impediments. Suggestions are made for practice and further research.

  9. Adolescent fathers involved with child protection: social workers speak.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Derrick M; Watkins, Natasha D; Walling, Sherry M; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from six area offices and one juvenile detention facility completed surveys for each father on their caseload. A 3.5% rate of adolescent paternity was observed across these offices. Information about the nature of the young men's involvement with CPS, their involvement with their children, and their unique needs as fathers are provided. This paper also identifies some practice and policy implications for adolescent fathers and CPS charged with their care.

  10. Male social workers in child welfare: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Warde, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study conducted with a cohort of male social workers (N = 17) who practice in child welfare. The findings revealed that among other things, participants experience a high level of satisfaction with their role. Moreover, they believe they have made significant contributions to child welfare practice, which include challenging hegemonic masculinity that supports the notion that child welfare is the exclusive responsibility of women. The findings and their implications are discussed.

  11. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a ...

  12. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ... self-control. Of course, not everyone with a personality disorder or mental illness becomes abusive. Fortunately, people ...

  13. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here ...

  14. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  15. Social Workers' Perspectives Regarding the DSM: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Tara

    2014-01-01

    There is a decades-old debate in social work regarding the appropriateness of the use of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) by clinicians in this profession. Despite often contentious perspectives, there has been very little study regarding clinical social workers' experiences, attitudes, and beliefs about…

  16. Mothers' Perceptions of Social Work Helpgiving Practices: Implications for the Role of the School Social Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Kristina S.

    2012-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities Act has strengthened the role of parents in their children's special education. School social workers are one of the educational professionals in attendance at IEP staffings, yet their role definition continues to be poorly articulated. This qualitative study investigated school social work helpgiving practices…

  17. School Social Worker's Perceptions of the Frequency of Actual and Preferred Engagement in Role Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the frequency in which school social workers in Virginia engage in and prefer to engage in social work related activities and (2) to determine if the frequency in which the social work related activities the school social workers engage in is related to select variables. After a comprehensive review…

  18. Counselor Attitudes toward and Use of Evidence-Based Practices in Private Substance Use Disorder Treatment Centers: A Comparison of Social Workers and Non-Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bride, Brian E.; Kintzle, Sara; Abraham, Amanda J.; Roman, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that may be associated with variation in social workers' perceptions of effectiveness, perceptions of acceptability, and use of psychosocial evidence-based practices (EBPs) for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) in comparison to other SUD counselors who are non-social workers. A national…

  19. Identifying and Assisting the Gifted Child: [Six Guides for the] Clinical Social Worker; School Counselor; School Social Worker; Nurse; Physician; [and] Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    These six guides on identifying and assisting the gifted school-age child are specifically addressed to either clinical social workers, school social workers, school counselors, nurses, physicians, and psychologists. Each leaflet examines the role of the target professional in providing assistance to gifted children. For example, the social…

  20. Elder abuse and neglect: social problems revealed from 15 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Kayoko; Bunai, Yasuo; Tsujinaka, Masatake; Nakamura, Isao; Nagai, Atsushi; Tsukata, Yukiyoshi; Ohya, Isao

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the elder abuse cases that occurred in Gifu Prefecture, Japan between 1990 and 2000. We conducted a retrospective study of all the cases in which the victim was 65 years or older and autopsied in the Department of Legal Medicine, Gifu University School of Medicine. Fifteen victims were classified as elder abuse victims: five men and ten women. The victims ranged in age from 66 to 87 years (mean age, 74.5 years). The types of abuse were as follows: physical abuse, 13 cases; emotional abuse, five cases; neglect, four cases; and financial abuse, three cases. In eight cases, the victims were subjected to two or more types of abuse. The cause of death of the victims varied with the type of abuse. In the physical abuse cases, subdural hemorrhage was the most common cause, followed by other violence-related deaths and hypothermia. In the neglect cases, the victims died of either starvation or suffocation after the aspiration of food into the airway. In the domestic abuse cases, one of the victim's sons was the most common perpetrator, and little or no income was considered to be a risk factor for perpetrators. In the neglect cases, dementia and difficulty in performing activities of daily living were considered to be risk factors for victims, in addition to living in social isolation.

  1. Agreement between the fatty acid ethyl ester hair test for alcohol and social workers' reports.

    PubMed

    Kulaga, Vivian; Gareri, Joey; Fulga, Netta; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social worker reports and the fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) test as a biomarker for heavy alcohol use. In 2005, a diagnostic program to detect excessive alcohol use by FAEE hair analysis in parents at high risk of having children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders was established. All cases submitted by Child Protective Services between May and December of 2007 (n = 172) were included comparing social worker reports with FAEE test outcome by odds ratio analysis. A subanalysis of mothers (n = 119), excluding fathers, was also performed. Factors associated with testing positive for hair FAEE in parents, and mothers alone, were: knowledge of a specific instance of problem drinking within the past 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 5.11, 2.57-10.16 and OR = 8.51, 3.59-20.18, respectively) and third party reports alleging alcohol abuse (OR = 3.31, 1.69-6.46 and OR = 3.30, 1.45-7.50, respectively). Mothers who admitted to heavy drinking were also seven times more likely to test positive for hair FAEE (OR = 6.74, 1.50-30.38) than those who did not. Factors negatively associated with testing positive for hair FAEE in parents, and mothers alone, were: social workers testing for FAEE without the suspicion of alcohol use but rather as a measure to "cover all bases" (OR = 0.09, 0.02-0.40 and (OR = 0.13, 0.03-0.58, respectively) or because of a history/suspicion of illicit drug use (OR = 0.2, 0.07-0.55 and OR = 0.26, 0.08-0.80, respectively). Eleven of 15 reports, indicating levels of consumption, were also in clinical agreement with FAEE test outcome. The FAEE hair test is being applied for the first time in the present context. Our results show the test corroborates well with social workers' suspicion of alcohol use. Reported factors directly related to alcohol use were significantly associated with testing positive for excessive alcohol use, whereas factors not directly related to alcohol use were negatively

  2. Spanish Language Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Spanish-Speaking Social Workers: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists about Spanish-speaking social workers that provide bilingual social work services. To date, studies have not exclusively focused on actual language competence of bilingual social workers or even their self-perceived language beliefs. This study reviews the results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey exploring…

  3. The Impact of MSW Education on Social Worker Empowerment and Commitment to Client Empowerment through Social Justice Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Voorhis, Rebecca Morrison; Hostetter, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes among graduate students (N=52) in perception of social worker empowerment and commitment to client empowerment through social justice advocacy. Pre-post data showed that most entering MSW students possessed important beliefs about empowerment for themselves as social workers and for members of oppressed population…

  4. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057

  5. Burnout and death anxiety in hospice social workers.

    PubMed

    Quinn-Lee, Lisa; Olson-McBride, Leah; Unterberger, April

    2014-01-01

    Hospice work has been regarded as particularly stressful due to the complexity inherent in the provision of end-of-life care. Burnout and death anxiety are especially relevant to hospice social workers because they regularly function in a high-stress, high-loss environment. The purpose of this study was threefold: to determine the prevalence of burnout and death anxiety among hospice social workers; to examine associations between burnout and death anxiety; and to explore the factors which may contribute to the development of death anxiety and burnout. Participants completed four items: the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), the Death Anxiety Questionnaire (DAQ), a demographic questionnaire, and a set of open-ended questions. Findings indicate that mean scores on the subscales of the MBI-HSS ranged from the low to moderate range and that a strong positive correlation existed between death anxiety and the depersonalization subscale of the MBI. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: (a) personal interest in hospice social work developed through a variety of ways; (b) although death anxiety decreased from exposure and understanding of the death process, there was increased death anxiety surrounding working with certain patients; and (c) burnout was primarily related to workload or difficult cases.

  6. Making the invisible visible: are health social workers addressing the social determinants of health?

    PubMed

    Craig, Shelley L; Bejan, Raluca; Muskat, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which health social workers (HSW) address the social determinants of health (SDH) within their social work practice. Social workers (n = 54) employed at major hospitals across Toronto had many years of practice in health care (M = 11 years; SD = 10.32) and indicated that SDH were a top priority in their daily work; with 98% intentionally intervening with at least one and 91% attending to three or more. Health care services were most often addressed (92%), followed by housing (72%), disability (79%), income (72%), and employment security (70%). Few HSW were tackling racism, Aboriginal status, gender, or social exclusion in their daily practice.

  7. Mediating and moderating effects of social support in the study of child abuse and adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J Bart; Mason, W Alex; Brown, Eric C; Leeb, Rebecca T; Herrenkohl, Roy C

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  9. Social Adjustment of Women With and Without a Substance Abusing Partner

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Clifton R.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Clements, Nicolle T.; Benishek, Lois A.; Nick, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Little normative information is available about the psychosocial functioning of women who have a substance abusing intimate partner. This study examined whether the social adjustment of women who indicate that they have a substance abusing partner (n=69) is compromised relative to that of women who indicate that their partner does not abuse substances (n=68). Women with a substance abusing partner reported compromised social adjustment relative to a comparison sample both overall and in five of six life domains (work, social/leisure, primary relationship, parental, family). Results suggest the potential benefit of expanding the focus of research and treatment to include effects and outcomes for these women and to influence treatment-related policy. PMID:25052786

  10. The social ecology of adolescent-initiated parent abuse: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is applied, which examines the risk and protective factors for adolescent-initiated parent abuse within micro- (maltreatment, domestic violence, parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies), meso- (peer influence), exo- (media influence), macro- (gender role socialization), and chronosystem (change in family structure) levels. Findings from our review suggest that older and White children are significantly more likely to abuse their parents. Females are selective in the target of their aggression, while males target family members in general. Mothers are significantly more likely to be abused than fathers. However, researchers also report variations in the association between SES and parent abuse. Domestic violence and child maltreatment are risk factors, while findings on parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies are mixed. Peer influence, exposure to media violence, gender role socialization, and change in family structure can potentially increase the risk of parent abuse. Practice and research implications are also discussed. An ecological systems framework allows for an examination of how various contexts interact and influence parent abuse behavior, and can provide needed directions for further research.

  11. The role of mesocorticolimbic dopamine in regulating interactions between drugs of abuse and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Young, Kimberly A; Gobrogge, Kyle L; Wang, Zuoxin

    2011-01-01

    The use of addictive drugs can have profound short- and long-term consequences on social behaviors. Similarly, social experiences and the presence or absence of social attachments during early development and throughout life can greatly influence drug intake and the susceptibility to drug abuse. The following review details this reciprocal interaction, focusing on common drugs of abuse (e.g., psychostimulants, opiates, alcohol and nicotine) and social behaviors (e.g., maternal, sexual, play, aggressive and bonding behaviors). The neural mechanisms underlying this interaction are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the involvement of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system.

  12. Male Social Workers Working with Men Who Batter: Dilemmas in Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through…

  13. Earnings History of Social Workers: A Comparison to Other Professional Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Law, Simon Wai-on

    1993-01-01

    Used data from 1982 New Beneficiary Survey and from Social Security Administration to trace experience of social workers and members of four other professional groups who started to receive Old Age Insurance benefits or became Medicare-only beneficiaries in 1980-81. Found that earnings capacity of social workers consistently lagged far behind two…

  14. Innovative Approach to the Organization of Future Social Workers' Practical Training: Foreign Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polishchuk, Vira; Slozanska, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Innovative approaches to practical training of future social workers in higher educational establishments have been defined. Peculiarities of foreign experience of social workers' practical training in higher educational establishments have been analyzed. Experience of organizing practice for bachelor students studying at "Social Work"…

  15. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…

  16. Bouncers, Brokers, and Glue: The Self-Described Roles of Social Workers in Urban Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Shelley L.; Muskat, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Social workers delivering services in health care settings face unique challenges and opportunities. The purpose of this study was to solicit input from social workers employed in urban hospitals about their perceptions of the roles, contribution, and professional functioning of social work in a rapidly changing health care environment. Using…

  17. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution.

  18. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.

  19. School Social Work Journal. Illinois Association of School Social Workers. Volume 3, Number l, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertts, Jeanne, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, P.L. 94-142, and its impact on the role of school social workers, including relationships with students, school personnel, parents, and community service agencies. Other articles address the following areas of concern: (1) truancy and due process; (2) play therapy; (3) issues of…

  20. Professional Training of Social Workers: Development of Professionally Significant Qualities in the Future Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minzhanov, Nurlan A.; Ertysbaeva, Gaukhar N.; Abdakimova, Madina K.; Ishanov, Pirmagambet Z.

    2016-01-01

    Today, the traditional approach to professional training is obsolete. This problem has determined the need to create new didactic forms related to the organization of training in the modern education system. The purpose of this study was to analyze possible development of professionally important qualities and abilities in the future social care…

  1. Value differences between social workers and members of the working and middle classes.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R

    2003-01-01

    Although significant differences in values between social workers and clients are widely understood to affect the efficacy of service provision, no studies have sought to examine how the values affirmed by social workers may differ from those held by members of the working and middle classes. Therefore, this study examines the degree of value similarity between social workers and consumers. Based on "new-class" theory, two hypotheses are proposed. First, graduate social workers affirm value positions to the left of working- and middle-class clients. Second, bachelor's-level social workers affirm value positions in between those of graduate workers and clients. Both hypotheses were supported. The implications for the divergence in value frameworks for advocacy, practice, and education are discussed.

  2. Regulation of host workers' oviposition by the social parasite ant Polyergus samurai.

    PubMed

    Tsuneoka, Yousuke

    2014-07-01

    Polyergus samurai, an obligatory social parasite ant, lacks the ability to perform usual colony tasks. It depends completely on host Formica japonica workers. In the mixed colony, arrhenotokous reproduction by host workers must be detrimental to the parasites. This study, conducted under artificial rearing conditions, investigated the behavioral influence by P. samurai worker on the production of host workers' male eggs. Host workers started laying eggs when the P. samurai queen was removed, but most eggs were destroyed by P. samurai workers. In a queenless condition, P. samurai workers showed frequent intraspecific dominance interactions, but few interspecific ones. After a short while the P. samurai worker started laying eggs, the F. japonica worker stopped laying eggs. The ovary had no mature oocyte. These results suggest that both the P. samurai queen and dominant workers can inhibit host workers' oviposition. A mesh experiment revealed that the dominant P. samurai workers were able to inhibit host workers' oviposition without contacts. The dominant workers and queens of P. samurai frequently received grooming and trophallaxis from host workers just as a host queen does, suggesting that the parasites secreted similar products to those of the host queen to inhibit the host workers' oviposition.

  3. Young women's social and occupational development and mental health in the aftermath of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Elizabeth A; Aseltine, Robert H; Gore, Susan

    2007-09-01

    We examined social role functioning and depressive symptoms of young adults who were abused as children in data from a longitudinal community sample. Sexually abused women and men were more depressed during their senior year of high school, and this difference was more pronounced 2 years later. We then examined a mediational model to determine whether social functioning explained the course of depressive symptoms over this transitional period. Focusing only on young women, for whom the prevalence of abuse was much higher, results indicated that two-thirds of the effect of abuse on depressive symptoms was explained by experiences and choices in the domains of work, education and intimate relationships. Having less supportive intimate relationships and lower rates of attendance at 4-year colleges were particularly important. Findings reveal the key role played by early adult interpersonal and occupational development in perpetuating the mental health impact of childhood trauma.

  4. Recovery at Work: The Relationship Between Social Identity and Commitment Among Substance Abuse Counselors

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Sara L.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2010-01-01

    The complex makeup of the substance abuse treatment workforce poses unique challenges to the field. One interesting dynamic is the high rate of counselors who are personally recovering from addictions. Based on social identity theory, it was expected that counselors working in the field of substance abuse treatment who are in recovery themselves will identify more with their profession and report higher professional and organizational commitment. Data from a study of substance abuse counselors from across the United States supports the proposed relationship between personal recovery status and professional commitment but not organizational commitment. PMID:20674241

  5. Child Abuse, Child Development, and Social Policy. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology: Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante, Ed.; Toth, Sheree L., Ed.

    This book is devoted to the problems of family violence, child abuse, and child maltreatment, including the legal, social, psychological, and community issues. Articles contained in this volume are as follows: (1) "Child Maltreatment Research and Social Policy: The Neglected Nexus" (D. Cicchetti and S. Toth); (2) "Defining Child…

  6. Training Social Work Students for Practice with Substance Abusers: An Ecological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wormer, Katherine

    1987-01-01

    The following questions are addressed: Why should general social work students need to know about alcoholism/addiction, chemical dependency? What skills are required for assessment of chemical dependency intervention? How can the social work curriculum provide adequate training for work with substance abusers? (Author/MH)

  7. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  8. The protective effect of neighborhood social cohesion in child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Showalter, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Relations between parents within a neighborhood have the potential to provide a supportive environment for healthy and positive parenting. Neighborhood social cohesion, or the mutual trust and support among neighbors, is one process through which parenting may be improved. The current study investigates the association between neighborhood social cohesion and abuse and neglect, as well as specific types of abuse and neglect. The sample for the study is comprised of 896 parents in one urban Midwestern County in the United States. Participants were recruited from Women, Infants, and Children clinics. Negative binomial regression is used to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and child maltreatment behaviors, as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent-to-Child Version (Straus et al., 1998). In this sample of families, neighborhood social cohesion is associated with child neglect, but not abuse. In examining the relationship with specific types of abuse and neglect, it was found that neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective role in some acts of neglect, such as meeting a child's basic needs, but not potentially more complex needs like parental substance abuse.

  9. Is the Client-Worker Relationship Associated with Better Outcomes in Mandated Child Abuse Cases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheryl D.; Ayon, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to (a) find if there were associations between child welfare outcomes and the client-worker relationship and (b) learn what are the predictors of a positive client-worker relationship. Method: 100 (55 Family Maintenance [FM] and 45 Family Preservation [FP]) clients were interviewed in English and…

  10. An Exploration of Social Circles and Prescription Drug Abuse Through Twitter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. Objective To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Methods Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. Results From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, P<.001). Conclusions Twitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it—potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm. PMID:24014109

  11. Social Worker Perceptions of the Portrayal of the Profession in the News and Entertainment Media: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugazaga, Carole B.; Surette, Raymond B.; Mendez, Monica; Otto, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study describes social workers' perceptions of the depiction of the social work profession found in the news and entertainment media. A random sample of 665 MSW social workers who were members of the Florida Chapter of the National Association of Social Workers were surveyed regarding how they felt the profession was depicted in…

  12. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-vested worker covered under Social Security? 404.1402 Section 404.1402 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a non-vested worker, we (the Social Security Administration) will consider your services in the...

  13. Ethical Issues in the Social Worker's Role in Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manetta, Ameda A.; Wells, Janice G.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of an exploratory study of social workers' views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), situations in which PAS would be favored, and whether there is a difference in education or training on mental health issues, ethics, or suicide between social workers who favor PAS and those who oppose PAS. (BF)

  14. Value Differences between Social Workers and Members of the Working and Middle Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Significant differences in values between social workers and clients are widely understood to affect the efficacy of service provision. This study examines the degree of value similarity between social workers and consumers, specifically, members of the working and middle classes. Based on "new-class" theory, two hypotheses are proposed. (Contains…

  15. Training Social Workers, Clients, and Students in the Use of Rural Natural Helping Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Judson H.; Hilbert, Judith Cicero

    A manual, geared toward training social workers going into rural areas, provides a brief discussion of the natural helping relationships found in rural communities and a simulation game to be used in acquainting social workers, clients, and students with the rural network. Objectives of the simulation game, Nets and Links, are to train people to…

  16. A Quest for Meaning: Hospice Social Workers and Patients with End-Stage Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Sara; Swails, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that few social workers are interested in working with cognitively impaired older adults, such as those with Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia. As the number of individuals with dementia grows, the demand for social workers to provide services to patients with dementia will increase. Although much attention has been given to…

  17. School Social Workers Sanctioned by State Departments of Education and State Licensing Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland-Prom, Kim; Alvarez, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the unprofessional conduct of school social workers who have been sanctioned by state regulatory boards (boards of education and licensing boards). The data represent information from 14 states and the District of Columbia. Results indicate that school social workers are rarely sanctioned at the…

  18. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Peer-Reviewed Literature: The Evidence Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Social workers from one state chapter of the National Association of Social Workers were surveyed to assess their use of and attitudes toward the peer-reviewed literature and their engagement in evidence-based practice. Results reveal that, in general, the practitioners in this study did not read the peer-reviewed literature, particularly articles…

  19. Social Workers' Participation in the Resolution of Ethical Dilemmas in Hospice Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikai, Ellen L.

    2004-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are inherent in every health care setting. A sample of hospice social workers with no direct access to a hospice ethics committee (N = 110) was surveyed regarding ethical issues in hospice care, how the issues were managed, and the extent to which social workers participated in resolution of ethical dilemmas. Common issues…

  20. Remote Practice and Culture Shock: Social Workers Moving to Isolated Northern Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapf, Michael Kim

    1993-01-01

    Examined adjustment patterns of social workers (n=85) who relocated to remote Yukon Territory. Social workers recruited from southern Canada reported overall experience of culture shock followed by recovery. Structural variables related to job itself were associated with culture shock but not recovery. Individual variables of personal history and…

  1. Preparation for Oncology Settings: What Hospice Social Workers Say They Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Pamela J.; Bronstein, Laura R.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the influence of formal academic training, informal on-the-job training, and related professional and personal experiences of hospice social workers on preparation for their work. Findings suggest that social workers view both the generalist or core courses as well as specialist and elective courses as important preparation.…

  2. Hope as a Strategy in Supervising Social Workers of Terminally Ill Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itzhaky, Haya; Lipschitz-Elhawi, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on supervision of social workers who feel despair and hopelessness in treating terminally ill patients. The emotional difficulties that may lead to these feelings are discussed. A special model of supervision that relates to hope as a strategy to help social workers cope with such difficulties is presented. The model suggests…

  3. Learning to Facilitate Advance Care Planning: The Novice Social Worker's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla; Bowland, Sharon; Mueggenburg, Kay; Pederson, Margaret; Otten, Sheila; Renn, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Professional leaders have identified clear roles for social workers involved in advance care planning (ACP), a facilitated process whereby individuals identify their preferences for future medical care; yet information about effective teaching practices in this area is scant. This study reports on the experiences of 14 social workers who…

  4. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  5. Job satisfaction and turnover intent among hospital social workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Greg L

    2016-08-01

    Feelings of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among social workers affect work quality for both social workers and the people for whom they provide services. Existing literature on job satisfaction among hospital social workers is limited, and is overly focused on issues of compensation. There is job satisfaction research with hospital nurses available for comparison. Other informative social work research on job satisfaction and turnover exists in mental health and generally, across settings. Research on turnover intent in social work is primarily from child welfare settings and may not generalize. The literature notes gaps and contradictions about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intent. Using a large national dataset of hospital social workers, this research clarifies and fills gaps regarding hospital social workers, and explores how Herzberg's theory of work can clarify the difference between sources of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. Findings include hospital social workers reporting high job satisfaction and that demographics do not contribute to the predictive models. The findings do support centralized social work departments and variety in the job functions of hospital social workers, and are consistent with the theoretical framework.

  6. Social Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse Disclosures: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have examined disclosure of child sexual abuse to determine the correlates and consequences of telling others about this form of victimization. The present article reviews the current empirical literature on disclosure and reactions to adult survivors to assess what is known about the process of disclosure and whether telling others…

  7. Intrinsic worker mortality depends on behavioral caste and the queens' presence in a social insect.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, Philip; Negroni, Matteo Antoine; Kever, Marion; Emmling, Stefanie; Stypa, Heike; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Foitzik, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    According to the classic life history theory, selection for longevity depends on age-dependant extrinsic mortality and fecundity. In social insects, the common life history trade-off between fecundity and longevity appears to be reversed, as the most fecund individual, the queen, often exceeds workers in lifespan several fold. But does fecundity directly affect intrinsic mortality also in social insect workers? And what is the effect of task on worker mortality? Here, we studied how social environment and behavioral caste affect intrinsic mortality of ant workers. We compared worker survival between queenless and queenright Temnothorax longispinosus nests and demonstrate that workers survive longer under the queens' absence. Temnothorax ant workers fight over reproduction when the queen is absent and dominant workers lay eggs. Worker fertility might therefore increase lifespan, possibly due to a positive physiological link between fecundity and longevity, or better care for fertile workers. In social insects, division of labor among workers is age-dependant with young workers caring for the brood and old ones going out to forage. We therefore expected nurses to survive longer than foragers, which is what we found. Surprisingly, inactive inside workers showed a lower survival than nurses but comparable to that of foragers. The reduced longevity of inactive workers could be due to them being older than the nurses, or due to a positive effect of activity on lifespan. Overall, our study points to behavioral caste-dependent intrinsic mortality rates and a positive association between fertility and longevity not only in queens but also in ant workers.

