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Sample records for abuse tnd dissemination

  1. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  2. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  3. An Evaluation of the Fidelity of Implementation of a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: Project Toward No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skara, Silvana; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an implementation fidelity evaluation of the fourth experimental trial of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND). Two theoretical content components of the curriculum were examined to increase our understanding of the active ingredients of successful drug abuse prevention programs. A total of 18 senior high schools were randomly…

  4. Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND): Needs Assessment of a Social Service Referral Telephone Program for High Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    SUSSMAN, STEVE; SKARA, SILVANA; PUMPUANG, PATCHAREEYA

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a needs assessment of a potential social service resource telephone program component among high risk youth who received the Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) classroom-based program (approximately 1 year earlier). Results supported youths’ overwhelming receptiveness of a social service referral program. The vast majority of respondents indicated a strong desire for resource and referral information on vocational, educational, recreational, transportation, and mental health and drug counseling. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the provision of social service resource information on drug use among emerging adults. PMID:18720266

  5. Is Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) an evidence-based drug and violence prevention program? A review and reappraisal of the evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Dennis M

    2014-08-01

    This paper critically reviews the published evidence pertaining to Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND). Publications from seven evaluation studies of Project TND are reviewed, and the results from these are discussed as related to the following outcomes: main effects on the use of cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana; main effects on the use of "hard drugs," defined in the evaluations as cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, inhalants, ecstasy and other drugs (e.g., depressants, PCP, steroids and heroin); subgroup and interaction analyses of drug use; and violence-related behaviors. Very few main effects have been found for cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use in the Project TND evaluations. While studies do report main effects for hard drug use, these findings are subject to numerous threats to validity and may be attributable to the data analyses employed. Similarly, while isolated subgroup and interaction effects were found for alcohol use among baseline nonusers and some violence-related behaviors in the early Project TND evaluations, these findings have not been replicated in more recent studies and may result from multiple comparisons between study conditions. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support the assertion that Project TND is an effective drug or violence prevention program. The broader implications of these findings for prevention science are discussed and suggestions are made as to how the quality of research in the field might be improved.

  6. One Year Follow-up Evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND-4)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Dent, Clyde W.; Ann Rohrbach, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This paper describes the one-year outcomes of the fourth experimental trial of Project Towards No Drug Abuse. Two theoretical content components of the program were examined to increase our understanding of the relative contribution of each to the effectiveness of the program. Methods High schools in Southern California (n=18) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: cognitive perception information curriculum, cognitive perception information + behavioral skills curriculum, or standard care (control). The curricula were delivered to high school students (n=2734) by project health educators and regular classroom teachers. Program effectiveness was assessed with both dichotomous and continuous measures of 30-day substance use at baseline and one-year follow-up. Results Across all program schools, the two different curricula failed to significantly reduce dichotomous measures of substance use (cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) at one-year follow-up. Both curricula exerted an effect only on the continuous measure of hard drug use, indicating a 42% (p=0.02) reduction in the number of times hard drugs were used in the last 30 days in the program groups relative to the control. Conclusions The lack of main effects of the program on dichotomous outcomes was contrary to previous studies. The effect on hard drug use among both intervention conditions replicates previous work and suggests that this program effect may have been due to changes in cognitive misperception of drug use rather than behavioral skill. PMID:18675294

  7. Dissemination activities: a critical new role for substance abuse treatment organizations.

    PubMed

    Fields, Dail; Blum, Terry C; Roman, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBPs) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations.

  8. Dissemination Activities: A Critical New Role for Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBP) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities, and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations. PMID:24722825

  9. Disseminated VZV infection and asymptomatic VZV vasculopathy after steroid abuse.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Lenggenhager, Daniela; White, Teresa; Khmeleva, Nelly; Heintzman, Anna; Boyer, Philip J; Gilden, Don

    2015-05-01

    A 60-year-old man who abused corticosteroids developed thoracic-distribution zoster. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA was found in non-healing skin 3 months later. He died suddenly 2 months later. Skin was ulcerated and necrotic. VZV was widespread in organs and arteries, particularly coronary arteries and aorta, with VZV vasculopathy in the posterior cerebral artery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Blending research and practice: an evolving dissemination strategy in substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Michel, Mary Ellen; Pintello, Denise A; Subramaniam, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse is a leading cause of death and disability throughout the world. The mission of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is to lead the United States in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction. This charge has two critical components: (a) strategic support of research across a broad range of disciplines and (b) rapid, effective dissemination of research results that can improve prevention and treatment efforts, with potential to inform policy. The NIDA Clinical Trials Network and the Blending Initiative are critical elements of this strategy, and the social work field is poised to use these resources to expand its role in the dissemination and implementation of NIDA's mission.