  8. Breaking down barriers: exploring the potential for social care practice with trans survivors of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that domestic abuse takes place outside the heteronormative paradigm of social life. This paper presents a discussion of the findings of doctoral research which explores trans people's experiences of domestic abuse, their social care needs and whether these are met by domestic abuse agencies. This paper foregrounds debate on the intersections of domestic abuse, trans communities and social care provision as this research, and previous studies, suggests that trans survivors do not seek out or benefit from social care intervention. Qualitative data, collected via narrative interviews, were collected during 2012 from participants mainly located in the United Kingdom (two participants were based in the United States). A total of 24 interviews were undertaken with trans people (n = 15) and social care practitioners (n = 9). Data were examined using a voice-centred relational technique. The findings reveal that barriers are multiple and complex but work could be undertaken to encourage help-seeking behaviours. Barriers include expectations of a transphobic response and 'Othering' practices; lack of entitlement felt by trans people; lack of knowledge/misunderstandings about trans social care needs; heteronormative bias of existing services; and practitioner attitudes fixed to notions about gender as binary. The paper ends by proposing a framework for practice with trans survivors which incorporates a person-centred, narrative approach.

  9. Stigma and social support in substance abuse: Implications for mental health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Birtel, Michèle D; Wood, Lisa; Kempa, Nancy J

    2017-02-20

    Individuals with substance abuse may suffer from severe public and internalized stigma. Little is known about how social support can reduce stigma and improve mental health and well-being for them. This research examined how perceived stigma influences individuals in treatment for substance abuse, and whether internalized stigma and shame are mechanisms which link social support with better mental health and well-being. Sixty-four participants in treatment for substance abuse (alcohol, drugs), aged between 18 and 64, completed an online survey measuring perceived stigma, internalized stigma, shame, perceived social support, and mental health and well-being (self-esteem, depression and anxiety, sleep). We found that perceived stigma was associated with lower self-esteem, higher depression and anxiety, and poorer sleep. Furthermore, perceived social support followed the opposite pattern, and was associated with higher self-esteem, lower depression and anxiety, and better sleep. The effects of perceived stigma and of perceived social support on our outcome measures were mediated by internalized stigma and by internalized shame. Helping individuals with substance abuse to utilize their social support may be fruitful for combatting the negative impact of internalized stigma and shame on mental health and well-being.

  10. Opportunities for Exploring and Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse Through Social Media.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kevin R; Nelson, Lewis; Meisel, Zachary; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    The rising toll of opioid overdoses in the past decade has been declared a prescription drug epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control. In that same period, Internet platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, have grown exponentially, being used primarily by a population similar to new initiates of substance abuse. Researchers have utilized social media to gain insights into use patterns and prevailing attitudes about various substances. Social media has potential to enhance screening, prevention, and treatment of addiction. With future funding, they should be leveraged to advance understanding of prescription drug use and improve treatment and prevention of abuse.

  11. Medication nonadherence and substance abuse in psychotic disorders: impact of depressive symptoms and social stability.

    PubMed

    Elbogen, Eric B; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Van Dorn, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Although studies have consistently shown a strong relationship between medication nonadherence and substance abuse in psychotic disorders, less is understood about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationship between substance abuse and medication nonadherence in psychosis is mediated by depressive symptoms and social stability. Participants interviewed (N = 528) were adults with schizophrenia and related disorders receiving public mental health services in four US states. Multivariate analyses showed substance abuse, depressive symptoms, and living stability each contributed to medication nonadherence; thus, the relationship between substance abuse and medication adherence in psychotic disorders did not appear to be mediated by the selected variables. Instead, a robust association between depressive symptoms and medication adherence was found, attesting to the utility of assessing for depression when evaluating adherence among people with psychosis. Living instability was common and related to medication nonadherence, too, warranting further investigation.

  12. [Quality assurance in clinical social work: how do social workers judge the success of their interventions?].

    PubMed

    Häfner-Ranabauer, W; Lotz, M; Hambrecht, M; Waschkowski, H

    1996-09-01

    Therapy outcome is an important criterium for quality assurance. In this study, clinical social workers themselves estimated the outcome of their interventions in 2643 admissions of 2038 patients to a psychiatric hospital. These inpatients had been referred by a psychiatrist to the social worker and comprised 27 % of all patients admitted to the hospital within 11 years. The study purpose was to investigate how the outcome estimates relate to clinical and sociodemographic variables of the patients, to their specific problems, and to the applied interventions. The fewer areas of problems were perceived and the more interventions were performed, the more positive these interventions were evaluated. Administrative interventions were seen as more successful than counseling. Outcome estimates were particularly positive in long and intensive therapies.

  13. Pheromonal dominance and the selection of a socially parasitic honeybee worker lineage (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.).

    PubMed

    Dietemann, V; Neumann, P; Härtel, S; Pirk, C W W; Crewe, R M

    2007-05-01

    The recent invasion by self-replicating socially parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, of colonies of the neighbouring African subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata represents an opportunity to study evolution of intraspecific parasitism in real time. As honeybee workers compete pheromonally for reproductive dominance, and as A. m. capensis workers readily produce queen-like pheromones, we hypothesized that these semiochemicals promoted the evolution of intraspecific social parasitism. Remarkably, the offspring of a single worker became established as a parasite in A. m. scutellata's range. This could have resulted from extreme selection among different clonal parasitic worker lineages. Using pheromonal contest experiments, we show that the selected parasitic lineage dominates in the production of mandibular gland pheromones over all other competitors to which it is exposed. Our results suggest that mandibular gland pheromones played a key role in the evolution of intraspecific social parasitism in the honeybee and in the selection of a single genotype of parasitic workers.

  14. Caring for Children and Youth Who Have Been Sexually Abused: A Training Manual for Child and Youth Care Workers and Foster Parents. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Linda

    This facilitator's guide is part of an overall program developed as a resource for child and youth care workers and foster parents. Those using the facilitator's guide must possess considerable knowledge and training in the areas of child abuse, child welfare, child laws, human development, and group and family dynamics. Facilitators must be able…

  15. Academic--practice partnerships in practice research: A cultural shift for health social workers.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Lynette

    2006-01-01

    Academic practice partnerships in practice research support health social workers in engaging in research that is embedded within their practice. This shift in culture enables social workers to join in a health service discourse that is increasingly data -driven and focused on effective practice and demonstrated quality of care for patients. The mentoring model is described as enabling practitioners to superimpose research skills onto existing practice skills. An academic practice research collaboration can reduce the distance between research and practice, contribute to a body of knowledge for health social work and promote health social workers as 'research focused practitioners'.

  16. Placing Evidence-Based Interventions at the Fingertips of School Social Workers.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Humberto López; Rivers, Tommi; Randall, Catherine; Gaughan, Ken; Ojanen, Tiina; Massey, Oliver Tom; Burton, Donna

    2016-07-01

    Through a university-community collaborative partnership, the perceived needs of evidence-based practices (EBPs) among school social workers (SSWs) in a large school district in central Florida was assessed. A survey (response rate = 83.6%) found that although 70% of SSWs claim to use EBPs in their everyday practice, 40% do not know where to find them, which may partially explain why 78% of respondents claim to spend 1 to 4 h every week looking for adequate EBPs. From this needs assessment, the translational model was used to address these perceived needs. A systematic review of the literature found 40 tier 2 EBPs, most of which (23%) target substance use, abuse, and dependence. After discussion with academic and community partners, the stakeholders designed, discussed, and implemented a searchable, online, password-protected, interface of these tier 2 EBPs, named Evidence-Based Intervention Toolkit (eBIT). Lessons learned, future directions, and implications of this "one-stop shop" for behavioral health are discussed.

  17. The inverse hazard law: blood pressure, sexual harassment, racial discrimination, workplace abuse and occupational exposures in US low-income black, white and Latino workers.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2008-12-01

    Research on societal determinants of health suggests the existence of an "inverse hazard law," which we define as: "The accumulation of health hazards tends to vary inversely with the power and resources of the populations affected." Yet, little empirical research has systematically investigated this topic, including in relation to workplace exposures. We accordingly designed the United for Health study (Greater Boston Area, Massachusetts, 2003-2004) to investigate the joint distribution and health implications of workplace occupational hazards (dust, fumes, chemical, noise, ergonomic strain) and social hazards (racial discrimination, sexual harassment, workplace abuse). Focusing on blood pressure as our health outcome, we found that among the 1202 low-income multi-racial/ethnic working class participants in our cohort - of whom 40% lived below the US poverty line - 79% reported exposure to at least one social hazard and 82% to at least one high-exposure occupational hazard. Only sexual harassment, the least common social hazard, was associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) among the women workers. By contrast, no statistically significant associations were detectable between the other additional highly prevalent social and occupational hazards and SBP; we did, however, find suggestive evidence of an association between SBP and response to unfair treatment, implying that in a context of high exposure, differential susceptibility to the exposure matters. These results interestingly contrast to our prior findings for this same cohort, in which we found associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and two other health outcomes: psychological distress and cigarette smoking. Likely explanations for these contrasting findings include: (a) the differential etiologic periods and pathways involving somatic health, mental health, and health behaviors, and (b) the high prevalence of adverse exposures, limiting the ability to detect

  18. Social regulation of ageing by young workers in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Michael; Dainat, Benjamin; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Organisms' lifespans are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. The lifespan of eusocial insects is determined by features of the division of labor, which itself is influenced by social regulatory mechanisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, the presence of brood and of old workers carrying out foraging tasks are important social drivers of ageing, but the influence of young adult workers is unknown, as it has not been experimentally teased apart from that of brood. In this study, we test the role of young workers in the ageing of their nestmates. We measured the impact of different social contexts characterized by the absence of brood and/or young adults on the lifespan of worker nestmates in field colonies. To acquire insight into the physiological processes occurring under these contexts, we analyzed the expression of genes known to affect honey bee ageing. The data showed that young workers significantly reduced the lifespan of nestmate workers, similar to the effect of brood on its own. Differential expression of vitellogenin, major royal jelly protein-1, and methylase transferase, but not methyl farneosate epoxidase genes suggests that young workers and brood influence ageing of adult nestmate workers via different physiological pathways. We identify young workers as an essential part of the social regulation of ageing in honey bee colonies.

  19. Social isolation among Latino workers in rural North Carolina: exposure and health implications.

    PubMed

    Mora, Dana C; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Anderson, Andrea M; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A; Marín, Antonio J; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-10-01

    Immigrant Latinos frequently experience social isolation in their receiving communities. This paper investigates the prevalence of social isolation among immigrant workers in a new settlement area and delineates the association between social isolation and physical and mental health outcomes. Interviews were conducted in Spanish with immigrant Latino manual workers (N = 743) in western North Carolina. The CES-D and the SF-12 questionnaires assessed health outcomes. A social isolation scale was used to assess degree of social isolation. Nearly 1 in 5 workers (19.5 %) reported the highest level of social isolation. Social isolation was associated with higher depressive symptoms and poorer physical and mental health, related to quality of life. Social isolation is a common experience among immigrant Latinos that may have negative implications for physical and mental health. Community outreach efforts to minimize experiences of isolation may be useful in protecting immigrant physical and mental health.

  20. Social and legal factors related to drug abuse in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Greberman, S B; Wada, K

    1994-01-01

    This article is an overview of social and legal differences in the United States and in Japan that are related to patterns of current drug abuse epidemics in these countries. These two nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and take different approaches currently to handling illicit drug marketing and use. Histories of opiate and cocaine abuse in the United States and of stimulant and inhalant abuse in Japan are discussed. The United States has experienced three heroin epidemics in the last three decades; cocaine addiction began to merit national concern by the end of the 1980s. In Japan, the first methamphetamine epidemic began after World War II; it was controlled in the 1950s. The current inhalant epidemic began in the late 1960s and was followed by the second methamphetamine epidemic that began in 1970; both are continuing to the present. The criminal justice system is always given first consideration when assessing societal measures employed to reduce drug use. Legal penalties for illicit drug offenses reflect the societal differences of these two nations with respect to the seriousness of particular types of crimes. Characteristics of the health care system of a nation may also influence patterns of drug abuse, particularly where functions of criminal justice and health care systems overlap. Health care systems in the United States and in Japan are based on different treatment philosophies and patients' expectations; these differences are discussed along with explanations of their potential influence on the epidemiology of drug abuse.

  1. Cognitive Functioning and Social Competence as Predictors of Maladjustment in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Jeremy P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    To explain sexually abused children's various degrees of maladjustment, assessed behavior problems, social competence, and cognitive functioning in 53 black girls (5 to 16 years old). Internalizing dysfunction was positively related to three cognition-related variables: intellectual functioning, academic achievement, and age. Anxiety over the…

  2. Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

  3. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  4. [Evolution of worker's health in the social security medical examination in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pinto Júnior, Afrânio Gomes; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia; Roselli-Cruz, Amadeu

    2012-10-01

    In order to analyze the practice of the social security medical examination starting from the introduction of the worker's health paradigms, data was gathered on the granting of social security disability benefits to assess worker illness based on notification of work-related accidents in the cement industries of Rio de Janeiro. From 2007 to 2009 there was only one notification, which involved a worker handling toxic waste instead of the energy matrix. However, the analysis revealed sources and mechanisms of illness overlooked in the social security medical examination, which is still focused on the one-cause-only logic of occupational medicine. To achieve the worker's health paradigms, changes are required to alter the way of conducting the social security medical examination, by re-establishing partnerships, training human resources, adopting epidemiological indicators, as well as setting and assessing social security goals that transcend the mere granting of disability benefits.

  5. Outcome of Drug Abuse Treatment and Self Concept Improvement for Mass Transit Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biase, D. Vincent; Sullivan, Arthur P.

    Because of increasing concern about drug use in the work place and its impact on public safety, an urban mass transit agency formed a collaborative treatment link with Daytop Village to provide treatment for "impaired" transportation workers. Effective counseling approaches in the residential setting were adapted for ambulatory use and…

  6. Examining self-protection measures guarding Adult Protective Services social workers against compassion fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from experiencing the deleterious symptoms and effects of compassion fatigue. Implications center around the elements needed to implement boundaries in order to maintain a separation between the work and home environment. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Consensus-Based Child Abuse Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbeck, L.; Laib-Koehnemund, A.; Fegert, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the effects of expert-assisted child abuse and neglect case management in the German child welfare and healthcare system as perceived by the case workers themselves. Methods: Case workers with different professions (social workers, counselors, clinic-based and office-based psychotherapists, and physicians)…

  8. Ethical dilemmas in general hospitals: social workers' contribution to ethical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Landau, R

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-two hospital social workers, fourteen of them directors of social work services and eighteen direct practitioners, were interviewed about their perception of the factors influencing social workers' contribution to the resolution of ethical dilemmas in general hospitals in Israel. Findings revealed that while ethical decision-making in hospitals is an interdisciplinary process, social workers' contribution to the process is affected by rivalry between social workers and other members of the health team, personality differences, type of ward and the nature of the ethical dilemma. Participants of the study had quite a clear perception of their role and of the unique knowledge-base social work can offer, including knowledge of the individual and family life course, understanding and skills in coping with diseases, and systems thinking. In order to increase their influence in ethical decision-making, the hospital social workers felt they must put more effort into developing their relationships with the other professionals involved in ethical decision-making both by making themselves more indispensable and by making their contribution explicit through greater documentation of their activities. The findings also implied that in order to gain more power and be accepted as equal partners in multidisciplinary teams, hospital social workers should improve their communication skills when interacting with representatives of other heath care professions.

  9. Social Support and Sexual Risk Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Tijuana.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie

    2015-08-01

    Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk.

  10. PREDOSE: A Semantic Web Platform for Drug Abuse Epidemiology using Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Delroy; Smith, Gary A.; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit P.; Dave, Drashti; Chen, Lu; Anand, Gaurish; Carlson, Robert; Watkins, Kera Z.; Falck, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The role of social media in biomedical knowledge mining, including clinical, medical and healthcare informatics, prescription drug abuse epidemiology and drug pharmacology, has become increasingly significant in recent years. Social media offers opportunities for people to share opinions and experiences freely in online communities, which may contribute information beyond the knowledge of domain professionals. This paper describes the development of a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE (PREscription Drug abuse Online Surveillance and Epidemiology), which is designed to facilitate the epidemiologic study of prescription (and related) drug abuse practices using social media. PREDOSE uses web forum posts and domain knowledge, modeled in a manually created Drug Abuse Ontology (DAO) (pronounced dow), to facilitate the extraction of semantic information from User Generated Content (UGC). A combination of lexical, pattern-based and semantics-based techniques is used together with the domain knowledge to extract fine-grained semantic information from UGC. In a previous study, PREDOSE was used to obtain the datasets from which new knowledge in drug abuse research was derived. Here, we report on various platform enhancements, including an updated DAO, new components for relationship and triple extraction, and tools for content analysis, trend detection and emerging patterns exploration, which enhance the capabilities of the PREDOSE platform. Given these enhancements, PREDOSE is now more equipped to impact drug abuse research by alleviating traditional labor-intensive content analysis tasks. Methods Using custom web crawlers that scrape UGC from publicly available web forums, PREDOSE first automates the collection of web-based social media content for subsequent semantic annotation. The annotation scheme is modeled in the DAO, and includes domain specific knowledge such as prescription (and related) drugs, methods of preparation, side effects, routes of

  11. [Concomitant influence of occupational and social risk factors on health of workers engaged into powder metallurgy].

    PubMed

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Kostarev, V G; Lebedeva-Nesevria, N A; Shliapnikov, D M

    2012-01-01

    Results of health risk evaluation in workers engaged into powder metallurgy, using complex of hygienic, medical, epidemiologic and sociologic studies, enable to define priority occupational and social risk factors, to assess degree of their influence on the workers' health and to identify occupationally induced diseases.

  12. Crisis in the Workplace: The Role of the Occupational Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribner, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that Israeli economy underwent dramatic and generally negative changes during Gulf War. Examines socioeconomic impact of war and efforts of occupational social workers to cope with needs of Israeli workers. Examines techniques of crisis intervention in context of pervasive atmosphere of change and uncertainty. Concludes with look at…

  13. Stress Management Consultation to Israeli Social Workers during the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikel, Julie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Stress Management Consultation (SMC), short-term group intervention designed to enable social workers in Israel during Persian Gulf War to work through stress reactions and model method workers could use with their own target populations. Presents qualitative feedback from participants and administrators indicating that SMC model was…

  14. Abuses and Mysteries at the Association of Social Work Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Under contract with the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB), Pearson VUE reportedly performs much of the work of developing and administering the social work licensing exams required by most states. ASWB charges substantial fees for such exams and, after paying Pearson, has been able to bank considerable sums. One of the key contributions to…

  15. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  16. Development and Validation of the Social Worker's Attitudes toward Disability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Leah P.; Abell, Neil; Kim, Hyejin

    2015-01-01

    Disability scholars have recently highlighted social work professional organizations' lagging pace in adopting disability advocacy within diversity agendas and have questioned the adequacy of disability content within accredited social work curricula. Amid growing concerns, measures to assess attitudes of social workers toward disability and…

  17. Embracing the Village and Tribe: Critical Thinking for Social Workers from an African-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Yarneccia D.; Brice, Tanya Smith

    2016-01-01

    The social work department at a small historically Black college implemented an African-centered approach to the course Critical Thinking for Social Workers for freshmen students who declared social work as their major. We firmly believe that knowing and understanding the history and legacy of people of African descent is extremely important in…

  18. The Legal System and Alzheimer's Disease: Social Workers and Lawyers' Perceptions and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Werner, Perla; Doron, Israel Issi

    2016-01-01

    The expected increase in the number of people living with Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide will be accompanied by an increase in the number of cases involving persons with AD brought up to the courts. This study examined the perceptions and experiences of social workers and lawyers regarding these cases. Three focus groups including social workers and lawyers (n = 26) were conducted. Two main themes were raised by the participants: (a) the role of social workers and lawyers in court cases regarding AD, and (b) the need for improving legal encounters involving persons with AD. Similarities and differences were found in both professionals' interpretations of these shared themes. Results of this study emphasize the need for increasing the knowledge and interprofessional training provided to social workers and lawyers involved in legal cases dealing with issues involving persons with Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Social construction of disability and substance abuse within public disability benefit systems.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Debra L

    2009-09-01

    Federal legislation passed in 1996 in the United States changed the eligibility criteria for public disability benefit programmes. After 1996, persons with a primary diagnosis of substance abuse no longer qualified to receive disability benefits. Using a framework of social construction, a qualitative comparative analysis examines how the national disability systems of eight countries - Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the US - address issues of substance abuse. The US is the only country among the focal countries that does not currently allow disability benefits to be awarded to those with primary conditions of substance use disorders. International experience in providing disability benefits to persons with substance use disorders can inform US policy makers as to how the current US federal disability benefit system might be expanded to be more inclusive of persons with substance abuse disorders.

  20. Managing resistance to change: the social worker's role in case management.

    PubMed

    Kiernan-Stern, Mary

    2005-01-01

    From time to time in my responsibilities as a medical social worker, I become involved with a "complicated" case. Translation: a case was referred to the social worker to intervene and "fix" the problem because no one else knew what to do with the client or the issues surrounding the client. Necessity is the mother of invention, so when all else failed, that was my cue to be creative.

  1. The changing career of "elder abuse and neglect" as a social problem in Canada: learning from feminist frameworks?

    PubMed

    Harbison, J

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT "Elder Abuse and Neglect" was constructed as a social problem by experts and has largely been a product of "expert" knowledge building and intervention. The idea of woman abuse as a social problem, on the other hand, originated with women themselves. The paper examines the changing social context in which some older people are currently seeking ownership of responses to mistreatment. It explores emerging criticisms of present constructions of "elder abuse and neglect" and the needs they imply, and links these to feminist frameworks. It then considers the appeal and utility of these frameworks for older women active in the fight against mistreatment.

  2. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Eddie; Vallejo, Lianna; Pérez, María E.; Abramson, Charles I.; Giray, Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA). We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA) did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol) did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history. PMID:27895050

  3. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Arian; Pérez, Eddie; Vallejo, Lianna; Pérez, María E; Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul

    2017-01-15

    The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA). We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA) did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol) did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history.

  4. Coping with the Obligation Dilemma: Prototypes of Social Workers in the Nursing Home.

    PubMed

    Lev, Sagit; Ayalon, Liat

    2016-07-01

    We examined the ways in which the social worker is coping with obligation dilemma in an Israeli nursing home. The research was conducted using semi-structured, in-depth interviews carried out with fifteen social workers employed in nursing homes. The interviews were analysed thematically, using constant comparisons. The three themes were concerned with the social worker's place in the nursing home, her relationship with the management and staff, and her coping with the obligation dilemma. These themes highlighted the difference between the interviewees. On the background of this difference, four prototypes of nursing home's social workers were defined: the managerial, the contented, the fighter and the frustrated. From analysing the findings, the significant place of the personal and environmental factors that influence the ways in which the social worker deals with these four themes emerges. Our findings suggest that the strengthening, empowerment and support of social workers in institutions can directly enhance the health, security, emotional well-being and quality of life of nursing home residents.