  11. Disseminating evidence-based practices in substance abuse treatment: a review with suggestions.

    PubMed

    Miller, William R; Sorensen, James L; Selzer, Jeffrey A; Brigham, Gregory S

    2006-07-01

    Although substance abuse professionals are generally open to new and better therapeutic methods, most evidence-based treatments do not easily find their way into practice. Natural diffusion processes for innovations in substance abuse treatments are relatively informal and have yielded a widely acknowledged gap between science and community practice. This review focuses on methods for effectively disseminating new treatment methods into practice. Therapist manuals and one-time workshops are in themselves relatively ineffective in helping practitioners gain proficiency in new clinical approaches. Individual performance feedback and coaching improve the acquisition of clinical skills. Specific incentives for implementation may also be needed to encourage treatment providers, programs, and systems to adopt new approaches.

  12. Influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics: implications for the dissemination of innovations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly; Quanbeck, Andrew; Maus, Adam; Gustafson, David H; Dearing, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics may speed the diffusion of innovations. The purpose of this study was to describe influence networks in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Washington and test two expectations, using social network analysis: (1) Social network measures can identify influential clinics; and (2) Within a network, some weakly connected clinics access out-of-network sources of innovative evidence-based practices and can spread these innovations through the network. A survey of 201 clinics in a parent study on quality improvement provided the data. Network measures and sociograms were obtained from adjacency matrixes created by UCINet. We used regression analysis to determine whether network status relates to clinics' adopting innovations. Findings suggest that influential clinics can be identified and that loosely linked clinics were likely to join the study sooner than more influential clinics but were not more likely to have improved outcomes than other organizations. Findings identify the structure of influence networks for SUD treatment organizations and have mixed results on how those structures impacted diffusion of the intervention under study. Further study is necessary to test whether use of knowledge of the network structure will have an effect on the pace and breadth of dissemination of innovations.

  13. The Effects of Implementation Fidelity in the Towards No Drug Abuse Dissemination Trial

    PubMed Central

    Little, Melissa A.; Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines the influence of contextual and provider-level factors on the implementation fidelity of a research-based substance abuse prevention program. Also, it investigates whether two provider-level factors, self-efficacy and beliefs about the value of the program, statistically moderate and mediate the effects of a provider training intervention on implementation fidelity. Design/methodology/approach Using generalized mixed-linear modeling, we examine relationships between program provider-, organizational, and community-level factors and implementation fidelity in a sample of 50 high school teachers from 43 high schools in 8 states across the U.S. Fidelity of implementation was assessed utilizing an observation procedure. Findings Implementation fidelity was negatively associated with the urbanicity of the community and the level of teachers’ beliefs about the value of the program, and positively predicted by the organizational capacity of the school. Comprehensive training significantly increased teachers’ self-efficacy, which resulted in an increase in implementation fidelity. Research implications School-based prevention program implementation is influenced by a variety of contextual factors occurring at multiple ecological levels. Future effectiveness and dissemination studies need to account for the complex nature of schools in analyses of implementation fidelity and outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that both provider- and organizational-level factors are influential in promoting implementation fidelity. Before implementation begins, as well as throughout the implementation process, training and ongoing technical assistance should be conducted to increase teachers’ skills, self-efficacy, and comfort with prevention curricula. Originality/value The present study is one of the few to examine contextual and provider-level correlates of implementation fidelity and use mediation analyses to explore whether