  5. Coping with the Obligation Dilemma: Prototypes of Social Workers in the Nursing Home

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Sagit; Ayalon, Liat

    2016-01-01

    We examined the ways in which the social worker is coping with obligation dilemma in an Israeli nursing home. The research was conducted using semi-structured, in-depth interviews carried out with fifteen social workers employed in nursing homes. The interviews were analysed thematically, using constant comparisons. The three themes were concerned with the social worker's place in the nursing home, her relationship with the management and staff, and her coping with the obligation dilemma. These themes highlighted the difference between the interviewees. On the background of this difference, four prototypes of nursing home's social workers were defined: the managerial, the contented, the fighter and the frustrated. From analysing the findings, the significant place of the personal and environmental factors that influence the ways in which the social worker deals with these four themes emerges. Our findings suggest that the strengthening, empowerment and support of social workers in institutions can directly enhance the health, security, emotional well-being and quality of life of nursing home residents. PMID:27559230

  6. Using Art as a Self-Regulating Tool in a War Situation: A Model for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Ephrat; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie

    2010-01-01

    War poses a challenge for social workers, adding exposure to direct risk of personal harm to the general stress of social work practice. Artworks are frequently used in health care settings with people in high distress. This study had three goals: (1) to characterize the stressors of social workers living in a war zone, (2) to teach social workers…

  7. The dark side of social support: understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors.

  8. Social difficulties influence group psychotherapy adherence in abused, suicidal African American women.

    PubMed

    Ilardi, Dawn L; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2009-12-01

    The social brain model emphasizes improving our understanding of the relational factors that influence treatment adherence. Consistent with this framework, which has been applied to medical adherence, it was hypothesized that insecure attachment styles, interpersonal hassles, and low levels of social support would explain group psychotherapy attendance. Results from 51 abused and suicidal low-income, African American women who attended at least 1 session of an empowerment group psychotherapy indicated that lower attendance was related to (a) insecure attachment styles (fearful) and (b) interpersonal hassles (perceived social differences, lack of social acceptability, social victimization). Perceived social support did not predict group therapy attendance. The value of addressing attachment styles and interpersonal factors to enhance treatment participation is underscored.

  9. Social Influences, Social Norms, Social Support, and Smoking Behavior among Adolescent Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Pebbles; Eisenberg, Marla; Stoddard, Anne M.; Frazier, Lindsay; Sorensen, Glorian

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between worksite influences and smoking and quitting behavior among adolescent grocery employees. Surveys on interpersonal, intrapersonal, and organizational factors indicated that regular smokers were 30 percent more likely to receive co-worker encouragement to quit than occasional and experimental smokers. Compared to…

  10. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  11. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  12. Magdalena Pilot Project: motivational outreach to substance abusing women street sex workers.

    PubMed

    Yahne, Carolina E; Miller, William R; Irvin-Vitela, Lilly; Tonigan, J Scott

    2002-07-01

    The Magdalena Pilot Project provided outreach to Albuquerque women sex workers who were also using illicit drugs, primarily cocaine and heroin. This initial uncontrolled trial evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of motivational interviewing (MI) on change in drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Twenty-seven women were enrolled and interviewed about their substance use, health risk behaviors, and plans for change, using the client-centered, directive method of MI. Four months later, 25 women (93%) were interviewed again to assess their drug use and health risk behaviors. Large reductions were reported in frequency (days) of drug use and sex work, with a corresponding increase in days of lawful employment. In identifying problems that most needed to be addressed in order to help them live healthier lives, the women prioritized (1) basic needs including decent housing, (2) mental health care, and (3) treatment for substance use disorders.

  13. Legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse: a primer and discussion of relevant research.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout, including research on investigator training, forensic interviewing techniques, children's suggestibility, jurors' perceptions of child witnesses, and courtroom accommodations for child witnesses.

  14. An animal model of social instability stress in adolescence and risk for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M

    2010-02-09

    There is increasing evidence that adolescence, like early life, is a sensitive period in which ongoing brain development can be influenced by environmental factors. This review describes our use of social instability as a model of mild adolescent social stress, its effects on social interactions and on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function over the course of the procedure and in response to new stressors. The effects of social instability are sex-specific, with qualitative differences between the sexes on HPA function over the course of the stressor procedure, and with greater effects in males on behaviour observed during the social instability and greater effects in females on behavioural responses to drugs of abuse into adulthood, long after the stress exposure. The results from investigations with this model of adolescent social stress are discussed in relation to those of studies using other stressor procedures. Elevated exposure to glucocorticoids over the course of adolescence confers sex-specific changes in behavioural responses to drugs of abuse, which may be of relevance for understanding risk factors in people.

  15. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible.

  16. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    PubMed

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  17. Social determinates of health: focus on substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Malliarakis, Kate Driscoll; Lucey, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Addiction is a progressive, chronic, and relapsing disorder of the brain that cannot be cured but can be treated. It is imperative to recognize the social overlay when planning to meet the health care needs of clients with addiction care needs. The implications for society are significant as addiction is a multifarious disease that costs the individual as well as the taxpayers. Administrators have the opportunity to provide education for all health personnel on early intervention and screening. Denial is a hallmark of the disease of addiction. Health care personnel must not be in denial about addiction because they can take action to prevent and treat addictions.

  18. One for all: workplace social context and drinking among railway workers in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrianna; Roberts, Bayard; McGowan, Catherine; Kizilova, Kseniya; Kizilov, Alexiy; Rhodes, Tim; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in countries of the former Soviet Union, but little is known about its social determinants. Recent research has suggested that workplace contexts may play a role. Using qualitative methods, we investigate the relationship between workplace social contexts and drinking in Ukraine. We conducted 24 individual semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions in Lviv and Kharkiv, Ukraine, with male railway employees aged 18+ years. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Men in our sample expressed strong feelings of interdependence and trust towards their co-workers which we defined as 'social solidarity'. Drinking with co-workers was often seen as obligatory and an integral part of co-worker social occasions. Engagement in sport or family obligations seemed to act as a deterrent to drinking among some workers. A strong sense of solidarity exists between railway co-workers in Ukraine, perhaps a remnant of the Soviet era when individuals relied on informal networks for support. Alcohol may be used as a means of expressing this solidarity. Our findings point to factors, namely engagement in sports and family, which may offer opportunities for interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among workers in Ukraine.

  19. Training Is an Investment with Return in Temporary Workers: A Social Exchange Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambel, Maria Jose; Sobral, Filipa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a social exchange relationship between temporary workers and organizations is possible. The authors aim to consider whether, when training is perceived by an employee as an organizational practice that promotes his or her employability, this entails a social exchange relationship.…

  20. Military Social Workers at War: Their Experiences and the Educational Content that Helped Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; DeCoster, Vaughn

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-four active-duty military social workers, deployed during various stages of the war in Iraq, participated in an open-ended survey regarding their jobs and the social work training they found valuable. Using a mixed analytical approach, the researchers organized answers into a phenomenological arrangement describing the military social…

  1. Work Stress, Burnout, and Social and Personal Resources among Direct Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope…

  2. Discussion of Late-Life Suicide: How Social Workers Perceive and Intervene in Elderly Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yujin

    2013-01-01

    As the prevalence of suicide among the elderly has developed in recent years into one of the more serious social problems in South Korea, preventing these elderly suicides has emerged as a national priority. Korean social workers play a major role in the recent elderly suicide prevention efforts that were implemented starting in 2007. The purpose…

  3. HIV-Affected Children and Adolescents: What School Social Workers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Dorie J.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of issues facing HIV-affected children and adolescents and aims to help school social workers become better equipped to recognize the secondary effects of the AIDS epidemic among HIV-affected children. Concludes with recommendations for addressing the needs of HIV-affected children and adolescents through school social work.…

  4. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  5. An Application of the Social Support Deterioration Deterrence Model to Rescue Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of social support in promoting quality of life in the aftermath of critical incidents involvement. Participants were a sample of 586 Italian rescue workers. Structural equation modelling was used to test the social support deterioration deterrence model. Results showed that the impact of critical incident involvement…

  6. Experiences and Implications of Social Workers Practicing in a Pediatric Hospital Environment Affected by SARS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearing, Robin Edward; Saini, Michael; McNeill, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study's purpose was threefold: to detail the experiences of social workers practicing in a hospital environment affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), to describe essential themes and structures of social work practices within this crisis environment, and to explore recommendations for better preparedness to…

  7. Somatic Experiencing Treatment with Social Service Workers Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, M. Laurie; Vanslyke, Jan; Allen, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    In a disaster, social service workers are often survivors themselves. This study examines whether somatic intervention using a brief (one to two session) stabilization model now called the Trauma Resiliency Model[TM] (TRM), which uses the skills of Somatic Experiencing[R] (SE), can reduce the postdisaster symptoms of social service workers…

  8. Assessing Depression in Latency-Age Children: A Guide for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Michael E.; Curtis, Hannah W.

    2007-01-01

    Schools are a primary setting for the provision of services to children with social, emotional, and behavioral problems. School social workers serve a vital role in identifying, assessing, serving, and referring students suffering from myriad mental health problems, including depression. Starting with a discussion of gathering valid assessment…

  9. 25 CFR 20.318 - What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have? 20.318 Section 20.318 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.318 What case...

  10. Perceptions of the hospital ethical environment among hospital social workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Greg L

    2015-01-01

    Hospital social workers are in a unique context of practice, and one where the ethical environment has a profound influence on the ethical behavior. This study determined the ratings of ethical environment by hospital social workers in large nationwide sample. Correlates suggest by and compared to studies of ethical environment with nurses are explored. Positive ratings of the ethical environment are primarily associated with job satisfaction, as well as working in a centralized social work department and for a non-profit hospital. Religiosity and MSW education were not predictive. Implications and suggestions for managing the hospital ethical environment are provided.

  11. Mexican American Social Workers' Perceptions of Doctoral Education and Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijerina, Mary; Deepak, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    An increase in Latinos in the social work academy is critical due to current underrepresentation in social work education programs and rapid Latino population growth in the United States. In this qualitative study, perceptions of Mexican American master's of social work-level practitioners regarding social work doctoral education and academia were…

  12. Bouncers, brokers, and glue: the self-described roles of social workers in urban hospitals.

    PubMed

    Craig, Shelley L; Muskat, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Social workers delivering services in health care settings face unique challenges and opportunities. The purpose of this study was to solicit input from social workers employed in urban hospitals about their perceptions of the roles, contribution, and professional functioning of social work in a rapidly changing health care environment. Using qualitative methods, the university and hospital-based research team conducted seven focus groups (n = 65) at urban hospitals and analyzed the data using an interpretive framework with ATLAS.ti software. Seven major themes emerged from the participants' description of their roles: bouncer, janitor, glue, broker, firefighter, juggler, and challenger. Along with descriptions of the ways social workers fulfilled those roles, participants articulated differences in status within those roles, the increasing complexity of discharge planning, and expectations to provide secondary support to other health care professionals on their teams. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  13. Harm Reduction: A Social Work Practice Model and Social Justice Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, Jo; Wagner, Eric F.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how social workers may reduce ethical conflicts associated with efforts to address substance abuse by adopting a harm reduction approach to policy, practice, and research. Also examines current drug policies and their consequences and, in particular, how these policies affect social workers as practitioners, agents of social control, and…

  14. Findings from an Elder Abuse Forensic Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiglesworth, Aileen; Mosqueda, Laura; Burnight, Kerry; Younglove, Ted; Jeske, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The first Elder Abuse Forensic Center (EAFC) in the United States was instituted in 2003. People from a variety of disciplines, including Adult Protective Services social workers, law enforcement, the district attorney's office, a medical response team, public guardian deputies, ombudsmen, mental health services, a victim advocate, and a…

  15. Using social constructionist thinking in training social workers living and working under threat of political violence.

    PubMed

    Shamai, Michal

    2003-10-01

    This article describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence such as war and terrorism. The author used a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a recognition of the personal and professional knowledge acquired in the daily experience. The author used qualitative methods to evaluate the process and outcome. The narrative-holistic analysis focused on reconstructing meaning and adapting it to the new situation, the main thrust of the program. From the thematic analysis four main themes emerged: (1) loss as a result of political violence; (2) meaning of strength and weakness in situations of political violence; (3) preparation for terrorist attacks; and (4) definition of a safe place. The outcome evaluation describes the meaning of this kind of training program to the participants. The specific context of the training program is discussed as well as possibilities of using it in different contexts.

  16. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  17. The role of social worker in a team of rehabilitation: methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Sapezinskiene, Laima; Svediene, Ligija; Guscinskiene, Jūrate

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces a new concept of a social worker role in rehabilitation team in Lithuania and presents a methodological approach for investigation of this role as well. THE GOAL of this study is to establish a standardized method for evaluation of social worker roles', significance for disabled people in a home-based rehabilitation setting, and to evaluate the most useful roles of social worker according to the needs of disabled people. The research method of this study was designed, based on a review of Lithuanian and foreign literature. Fifty (25 male, 25 female) disabled persons, who received home-based rehabilitation services, were observed and questioned according to this method. The results of the study show that the most important roles of a social worker in home-based rehabilitation are those of a broker, an enabler and a teacher. CONCLUSION. It was discovered that there is a need for follow-up qualification program of social workers in a rehabilitation team in order to develop additional skills that correspond to the roles of a teacher, an enabler and a broker, with application of this method for home-based rehabilitation of disabled people.

  18. Community health workers: social justice and policy advocates for community health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Leda M; Martinez, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Community health workers are resources to their communities and to the advocacy and policy world on several levels. Community health workers can connect people to health care and collect information relevant to policy. They are natural researchers who, as a result of direct interaction with the populations they serve, can recount the realities of exclusion and propose remedies for it. As natural researchers, they contribute to best practices while informing public policy with the information they can share. In this light, community health workers may also be advocates for social justice.

  19. Social reinforcement of substance abuse treatment aftercare participation: Impact on outcome.

    PubMed

    Lash, Steven J; Burden, Jennifer L; Monteleone, Brian R; Lehmann, Lauren P

    2004-02-01

    Although adherence to aftercare therapy in substance abuse treatment is associated with improved outcome, little research has explored the effects of adherence interventions on outcome. We compared 20 graduates of our 28-day intensive treatment program who received a standard aftercare orientation with 20 graduates who received this intervention plus social reinforcement of aftercare group therapy attendance. The social reinforcement group showed less alcohol use than the standard care group at a 6-month follow-up assessment as measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), but not less drug use. Additionally, compared to standard care, the social reinforcement participants were more likely to be abstinent at the 6-month follow up (76% vs. 40%). The groups did not differ on hospital readmission rates over a 12-month follow-up period. Additionally, the social reinforcement group showed better long-term aftercare attendance compared to the standard care group.

  20. A crisis worker's observations on the psychosocial support for victims and families following child sexual abuse; a case study.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Daniel R; Jones, Alyson

    2014-10-01

    The Lancashire Sexual Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) centre in Preston saw 204 children aged 16 and under for examination following allegation of sexual assault in 2013. The psychological impact on the child is well known but not always addressed correctly or appropriately; the impact and resulting difficulties faced by the parent/carer of the child can also easily go un-noticed. Mrs A attended the centre with her 2 year old daughter in 2013, where I was the crisis worker in the case. She was contacted five months later and the support they received after attending the centre discussed. Her experiences, along with my own anecdotal experiences are discussed. Independent Sexual Assault Advisors (ISVAs) offer support following attendance at the centre, and various charitable organisations offer counselling, emotional and practical support. Health visitors, paediatricians, school nurses and social workers also play a role in looking after children and families following allegations of assault. However, the organisations and agencies involved in psychological aftercare for victims and parents are hindered by strict referral criteria and lack of funding or appropriate specialist expertise. The psychological, educational and behavioural support for parents and children, and specifically pre-trial counselling for children need significant improvement if we are to offer the best support for victims.

  1. Social exclusion, personal control, self-regulation, and stress among substance abuse treatment clients.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of social exclusion, personal control, and self-regulation to perceived stress among individuals who participated in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. Participants entered treatment between June 2006 and July 2007 and completed a 12-month follow-up survey by telephone (n=787). The results of the OLS regression analysis indicate that individuals with greater social exclusion factors (e.g. greater economic hardship, lower subjective social standing, greater perceived discrimination), lower perceived control of one's life, and lower self-regulation had higher perceived stress. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found suggesting a stress-buffering effect of personal control between subjective social standing and perceived stress. Interestingly, income status was not significantly related to perceived stress, while economic hardship, which assesses participants' inability to meet basic expenses, was significantly associated with perceived stress. Future research should examine how to integrate the AA/NA teaching about powerlessness and its role in recovery with the importance of increased personal control and self-control in decreasing perceived stress. Implications for future research and substance abuse treatment are discussed.

  2. Advance directive communications practices:social worker's contributions to the interdisciplinary health care team.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a comparative study about social workers' interdisciplinary advance directive communication practices with patients at several hospitals located in upstate New York. The sample consisted of physicians (n=32), nurses (n=74), and social workers (n=29). The research surveyed advance directive communication practices by discipline utilizing a self-administered questionnaire. Advance directive communication was operationalized as a cumulative process incorporating the following phases that were measured as scales: initiation of the topic, disclosure of information, identification of a surrogate decision-maker, discussion of treatment options, elicitation of patient values, interaction with family members, and collaboration with other health care professionals. Results suggest that social workers offer distinct skills in their advance directive communication practices and discuss advance directives more frequently than either physicians or nurses.

  3. Nursing home social worker skills and end-of-life planning.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Little empirical information exists on nursing home social worker's involvement in advance care planning and end-of-life decision- making with nursing home residents and their family members. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold: (1) to identify the frequency of skills associated with advance care planning that social workers use, and (2) to explore the factor structure of the scale used in the study. Results from 138 nursing home social worker respondents from New York State showed high frequency of advance directive discussions, care planning, and conflict resolution with families. The instrument factors clustered around administrative duties, and grief issues. There was substantial interest in continuing education in grief counseling with families.

  4. Social Support and Its Impact on Ethnic Identity and HIV Risk among Migrant Workers.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni; Attonito, Jennifer; Jennings, Terri

    2017-03-09

    Migrant workers are disproportionately affected by HIV due to poverty, social isolation, lack of access to and availability of health care services, acculturation, language barriers, constant mobility, and lack of knowledge. This study examined the impact of changes in social support on ethnic identity and HIV risk behaviors among migrant workers in South Florida. For this study, baseline and 6-month follow-up data were collected from an HIV intervention study among migrant workers in South Florida (n = 270) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess ethnic identity and the Social Provisions Scale examined the degree to which respondents' social relationships provide various dimensions of social support. Social support was a significant predictor of ethnic identity and of ethnic identity subscales, ethnic identity belonging and ethnic identity explore. There were small but statistically significant short-term changes in ethnic identity and ethnic identity subscales among the migrant workers over the 6-month time period assessed after controlling for the intervention. Future studies should be conducted over a longer period of time to better assess this relationship and possible factors to reduce HIV risk behaviors. There is a need to focus on improving the quality of health and reduce HIV and other risks experienced by this marginalized community.

  5. Professional competencies and training needs of professional social workers in integrated behavioral health in primary care.

    PubMed

    Horevitz, Elizabeth; Manoleas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act has led to a widespread movement to integrate behavioral health services into primary care settings. Integrated behavioral health (IBH) holds promise for treating mild to moderate psychiatric disorders in a manner that more fully addresses the biopsychosocial spectrum of needs of individuals and families in primary care, and for reducing disparities in accessing behavioral health care. For behavioral health practitioners, IBH requires a shift to a brief, outcome-driven, and team-based model of care. Despite the fact that social workers comprise the majority of behavioral health providers in IBH settings, little research has been done to assess the extent to which social workers are prepared for effective practice in fast-paced primary care. We conducted a survey of social workers (N = 84) in IBH settings to assess the following: (1) Key competency areas for social work practice in IBH settings and (2) Self-rated preparedness for effective practice in IBH settings. Online snowball sampling methods were used over a period of 1 month. Results indicate that social workers feel prepared for general practice in IBH settings, but would benefit from additional training in IBH-specific competency areas identified in the survey. Findings can help guide social work training to improve workforce preparedness for practice in IBH settings in the wake of health care reform.

  6. Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

  7. Social worker assessment of bad news delivery by emergency medicine residents: a novel direct-observation milestone assessment.

    PubMed

    Min, Alice Ann; Spear-Ellinwood, Karen; Berman, Melissa; Nisson, Peyton; Rhodes, Suzanne Michelle

    2016-09-01

    The skill of delivering bad news is difficult to teach and evaluate. Residents may practice in simulated settings; however, this may not translate to confidence or competence during real experiences. We investigated the acceptability and feasibility of social workers as evaluators of residents' delivery of bad news during patient encounters, and assessed the attitudes of both groups regarding this process. From August 2013 to June 2014, emergency medicine residents completed self-assessments after delivering bad news. Social workers completed evaluations after observing these conversations. The Assessment tools were designed by modifying the global Breaking Bad News Assessment Scale. Residents and social workers completed post-study surveys. 37 evaluations were received, 20 completed by social workers and 17 resident self-evaluations. Social workers reported discussing plans with residents prior to conversations 90 % of the time (18/20, 95 % CI 64.5, 97.8). Social workers who had previously observed the resident delivering bad news reported that the resident was more skilled on subsequent encounters 90 % of the time (95 % CI 42.2, 99). Both social workers and residents felt that prior training or experience was important. First-year residents valued advice from social workers less than advice from attending physicians, whereas more experienced residents perceived advice from social workers to be equivalent with that of attending physicians (40 versus 2.9 %, p = 0.002). Social worker assessment of residents' abilities to deliver bad news is feasible and acceptable to both groups. This formalized self-assessment and evaluation process highlights the importance of social workers' involvement in delivery of bad news, and the teaching of this skill. This method may also be used as direct-observation for resident milestone assessment.

  8. Preparation of Social Workers to Support People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Jason; Parish, Susan L.; Scheyett, Anna M.; Egan, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    We examine how well schools of social work prepare students to work with people with developmental disabilities (DD). Using websites of 50 U.S. schools of social work, we examine their curricula to determine the number and nature of disability studies courses. We examine tenure-line faculty to identify potential for current staff to expand DD…

  9. A Critical Pedagogy of Social Justice for Today's Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The author has attempted over the years to make a case for educators to work within a revolutionary critical pedagogy that examines the economic, cultural, social, and political purposes of education. Acknowledging the fact that education is a necessary but not sufficient weapon in history's arsenal of social revolution, it is clear that educators…

  10. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  11. Social Support as a Mediator between Internalized Stigma and Coping Behaviors of Individuals with Substance Abuse Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Robb, Jayci Lynn; Clay, Matthew Christopher; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 51 individuals from online substance abuse support groups were surveyed to investigate the mediating role of social support on the relationship between internalized stigma and coping. Regression and bootstrapping were conducted to perform mediation analysis. Findings suggest that social support mediates the negative impact of…

  12. Social Capital Theory: Another Lens for School Social Workers to Use to Support Students Living in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Altshuler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Schools have a wide range of connections with the child welfare system, with common interests in the care, well-being, and future life opportunities of children living in foster care. Children in foster care are often the most vulnerable students in the school system, and school social workers often serve as important resources for these children.…

  13. Social Workers' Orientations toward the Evidence-Based Practice Process: A Comparison with Psychologists and Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Rubin, Allen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results from a large, cross-sectional survey of social workers, psychologists, and licensed marriage and family therapists (LMFTs) in Texas (N = 865) regarding their orientation toward and implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP). All social workers were recruited by e-mail using the state NASW Listserv (analysis…

  14. School Social Workers' Needs in Supporting Adolescents with Disabilities toward Dating and Sexual Health: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Rueda, Heidi; Linton, Kristen F.; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2014-01-01

    School social workers approach their direct practice from ecological systems and justice-oriented perspectives. As such, they may hold a critical role in providing needed sexual health and dating education and services to adolescents with disabilities. Thirteen high school social workers who work closely with adolescents with disabilities were…

  15. Dealing with the Aftermath: A Qualitative Analysis of Mental Health Social Workers' Reactions after a Client Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Sanders, Sara; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Power, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Social workers provide services to populations with mental health issues, including suicidal ideations and are thus at risk of experiencing a client suicide at some point during their career. Limited research using quantitative methods has explored the effect of client suicide on social workers, but little is known about their reactions from a…

  16. The decision to exclude agricultural and domestic workers from the 1935 Social Security Act.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias.

  17. Exploring the Sacred-Secular Dialect in Everyday Social Work Practice: An Analysis of Religious Responses to Managerialism among Outreach Social Workers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Groves, Julian M; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

    2016-07-01

    We examine the recent proliferation of religious discourses among front line social workers in the former British Colony of Hong Kong in order to explore the nature of 're-enchantment' in modern social work practice. In-depth qualitative interviews with twenty social workers who identify as 'Christian social workers' in a variety of social work organisations (both religious and secular) reveal the adoption of religious identities and discourses to navigate the encroachment of managerialism. A systematic analysis of these narratives suggests that Christian social workers evoke religion to reclaim feelings of authenticity in their work, to facilitate more personalised relationships with their clients, and to empower themselves following the introduction of managerialist policies. We illuminate the dialectical relationship between religious discourses and managerialism to critique claims in the literature about a 're-enchantment' in social work, and to understand the essence of religion in modern social work practice.

  18. Surviving as a Postmodern Social Worker: Two Ps and Three Rs of Direct Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Social workers interested in postmodernism have been provided an abundance of theory, but little to guide them in direct practice in diverse child welfare roles. In this article, two Ps and three Rs of practice based on postmodernist principles are discussed: positioning, power, resource sharing, resistance, and reflection. Professionals working…

  19. Factor Structure of the Job-Related Tension Index among Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Nikki R.; Fakunmoju, Sunday B.; Kim, HaeJung; LeFevre, Ann L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the factor structure of the 15-item Job-Related Tension Index (JRTI). Method: Data were derived from a larger cross-sectional study using a modified tailored design method to mail a self-administered survey to a random stratified sample of the National Association of Social Workers,…

  20. Association for Specialists in Group Work: Multicultural and Social Justice Competence Principles for Group Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Merchant, Niloufer; Skudrzyk, Bogusia; Ingene, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) is committed to understanding how issues of multiculturalism and social justice affect all aspects of group work. This document reflects the updating and revision of a previous document entitled, "Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers," which was endorsed by ASGW in 1998 and published…

  1. A Nutrition Training Program for Social Workers Serving the Homebound Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Karen; Scharf, Marjorie

    1985-01-01

    Homebound elderly adults experience more nutrition-related problems than their active age peers. This paper reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a demonstration program for training social workers serving the homebound in a large urban area agency on aging. Evaluations indicated that the training was favorably received and…

  2. Social Workers' Final Act of Service: Respectful Burial Arrangements for Indigent, Unclaimed, and Unidentified People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castex, Graciela M.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field…

  3. Should Social Workers Use "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Allen; Jones, K. Dayle

    2014-01-01

    Up until now, social workers have depended on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") as the primary diagnostic classification for mental disorders. However, the "DSM-5" revision includes scientifically unfounded, inadequately tested, and potentially dangerous diagnoses that may lead them…

  4. How Do New Critical Pedagogies Develop? Public Education, Social Change, and Landless Workers in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlau, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past 30 years, the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST), one of the largest social movements in Latin America, has developed a series of pedagogical practices for public schools that support the movement's struggle for agrarian reform in the Brazilian countryside. The MST's educational initiatives can be viewed in terms…

  5. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2450 Section 405.2450 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED...

  6. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2450 Section 405.2450 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED...

  7. Personal and Professional Adjustment of Social Workers to Rural and Remote Practice: Implications for Improved Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonne, Bob; Cheers, Brian

    High turnover of rural practitioners is common among a range of human service professions in Australia. A longitudinal study surveyed 123 newly appointed rural social workers who had relocated to their new rural positions, using the same questionnaire every 3 months during an 18-month period. The study aimed to investigate rural recruitment and…

  8. Measuring Personal Growth of New Grandparents: A Practical Tool for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman--Ben-Ari, Orit; Ben Shlomo, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined the validity of using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) to assess growth following the transition to grandparenthood as an aid for social workers seeking to promote strengths-based interventions for this population. Method: In Study 1 (n = 210 grandparent/offspring pairs), first-time grandparents'…

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological and Physiological Illnesses: A Systematic Review for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Katherine L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Franklin, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to…

  10. Feasibility and acceptability of the TALK social worker intervention to improve live kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyér, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L Ebony

    2012-11-01

    Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with progressive chronic kidney disease in a recent randomized controlled trial: Patients and their families were invited to meet twice with a social worker to discuss their self-identified barriers to seeking LKT and to identify solutions to barriers. The authors audio recorded and transcribed all social worker visits to assess implementation of the TALK SWI and its acceptability to patients and families. The study social worker adhered to the TALK SWI protocol more than 90 percent of the time. Patients and families discussed medical (for example, long-term risks of transplant), psychological (for example, patients' denial of the severity of their disease), and economic (for example, impact of donation on family finances) concerns regarding LKT. Most patients and families felt that the intervention was helpful. Consistently high adherence to the TALK SWI protocol and acceptability of the intervention among patients and families suggest that the TALK SWI can be feasibly implemented in clinical practice.

  11. Use of Psychosocial Services Increases after a Social Worker-Mediated Intervention in Gynecology Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Yuko; Shah, Nina R.; Ward, Kristy K.; McHale, Michael T.; Alvarez, Edwin A.; Saenz, Cheryl C.; Plaxe, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of psychosocial services to gynecologic oncology outpatients by a social worker increases service use. During the initial six weeks (phase I), patients were referred for psychosocial services by clinic staff. During the second six weeks (phase II), a nurse introduced available…

  12. Political Activities of Social Workers: Addressing Perceived Barriers to Political Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political…

  13. Perspectives of Foster Parents and Social Workers on Foster Placement Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Brian J.; McQuillan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The potential human and financial costs of foster placement disruption for the children, families, professionals and agencies involved are widely accepted. This service evaluation identified and described perspectives of foster parents and social workers regarding placement disruptions in order to identify the main issues of concern and to derive…

  14. Feasibility and Acceptability of the TALK Social Worker Intervention to Improve Live Kidney Transplantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyer, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2012-01-01

    Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with…

  15. The Compassion Fatigue Scale: Its Use with Social Workers Following Urban Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study has two goals: to assess the difference between secondary trauma and job burnout and to examine the utility of secondary trauma in predicting psychological distress. Method: The data come from a survey of social workers (N = 236) living in New York City 20 months following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the…

  16. The Role of Empathy in Burnout, Compassion Satisfaction, and Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers.

    PubMed

    Wagaman, M Alex; Geiger, Jennifer M; Shockley, Clara; Segal, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    Social workers are at risk for experiencing burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of the nature of their work and the contexts within which they work. Little attention has been paid to the factors within a social worker's control that may prevent burnout and STS and increase compassion satisfaction. Empathy, which is a combination of physiological and cognitive processes, may be a tool to help address burnout and STS. This article reports on the findings of a study of social workers (N = 173) that explored the relationship between the components of empathy, burnout, STS, and compassion satisfaction using the Empathy Assessment Index and the Professional Quality of Life instruments. It was hypothesized that higher levels of empathy would be associated with lower levels of burnout and STS, and higher levels of compassion satisfaction. Findings suggest that components of empathy may prevent or reduce burnout and STS while increasing compassion satisfaction, and that empathy should be incorporated into training and education throughout the course of a social worker's career.

  17. Adoption and the American Indian Child: A Manual for Social Service Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zokan delos Reyes, Louise

    Written for social service workers involved with Indian child welfare cases in which adoption through a state court is being considered, this manual presents basic information about the requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) in cases of Indian adoption. Background material explains that the ICWA--intended to establish…

  18. Using Standardized Clients to Train Social Workers in Intimate Partner Violence Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgey, Mary Ann; Badger, Lee; Gilbert, Tracey; Hansen, Johna

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment in intimate partner violence (IPV) is critical to the accurate understanding of risk and to the development of interventions that increase safety. In this study standardized clients (actors) were used to train Army civilian social workers in evidence-based assessment of IPV and in the evaluation of the curriculum's…

  19. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Recognition, Action, and Considerations for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Paez, Doris

    2007-01-01

    School social workers are increasingly faced with students who have attachment issues, those who have been diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD), as well as the families affected by this disorder. In this article, key features of the RAD diagnosis are presented. Other psychiatric disorders associated and confused with RAD are also…

  20. Department of Health and Human Services Changes: Implications for Hospital Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Annemarie; Aldredge, Patti A.

    2013-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama issued a directive to the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) regarding patient visitation, advance directives, and other initiatives to improve the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and their families. The HHS response to this directive has implications for hospital social workers. The…

  1. Through the Eyes of Hollywood: Images of Social Workers in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Miriam L.; Valentine, Deborah P.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on research that investigated the images of social workers as portrayed in movies as a major medium of popular culture. Findings from an analysis of 44 movies spanning the period from 1938 to 1998 are presented with particular attention to the themes of gender, race, and class. Using the concept of motivated representations in…

  2. Care Orders as Successful Interventions: The Social Workers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pösö, Tarja; Eronen, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the outcomes of care orders from the point of view of social workers. The aim is to cast light on the "black box" of substitute care by analysing the practice-based view on outcome in order to contribute to the complex debate on the relations of care and outcome. The article is based on a study using a survey, focus…

  3. Torn: Social Expectations Concerning Forgiveness Among Women Who Have Experienced Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Tener, Dafna; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2015-06-30

    The authors examine how women who experienced intrafamilial child sexual abuse (IFCSA) perceive social expectations of society toward forgiveness, how they incorporate IFCSA and reconstruct their life stories in relation to these expectations, and the costs and gains from such reconstructions. This is part of a larger study on the phenomenology of forgiveness for IFCSA among grown women. Twenty Jewish Israeli women who had experienced IFCSA were interviewed in depth. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analyses lead to four types of social expectations: forgiveness by forgetting, avenging, family preservation through forgiveness, and satisfying the voyeuristic needs of society, which has limited interest in forgiveness. These contradictory expectations are discussed in light of the cultural context and the experience of the women interviewed. Implications for practice are suggested.

  4. Social indicators and physical abuse of women by intimate partners: a study of women in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Okenwa, Leah; Lawoko, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner physical abuse (IPPA) of women is a societal problem with sinister implications on health. IPPA has been integrally linked to social status though the direction of association remains elusive, not the least in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigated the association between IPPA and social status of women in Zambia. Data comprising 3,969 currently partnered women were retrieved from the 2001 Zambian Demographic and Health Survey and analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression. IPPA augmented with low education, income-generating activity, access to information, autonomy over household health issues, and having tolerant attitudes toward IPPA. Tolerant attitude toward IPPA and illiteracy were independent risk factors for IPPA. Educational interventions are recommended to prevent IPPA in Zambia.

  5. Does low workplace social capital have detrimental effect on workers' health?

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Subramanian, S V; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-05-01

    While the majority of studies of social capital and health have focused on conceptualizing social capital at the geographic level, evidence remains sparse on workplace social capital. We examined the association between workplace social capital and health status among Japanese private sector employees in a cross-sectional study. By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 1147 employees were identified from 46 companies in Okayama in 2007. Workplace social capital was measured based on two components; trust and reciprocity. Company-level social capital was based on aggregating employee responses and calculating the proportion of workers reporting mistrust and lack of reciprocity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to explore whether individual- and company-level mistrust and lack of reciprocity were associated with poor self-rated health. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% credible intervals (CIs) for poor health were obtained for each variable. Workers reporting individual-level mistrust and lack of reciprocity had approximately double the odds of poor health even after controlling for sex, age, occupation, educational attainment, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, body mass index, and chronic diseases. While we found some suggestion of a contextual association between company-level mistrust and poor health, no association was found between company-level lack of reciprocity and health. Despite the thorough examination of cross-level interaction terms between company-level social capital and individual characteristics, no clear patterns were observed. Individual perceptions of mistrust and lack of reciprocity at work have adverse effects on self-rated health among Japanese workers. Although the present study possibly suggests the contextual effect of workplace mistrust on workers' health, the contextual effect of workplace lack of reciprocity was not supported.

  6. Conflict in the Workplace: Social Workers as Victims and Perpetrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringstad, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Conflict and violence in the workplace have emerged as a real but inadequately explored concern in the social work profession. The present study surveyed a national random sample of 1,029 NASW members about their experiences with client violence and with physical and psychological assault in relationship to practice setting, age, gender, and…

  7. The National Science Foundation: Funding Opportunities for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskyte, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the National Science Foundation as a potential funding source for social work researchers and describes the experience of one faculty member in seeking funding from this source. The author provides an overview of the foundation, discusses its programmatic structure, proposal preparation, selection criteria, and review…

  8. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  9. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life.

  10. Social influence and individual risk factors of HIV unsafe sex among female entertainment workers in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei; Li, Xiaoming; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David

    2010-02-01

    Female entertainment workers in China are at increased sexual risk of HIV, but causes of their unprotected sex remain poorly understood. We develop a model that integrates information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) with social influences and test the model in a venue-based sample of 732 female entertainment workers in Shanghai. Most IMB and social influence measures are statistically significant in bivariate relationships to condom use; only HIV prevention motivation and behavioral self-efficacy remain significant in the multiple regressions. Self-efficacy in condom use is the most proximate correlate, mediating the relationship between information and motivation and condom use. Both peer and venue supports are important, but their influences over condom use are indirect and mediated through prevention motivation and/or self-efficacy. Behavioral intervention is urgently needed and should take a multilevel approach, emphasizing behavioral skills training and promoting a supportive social/working environment.

  11. Integrating social workers into medical-legal partnerships: comprehensive problem solving for patients.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Jeffrey David; Nelson, Brooke; Cronin, Katie

    2012-10-01

    Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) integrate legal services into the health care setting to resolve legal issues that have a negative impact on patient health. These partnerships between attorneys and health care professionals have traditionally focused on physicians. Despite early success and expansion of the MLP model, the literature is only beginning to explore the significant role that social workers can play in an MLP's development, process, and success. This article argues that MLPs are greatly enhanced when they seek the active engagement of a health center's social workers. All members of the MLP, however, should be aware of differing ethical and legal obligations in the medical, social work, and legal profession as well as differences in professional cultures that can affect the work of the partnership.

  12. Spaced retrieval technique--a cognitive tool for social workers and their clients.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Struzick, Tom; Farr, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    Social workers frequently work with clients who have cognitive deficits that impair their ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and reduce their quality of life. Borrowing from the cognitive aging literature, the Spaced Retrieval Technique can be used by social workers to help their clients retain information needed for more autonomous functioning. This technique consists of recalling information over progressively longer periods of time until the information is successfully consolidated into long-term memory. The retained information may include adhering to medication regimens, keeping doctor's appointments, and remembering to pay bills. This technique is established and employed in early Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, and HIV. Implications for social work practice are posited.

  13. The human genome project: an historical perspective for social workers.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    Having mapped the human genome, the Human Genome Project maintains that certain genes can be linked to specific diseases and certain forms of human behavior. This breakthrough, it is hoped, will lead to the effective treatment, even the elimination of serious, debilitating illnesses for all groups of people. However, because the project conjures up memories of eugenics, the project raises concerns about its potential for identifying and linking diseases and social conditions (e.g., criminal behavior) to certain groups. This article places the Human Genome Project in historical context in terms of its resemblance to the eugenics movement in America and a period in social work history when the profession embraced eugenics and was guided by the movement's premises in its response to poor people.

  14. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming Among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories.

    PubMed

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Salina, Doreen D; Jason, Leonard A

    2017-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women's empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women's personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community-based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support, and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  15. Linking the NIH strategic plan to the research agenda for social workers in health and aging.

    PubMed

    Raveis, Victoria H; Gardner, Daniel S; Berkman, Barbara; Harootyan, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although social work has a long and distinctive tradition of practice-relevant research aimed at enhancing the health and well-being of older adults, the profession has been underrepresented among the ranks of academic researchers and the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) scientific endeavors. In this article, the inherent capacities of social workers to generate and disseminate empirical health-related knowledge are discussed and recent developments in social work's geriatric research infrastructure are described. Emerging domains for advancing the profession's contribution to practice-relevant geriatric research on the federal level are identified and the next steps toward advancing the field's research agenda are posed.

  16. Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Latting, J K

    1991-01-01

    A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers.

  17. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    PubMed

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K

    2016-04-01

    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration.

  18. Legal Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect Cases in Texas: A Compendium of Cases and Statutory Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Frank; Spearly, James L.

    Designed to assist attorneys, social workers, and other interested parties, this manual describes work with child abuse and neglect cases in Texas. After a brief overview of the child abuse and neglect issue in that state, as well as an examination of the role of the Texas Department of Human Resources, the manual discusses suits affecting the…

  19. Social chromosome variants differentially affect queen determination and the survival of workers in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Séverine D; Wurm, Yanick; Keller, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and Sb. Colonies containing exclusively SB/SB workers accept only one single queen and she must be SB/SB. By contrast, when colonies contain more than 10% of SB/Sb workers, they accept several queens but only SB/Sb queens. The variants of the social chromosome are associated with several additional important phenotypic differences, including the size, fecundity and dispersal strategies of queens, aggressiveness of workers, and sperm count in males. However, little is known about whether social chromosome variants affect fitness in other life stages. Here, we perform experiments to determine whether differential selection occurs during development and in adult workers. We find evidence that the Sb variant of the social chromosome increases the likelihood of female brood to develop into queens and that adult SB/Sb workers, the workers that cull SB/SB queens, are overrepresented in comparison to SB/SB workers. This demonstrates that supergenes such as the social chromosome can have complex effects on phenotypes at various stages of development.

  20. Trends in work disability with mental diagnoses among social workers in Finland and Sweden in 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Rantonen, O; Alexanderson, K; Pentti, J; Kjeldgård, L; Hämäläinen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Salo, P

    2016-09-09

    Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists.

  1. Chronotype modulates sleep duration, sleep quality, and social jet lag in shift-workers.

    PubMed

    Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

    2013-04-01

    This study explores chronotype-dependent tolerance to the demands of working morning, evening, and night shifts in terms of social jet lag, sleep duration, and sleep disturbance. A total of 238 shift-workers were chronotyped with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift-workers (MCTQ(Shift)), which collects information about shift-dependent sleep duration and sleep timing. Additionally, 94 shift-workers also completed those items of the Sleep Questionnaire from the Standard Shift-Work Index (SSI) that assess sleep disturbances. Although all participants worked morning, evening, and night shifts, subsamples differed in rotation direction and speed. Sleep duration, social jet lag, and sleep disturbance were all significantly modulated by the interaction of chronotype and shift (mixed-model ANOVAs). Earlier chronotypes showed shortened sleep duration during night shifts, high social jet lag, as well as higher levels of sleep disturbance. A similar pattern was observed for later chronotypes during early shifts. Age itself only influenced sleep duration and quality per se, without showing interactions with shifts. We found that workers slept longer in fast, rotating shift schedules. Since chronotype changes with age, investigations on sleep behavior and circadian misalignment in shift-workers have to consider chronotype to fully understand interindividual and intraindividual variability, especially in view of the current demographic changes. Given the impact of sleep on health, our results stress the importance of chronotype both in understanding the effects of shift-work on sleep and in devising solutions to reduce shift-work-related health problems.

  2. Does Workplace Social Capital Associate with Hazardous Drinking Among Chinese Rural-Urban Migrant Workers?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R.; Fua, Hua; Pan, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD) among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW). Methods A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking. Results Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04–1.23), 1.17(95%CI: 1.05–1.56) and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13–1.72), respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking. Conclusions Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population. PMID:25502013

  3. Exploring the Sacred-Secular Dialect in Everyday Social Work Practice: An Analysis of Religious Responses to Managerialism among Outreach Social Workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Julian M.; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

    2016-01-01

    We examine the recent proliferation of religious discourses among front line social workers in the former British Colony of Hong Kong in order to explore the nature of ‘re-enchantment’ in modern social work practice. In-depth qualitative interviews with twenty social workers who identify as ‘Christian social workers’ in a variety of social work organisations (both religious and secular) reveal the adoption of religious identities and discourses to navigate the encroachment of managerialism. A systematic analysis of these narratives suggests that Christian social workers evoke religion to reclaim feelings of authenticity in their work, to facilitate more personalised relationships with their clients, and to empower themselves following the introduction of managerialist policies. We illuminate the dialectical relationship between religious discourses and managerialism to critique claims in the literature about a ‘re-enchantment’ in social work, and to understand the essence of religion in modern social work practice. PMID:27559235

  4. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  5. Attitudinal and Social Normative Factors as Predictors of Intended Alcohol Abuse among Fifth- and Seventh-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, F. Betty

    1982-01-01

    Using a model of behavior intention, a study attempted to identify attitudinal and social normative factors which might predict the behavioral intentions of preadolescents to alcohol abuse. Findings of the study indicate the importance of students' personal attitudes in their decision to drink alcoholic beverages. (JN)

  6. Does Bachelor's-Level Social Work Education Impact Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Substance-Abusing Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared 248 graduating seniors with 301 beginning juniors at 10 bachelor's-level social work programs in the Northeast concerning their knowledge and attitudes regarding working with substance-abusing clients. Graduating seniors demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge and only slightly more positive attitudes toward working…

  7. Exploring the controversy in child abuse pediatrics and false accusations of abuse.

    PubMed

    Gabaeff, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need

  8. Substance Abuse and America: Historical Perspective on the Federal Response to a Social Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lawrence S.

    1981-01-01

    Much more often than is commonly given credit, factors other than a substance's therapeutic efficacy contribute to its affect on the individual experience, its own proliferation, and society's response. To explore these dynamics, American history is examined from the perspective of analyzing the development of substance abuse. Of the conclusions borne out by this historical perspective, foremost was that psychoactive substance use has been an element in the American social ecology from its earliest beginnings. The health professions have not always exhibited behavior in the interest of public health, and, most importantly, the federal response has often been plagued with outcomes that have been less desirable than many of the problems. This historical review supports the thesis that drug-seeking behavior and the response it elicits are in a constant state of flux and cannot be adequately appreciated in isolation from the sociocultural and historical contexts in which they occur. PMID:7017155

  9. Social Workers' Perceived Role Clarity as Members of an Interdisciplinary Team in Brain Injury Settings.

    PubMed

    Vungkhanching, Martha; Tonsing, Kareen N

    2016-08-11

    This study investigated social workers' role clarity as members of an interdisciplinary team in traumatic and acquired brain injury treatment settings. A total of 37 social workers from 7 Western countries completed an anonymous online survey questionnaire. The majority of participants have more than 10 years of experience working in brain injury treatment settings (59.5%), and about 54% have been in their current employment for more than 10 years. Findings revealed that there were significant positive correlations between perceived respect, team collaboration, and perceived value of self for team with role clarity. Multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived value of self for team was a significant predictor of role clarity (p < .05).

  10. A civilian social worker's guide to the treatment of war-induced PTSD.

    PubMed

    Yarvis, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been designated as one of the signature wounds of the Iraq/Afghanistan war. Approximately 15% of returning service members have been diagnosed with PTSD and the numbers increase daily. As such, civilian social workers and other mental health professionals need to understand the diagnosis and how best to help those struggling with the disorder. This article will explore the etiology and treatment approaches used in management for those with PTSD.

  11. The Functions of Social Support in the Mental Health of Male and Female Migrant Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Leung, Grace

    2008-01-01

    The study reported herein adopted a stress and coping framework to examine the functions of social support in protecting the mental health of migrant workers who experience migration stress during settlement in Shanghai, China. A total of 475 migrant workers from four major districts in Shanghai were recruited for a survey through multistage…

  12. Somatic experiencing treatment with social service workers following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Leitch, M Laurie; Vanslyke, Jan; Allen, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    In a disaster, social service workers are often survivors themselves.This study examines whether somatic intervention using a brief (one to two session) stabilization model now called the Trauma Resiliency Model (TRM), which uses the skills of Somatic Experiencing (SE), can reduce the postdisaster symptoms of social service workers involved in postdisaster service delivery.The study was implemented with a nonrandom sample of 142 social service workers who were survivors of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, two to three months after the disasters. Ninety-one participants received SE/TRM and were compared with a matched comparison group of 51 participants through the use of propensity score matching. All participants first received group psychoeducation. Results support the benefits of the brief intervention inspired by SE. The treatment group showed statistically significant gains in resiliency indicators and decreases in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Although psychological symptoms increased in both groups at the three to four month follow-up, the treatment group's psychological symptoms were statistically lower than those of the comparison group.

  13. Linkages between Child Abuse and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls: Behavioral and Social Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe-Smith, Allison M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine whether girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of having histories of abuse and to assess whether the presence of an abuse history may constitute a distinct subgroup of youth with ADHD. Method: We examined rates and correlates of child abuse in an…

  14. Public Service Advertising and Social Problems: the Case of Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, William J.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    This paper explores certain findings of a DAIR (Drug Abuse Information Research) project undertaken at the University of Connecticut which is investigating the dissemination and impact of drug abuse information. Specifically, findings regarding audience response to persuasive antidrug abuse messages on television are discussed. On the basis of the…

  15. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying.