  14. A longitudinal study of organizational formation, innovation adoption, and dissemination activities within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Paul M.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Knudsen, Hannah K.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) to conduct trials of promising substance abuse treatment interventions in diverse clinical settings and to disseminate results of these trials. This paper focuses on three dimensions of the CTN’s organizational functioning. First, a longitudinal dataset is used to examine the CTN’s formation as a network of inter-organizational interaction among treatment practitioners and researchers. Data indicate strong relationships of interaction and trust, but a decline in problem-centered inter-organizational interaction over time. Second, adoption of buprenorphine and motivational incentives among the CTN’s affiliated CTPs is identified over three waves of data. While adoption is found to increase with CTPs’ CTN participation, there is only modest evidence of widespread penetration and implementation. Third, CTPs’ pursuit of the CTN’s dissemination goals are examined, indicating that such organizational outreach activities are underway and likely to increase innovation diffusion in the future. PMID:20307795

  15. The Eeffects of Implementation Fidelity in the "Towards No Drug Abuse" Dissemination Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Melissa A.; Sussman, Steven; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to examine the influence of contextual and provider-level factors on the implementation fidelity of a research-based substance abuse prevention program. Also, it aims to investigate whether two provider-level factors, self-efficacy and beliefs about the value of the program, statistically moderate and mediate the…

  16. Abnormalities in itch sensation and skin barrier function in atopic NC/Tnd mice.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Yosuke; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by dryness and itchy skin. Genetic factors as well as other factors, including abnormality in skin barrier function, hypersensitivity of itch sensory nerves, and dysfunction of the immune system, strongly affect the onset and exacerbation of AD. Recently, it has become clear that itch sensation is closely related to pain sensation. By using NC/Tnd mice, a unique spontaneous animal model for human AD, we found abnormalities in sensitivity against external stimuli as compared to two standard strains, BALB/c and B6 mice. Particularly, in conventional NC/Tnd mice with AD, stimulation against transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 reduced the scratching behavior, suggesting the possibility of a TRPV1 modulator in the treatment of atopic itch. The review outlines observations regarding itch sensation and skin barrier function in NC/Tnd mice by using a novel itch quantification system for the laboratory animals, which may bring great progress in the future study of itch.

  17. Retinal degeneration and rd1 mutation in NC/Tnd mice-a human atopic dermatitis model.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Kaoru; Tanaka, Akane; Jung, Kyungsook; Matsuda, Akira; Okamoto, Noriko; Oida, Kumiko; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Ohmori, Keitaro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2011-04-01

    NC/Tnd mice, a spontaneous model for human atopic dermatitis, are also useful animal models for various corneal disorders accompanying allergic diseases. The purposes of the current study were to investigate the development of retinal degeneration in NC/Tnd mice. Histological examination was performed to determine time-dependent alterations of the retina in NC/Tnd from 8 to 28 days of age. Apoptotic cells were determined by TUNEL assay. Retinal function was examined by electroretinography. Fundoscopy was performed in NC/Tnd mice at 8 weeks of age. Melanin contents in whole-eye extracts were measured by spectrophotometry. Since the retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mutation in the rod photoreceptor cyclic guanosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase 6 β-subunit (Pde6b(rd1)) has been identified in laboratory mice, the possible existence of the rd1 mutation was analyzed with PCR genotyping and gene sequencing. C57BL/6, WB, and C3H/HeN mice were used as controls. Histological examination revealed rapid postnatal retinal degeneration in NC/Tnd mice. The number of apoptotic cells in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) increased with aging, and finally the ONL disappeared. Histological abnormality was not obvious in the inner nuclear layer or the ganglion cell layer. Electroretinography shows no response in adult NC/Tnd mice. Fundoscopic observation revealed hypopigmentation in the retina, and melanin contents in the eye were significantly reduced when compared with other inbred strains. Insertion in the rd1 allele was confirmed and a nonsense mutation of Pde6b(rd1) gene was determined in NC/Tnd mice. NC/Tnd mice also preserve the Pde6b(rd1) gene mutation resulting in the rapid postnatal retinal degeneration similar to that in C3H/HeN mice. Unlike C3H/HeN mice, since melanin contents of the retina in NC/Tnd mice was decreased, unknown defects may be present in the process of melanin composition in retinal pigment epithelial cells during fetal development of NC/Tnd mice.