  16. Methamphetamine Abuse and Manufacture: The Child Welfare Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Oliver, Rhonda; Wright, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is on the rise, particularly by women of child-bearing age. This article describes the history and effects of methamphetamine use. The authors examine the ways exposure to the manufacture of this drug affects clients and social workers in the course of their work. Because children are frequently found at the scene of a…

  17. Role of Natural Helpers in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballew, Julius R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines social isolation and the use of informal helping networks of families (N=130) at risk for child abuse or neglect. Preventive service workers' (N=13) responses to a natural helper survey revealed that friends, relatives, and neighbors are potential helpers for such families and are effective in resolving problems they address. (NRB)

  18. Emotional valence and context of social influences on drug abuse-related behavior in animal models of social stress and prosocial interaction

    PubMed Central

    Neisewander, J.L.; Peartree, N.A.; Pentkowski, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Social factors are important determinants of drug dependence and relapse. Objectives We reviewed preclinical literature examining the role of social experiences from early life through the development of drug dependence and relapse, emphasizing two aspects of these experiences: 1) whether the social interaction is appetitive or aversive and 2) whether the social interaction occurs within or outside of the drug-taking context. Methods The models reviewed include neonatal care, isolation, social defeat, chronic subordination, and prosocial interactions. We review results from these models in regard to effects on self-administration and conditioned place preference established with alcohol, psychostimulants, and opiates. Results We suggest that in general, when the interactions occur outside of the drug-taking context, prosocial interactions are protective against drug abuse-related behaviors whereas social stressors facilitate these behaviors. By contrast, positive or negative social interactions occurring within the drug-taking context may interact with other risk factors to enhance or inhibit these behaviors. Conclusions Despite differences in the nature and complexity of human social behavior compared to other species, the evolving animal literature provides useful models for understanding social influences on drug abuse-related behavior that will allow for research on the behavioral and biological mechanisms involved. The models have contributed to understanding social influences on initiation and maintenance of drug use, but more research is needed to understand social influences on drug relapse. PMID:22955569

  19. Social capital at work: psychometric analysis of a short scale in Spanish among Mexican health workers.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Camacho-Avila, Anabel; García-Rivas, Javier; Juárez-García, Arturo

    2012-09-01

    Most studies on social capital and health are carried out with large home-based surveys, neglecting that many interactions among individuals occur in the workplace. The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of a scale in Spanish used to measure social capital at work. The scale designed by Kouvonen et al was translated into Spanish and tested under classical test theory, item response theory, and confirmatory factorial analysis; 152 public health workers from different socio-cultural contexts participated in the survey. Internal consistency was high (Chronbach's alpha = 0.88). Social capital at work correlated properly with two Job Content Questionnaire dimensions. A ceiling effect was detected and item difficulty was quantified. The confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected theoretical components of social capital: bonding, bridging and trust. The scale has acceptable psychometric properties, thus it can be used in future studies.

  20. Sociocultural factors of teenage pregnancy in Latino communities: preparing social workers for culturally responsive practice.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Elizabeth; Pecukonis, Edward V; Zhou, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    Despite gains in reducing teenage pregnancy during the past 20 years, disparities in teenage pregnancy rates persist: The teenage pregnancy rate in Latino communities is now nearly double the average rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States. Considering the significant risks teenage pregnancy and parenting pose to both the teenager and the child, and that social workers are already often working in communities with populations at risk, this is not only a major public health issue, but one that the field of social work is well positioned to actively address. This article synthesizes pertinent literature on some of the social and cultural influences important for understanding this phenomenon. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  1. Social Skills and Social Values Training for Future K-Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sail, Rahim M.; Alavi, Khadijah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of acquisition of knowledge on social skills and social values by trainers of institutes and coaches of industries in training of trainers (ToT) programmes. It has been ascertained that social skills and social values can and must be taught to apprentices to enhance their…

  2. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  3. Street-Level Strategies of Child Welfare Social Workers in Flanders: The Use of Electronic Client Records in Practice.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Jasper; Declercq, Anja; Hermans, Koen

    2016-07-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in child welfare services has increased significantly during the last decades, and so have the possibilities to process health data. Parton (2009) states that this evolution has led to a shift in the nature of social work itself: from 'the social' to 'the informational'. It is claimed that social workers primarily are becoming information processors concerned with the gathering, sharing and monitoring of information, instead of being focused on the relational dimensions of their work. However, social workers have considerable discretion concerning the way they use ICT. In this paper, we investigate (i) the street-level strategies social workers develop regarding ICT and (ii) how these relate to a narrative social work approach. To illustrate this, an evaluation of Charlotte was conducted, a client registration system that is used by social workers in child welfare services in Flanders, Belgium. Based on fifteen interviews, we find that social workers develop various strategies regarding Charlotte to preserve a relational and narrative work approach. These strategies not only result in a gap between ICT policy and the execution of that policy in practice, but also decrease the extent to which accountability can be realised via registration data.

  4. Medical, social and societal issues in infants with abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Koe, S; Price, B; May, S; Kyne, L; Keenan, P; McKay, M; Nicholson, A J

    2010-04-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of death from traumatic brain injury in under 2 year olds. AHT presents with acute encephalopathy, subdural hemorrhages and retinal hemorrhages occurring in the context of an inappropriate or inconsistent history. We retrospectively analyzed, over a 10 year period, admissions and transfers to our hospital with suspected AHT to assess patterns of presentation, presenting symptoms, investigations, subsequent confirmation, social work input and both neurological and social outcomes. We analyzed all suspected AHT infants and children looking for the time of presentation, presenting symptoms, caregivers concerns prior to presentation, a family profile including stressors, investigations (in particular neuroradiology and ophthalmology assessments), treatment in hospital, length of stay in hospital, social work involvement, subsequent discharge, neurological outcome and subsequent social work follow up. Data was collected from the hospital HIPE system, RIS (radiology reports system) and records from the social work department from a period October 1998 to January 2009 inclusive. Of 22 patients with confirmed AHT, ages seizures and irritability followed by vomiting, poor feeding, a bulging fontanelle and lethargy. The father was the sole minder in 5 cases. There was a delayed history in 4 cases. One had multiple visits to his GP. All cases had subdural hemorrhages proven by either CT or MRI scans and retinal hemorrhages diagnosed by ophthalmology. One infant presented with a torn frenulum. Four had suspicious bruising. All had normal coagulation profiles, skeletal surveys and extensive metabolic tests. Hospital stays ranged from 1 to 124 days (the median was 28 days and mean 33 days). Ten (45%) infants required ventilatory support. Sixteen infants had social work involvement within 4 days of admission (7 of these were interviewed immediately). Outcomes after case conferences were that 6 returned home with parents, 9 were

  5. Social costs of robbery and the cost-effectiveness of substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Paltiel, A David; Pollack, Harold A

    2008-08-01

    Reduced crime provides a key benefit associated with substance abuse treatment (SAT). Armed robbery is an especially costly and frequent crime committed by some drug-involved offenders. Many studies employ valuation methods that understate the true costs of robbery, and thus the true social benefits of SAT-related robbery reduction. At the same time, regression to the mean and self-report bias may lead pre-post comparisons to overstate crime reductions associated with SAT. Using 1992-1997 data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), we examined pre-post differences in self-reported robbery among clients in five residential and outpatient SAT modalities. Fixed-effect negative binomial regression was used to examine incidence rate reductions (IRR) in armed robbery. Published data on willingness to pay to avoid robbery were used to determine the social valuation of these effects. Differences in IRR across SAT modalities were explored to bound potential biases.All SAT modalities were associated with large and statistically significant reductions in robbery. The average number of self-reported robberies declined from 0.83/client/year pre-entry to 0.12/client/year following SAT (p<0.001). Under worst-case assumptions, monetized valuations of reductions in armed robbery associated with outpatient methadone and residential SAT exceeded economic costs of these interventions. Conventional wisdom posits the economic benefits of SAT. We find that SAT is even more beneficial than is commonly assumed.

  6. ‘Often there is a Good Deal to be Done, But Socially Rather Than Medically’: The Psychiatric Social Worker as Social Therapist, 1945–70

    PubMed Central

    LONG, VICKY

    2011-01-01

    Seeking to align psychiatric practice with general medicine following the inauguration of the National Health Service, psychiatric hospitals in post-war Britain deployed new treatments designed to induce somatic change, such as ECT, leucotomy and sedatives. Advocates of these treatments, often grouped together under the term ‘physical therapies’, expressed relief that the social problems encountered by patients could now be interpreted as symptomatic of underlying biological malfunction rather than as a cause of disorder that required treatment. Drawing on the British Journal of Psychiatric Social Work, this article analyses the critique articulated by psychiatric social workers based within hospitals who sought to facilitate the social reintegration of patients following treatment. It explores the development of ‘psychiatric social treatment’, an approach devised by psychiatric social workers to meet the needs of people with enduring mental health problems in hospital and community settings that sought to alleviate distress and improve social functioning by changing an individual’s social environment and interpersonal relationships. ‘Physical’ and ‘social’ models of psychiatric treatment, this article argues, contested not only the aetiology of mental illness but also the nature of care, treatment and cure. PMID:21461311

  7. Exploring definitions of financial abuse in elderly Korean immigrants: the contribution of traditional cultural values.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Sang E; Eaton, Charissa K

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the cultural definitions of financial abuse from the perspective of 124 elderly Korean immigrants and to examine the role of traditional cultural values in their definitions by using a mixed methods approach. The qualitative analysis generated four themes relevant to definition of financial abuse. A binary logistic regression indicated that those with stronger cultural adherence to traditional values had higher odds of providing culture-based definitions of financial abuse. Education is needed for health professionals, social service providers, and adult protective workers to increase their understanding of culture-specific experiences of financial abuse among ethnic minority elders.

  8. Assured fitness returns in a social wasp with no worker caste.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Eric R; Field, Jeremy

    2011-10-07

    The theory of assured fitness returns proposes that individuals nesting in groups gain fitness benefits from effort expended in brood-rearing, even if they die before the young that they have raised reach independence. These benefits, however, require that surviving nest-mates take up the task of rearing these young. It has been suggested that assured fitness returns could have favoured group nesting even at the origin of sociality (that is, in species without a dedicated worker caste). We show that experimentally orphaned brood of the apoid wasp Microstigmus nigrophthalmus continue to be provisioned by surviving adults for at least two weeks after the orphaning. This was the case for brood of both sexes. There was no evidence that naturally orphaned offspring received less food than those that still had mothers in the nest. Assured fitness returns can therefore represent a real benefit to nesting in groups, even in species without a dedicated worker caste.

  9. Street-Level Strategies of Child Welfare Social Workers in Flanders: The Use of Electronic Client Records in Practice

    PubMed Central

    De Witte, Jasper; Declercq, Anja; Hermans, Koen

    2016-01-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in child welfare services has increased significantly during the last decades, and so have the possibilities to process health data. Parton (2009) states that this evolution has led to a shift in the nature of social work itself: from ‘the social’ to ‘the informational’. It is claimed that social workers primarily are becoming information processors concerned with the gathering, sharing and monitoring of information, instead of being focused on the relational dimensions of their work. However, social workers have considerable discretion concerning the way they use ICT. In this paper, we investigate (i) the street-level strategies social workers develop regarding ICT and (ii) how these relate to a narrative social work approach. To illustrate this, an evaluation of Charlotte was conducted, a client registration system that is used by social workers in child welfare services in Flanders, Belgium. Based on fifteen interviews, we find that social workers develop various strategies regarding Charlotte to preserve a relational and narrative work approach. These strategies not only result in a gap between ICT policy and the execution of that policy in practice, but also decrease the extent to which accountability can be realised via registration data. PMID:27559226

  10. Social workers' final act of service: respectful burial arrangements for indigent, unclaimed, and unidentified people.

    PubMed

    Castex, Graciela M

    2007-10-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field burial, sometimes in coffins stacked eight deep, with no respectful ceremony of interment. This article provides an overview of societal responses to the need for a final disposition of all people; discusses demographic and social trends that, if realized, may result in a significant increase in indigent burials; and provides information on social work interventions and the identification of resources available for a respectful and dignified final disposition for a client.

  11. Is elder abuse and neglect a social phenomenon? Data from the First National Prevalence Survey in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Ariela; Eisikovits, Zvi; Band-Winterstein, Tova; Enosh, Guy

    2009-01-01

    % of the sample, regarding the 3 months preceding the interview. This high rate might be related to elders tending to avoid seeking help or sharing their needs with their families. When victims sought help it was mostly from medical and health services. The findings thus corroborate that elder abuse and neglect is a social problem in Israeli society and has to be addressed in policy discourse and service developments.

  12. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Methods Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013–February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Results Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Conclusions Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization

  13. Listening to the rural health workers in Papua New Guinea - the social factors that influence their motivation to work.

    PubMed

    Razee, Husna; Whittaker, Maxine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Yap, Lorraine; Brentnall, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Despite rural health services being situated and integrated within communities in which people work and live, the complex interaction of the social environment on health worker motivation and performance in Low Middle Income Countries has been neglected in research. In this article we investigate how social factors impact on health worker motivation and performance in rural health services in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 health workers from three provinces (Central, Madang, and Milne Bay) in PNG between August and November 2009. They included health extension officers, community health workers and nursing officers, some of whom were in charge of the health centres. The health centres were a selection across church based, government and private enterprise health facilities. Qualitative analysis identified the key social factors impacting on health worker motivation and performance to be the local community context, gender roles and family related issues, safety and security and health beliefs and attitudes of patients and community members. Our study identified the importance of strong supportive communities on health worker motivation. These findings have implications for developing sustainable strategies for motivation and performance enhancement of rural health workers in resource poor settings.

  14. [Discussion of the Roles of Medical Social Workers in the Response to the Explosion Incident at Formosa Fun Coast].

    PubMed

    Yueh, Hsin-Tien; Sung, Hsien-Yi; Wu, Chia-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Medical social workers apply the theories of "person in the environment" (PIE) and "ecological perspective" as practical foundations. Furthermore, they emphasize the people, the environment, and the interactions between these two. When burn patients from the explosion at Formosa Fun Coast were sent to hospitals, social workers not only provided care and assessed the impact on burn patients but also assisted in supporting the family members of these patients. This article discusses the various roles of social workers within different systems. In the individual system, we use Eric Erickson's theory of psychosocial development to evaluate the patient's crisis and the tasks of social workers. Secondly, in the systems of family, school, and work, we assess the relationships between a patient, his/her significant others, and caregivers as well as the interactions among sub-systems in the family. In the community and cultural systems, we focus on the social resources that may be utilized by the burn patients after discharge. Moreover, we add a time frame to examine our major tasks, including the initial stage, the middle stage, and the preparation-for-discharge stage. We explore the roles of social workers, the applicable theories, and the goals for each stage.

  15. Using art as a self-regulating tool in a war situation: a model for social workers.

    PubMed

    Huss, Ephrat; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie

    2010-08-01

    War poses a challenge for social workers, adding exposure to direct risk of personal harm to the general stress of social work practice. Artworks are frequently used in health care settings with people in high distress. This study had three goals: (1) to characterize the stressors of social workers living in a war zone, (2) to teach social workers in crisis situations to identify stress and resilience factors in their artworks, and (3) to develop a general self-care model for arts intervention for professionals in these situations. Common stressors experienced by participants were anxiety and fear as a result of bombs, sirens, worry over loved ones, and overexposure to media. These were layered onto professional stressors, including constant work communication on cell phones during war and dilemmas related to work-family conflicts. Allowing social workers to name and identity the sources of their stress and then change their artwork to enhance resilience helped them to gain a sense of control over diffuse sources of anxiety. The authors propose this method as an effective intervention model with social workers in high-stress situations.

  16. Social-Environmental Factors and Protective Sexual Behavior Among Sex Workers: The Encontros Intervention in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Angela; Díaz, Juan; Chinaglia, Magda; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the association of social–environmental factors with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 420 sex workers participating in an STI/HIV prevention study in Corumbá, Brazil, to inform future intervention efforts. Methods. Participants provided urine samples for polymerase chain reaction testing of chlamydia and gonorrhea and responded to multi-item scales addressing perceived social cohesion, participation in networks, and access to and management of resources. We conducted multivariate log-linear and negative binomial regression analyses of these data. Results. Increased social cohesion was inversely associated with number of unprotected sex acts in the preceding week among women (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.80; P < .01), and there was a marginal association among men (adjusted IRR = 0.41; P = .08). Women's increased participation in social networks was associated with a decrease in frequency of unprotected sex acts (adjusted IRR = 0.83; P = .04), as was men's access to and management of social and material resources (IRR = 0.15; P = .01). Social–environmental factors were not associated with STIs. Conclusions. The social context within which populations negotiate sexual behaviors is associated with condom use. Future efforts to prevent STI/HIV should incorporate strategies to modify the social environment. PMID:19762673

  17. Mosaicism may explain the evolution of social characters in haplodiploid Hymenoptera with female workers.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.

  18. Community Health Workers promoting physical activity: Targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, Jessica; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Burke, Kari Herzog; Elder, John P.; Montañez, Jacqueline; Arredondo, Elva M.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Community Health Workers (CHWs) as health educators and health promoters among Latino populations is widely recognized. The Affordable Care Act created important opportunities to increase the role of CHWs in preventive health. This article describes the implementation of CHW-led, culturally specific, faith-based program to increase physical activity (PA) among churchgoing Latinas. The current study augments previous research by describing the recruitment, selection, training, and evaluation of CHWs for a PA intervention targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model. PMID:26280587

  19. Divergent Drinking Patterns of Restaurant Workers: The Influence of Social Networks and Job Position

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Genevieve M.; Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.

    2013-01-01

    Restaurant workers have higher rates of problem drinking than most occupational groups. However, little is known about the environmental risks and work characteristics that may lead to these behaviors. An exploration of restaurant workers’ drinking networks may provide important insights into their alcohol consumption patterns, thus guiding workplace prevention efforts. Drawing from social capital theory, this paper examines the unique characteristics of drinking networks within and between various job categories. Our research suggests that these multiple, complex networks have unique risk characteristics, and that self-selection is based on factors such as job position and college attendance, among other factors. PMID:23687470

  20. The functions of social support in the mental health of male and female migrant workers in China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Leung, Grace

    2008-11-01

    The study reported herein adopted a stress and coping framework to examine the functions of social support in protecting the mental health of migrant workers who experience migration stress during settlement in Shanghai, China. A total of 475 migrant workers from four major districts in Shanghai were recruited for a survey through multistage cluster sampling. The results suggest that migration stress, particularly financial and employment difficulties, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and social companionship support contributed substantially to the mental health of both male and female migrant workers. Although instrumental support significantly influenced the mental health of male migrants, esteem support significantly influenced the mental health of female migrants. In addition, although social support did not exert any mediating effect on the mental health of both male and female migrant workers, social companionship support appeared to moderate the migration stress and mental health of female migrant workers. Sociocultural factors are put forth as explanations for these findings. The implications of this study include the provision of workshops and counseling and the strengthening of informal support networks for migrant workers.

  1. Analysis of Social Worker and Educator's Areas of Intervention through Multimedia Concept Maps and Online Discussion Forums in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vázquez-Cano, Esteban; López Meneses, Eloy; Sánchez-Serrano, José Luis Sarasola

    2015-01-01

    This diachronic study describes an innovative university experience consisting of the development of multimedia concept maps (MCM) in relation to social educators and social workers main intervention areas and an active discussion in online forums about the results obtained. These MCMs were prepared by students who attended the Information…

  2. Broadly Trained but Narrowly Used? Factors That Predict the Performance of Environmental versus Individual Tasks by School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupper, David R.; Rocha, Cynthia; Jackson, Rebecca F.; Lodato, Gayle A.

    2014-01-01

    National and state surveys over the past several decades have concluded that school social workers, despite an awareness of and training in macro level practice strategies, are highly individualistic in their practice focus. Although clinical skills are necessary, they are insufficient for effective school social work practice in the 21st century.…

  3. Social Workers' Roles in Facilitating the Collective Involvement of Low-Income, Culturally Diverse Parents in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Lawson, Michael A.; Lawson, Hal A.

    2010-01-01

    Social workers have pivotal roles to play in facilitating collective parent involvement in economically poor school communities. Using a community-based, participatory, and empowerment-oriented approach to social work practice and research, this study provides empirical support for this claim. It examines the narratives of 17 economically poor…

  4. Understanding the Assessment of Psychotropic Drug Harms in Clinical Trials to Improve Social Workers' Role in Medication Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to facilitate social work practitioners' understanding of how psychotropic drug harms are assessed in clinical trials and to make specific suggestions for social workers' increased involvement in detecting drug harms in their clients. The authors undertook a comprehensive review of interdisciplinary…

  5. A Leadership Opportunity for School Social Workers: Bridging the Gaps in School Reentry for Juvenile Justice System Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldkind, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Social work is frequently missing when policy and practice conversations turn to juvenile justice system youths. However, school social workers are well positioned to have a vital role in the readmission and reentry process for these young people. Formerly incarcerated youths present unique challenges for themselves, their families, and…

  6. [A social-health care coordination reference in the fields of mental health and child abuse].

    PubMed

    García-Panal, Leticia; García-Panal, Javier; Delgado-Mata, Eulalia

    2016-01-01

    The intervention in families with children at risk of abuse stays as a clear example of the need for intersectional coordination mechanisms within the socio-health care framework. Different health services (such as primary care, paediatrics, mental health, community and social services, family support teams and schools) create a network in order to link their main goals in the interest of ensuring children's welfare and improving familieś situation. This essay aims at describing a performance based on the mentioned guidelines, even though there is no accepted and widespread protocol in this regard. We start our research with a one parent family with two children. The mother suffers from a mental health disorder and she fails to adhere to treatment. Both the father of the two children and his family took advantage of this situation to discredit the mother's capability of taking care of her children. This perception had a great impact in her self-esteem and therefore in her willingness and strength to recover. Meetings were held to share relevant information about both the family's general situation, the children's quality of life and the mother's health. Based on this information, the main goals were set in each professional field in order to develop the intervention project. This example of intersectional coordination shows the importance of its standardization for the sake of ensuring a comprehensive attention towards situations that involve initially individuals but that ends up affecting the whole family.

  7. Do Social Workers Apply "Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself" to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transpersons in the South?

    PubMed

    Lennon-Dearing, Robin; Delavega, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Across the United States there has been a spate of legislative bills and initiatives that blatantly stigmatize and discriminate against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This study was a cross-sectional, exploratory survey designed to measure the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of Tennessee social workers and future social workers toward the LGBT population and toward proposed discriminatory legislation. A 3-way factorial ANOVA investigated the effects of political affiliation, religious affiliation, and social contact on the dependent measures. Significant main effects were found. Self-reported political affiliation was found to be the most important factor predicting LGBT acceptance and LGBT respect among this sample.

  8. The challenges in providing services to clients with mental illness: managed care, burnout and somatic symptoms among social workers.

    PubMed

    Acker, Gila M

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between social workers' experiences when interfacing with managed care organizations and burnout. A total of 591 social workers completed questionnaires that included several measures: Self-perceived competence in the context of managed care, professional involvement with clients with severe mental illness, and burnout. Results showed that self-perceived competence in the context of managed care had statistically significant correlations with burnout dimensions. The author discusses the role of social work schools in preparing students for the realistic aspects of mental health work, and recommends a partnership between managed care organizations and professionals for best care giving.

  9. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality.

  10. An Intensive Continuing Education Initiative to Train Social Workers for Military Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Specific standards exist for social work practice with service members, military families, and veterans, whether in civilian or military practice settings. Based on these standards, a continuing education certificate for practitioners was designed with companion military social work coursework in the advanced graduate curriculum and field…

  11. Interviews with senegalese commercial sex trade workers and implications for social programming.

    PubMed

    Homaifar, Nazaneen; Wasik, Suzan Zuljani

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of the Senegalese pubic policy toward registered sex workers through an interview process examining their backgrounds and evaluating their knowledge of sexual health. Sixty registered sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, were interviews at the Institute d'Hygiene Social (IHS) to investigate patient knowledge of contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ninety-eight percent of the women reported that, as a result of their visits to the clinic, they had increased precaution in their trade by demanding their clients use condoms and refusing clients who did not comply. Nearly 96% of the women were able to define the three main ways by which HIV is contracted, while 100% of the women reported that they used male condoms with their clients and would refuse clients who rejected the use of condoms. Senegal's proactive policy toward the safeguarding of women's health and the containment of HIV/AIDS through the legalization and monitoring of sex workers can serve as an example for successful strategies in the fight against the global spread of HIV/AIDS.

  12. Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse of Community Women: Mediated Effects on Psychological Distress and Social Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallstrom-Fuqua, Amanda C.; Weston, Rebecca; Marshall, Linda L.

    2004-01-01

    Possible mediators of sexual abuse severity were tested on the basis of D. Finkelhor and A. Browne's (1985) traumagenic dynamics model with 178 low-income African American, European American, and Mexican American community women interviewed for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women. This subsample reported contact sexual abuse before the age of 18…

  13. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  14. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  15. Archiving Social Policy: The Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, B. W.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of archiving state commission papers, documenting the formation of public policy, and allowing the public access to an organized collection of the data gathered by the Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Florida's citizens with mental illnesses or substance abuse disorders face a myriad of…

  16. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  17. The Social Ecology of Adolescent-Initiated Parent Abuse: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is…

  18. Social and Structural Factors Shaping High Rates of Incarceration among Sex Workers in a Canadian Setting.

    PubMed

    Socías, M E; Deering, K; Horton, M; Nguyen, P; Montaner, J S; Shannon, K

    2015-10-01

    In light of the emphasis on enforcement-based approaches towards sex work, and the well-known negative impacts of these approaches on women's health, safety and well-being, we conducted a study to investigate the prevalence and correlates of recent incarceration among a cohort of women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Data were obtained from an open prospective community cohort of female and transgender women sex workers, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations (GEE), were used to model the effect of social and structural factors on the likelihood of incarceration over the 44-month follow-up period (January 2010-August 2013). Among 720 sex workers, 62.5 % (n = 450) reported being incarcerated in their lifetime and 23.9 % (n = 172) being incarcerated at least once during the study period. Of the 172 participants, about one third (36.6 %) reported multiple episodes of incarceration. In multivariable GEE analyses, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04 per year younger, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), being of a sexual/gender minority (AOR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.13-2.34), heavy drinking (AOR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.20-3.29), being born in Canada (AOR = 3.28, 95 % CI 1.26-8.53), living in unstable housing conditions (AOR = 4.32, 95 % CI 2.17-8.62), servicing clients in public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments) (AOR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.05-5.17) and experiencing police harassment without arrest (AOR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.35-2.45) remain independently correlated with incarceration. This prospective study found a very high prevalence and frequency of incarceration among women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, with the most vulnerable and marginalized women at increased risk of incarceration. Given the well-known social and health harms associated with incarceration, and associations between police harassment

  19. Bridging the Professional Digital Divide: Comparative Analysis of Technology Usage Behaviors across the Working Lifespan of Professional Social Workers: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Aisha Ain

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is the mandatory use of Computer Based Technology (CBT) with social work professionals. Such a study is important in order to investigate which determinants are essential for social workers 45 and older to achieve adoption of CBT. The membership list of the National Association of Social Workers provided access to…

  20. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers.

    PubMed

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.

  1. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers

    PubMed Central

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21–57 years (M = 35.27; SD = 8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale – Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive – social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance. PMID:26323770

  2. A community health worker intervention to address the social determinants of health through policy change.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Sabo, Samantha J; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Gomez, Sofia; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health workers (CHWs) from five health agencies engaged their community in the process of making positive systems and environmental changes. Academic-community partners trained Acción CHWs in community advocacy and provided ongoing technical assistance in developing strategic advocacy plans. The CHWs documented community advocacy activities through encounter forms in which they identified problems, formulated solutions, and described systems and policy change efforts. Strategy maps described the steps of the advocacy plans. Findings demonstrate that CHWs worked to initiate discussions about underlying social determinants and environment-related factors that impact health, and identified solutions to improve neighborhood conditions, create community opportunities, and increase access to services.

  3. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health.

    PubMed

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H

    2001-06-01

    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research.

  4. Genetic screening of prospective parents and of workers: some scientific and social issues.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R; Henifin, M S

    1985-01-01

    Genetic screening programs are based on assumptions and values that reflect the history of racial and social eugenics in the United States and Europe. They stigmatize individuals by shifting the focus from social, economic, and political decisions that affect the health of prospective parents, newborns, and workers to "bad genes," that is, intrapersonal factors that are given the status of "causes" of disease. Prenatal screening, at best, can help the relatively few individuals who know that their future children are at risk for a particular inherited disease or disability; it has little positive value for the average person. Workplace genetic screening has not been shown to reduce occupational disease, but it has led to employment discrimination and has drawn attention away from controlling exposures to toxic chemicals in the workplace.

  5. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health.

    PubMed Central

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H

    2001-01-01

    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research. PMID:11427397

  6. Gerontological Social Workers are Key to a Sustainable Long-Term Services and Supports System.

    PubMed

    Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2016-12-20

    Of the myriad challenges that the new administration and 115th Congress will face, one of the most pressing will be establishing a sustainable long-term services and supports (LTSS) system responsive to the aging US population. Currently, the majority of LTSS is paid for with Medicaid and other public programs; an additional and sizeable burden falls on unpaid caregivers. Individuals generally have unrealistic expectations about their likelihood of needing LTSS and a minority of adults have made any concrete plans for their own care. With the aging of the US population, the current structure of LTSS will be unsustainable going forward. Past administrations have been unsuccessful in developing practical, sustainable solutions to address the impending LTSS crisis. The new administration will need to be creative and resourceful in finding new ways to address this issue. Involving gerontological social workers in facilitating private LTSS planning decisions and in informing public LTSS policy making is crucial, as social workers are intricately involved in LTSS now and have invaluable wisdom to share in the face of changing demographics and growing need going forward.

  7. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  8. How Do Genomes Create Novel Phenotypes? Insights from the Loss of the Worker Caste in Ant Social Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris R.; Helms Cahan, Sara; Kemena, Carsten; Brady, Seán G.; Yang, Wei; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Eriksson, Ti; Gadau, Juergen; Helmkampf, Martin; Gotzek, Dietrich; Okamoto Miyakawa, Misato; Suarez, Andrew V.; Mikheyev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of biology is to uncover the genetic basis for the origin of new phenotypes. A particularly effective approach is to examine the genomic architecture of species that have secondarily lost a phenotype with respect to their close relatives. In the eusocial Hymenoptera, queens and workers have divergent phenotypes that may be produced via either expression of alternative sets of caste-specific genes and pathways or differences in expression patterns of a shared set of multifunctional genes. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we investigated how secondary loss of the worker phenotype in workerless ant social parasites impacted genome evolution across two independent origins of social parasitism in the ant genera Pogonomyrmex and Vollenhovia. We sequenced the genomes of three social parasites and their most-closely related eusocial host species and compared gene losses in social parasites with gene expression differences between host queens and workers. Virtually all annotated genes were expressed to some degree in both castes of the host, with most shifting in queen-worker bias across developmental stages. As a result, despite >1 My of divergence from the last common ancestor that had workers, the social parasites showed strikingly little evidence of gene loss, damaging mutations, or shifts in selection regime resulting from loss of the worker caste. This suggests that regulatory changes within a multifunctional genome, rather than sequence differences, have played a predominant role in the evolution of social parasitism, and perhaps also in the many gains and losses of phenotypes in the social insects. PMID:26226984

  9. Self and peer perceptions of childhood aggression, social withdrawal and likeability predict adult substance abuse and dependence in men and women: a 30-year prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane E; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2011-12-01

    While childhood behaviors such as aggression, social withdrawal and likeability have been linked to substance abuse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, the mechanisms by which these variables relate are not yet well established. Self and peer perceptions of childhood behaviors in men and women were compared to assess the role of context in the prediction of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. Participants (N=676) in an ongoing longitudinal project examining the relation between childhood behavior and adult mental health outcomes completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM IV regarding their histories of substance abuse in mid-adulthood (mean age=34, SD=2). In women, higher levels of both self and peer reported aggression were associated with drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and higher levels of peer reported aggression were associated with higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence. As well, higher levels of self-perceived likeability were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. In men, higher levels of peer perceived social withdrawal were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. Findings support the comparison of self and peer perceptions of childhood behavior as a method of assessing the mechanisms by which childhood behaviors impact adult outcomes, and suggest the importance of gender in the relation between childhood behaviors and adult substance abuse and dependence.

  10. Science-Based Prevention Through Communities That Care: A Model of Social Work Practice for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work’s intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers. PMID:23731424

  11. Sensation-seeking, social anhedonia, and impulsivity in substance use disorder patients with and without schizophrenia and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Rizkallah, Elie; Pampoulova, Tania; Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Lipp, Olivier; Stip, Emmanuel; Potvin, Stéphane

    2012-12-30

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in patients with schizophrenia and this comorbidity is associated with a poorer prognosis, relative to non-abusing patients. One hypothesis that has been advanced in the literature is that dual diagnosis (DD) patients may have a different personality profile than non-abusing schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study aimed to characterize levels of personality traits (sensation-seeking, social anhedonia, and impulsivity) in substance abuse/dependence patients with (DD group; n=31) and without schizophrenia (SUD group; n=39), relative to non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group; n=23), and healthy controls (n=25). Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale. Sensation-seeking was assessed using the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale. Social anhedonia was assessed with the Chapman Social Anhedonia Scale. We found that sensation-seeking was significantly higher in DD and SUD, relative to SCZ patients. We found that social anhedonia was significantly elevated in DD and SCZ, relative to healthy controls. We found that impulsivity was significantly higher in DD, SCZ and SUD patients, compared to healthy controls. The results suggest that sensation-seeking is prominent in substance abuse/dependence (irrespective of schizophrenia), social anhedonia is prominent in schizophrenia (irrespective of substance abuse/dependence), and impulsivity is prominent in all three populations.

  12. Work stress, burnout, and social and personal resources among direct care workers.

    PubMed

    Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope more effectively to prevent burnout. However, little is known about what resources are effective for coping with what types of work stress. Thus, we examined how work stress and social and personal resources are associated with burnout for DCWs. We conducted a survey of DCWs (n = 323) from five community-based organizations that provide residential, vocational, and personal care services for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants completed a self-administered survey about their perceptions of work stress, work social support, locus of control, and burnout relative to their daily work routine. We conducted multiple regression analysis to test both the main and interaction effects of work stress and resources with respect to burnout. Work stress, specifically work overload, limited participation decision-making, and client disability care, was positively associated with burnout (p < .001). The association between work social support and burnout depended on the levels of work overload (p < .05), and the association between locus of control and burnout depended on the levels of work overload (p < .05) and participation in decision-making (p < .05). Whether work social support and locus of control make a difference depends on the kinds and the levels of work stressors. The findings underscore the importance of strong work-based social support networks and stress management resources for DCWs.

  13. The roles of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the relationship between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving.

  14. Child sexual abuse as reported by Israeli adolescents: social and health related correlates.

    PubMed

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA.

  15. Do Preschool Programs Affect Social Disadvantage? What Social Workers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Smith, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The majority of children from lower income families enter elementary school well behind their peers in reading, math, and general knowledge. Poor academic achievement in the early grades is associated with a range of social problems such as failure to complete high school, increased risk of unintended pregnancy, increased criminal activity, and…

  16. Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood) and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates). We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel of different immune stimulants (saline, Sephadex beads and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli). Results While only bacteria-injected bees elicited altered behavioral responses from healthy nestmates compared to controls, all treatments resulted in significant changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Immunostimulation caused significant changes in expression of hundreds of genes, the majority of which have not been identified as members of the canonical immune response pathways. Furthermore, several new candidate genes that may play a role in cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis were identified. Effects of immune challenge expression of several genes involved in immune response, cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we identified common genes regulated by pathogen challenge in honey bees and other insects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that honey bee genomic responses

  17. "When Things Are Really Complicated, We Call the Social Worker": Post-Hip-Fracture Care Transitions for Older People.

    PubMed

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Byrne, Kerry; Hicks, Elisabeth; Franke, Thea; Stolee, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Social workers play a key role in the delivery of interdisciplinary health care. However, in the past decade, concerns have been raised about social work's sustainability and contributions in a changing health care sector. These changes come at a time when older patients are more complex and vulnerable than ever before. In this article, using a strengths-based approach, the authors examine the key contributions made by social workers working with older patients with hip fracture as they strive to achieve successful care transitions. Twenty-five interviews with health care professionals (HCPs) were conducted and then analyzed using an analytical coding framework. Although social workers are vital, they are often underused and overlooked in the care of hip fracture patients. The authors sketch the important contributions that social workers make to care transitions after hip fracture, specifically informational continuity; patient-HCP relational continuity; conflict resolution; mediation among family, patient, and HCP (for example, doctors and nurses); collaboration with family caregivers and community supports; and relocation counseling.

  18. Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

    2007-01-01

    of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy or the tradeoffs between potential target effectiveness and administrative simplicity. Based on a series of simulations, we assess the FBR as a potential foundation for minimum Social Security benefits and we examine the tradeoffs between administrative simplicity and target effectiveness using microdata from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our empirical analysis is limited to Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries aged 65 or older. We start with the assessment of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy. We are particularly concerned about two types of error: (1) incorrectly identifying some Social Security beneficiaries as "economically vulnerable," and (2) incorrectly identifying others as "not economically vulnerable." Operationally we measure economic vulnerability by two alternative standards. One of our measures considers beneficiaries with family income below the official poverty threshold as vulnerable. Our second measure is more restrictive; it uses a family income threshold equal to 75 percent of the official poverty threshold. We find that a substantial minority of retired workers have Social Security benefits below the FBR. The results also show that the FBR-based measure of Social Security benefit adequacy is very imprecise in terms of identifying economically vulnerable people. We estimate that the vast majority of beneficiaries with Social Security benefits below the FBR are not economically vulnerable. Conversely, an FBR-level Social Security benefit threshold fails to identify some beneficiaries who are economically vulnerable. Thus an FBR-level minimum benefit would be poorly targeted in terms of both types of errors we are concerned about. An FBR-level minimum benefit would provide minimum Social Security benefits to many people who are clearly not poor. Conversely, an FBR-level minimum benefit would not provide any income relief to some who are poor. The

  19. Getting serious about the social determinants of health: new directions for public health workers.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    International interest in the social determinants of health and their public policy antecedents is increasing. Despite evidence that as compared to other wealthy nations Canada presents a mediocre population health profile and public policy environments increasingly less supportive of health, the Canadian public health gaze is firmly - and narrowly - focused on lifestyle issues of diet, physical activity and tobacco use. Much of this has to do with Canada being identified as being driven by a liberal political economy, a situation shared with a cluster of other developed nations. Reasons for Canada's neglect of structural and public policy issues are explored and ways by which public health workers in Canada and elsewhere can help to shift policymakers and the general public's understandings of the determinants of health are outlined.

  20. Health as a context for social and gender activism: female volunteer health workers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, Homa

    2010-01-01

    Having reversed its pronatalist policies in 1988, the Islamic Republic of Iran implemented one of the most successful family planning programs in the developing world. This achievement, particularly in urban centers, is largely attributable to a large women-led volunteer health worker program for low-income urban neighborhoods. Research in three cities demonstrates that this successful program has had a host of unintended consequences. In a context where citizen mobilization and activism are highly restricted, volunteers have seized this new state-sanctioned space and successfully negotiated many of the familial, cultural, and state restrictions on women. They have expanded their mandate from one focused on health activism into one of social, if not political, activism, highlighting the ways in which citizens blur the boundaries of state and civil society under restrictive political systems prevalent in many of the Middle Eastern societies.

  1. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries. PMID:26719732

  2. Improving the Performance of Social Workers during Multi-Disciplinary Team Case Reviews of Delinquent Adolescents through Public Posting and Verbal Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Vincent J.

    This practicum was implemented to improve the rehabilitation planning skills of social workers in a juvenile correctional facility. The goal was to increase social workers' discussion of all relevant rehabilitation planning data during multi-disciplinary team meetings (Case Review Committee). A related objective was the overall improvement of…

  3. Social and emotional outcomes of child sexual abuse: a clinical sample in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-09-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M age = 9.4 years, SD = 3.63 years, range = 5 to 16 years) is evaluated. Semistructured interviews, a form for the sociodemographic characteristics, are used for evaluations by a child psychiatrist who is blind to the first evaluation. It is determined that sexually abused children have more psychiatric disorders within the first year than 2 years later. However, some behavior problems occur at both short-term and long-term follow-ups.

  4. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  5. Children's Mental Health in Child Welfare: A Child-Focused Curriculum for Child Welfare Workers and Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiesen, Sally; Cash, Scottye; Barbanell Johnson, Lisa D.; Smith, Thomas E.; Graham, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a child-focused curriculum developed for child welfare workers and social work students. The results from a focus group evaluation are also provided that highlight how the content areas in the curriculum were perceived by participants in terms of interest, practicality, and importance. The major goal of the curriculum was to…

  6. The Effects of Skill Training on Social Workers' Professional Competences in Norway: Results of a Cluster-Randomised Study.

    PubMed

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Natland, Sidsel; Tøge, Anne Grete; Hansen, Helle Cathrine

    2016-07-01

    Using a cluster-randomised design, this study analyses the effects of a government-administered skill training programme for social workers in Norway. The training programme aims to improve social workers' professional competences by enhancing and systematising follow-up work directed towards longer-term unemployed clients in the following areas: encountering the user, system-oriented efforts and administrative work. The main tools and techniques of the programme are based on motivational interviewing and appreciative inquiry. The data comprise responses to baseline and eighteen-month follow-up questionnaires administered to all social workers (n = 99) in eighteen participating Labour and Welfare offices randomised into experimental and control groups. The findings indicate that the skill training programme positively affected the social workers' evaluations of their professional competences and quality of work supervision received. The acquisition and mastering of combinations of specific tools and techniques, a comprehensive supervision structure and the opportunity to adapt the learned skills to local conditions were important in explaining the results.

  7. 42 CFR 405.2452 - Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2452 Section 405.2452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE...

  8. 42 CFR 405.2452 - Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2452 Section 405.2452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... type commonly furnished in a physician's office; (2) Of a type commonly furnished either without...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non... Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program With the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1402 When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are...

  10. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions.

  11. Experience of Forming Professional and Communicative Competency of Future Social Workers in Education Systems of Western European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranyuk, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the experience of forming professional and communicative competency of future social workers in the education systems of Western European countries, in particular, France, Germany and Switzerland. On the basis of generalization of the studied data it has been found out that each country has its own techniques of forming…

  12. Children at Risk from Domestic Violence and Their Educational Attainment: Perspectives of Education Welfare Officers, Social Workers and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Dorothy; Taylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Children who witness domestic violence may have impaired educational attainment as well as facing other challenges such as struggles with self-esteem and forming relationships. This qualitative study set in Northern Ireland explored the perceptions of Education Welfare Officers, child protection social workers and teachers in post-primary schools…

  13. Care at the Crossroads: Navigating the HIV, HCV, and Substance Abuse Syndemic

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Rebecca; Dugdale, Caitlin; Touzard-Romo, Francine; Noska, Amanda; Flanigan, Timothy; Rich, Josiah D.

    2014-01-01

    For patients with both HIV/HCV coinfection and substance addiction, multidisciplinary teams can facilitate coordination of care and improve clinical outcomes. Such teams should include HIV/HCV treatment providers, mental health specialists, case managers, social workers, and substance abuse counselors. PMID:25520548

  14. African American and White Mothers' Substance Abuse, Depression, and Criminality as Risk Factors for School Suspension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-McKeever, Chedgzsey; Gao, Weihua

    2010-01-01

    School social workers are often responsible for developing and implementing programs to prevent school suspension, particularly for African American students, who are overrepresented among all students suspended. This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey to examine the relative roles of maternal substance and alcohol abuse,…

  15. Report on Focus on Elder Abuse Workshop (Regina, Saskachewan, May 31-June 1, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    This report describes a 2-day elder abuse workshop, hosted by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina in 1989 and attended by 96 participants from across Saskatchewan, Canada. Included is the text from the keynote address by Geri McGrath, a social worker from the Psychogeriatrics Day Hospital, Seven Oaks General…

  16. A Social Identity Approach to Understanding Responses to Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    PubMed Central

    Minto, Kiara; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Gillespie, Nicole; Healy, Karen; Jetten, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of group allegiances in contributing to the failure of institutions to appropriately respond to allegations of child sexual abuse. In Study 1, 601 participants read a news article detailing an allegation of child sexual abuse against a Catholic Priest. Catholics were more protective of the accused–and more skeptical of the accuser—than other participants, an effect that was particularly pronounced among strongly identified Catholics. In Study 2 (N = 404), the tendency for Catholics to be more protective of the accused and more skeptical of the accuser than non-Catholics was replicated. Moreover, these effects held independently of the objective likelihood that the accused was guilty. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Furthermore, the people for whom this motivation is strongest are also the people who are most likely to be responsible for receiving and investigating allegations: highly identified ingroup members. The findings highlight the psychological mechanisms that may limit the ability of senior Church figures to conduct impartial investigations into allegations of child abuse within the Church. PMID:27111546

  17. Group Therapy for Survivors of Severe Childhood Abuse: Repairing the Social Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Presents a model for conducting time-limited group therapy with adult survivors of severe childhood abuse who were diagnosed with complex post-traumatic and dissociative disorders. Group sessions are organized around verbal promises that encourage the client's active, attentive engagement. Gentle confrontation of dissociative defenses is integral…

  18. Social-Relational Risk Factors for Predicting Elder Physical Abuse: An Ecological Bi-Focal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…

  19. Project SMART: A Social Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Anderson; And Others

    This document presents the teacher's guide for an experimental research and demonstration project which focuses on the prevention of drug abuse among youth through self-management and resistance training. The major purpose of the curriculum described in this document is to prevent and reduce the incidence of habitual cigarette smoking and of…

  20. Wife Abuse in Rural Areas: Some Social, Legal, Medical and Service Delivery Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Anita L.

    The study examines the issue of wife abuse in a rural area, assesses major service interventions suggested by the literature, and evaluates their practicality in rural areas. The area used for the study was the 10 rural and most southern counties in Southern Illinois, characterized by high unemployment and low per capita income. A questionnaire…

  1. Social and Psychological Factors of Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, James T.; Werme, Paul H.

    This paper is devoted to a selected review of literature on drug abuse and dependence among children and adolescents. It is divided into seven sections, each giving information on studies, both nationally and internationally, on a particular drug. These are: nicotine, alcohol, organic solvents (sniffing of substances such as plastic cement, laquer…

  2. Organizational policy recommendations for control of STI/HIV among female sex workers in China: regular examination of workers in social hygiene clinics.

    PubMed

    Morisky, Donald E; Urada, Lianne A

    2011-06-01

    This article aims to address female sex workers at high risk for contracting HIV in China by recommending evidence-based socio-structural interventions and policies at the national level that have yielded effective outcomes in other countries. National governments such as the Philippines and Hong Kong have utilized the Social Hygiene Clinic (SHC) model. A similar national policy can be highly effective in China. Evidence-based research study results indicate significant reductions in STI and consistent condom use among female sex workers in both China and the Philippines. Consistent condom use in both countries continues to be significantly associated with interpersonal- and venue-level factors. Individuals who had higher appointment-keeping ratios in the Philippines had higher rates of consistent condom use (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.6-3.7) and significantly lower rates of STI (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26-0.57). By beginning with provinces, which already have a good relationship between establishment venues and the local Health Department, China can develop city ordinances and establishment regulations that begin to require regular examinations of female sex workers and entertainers in the local STI clinic.

  3. A population-based study of physical function and risk for elder abuse reported to social service agency: findings from the Chicago health and aging project.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Evans, Denis

    2014-10-01

    We examined the association between physical function and the risk for reported elder abuse. In the Chicago Health and Aging Project (N = 8,932), 238 participants had reported elder abuse. The independent variable was objectively assessed physical function using both directly observed physical performance testing and self-reported physical function (Katz activity of daily living scale, Nagi physical activity scale, and Rosow Breslau mobility scales). Outcomes were elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse. After adjusting for confounders, lower levels of physical performance testing (OR, 2.71[1.58-4.64]), Katz impairment (OR, 1.84[1.29-2.59]), Nagi impairment (OR, 1.65[1.15-2.37]) and Rosow Breslau (OR, 1.76[1.26-2.47]) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Lowest levels of physical performance testing were associated with increased risk for psychological abuse (OR, 2.69[1.27-5.71]), caregiver neglect (OR, 2.66[1.22-5.79]), and financial exploitation (OR, 2.35 [1.21-4.55]). Our results may have important implications to healthcare professional, social services and other disciplines to prevent and treat elder abuse.

  4. Social context factors, refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use among female sex workers in China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yeujiao

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health-risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in social and individual contexts can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSWs were recruited from two cities in southern China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the direct effects of alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence on FSWs' alcohol use. In addition, the mediation effects of refusal self-efficacy were also examined in the SEM model. Results showed that alcohol use by family members and alcohol use by peers significantly predicted FSWs' alcohol use; the prediction effect of alcohol use by peers on FSWs' alcohol use was stronger than that of alcohol use by family members; client-perpetrated pressure or violence directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use and indirectly influenced FSWs' alcohol use through refusal self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use. Administrators of effective intervention programs focused on alcohol use in China should adopt a multilevel approach to reduce negative social influences, particularly the influence from peer and sex work establishments on FSWs' alcohol use. Meanwhile, training to improve refusal self-efficacy should also be included in the intervention programs to reduce FSWs' alcohol use.

  5. At-Risk Youth in Crisis: A Handbook for Collaboration between Schools and Social Services, Volume 3: Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn-Benton Education Services District, Albany, OR.

    After defining numerous terms related to physical and mental child abuse and neglect and presenting information on the prevalence and causes of abuse, this document explains areas of immediate concern for schools: (1) identification; (2) communicating with the student about possible abuse; (3) reporting suspected abuse; (4) assisting the abused…

  6. Evil, Child Abuse and the Caring Professions.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which the concept of evil has been invoked in relation to child abuse. First, the scene is set by juxtaposing professional discourses which have eschewed the concept of evil and public opinion which is affronted by the evil of child abuse. Second, I will discuss the work of some therapists in the USA whose work with perpetrators and survivors has led them to frame the causes and consequences of child abuse in terms of moral evil. Third, I will draw upon case studies of Satanic abuse and spirit possession in the UK to illustrate that some social workers and religious communities have interpreted child abuse as an outcome of or as an antidote to metaphysical evil. Finally, there is a critical appraisal of the merits of referencing moral and metaphysical evil in the discourses of caring professionals, with a suggestion that a mythical-metaphorical conception of evil could be a more flexible and fruitful resource for therapeutic work.

  7. Organizations and social worker wellbeing: the intra-organizational context of practice and its impact on a practitioner's subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Shier, Micheal L; Graham, John R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the varied factors that contribute to social worker subjective well-being (SWB) (the social science concept for happiness). Using qualitative methods of inquiry 19 social workers who reported having low to medium levels of workplace and profession satisfaction were interviewed to assess those factors within their lives that they perceived as impacting their well-being. One thematic category from the analysis was aspects of the intraorganizational context of workplaces that can impact social worker SWB. Respondents identified interpersonal workplace relationships, decision-making processes, management/supervisory dynamics, workload and workplace expectations, access to resources and infrastructure support, and inter-organizational relationships as key intra-organizational factors contributing to their overall wellbeing. In conclusion, these findings have practical application within organizations for structured policies and unstructured practices to improve social worker subjective well-being.

  8. Citizenship as practice: Handling communication problems in encounters between persons with dementia and social workers.

    PubMed

    Jh, Österholm; L-C, Hydén

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of the study was to investigate if and how persons with dementia were able to take part in negotiations for formal support, as cases of citizenship as practice The transcripts used for analysis were from 11 assessment meetings conducted in Sweden, in which the formal applicant was a person with dementia. The findings suggest that the actual participation of persons with dementia in assessment meetings varies. Communication problems were found in the meetings to different degrees and were dealt with differently and with various consequences. For those persons with dementia contributing at the same levels as the other participants, there was an attempt at mutual understanding. For those making fewer contributions, the other interlocutors took over the initiative and thus affected the practice of citizenship by persons with dementia in a negative way. The practice of citizenship is situation based and varies depending on all participants. When the person with dementia is able to participate in the conversation, social workers can facilitate for them to overcome communication problems by giving them more time and signaling acceptance. If the person with dementia has great problems in participating, the other participants can find different strategies to at least involve her or him in the conversation.

  9. Willingness to pay for social health insurance among informal sector workers in Wuhan, China: a contingent valuation study

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Liu, Yuanli; Zhang, Xinping; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Background Most of the about 140 million informal sector workers in urban China do not have health insurance. A 1998 central government policy leaves it to the discretion of municipal governments to offer informal sector workers in cities voluntary participation in a social health insurance for formal sector workers, the so-called 'basic health insurance' (BHI). Methods We used the contingent valuation method to assess the maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for BHI among informal sector workers, including unregistered rural-to-urban migrants, in Wuhan City, China. We selected respondents in a two-stage self-weighted cluster sampling scheme. Results On average, informal sector workers were willing to pay substantial amounts for BHI (30 Renminbi (RMB), 95% confidence interval (CI) 27-33) as well as substantial proportions of their incomes (4.6%, 95% CI 4.1-5.1%). Average WTP increased significantly when any one of the copayments of the BHI was removed in the valuation: to 51 RMB (95% CI 46-56) without reimbursement ceiling; to 43 RMB (95% CI 37-49) without deductible; and to 47 RMB (95% CI 40-54) without coinsurance. WTP was higher than estimates of the cost of BHI based on past health expenditure or on premium contributions of formal sector workers. Predicted coverage with BHI declined steeply with the premium contribution at low contribution levels. When we applied equity weighting in the aggregation of individual WTP values in order to adjust for inequity in the distribution of income, mean WTP for BHI increased with inequality aversion over a plausible range of the aversion parameter. Holding other factors constant in multiple regression analysis, for a 1% increase in income WTP for BHI with different copayments increased by 0.434-0.499% (all p < 0.0001), and for a 1% increase in past health care expenditure WTP increased by 0.076-0.148% (all p < 0.0004). Being male, a migrant, or without permanent employment significantly decreased WTP for BHI. Education was not a

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual abuse in a national sample of Swedish seventeen-year-old boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Edgardh, K; Ormstad, K

    2000-03-01

    The aims of this study, which was part of a survey on adolescent sexual behaviour, were to investigate adolescents' experience of child sexual abuse and to present possible abuse-related problems. Representative samples of 2% of Sweden's 17-y-old male and female students and school non-attenders were selected in a two-step procedure. In all, 1943 students and 210 school non-attenders answered a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, distributed by school nurses. Six out of 170 questions dealt with personal experiences of child sexual abuse, i.e. age at onset, frequency of abuse and relationship to the offender. Peer abuse was excluded by the definitions used. The overall response rate was 92.2% for students and 44.2% for school dropouts. Among male and female students, 3.1% and 11.2%, respectively, acknowledged sexual abuse, 2.3% and 7.1%, respectively, when exhibitionism was excluded. Mean age at onset was 9.1 y (SD 4.3) for boys and 9.0 y (SD 3.9) for girls; 1.2% of the boys and 3.1% of the girls reported abusive oral, vaginal and/or anal intercourse. Suicide attempts or other acts of self-harm were reported by 33.3% of the male students reporting abuse and by 5.1% (p < 0.001) of those who had not been abused, and by 30.4% of the abused student girls compared to 9.1% of the non-abused (p < 0.001). Sleep and eating disorders, use of alcohol at an early age and/or experimentation with illicit drugs and consensual coitarche before age 15 y was reported significantly more often by abused than non-abused girls (p < 0.001, differences not found among the student boys). Of school non-attenders, 4% of the boys and 28% of the girls reported sexual abuse. Of the abused girls, 49% reported abusive vaginal intercourse and 64% reported self-destructive behaviour or suicide attempts. No abused boys and few abused girls had confided in a teacher, health professional or social worker. Results from the student sample should be interpreted as markers of "minimum prevalence

  11. Past-life identities, UFO abductions, and satanic ritual abuse: the social construction of memories.

    PubMed

    Spanos, N P; Burgess, C A; Burgess, M F

    1994-10-01

    People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured interviews which provide strong and repeated demands for the requisite experiences, and which then legitimate the experiences as "real memories." Research associated with these phenomena supports the hypothesis that recall is reconstructive and organized in terms of current expectations and beliefs.

  12. Social Worker Perceptions and Observations Regarding Men's Management of Hemophilia and Use of Community-Based Support.

    PubMed

    Rolstad, Erik Bruce

    2015-08-01

    The study reported in this article was conducted in response to Utah service provider concerns that men with hemophilia may be disengaged from their local community-based support network. This study explored the challenges, adaptations, and needs of men with hemophilia from the perspective of Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) social workers. Utah's two active HTC social workers participated in face-to-face interviews. Fourteen HTC social workers from surrounding regions completed written interviews. The researcher used a qualitative, grounded theory approach to analyze the data. Resilience theory provided a lens for interpreting the results. Findings from these professionals indicate that men with hemophilia appear to be ambivalent toward services that are available to them for reasons that include work and insurance status, prior personal history with the bleeding disorders community, strength of relationship with local service providers, degree of customization of HTC services, and the desire to maintain personal independence. Understanding this dynamic may be helpful in developing services that are more specifically tailored to the needs of men with hemophilia, in addition to potentially providing stronger community-based support to men with other genetic disorders.

  13. "We just happen to live here": two social workers share their stories about Oregon's Death with Dignity Law.

    PubMed

    Miller, Pamela J; Hedlund, Susan C

    2005-01-01

    This article is written more like a conversation with the reader rather than a strictly academic piece. The purpose is to share from a more personal perspective the unique circumstances and challenges faced by two social workers in Oregon as they grappled with the Death with Dignity Law. The law has been in effect for six years and a May 2004 decision from the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court allowed the law to remain a legal end-of-life option. Each writer has a unique voice on the process of social work involvement in practice, research, and policy since the law was originally passed in 1994.

  14. Civilian Social Work: Serving the Military and Veteran Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savitsky, Laura; Illingworth, Maria; DuLaney, Megan

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses social work practice areas for civilian social workers who provide services to military service members, veterans, and their families. These practice areas include education, child welfare, domestic violence, mental health, health care, substance abuse, and criminal justice. The authors examine the impact of the contemporary…

  15. Mindfulness-based interventions with social workers and the potential for enhanced patient-centered care: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) is well documented in the mental health, medical, and education literature. There is minimal research on the use of mindfulness with social workers. As demonstrated in other professional and helping fields, mindfulness may enhance clinical skills, reduce burnout, and increase job satisfaction among social workers. In the health care field mindfulness appears integral to patient and family relationships and personal resilience. The evolving and expanding role of hospital social workers may lead to increased work stress and greater demands from both the medical system and patients and families. Research with medical providers, such as physicians and nurses, suggests mindfulness may help in reducing stress, enhancing relationships, and fostering the self-reflection required to provide patient-centered care. We systematically reviewed the existing literature to begin understanding both mindfulness qualities and practices and the effectiveness of MBIs among social workers as well as the relationship of mindfulness to patient-centered care.

  16. Construction of court petitions in cases of alternative placement of children at risk: meaning-making strategies that social workers use to shape court decisions.

    PubMed

    Leichtentritt, Ronit; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Peled, Einat

    2011-07-01

    This study examines court petitions constructed by 19 Israeli social workers in cases involving the placement of 37 maltreated children in alternative care. The petition is seen not as a systemic description of the child made by the social worker, but rather as a construction based on the social workers' understandings and interpretations with the aim of shaping court decisions. As such, the article describes a number of meaning-making strategies that social workers employ to construct petitions: (a) constructing the mother as "the problem," (b) constructing the story as one of "no change in sight," (c) constructing out-of-home care as the only solution, with no other alternatives, and (d) minimizing the narrator's personal involvement in the case. Implications for child protection officers are presented.

  17. [The substance addiction team: a bio-psycho-social melting pot. Physicians, psychologists and social workers do not cooperate fully--even though they want to].

    PubMed

    Fahlke, Claudia; Carlsson, Sven G

    2015-09-01

    Medical doctors, psychologists and social workers are often collaborating in health care units for substance addiction. In a survey answered by 141 persons with any of these professions, they communicated somewhat disparate views on the causes of addiction, and how our knowledge of addiction could be best promoted. At the same time, they expressed a demand for intensified forms of inter-professional team collaboration. There seems to be a need to improve the understanding and acceptance between the different professions.

  18. A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

    2014-05-01

    A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number

  19. [Migrant workers: evolution of the Israel health system approach to the new social issue].

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Alex; Berlowitz, Yitzhak; Chemtob, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    The immigration of workers from poor countries to Israel began in earnest in 1993, and by 2003 their number had reached 250,000, the majority without work permits. In this article we describe the evolution of the Israeli approach to providing health services to migrant workers, noting particularly the swings between exclusion and inclusion, ranging from providing only the most minimal services to providing a complete health services package. The National Insurance Institute was the first to provide benefits to documented migrant workers, mandating compensation benefits for those injured at work or in terrorist incidents. The health care sector provided an ever-increasing package of health benefits for documented migrant workers, culminating in the Foreign Workers Law of 2000 obligating employers to insure workers with a health package similar to that of Israeli citizens. The provision of health services to undocumented migrant workers and their families arose more gradually, but ultimately included the full range of mother and child preventive health services, school health services, provision of ambulatory medical care by volunteer physicians members of human rights organization, the possibility of enrolling their children at a reduced premium in Meuchedet Health Fund, free diagnostic and treatment services for tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases, free antiretroviral treatment of HIV-positive pregnant women, and, finally, the ability to obtain gas masks for a token deposit prior to the Iraq War of 2003

  20. Poisoned social climate, collective responsibility, and the abuse at Abu Ghraib--Or, the establishment of "rule that is lack of rule".

    PubMed

    Mestrovic, Stjepan G; Romero, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The authors draw upon the experiences of one of the co-authors as an expert witness in sociology for mitigation at three of the courts-martial pertaining to the abuse at Abu Ghraib that were held at Ft. Hood, Texas in the year 2005 (for Javal Davis, Sabrina Harman, and Lynndie England). In addition, this paper is based upon the thousands of pages of affidavits, testimony, and U.S. Government reports concerning Abu Ghraib. These internal government reports, as well as the Levin-McCain report, point to collective responsibility and the responsibility of individuals high in the chain of command for establishing unlawful techniques. We review the shortcomings of a purely psychological approach for understanding the abuse, and turn to Durkheim's original understanding of anomie as a state of social derangement or rule by lack of rule to introduce the ideas of the social origins of and social responsibility for the abuse. We conclude with sociological suggestions for reforming some of the legal, medical, psychiatric, and other professional complicity in the abuse at Abu Ghraib.

  1. Exploratory study on the prevalence of suicidal behavior, mental health, and social support in female street sex workers in Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Alexandre; Oliveira, Alexandra

    2017-02-01

    We investigated suicidal behavior, mental health, and satisfaction with social support in 52 female street sex workers in Porto, Portugal, using the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, the Social Support Satisfaction Scale, and structured interviews. Almost half our interviewees (46.15%) reported high suicidal ideation and 44.2% had made at least one suicide attempt. Most had a mental health diagnosis, most commonly depression (88.2%). Social support and suicidal ideation were moderately negatively correlated. Further research is needed to improve understanding of suicidal behaviors in female sex workers and develop interventions to improve social support and reduce suicidal ideation and associated risk factors.

  2. 'I'm So Stressed!': A Longitudinal Model of Stress, Burnout and Engagement among Social Workers in Child Welfare Settings.

    PubMed

    Travis, Dnika J; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work-family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work-family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement.

  3. WOMEN’S SOCIAL BEHAVIOR WHEN MEETING NEW MEN: THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL AND CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption (Testa & Parks, 1996) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; Messman-Moore & Long, 2003) have been associated with adult sexual victimization. We examined the social behavior of 42 women under two alcohol conditions (high dose and low dose) in a bar laboratory. Women were videotaped interacting with a man they had just met. Women in the higher dose condition engaged in more open body position and talked, stood, and walked more than women in the lower dose condition. These behaviors are consistent with signs of intoxication or romantic interest. The women in the high-dose condition also frowned more than women in the low-dose condition. An increase in frowning could indicate less comfort or may be considered consistent with an increase in animation during the social interaction given the concomitant increase in other behaviors. Thus, the nonverbal behavior of women in the high-dose condition could be interpreted as mixed signals. CSA victims exhibited fewer head movements (e.g., nods), were less animated, and frowned more than non-CSA victims. These behaviors convey reticence or possibly even anxiety or discomfort during the social interaction. Thus, the nonverbal behavior of women with a history of CSA may convey an unease that could be viewed by a potential perpetrator as vulnerability. Our findings suggest that both acute alcohol consumption and history of CSA may influence nonverbal social behavior and may influence risk for sexual assault by sending mixed cues of romantic interest or signs of vulnerability to potential perpetrators. PMID:18668186

  4. Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.

    PubMed

    Werbner, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both.

  5. Does workplace social capital buffer the effects of job stress? A cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of cigarette smoking among U.S. manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Amy L.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sorensen, Glorian; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether workplace social capital buffers the association between job stress and smoking status. Methods As part of the Harvard Cancer Prevention Project’s Healthy Directions-Small Business Study, interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by 1740 workers and 288 managers in 26 manufacturing firms (84% and 85% response). Social capital was assessed by multiple items measured at the individual-level among workers, and contextual-level among managers. Job stress was operationalized by the demand-control model. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations between job stressors and smoking, and test for effect modification by social capital measures. Results Workplace social capital (both summary measures) buffered associations between high job demands and smoking. One compositional item—worker trust in managers—buffered associations between job strain and smoking. Conclusion Workplace social capital may modify the effects of psychosocial working conditions on health behaviors. PMID:20595910

  6. For Their Sake: Recognizing, Responding to, and Reporting Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Becca Cowan

    This guidebook provides specific information about child abuse to recreational staff, camp staff, childcare workers, and others who provide programs and services for minors. Part I describes the prevalence and causes of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect; outlines physical and behavioral indicators that can alert staff…

  7. Disrespect and Isolation: Elder Abuse in Chinese Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Sandra; Neysmith, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    Based on a qualitative study of home care workers, this paper aims to understand elder abuse of Chinese Canadians. The findings show disrespect is the key form elder abuse takes in the Chinese community. As a culturally specific form of abuse, disrespect remains invisible under categories of elder abuse derived from a Western cultural perspective.…

  8. Promoting Integrated Approaches to Reducing Health Inequities among Low-Income Workers: Applying a Social Ecological Framework

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Sherry L; Beard, Sharon; Davis, Letitia K.; Delp, Linda; Forst, Linda; Kidd-Taylor, Andrea; Liebman, Amy K.; Linnan, Laura; Punnett, Laura; Welch, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one of every three workers in the United States is low-income. Low-income populations have a lower life expectancy and greater rates of chronic diseases compared to those with higher incomes. Low- income workers face hazards in their workplaces as well as in their communities. Developing integrated public health programs that address these combined health hazards, especially the interaction of occupational and non-occupational risk factors, can promote greater health equity. We apply a social-ecological perspective in considering ways to improve the health of the low-income working population through integrated health protection and health promotion programs initiated in four different settings: the worksite, state and local health departments, community health centers, and community-based organizations. An example of successful approaches to developing integrated programs in each of these settings is described. Recommendations for improved research, training, and coordination among health departments, health practitioners, worksites and community organizations are proposed. PMID:23532780

  9. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  10. Social, Economic, and Medical Factors Associated With Solifenacin Therapy Compliance Among Workers Who Suffer From Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of hyperactive-type lower urinary tract symptoms is 45.2%, with shares of overactive bladder (OAB) and urge incontinence (UI) symptoms of 10.7% and 8.2%, respectively. We investigated the possible impact of a wide range of social, economic, and medical factors on compliance with solifenacin treatment in the working population. Methods Social, economic, and medical factors as well as the Overactive Bladder questionnaire – the OAB-q Short Form (OAB-q SF), bladder diaries, and uroflowmetry of 1,038 people who were administered solifenacin for a year were gathered from employer documentation. Results Among the subjects, 32% maintained their compliance with solifenacin treatment throughout the year. Only 65% of the patients had compliance exceeding 80%, and 17% of patients had compliance of ≥50%, yet less than 80% were still taking solifenacin 12 months after the beginning of this experiment. Working people whose compliance level was, at least, 80% had reliably higher (P≤0.01) average age, annual salary, and treatment efficacy, and a greater treatment satisfaction level, as well as a lack of satisfaction with other antimuscarinic treatments and higher rate of urge UI diagnosis. The same cohort also featured a lower level (P≤0.01) of caffeine abuse and lower share of salary spent purchasing solifenacin. Conclusions This study has shown that compliance with solifenacin treatment is associated with a number of significant medical, social, and economic factors. The medical factors included the type of urination disorder, severity of incontinence symptoms, presence of side effects, treatment efficacy and patients’ satisfaction with it, and experience using other antimuscarinic treatments. Among the social and economic factors, those with the strongest correlation to compliance were patient age, employment in medicine and education, annual income level, percentage of solifenacin purchase expenditures, and caffeine abuse. Factors with a weaker

  11. Social care as first work experience in England: a secondary analysis of the profile of a national sample of migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Migrant workers are increasingly important to the care sector in England as well as in other developed countries. The profile of migrants is likely to continue changing due to reforms in immigration policy and legislation limiting the range of jobs open to migrants from non-EU countries while facilitating migration from the new European Union accession countries. This article reports on detailed secondary analysis of newly available data on the characteristics of migrants working in the care sector as their first job. The analysis was undertaken in 2009 as part of research investigating the contribution made by migrant care workers in England. The sample was identified from the new National Minimum Data Set for Social Care (NMDSSC), which is completed by social care employers in England. Workers whose ethnicity was identified as not White British and who had their previous job abroad were used as a proxy of recent migrants. The analysis shows that this group of workers has a significantly different profile compared with other workers. Recent migrants in the care sector were significantly younger and held higher qualifications relevant to social care; however, there were no significant gender differences. They were also significantly concentrated in the private and voluntary sectors and in direct care work. There were variations between recent migrants' ethnicity and their job roles, with Asian workers more prevalent in senior care positions. These findings have a number of possible implications for social care workforce and providers, particularly within the current context of changing migration rules and social care reforms.

  12. Offering African Americans Opportunities to Participate in Clinical Trials Research: How Social Workers Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, African Americans have resisted participation in clinical trials and other research projects because of distrust of the mostly white research establishment. Although there are legitimate reasons for refusing to join clinical trials, most notably the abuses of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, African Americans may be passing up…

  13. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  14. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  15. Community Health Workers as Social Marketers of Injectable Contraceptives: A Case Study from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel; Bell, Suzanne; Godefay, Hagos; Prata, Ndola

    2017-03-24

    Ethiopia has made notable progress in increasing awareness and knowledge of family planning and is considered a success story among funders and program planners. Yet unmet need among rural women (28.6%) is almost double that of urban women (15.5%), with a wide gap in total fertility rate depending on urban (2.6) or rural (5.5) residence. This study investigates the impact of a service delivery model that combines community-based distribution (CBD) of contraception with social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia, to create a more sustainable approach to CBD. Between September 2011 and October 2013, 626 volunteer CHWs were recruited and trained to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling and referrals to the health post for other methods; the project implementation period ended in June 2014. The CHWs received a supply of DMPA injections in the form of a microloan from a drug revolving fund; the CHWs charged women a minimal fee (5 birr, or US$0.29), determined based on willingness-to-pay data, for each DMPA injection; and the CHWs returned part of the fee (3 birr) to the drug revolving fund while keeping the remaining portion (2 birr). The CHWs also promoted demand for family planning through door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Existing health extension workers (HEWs) provided regular supervision of the CHWs, supplemented by in-depth supervision visits from study coordinators. Baseline and endline representative surveys of women of reproductive age, as well as of participating CHWs, were conducted. In addition, DMPA provision data from the CHWs were collected. Between October 2011 and June 2014, the CHWs served in total 8,604 women and administered an estimated 15,410 DMPA injections, equivalent to providing 3,853 couple-years of protection. There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this increase

  16. Emotional abuse as a predictor of early maladaptive schemas in adolescents: contributions to the development of depressive and social anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E

    2014-04-01

    The schema therapy model posits that maltreatment generates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that lead to the development of emotional disorders throughout the life span. The model also stipulates that temperament moderates the influence of maltreatment on EMSs. This study examines (a) whether emotional abuse perpetrated by parents and peers, both alone and interactively with temperament, predicts the worsening of EMSs; and (b) whether EMSs in turn predict an increase in depressive and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. A total of 1,052 adolescents (Mage=13.43; SD=1.29) were assessed at three time points, each of which was separated by 6 months. The subjects completed measures of emotional abuse by parents and peers, neuroticism, extraversion, EMSs, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. The findings indicate that emotional bullying victimization and neuroticism predict a worsening of all schema domains over time. Contrary to expectations, there was no significant interaction between temperament dimensions and emotional abuse. The results confirmed the mediational hypothesis that changes in EMSs mediated the predictive association between bullying victimization and emotional symptoms. This study provides partial support for the schema therapy model by demonstrating the role of emotional abuse and temperament in the genesis of EMSs.

  17. From Exclusion to Inclusion: Young Queer Workers' Negotiations of Sexually Exclusive and Inclusive Spaces in Australian Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Equal participation in paid employment is regarded as a basic entitlement within human rights discourse. Recent organizational studies highlight how the workplace can operate as a socially divided space for queer (or non-heterosexual) workers, depicting the workplace as a problematic site of sexuality-based discrimination and abuse. The aim of…

  18. Professional decision making on elder abuse: systematic narrative review.

    PubMed

    Killick, Campbell; Taylor, Brian J

    2009-01-01

    Social work and health care professionals internationally are recognizing the need to understand and respond to the abuse of older people. Policy and guidance have identified processes but definitions of key concepts remain problematic, and the literature suggests that practitioners and agencies have little insight or guidance for decision making. Nine bibliographic databases were searched for studies on professional decision making regarding abuse of older people. Relevant studies retrieved were appraised for quality using explicit criteria. The findings of the 19 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were synthesised using a structured narrative approach. Common themes identified were abuse factors, situational factors, and broader contextual factors. Abuse factors relating to risk levels and client vulnerability were central; age, gender, and health status were considered as key indicators of vulnerability. The opinion of adult protection workers about the potential effectiveness of their intervention was a factor in deciding about responding to alleged or suspected abuse. Professionals struggled with complex ethical dilemmas created by elder abuse, particularly when the victim did not want an investigation. Making objective judgements was difficult when faced with complex family and contextual factors. A structured approach to narrative synthesis of a diverse range of studies retrieved through an explicit search and inclusion process provided a useful summary of key issues for practice and identified gaps in the research literature.

  19. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions.

  20. Re-Imagining Internet Scholarship: Academic Uses and Abuses of the Influential Internet Social Network, Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Kyoung-Ah; Fry, Gerald W.

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception at Harvard in 2004, the social network, Facebook, has grown dramatically and spread across the globe. It will soon have 1 billion users and is now operative in over 75 languages. A large percentage of undergraduates are now active on Facebook. Much of the recent literature on Facebook focuses on business applications and how it…

  1. Career Counseling for Women Preparing to Leave Abusive Relationships: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter Morris, Carrie A.; Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Deborah W.

    2009-01-01

    Career counselors work with people from varied segments of society. For battered women, some of the challenges they face from intimate partner violence may significantly influence their career exploration and decision making. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) is a framework that has important…

  2. Embedded wisdom or rooted problems? Aid workers' perspectives on local social and political infrastructure in post-tsunami Aceh.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    This paper analyses the role of local social, cultural, and political institutions in post-disaster reconstruction projects. It contends that such institutions are important considerations within community-driven reconstruction initiatives, but are often viewed with ambivalence by external aid organisations. This paper draws upon in-depth qualitative interviews with aid workers involved in the post-tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, to establish: (i) what roles community institutions were suited to play in the reconstruction; (ii) what were the limitations of community institutions when engaging with external aid agencies; (iii) how did external aid agencies engage with local community institutions; and (iv) how did external aid agencies perceive community institutions.

  3. A Geriatric Clinical Training Model for Social Workers/Students Working Together with the Alzheimer Patient and Family Caregiver(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long Island Jewish Medical Center, NY.

    Discussed in this report is a geriatric clinical training model for social workers and students dealing with Alzheimer patients and family caregivers. The project was conceived to develop student interest and competence to work in this specialized area. One goal was to incorporate relevant components in the social work curriculum in both classroom…

  4. How Many Social Workers Are Needed in Primary Care? A Patient-Based Needs Assessment Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, James; Bikson, Karra; Blue-Howells, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    This study measured levels of self-reported social need in a sample of 684 veterans seen in four primary care clinics of a large Veterans Affairs health care system, using the Social Needs Checklist, and calculated levels of social work staffing to meet these needs. Data were obtained on the presence and severity of 15 areas of social needs,…

  5. The Effects of Social Information, Co-Worker Credibility and Social Cue Unanimity on Task Perceptions, Satisfaction, and Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    realistically by utilizing mixed social cues. Moscovici (1976) asserts that "when an individual or subgroup influences a group, the main factor of success is...Because the research of Moscovici (1976), Allen (1965, 1975) and others has demonstrated that the presence of an individual whose 6 reported perceptions...reduction of conformity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1975, 11, 215-233. Moscovici , S. Social influence and social change, London

  6. Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a considerable public health problem. Less focus has been paid to the role of community level factors associated with CSA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighbourhood-level measures of social disorganization and CSA. Methods We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 adolescents from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2006 and 2008. Results The percentage of adolescents that had experienced CSA ranged from 1.04% to 5.84%. There was a significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, suggesting 18% of the variation in CSA could be attributed to community level factors. Respondents currently employed were more likely to have reported CSA than those who were unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48 to 2.83). Respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported CSA (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16). Conclusion We found that exposure to CSA was associated with high community level of family disruption, thus suggesting that neighbourhoods may indeed have significant important effects on exposure to CSA. Further studies are needed to explore pathways that connect the individual and neighbourhood levels, that is, means through which deleterious neighbourhood effects are transmitted to individuals. PMID:23924347

  7. Social modulation of stress reactivity and learning in young worker honey bees.

    PubMed

    Urlacher, Elodie; Tarr, Ingrid S; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Alarm pheromone and its major component isopentylacetate induce stress-like responses in forager honey bees, impairing their ability to associate odors with a food reward. We investigated whether isopentylacetate exposure decreases appetitive learning also in young worker bees. While isopentylacetate-induced learning deficits were observed in guards and foragers collected from a queen-right colony, learning impairments resulting from exposure to this pheromone could not be detected in bees cleaning cells. As cell cleaners are generally among the youngest workers in the colony, effects of isopentylacetate on learning behavior were examined further using bees of known age. Adult workers were maintained under laboratory conditions from the time of adult emergence. Fifty percent of the bees were exposed to queen mandibular pheromone during this period, whereas control bees were not exposed to this pheromone. Isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments were apparent in young (less than one week old) controls, but not in bees of the same age exposed to queen mandibular pheromone. This study reveals young worker bees can exhibit a stress-like response to alarm pheromone, but isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments in young bees are suppressed by queen mandibular pheromone. While isopentylacetate exposure reduced responses during associative learning (acquisition), it did not affect one-hour memory retrieval.

  8. Environmental Education through Adult Education. A Manual for Adult Educators, Instructors, Teachers and Social Extension Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugumayo, Edward B., Comp.; Ibikunle-Johnson, Victor O., Comp.

    The purpose of this manual is to make available to adult educators and field extension workers in Kenya resource material that may be used in formal and nonformal training programs for the environmental education of a wide range of target groups. The document begins with a 26-item glossary, an introduction, a section on the document's use,…

  9. Workers' Theatre as an Inquiry Process for Exploring Social Issues of the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the worker's theater movement of the 1930s that attempted to unite actors and audience in devising solutions to societal problems. Maintains that re-enacting its dramatic forms is a thought-provoking way to introduce students to the issues of the time. Includes instructions for suggested activities. (MJP)

  10. Effect of age and social connection on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Sato, Sei; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the effect of age and other factors on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Methods: A survey questionnaire was sent to 1505 workers, with questions regarding age, presence of a written employment contract, previous residence, radiation passbook ownership, presence of close persons for consultation, knowledge of how to access public assistance, and a four-point scale of radiation-related anxiety (1= "Very much," 2= "Somewhat," 3= "A little bit," and 4= "None" ). The relationships between the degree of anxiety and variables were analyzed using the chi-square test and residual analysis. Results: In all, 512 participants responded to the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 46.2 years (SD: 13.1, range: 18-77). Of them, 50, 233, 168, and 61 workers chose "Very much," "Somewhat," "A little bit," and "None," respectively, on the anxiety scale. Chi-square test showed that participants aged 61 years and over had higher degrees of anxiety (p<0.001). Ordinal logistic regression showed that the degree of anxiety increased if they did not have a written contract (p=0.042) or persons to consult (p=0.034) and if they routinely checked the dose rate (p=0.046). Conclusions: Decontamination workers who do not have a written contract or who are in socially isolated situations have greater anxiety over radiation exposure. Thus, it is important to both create supportive human relationships for consultation and enhance labor management in individual companies. PMID:27010088

  11. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  12. Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

  13. Emotional concerns and treatment of male partners of female sexual abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Chauncey, S

    1994-11-01

    Many men are discovering that they are involved with women who were sexually abused as children. However, male partners of female sexual abuse survivors have thus far received little attention in the literature. As these men increasingly seek treatment with concerns of their own, social workers must become familiar with their emotional experiences and treatment needs. This article outlines the major concerns expressed by 20 male partners of sexual abuse survivors. These concerns included conflicts about expressing needs, frustration with various aspects of their relationships, guilt and shame at having feelings, questions about how to deal with relatives, and sexual issues. The author recommends a treatment approach that combines attention to both the individual's and the couple's concerns and uses insight and the safety of the therapeutic relationship to promote growth. The importance of further outreach to partners of women who were sexually abused as children and the need for increased attention to other partner populations are highlighted.

  14. Antiretroviral drug diversion links social vulnerability to poor medication adherence in substance abusing populations.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L

    2015-05-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion to the illicit market has been documented in South Florida, and linked to sub-optimal adherence in people living with HIV. ARV diversion reflects an unmet need for care in vulnerable populations that have difficulty engaging in consistent HIV care due to competing needs and co-morbidities. This study applies the Gelberg-Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization for vulnerable populations to understand how social vulnerability is linked to ARV diversion and adherence. Cross-sectional data were collected from a targeted sample of vulnerable people living with HIV in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n = 503). Structured interviews collected quantitative data on ARV diversion, access and utilization of care, and ARV adherence. Logistic regression was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of additive models that test domain fit. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects of social vulnerability and ARV diversion on ARV adherence. The best fitting model to predict ARV diversion identifies having a low monthly income and unstable HIV care as salient enabling factors that promote ARV diversion. Importantly, health care need factors did not protect against ARV diversion, evidence that immediate competing needs are prioritized even in the face of poor health for this sample. We also find that ARV diversion provides a link between social vulnerability and sub-optimal ARV adherence, with ARV diversion and domains from the Behavioral Model explaining 25 % of the variation in ARV adherence. Our analyses reveal great need to improve engagement in HIV care for vulnerable populations by strengthening enabling factors (e.g. patient-provider relationship) to improve retention in HIV care and ARV adherence for vulnerable populations.

  15. Antiretroviral Drug Diversion Links Social Vulnerability to Poor Medication Adherence in Substance Abusing Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion to the illicit market has been documented in South Florida, and linked to sub-optimal adherence in people living with HIV. ARV diversion reflects an unmet need for care in vulnerable populations that have difficulty engaging in consistent HIV care due to competing needs and co-morbidities. This study applies the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Care Utilization for Vulnerable Populations to understand how social vulnerability is linked to ARV diversion and adherence. Cross-sectional data were collected from a targeted sample of vulnerable people living with HIV in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n=503). Structured interviews collected quantitative data on ARV diversion, access and utilization of care, and ARV adherence. Logistic regression was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of additive models that test domain fit. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects of social vulnerability and ARV diversion on ARV adherence. The best fitting model to predict ARV diversion identifies having a low monthly income and unstable HIV care as salient enabling factors that promote ARV diversion. Importantly, health care need factors did not protect against ARV diversion, evidence that immediate competing needs are prioritized even in the face of poor health for this sample. We also find that ARV diversion provides a link between social vulnerability and sub-optimal ARV adherence, with ARV diversion and domains from the Behavioral Model explaining 25% of the variation in ARV adherence. Our analyses reveal great need to improve engagement in HIV care for vulnerable populations by strengthening enabling factors (e.g. patient-provider relationship) to improve retention in HIV care and ARV adherence for vulnerable populations. PMID:25893656

  16. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  17. Social representations of the health care of the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous population by health workers 1

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Mirian Benites; Shimizu, Helena Eri; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Díaz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the social representations of health care of the Mbyá-Guarani ethnic group by multidisciplinary teams from the Special Indigenous Health District in the south coast of Rio Grande do Sul state (Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. Method: a qualitative method based on the theory of social representations was used. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 20 health workers and by participant observation. The interviews were analyzed with ALCESTE software, which conducts a lexical content analysis using quantitative techniques for the treatment of textual data. Results: there were disagreements in the health care concepts and practices between traditional medicine and biomedicine; however, some progress has been achieved in the area of intermedicality. The ethnic boundaries established between health workers and indigenous peoples based on their representations of culture and family, together with the lack of infrastructure and organization of health actions, are perceived as factors that hinder health care in an intercultural context. Conclusion: a new basis for the process of indigenous health care needs to be established by understanding the needs identified and by agreement among individuals, groups, and health professionals via intercultural exchange. PMID:28177056

  18. Social and structural factors associated with consistent condom use among female entertainment workers trading sex in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Hernandez, Laufred I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-02-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers' condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.

  19. A Descriptive and Comparative Study of Qualifications and Salaries of Australian and American Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Nancy L.

    Professional social work developed and evolved in the United States, although the traditions and notions about poverty were derived from England's experience and the Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601. The first higher education program for social work in the United States was established in 1898. In Australia, the profession of social work took a…

  20. Low social support and further risk factors for nicotine abuse in childhood and adolescence in Germany.

    PubMed

    Muenster, Eva; Zier, Ulrike; Letzel, Stephan; Ochsmann, Elke; Weirich, Horst H; Toschke, Andre M

    2011-01-01

    The health hazards of tobacco consumption are well known; numerous prevention programs exist, but knowledge of risk factors for starting to smoke is scarce. This study addressed the question if school-related factors influence smoking behavior in 7-17-year-old pupils. A cross-sectional study including 2459 pupils of schools in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, was conducted. Roughly every twentieth child (n = 135, 4.5%) had smoked at least once. In the multivariate model the probability of smoking was associated with older age, being male, not being content, and having inadequate family support, as well as with feeling unfairly treated at school. These findings suggest the imposition of gender- and age-adequate prevention with a focus on social support from school and parents to decrease the number of juvenile smokers.

  1. A Case-Comparison Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Michael A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared 59 abused and 49 non-abused elders to identify factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect by caregivers in domestic setting. Found that members of abusive families often had emotional problems. Abused elders and caregivers had become increasingly interdependent because of loss of other family members, social isolation, and financial…

  2. Leadership styles of service professionals aiding women of abuse: enhancing service delivery.

    PubMed

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    Leadership styles of service professionals--including social workers and teachers--in the area of family abuse were investigated. Leadership characteristics of the professionals were measured by their responses to a survey. Results indicated that the interviewed service professionals demonstrated productive leadership traits. Study findings are congruent with leadership styles described in the research. Holistic and collaborative services are required to enhance care for women of abuse, as their needs are multifaceted and complex. Specific leadership styles promote better care for women; leaders need to collaboratively initiate and deliver more interdisciplinary and unified service.

  3. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV.

  4. [Child abuse in Cameroon: evaluation of a training course on awareness, detection, and reporting of child abuse].

    PubMed

    Menick, D Mbassa; Ngoh, F

    2005-01-01

    The twofold purpose of this study was to promote and facilitate awareness, detection and reporting of child abuse by improving the diagnostic ability of a group of pediatric care providers working in pediatric emergency rooms and to evaluate the impact of training on awareness, detection and reporting of child abuse. This study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase data were retrospectively collected for a three-month period prior to the study (May, June, and July 1996). In the second phase a training seminar about awareness, detection, and reporting of child abuse was organized from April 29 to 30, 1997 for pediatric care providers working in the pediatric emergency rooms of several facilities in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Trainees included pediatricians, general practitioners, nurses, and social workers. An oral presentation using 137-slides (visual diagnosis of physical abuse) from the American Academy of Paediatrics (1994) was used as a teaching aid. In the third phase the same data as in the first phase was prospectively collected on the same three-month period after the seminar (May, June and July 1997). As in the first phase data was collected by the same person from emergency room registers according to the WHO protocol (1994) (study of interpersonal physical abuse of children). During the first phase 39 cases of physical abuse were reported in a population 1269 consulting patients, i.e. 3.1% of the cohort. In the third phase prospective analysis of reporting following the training seminar showed that 161 cases of physical abuse were reported in a population of 1425 consulting patients, i.e., 11.3% of the cohort. The victim group (n=161) in the third phase was four-fold larger than the victim group in the first phase (n = 39). These findings suggest that the seminar achieved its main goals, i.e., to improve the diagnostic ability of the trainees and to increase detection and screening of physical abuse of children.

  5. The relationships of attachment style and social maladjustment to death ideation in depressed women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Smith, Phillip N; Gamble, Stephanie A; Cort, Natalie A; Ward, Erin A; Conwell, Yeates; Talbot, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the interaction of attachment orientation and acute social maladjustment as risk factors for death ideation in a sample of women with Major Depression and histories of childhood sexual abuse. Social maladjustment was associated with greater endorsement of death ideation. Avoidant and anxious attachment orientations moderated the social maladjustment and death ideation associations in some domains. Work-related maladjustment was associated with greater odds of death ideation for those with higher attachment avoidance. Parent-role maladjustment was associated with greater odds of death ideation for those with lower attachment anxiety. Findings demonstrate strong associations between death ideation and social maladjustment, and suggest that death ideation may be specific to certain domains of adjustment for anxious and avoidant attachment styles.

  6. The challenge to meet the mental health and biopsychosocial needs of the poor: expanded roles for hospital social workers in a changing healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Francoeur, R B; Copley, C K; Miller, P J

    1997-01-01

    Despite the absence of coordinated federal health care reform, social workers in hospital settings have opportunities to identify, develop, advocate for, and facilitate access to innovative health care services, resulting in improved capacity to meet the mental health and biopsychosocial needs of the poor and, potentially, reduced hospital costs over time. There are opportunities for expanded roles for social workers in forging better linkages between hospital services and the community, developing an integrated biopsychosocial healthcare delivery system within hospitals and primary care settings, utilizing information systems as tools in an integrated system, and advocating for a client-centered approach to mental health services.

  7. Social work, technology, and ethical practices: a review and evaluation of the national association of social workers' technology standards.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Amy

    2014-10-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are becoming essential to social work practice by providing increased treatment possibilities and reducing barriers to service. While recognizing the importance of ICTs in practice, social work practitioners have had concerns about ethical use. In response, NASW compiled the Standards for Technology and Social Work Practice. While the guidelines set the groundwork, they were not embedded in a process that would allow them to adapt to the swift pace of ICT changes. This article reviews the current Standards, evaluates how these have been implemented by practitioners, and offers suggestions for updates.

  8. Integrating diversity into graduate social work education: a 30-year retrospective view by MSW-level African American social workers.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Stan L; Hall, J Camille; Johnson, Oliver J

    2011-01-01

    The study surveyed a national sample of 100 African American master of social work graduates to retroactively assess perceived diversity content in Human Behavior courses before and after the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) established accreditation standards on diversity. Seventy-one percent of the respondents were females, the mean age was 45.8 years, and their graduation years ranged from 1958 to 2002. Most graduated from northeastern schools (34%), followed by midwestern (28%), southeastern (22%), northwestern (11%), and southwestern (5%) schools. Investigators used the Preparation for Graduate Education Social Work Education Scale and the Human Behavior Survey Addendum (alpha = .97). There were no statistically significant differences on diversity content scores for participants enrolled before and after CSWE diversity standards were established, but graduates of historically Black colleges gave higher diversity content scores in every area. Study includes discussion and implications for Afrocentric theory and the need to prepare practitioners for future social work careers in multicultural communities.

  9. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  10. Institutional Review Boards at Very High Research Activity Universities: An Opportunity for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Clare; Buttell, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated to what degree social work was represented in the position of chair of social-behavioral institutional review boards (IRBs) at very high research activity (VHRA) universities in the United States. Method: We collected data on IRB rosters for all 108 schools designated by the Carnegie Foundation as VHRAs in the…

  11. Wanted: Gerontological Social Workers--Factors Related to Interest in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Alishia

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to build a predictive model of factors related to social work students' interest in gerontological social work. Bachelor's and Master's students from universities around Texas were surveyed to determine if knowledge about the aging process and related job opportunities, attitudes toward aging and professional or personal…

  12. Hospital Social Workers and Indirect Trauma Exposure: An Exploratory Study of Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Karen; Royse, David; Craig, Carlton

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the predictive ability of empathy (measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index), emotional separation (measured by the Maintenance of Emotional Separation Scale), occupational stress (measured by the Work-Related Strain Inventory), and social support (measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) on…

  13. Identifying Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Culturally Competent Practice for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell; Gourdine, Ruby; Canfield, James

    2010-01-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from self-reported qualitative and quantitative data on barriers and facilitators to culturally competent school social work practice. The study highlights the need for the development of evaluative methods for the purpose of examining how elements within the practice environment affect school social work…

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL, POLICY AND PHYSICAL VENUE FEATURES AND SOCIAL COHESION ON CONDOM USE FOR PREGNANCY PREVENTION AMONG SEX WORKERS: A SAFER INDOOR WORK ENVIRONMENT SCALE

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: report on a newly developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale’ that characterizes the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers’ (SWs’) condom use for pregnancy prevention. Methods Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly-developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale’ was used to build six multivariable models with generalized estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Results Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.01–1.17) access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95%CI 1.00–1.20) access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 1.01–1.28), and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95%CI 1.03–1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 0.99–1.29). Conclusion The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalization of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (e.g., legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. PMID:25678713

  15. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    PubMed

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  16. Psychosexual and social-cognitive correlates of sexual risk behavior among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Gallardo Cruz, Manuel; Robertson, Angela; Goldenberg, Shira; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) may act as a bridge to the general population contributing to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in the United States and Mexico. This study used cross-sectional data to identify psychosexual and social cognitive factors associated with sexual risk behavior in a bi-national sample of 300 male clients of FSWs recruited in Tijuana, Mexico from June to October, 2008. In a multiple regression analysis, the number of unprotected vaginal sex acts with FSWs was associated with higher sexual compulsivity scores, lower self-efficacy for condom use, greater use of illicit drugs, and more financial need. Behavioral interventions are urgently needed to assist clients of FSWs in reducing high-risk behaviors in an effort to prevent the spread of HIV/STIs in this high-risk population and their sexual partners. PMID:21154035

  17. Talking the talk, walking the walk: social network norms, communication patterns, and condom use among the male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Clare; Latkin, Carl; Sweat, Michael D; Moreno, Luis; Ellen, Jonathan; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2009-06-01

    Male partners of female sex workers are rarely targeted by HIV prevention interventions in the commercial sex industry, despite recognition of their central role and power in condom use negotiation. Social networks offer a naturally existing social structure to increase male participation in preventing HIV. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social network norms and condom use among male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Male partners (N =318) were recruited from 36 sex establishments to participate in a personal network survey. Measures of social network norms included 1) perceived condom use by male social network members and 2) encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Other social network characteristics included composition, density, social support, and communication. The primary behavioral outcome was consistent condom use by male partners with their most recent female sex worker partner during the last 3 months. In general, men reported small, dense networks with high levels of communication about condoms and consistent condom use. Multivariate logistic regression revealed consistent condom use was significantly more likely among male partners who perceived that some or all of their male social network members used condoms consistently. Perceived condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with dense networks, expressing dislike for condoms, and encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Findings suggest that the tight social networks of male partners may help to explain the high level of condom use and could provide an entry point for HIV prevention efforts with men. Such efforts should tap into existing social dynamics and patterns of communication to promote pro-condom norms and reduce HIV-related vulnerability among men and their sexual partners.

  18. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... seniors who are not abused. What are the indicators? Indicators are signs or clues that abuse has ... clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns from ...

  19. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who may be abusing inhalants?The most common abusers of inhalants are teenagers, especially those who are ... to your child about the dangers of trying drugs can help him or her make the right ...

  20. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...