  18. Direct-to-Consumer Marketing: A Complementary Approach to Traditional Dissemination and implementation Efforts for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Interventions.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-03-01

    The overall chasm between those who need treatment for mental health and substance abuse (M/SU) and those who receive effective treatment consists of two, interrelated gaps: the research-to-practice gap and the treatment gap. Prior efforts to disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) for M/SU have predominantly targeted the research-to-practice gap, by focusing efforts toward treatment providers. This article introduces direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that targets patients and caregivers as a complementary approach to existing dissemination efforts. Specific issues discussed include: rationale for DTC marketing based on the concept of push versus pull marketing; overview of key stakeholders involved in DTC marketing; and description of the Marketing Mix planning framework. The applicability of these issues to the dissemination of EBP for M/SU is discussed.

  19. Direct-to-Consumer Marketing: A Complementary Approach to Traditional Dissemination and implementation Efforts for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    The overall chasm between those who need treatment for mental health and substance abuse (M/SU) and those who receive effective treatment consists of two, interrelated gaps: the research-to-practice gap and the treatment gap. Prior efforts to disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) for M/SU have predominantly targeted the research-to-practice gap, by focusing efforts toward treatment providers. This article introduces direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that targets patients and caregivers as a complementary approach to existing dissemination efforts. Specific issues discussed include: rationale for DTC marketing based on the concept of push versus pull marketing; overview of key stakeholders involved in DTC marketing; and description of the Marketing Mix planning framework. The applicability of these issues to the dissemination of EBP for M/SU is discussed. PMID:25937710

  20. Manual-guided cognitive-behavioral therapy training: a promising method for disseminating empirically supported substance abuse treatments to the practice community.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, J; Morgan, T J; McCrady, B S; Keller, D S; Carroll, K M

    2001-06-01

    A gap exists between empirically supported substance abuse treatments and those used in community settings. This study examined the feasibility of training substance abuse counselors to deliver cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) using treatment manuals. Participants were 29 counselors. Counselors were randomly assigned to receive CBT training or to a control group. Counselor attitudes were assessed pre- and posttraining. In addition, CBT therapy sessions were videotaped and rated for adherence and skillfulness. CBT counselors reported high levels of satisfaction with the training, intention to use CBT interventions, and confidence in their ability to do so. Ratings indicated that 90% of counselors were judged as having attained at least adequate levels of CBT skillfulness. Findings demonstrate the feasibility of using psychotherapy technology tools as a means of disseminating science-based treatments to the substance abuse practice community.

  1. A large-scale initiative to disseminate an evidence-based drug abuse prevention program in Italy: Lessons learned for practitioners and researchers.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Veronica; Griffin, Kenneth W; Antichi, Mariella; Celata, Corrado

    2015-10-01

    Across developed countries, experimentation with alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs often begins in the early adolescent years. Several evidence-based programs have been developed to prevent adolescent substance use. Many of the most rigorously tested and empirically supported prevention programs were initially developed and tested in the United States. Increasingly, these interventions are being adopted for use in Europe and throughout the world. This paper reports on a large-scale comprehensive initiative designed to select, adapt, implement, and sustain an evidence-based drug abuse prevention program in Italy. As part of a large-scale regionally funded collaboration in the Lombardy region of Italy, we report on processes through which a team of stakeholders selected, translated and culturally adapted, planned, implemented and evaluated the Life Skills Training (LST) school-based drug abuse prevention program, an evidence-based intervention developed in the United States. We discuss several challenges and lessons learned and implications for prevention practitioners and researchers attempting to undertake similar international dissemination projects. We review several published conceptual models designed to promote the replication and widespread dissemination of effective programs, and discuss their strengths and limitations in the context of planning and implementing a complex, large-scale real-world dissemination effort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

  3. Biodegradation of nicotine by a novel nicotine-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida TND35 and its new biotransformation intermediates.

    PubMed

    Raman, Gurusamy; Mohan, KasiNadar; Manohar, Venkat; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco wastes that contain nicotine alkaloids are harmful to human health and the environment. In the investigation, a novel nicotine-biodegrading bacterium TND35 was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence homology. We have studied the nicotine biodegradation potential of strain TND35 by detecting the intermediate metabolites using an array of approaches such as HPLC, GC-MS, NMR and FT-IR. Biotransformation metabolites, N-methylmyosmine, 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and other three new intermediate metabolites namely, 3,5-bis (1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl) pyridine, 2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2-ol and 5-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-one have been identified. Interestingly, these intermediate metabolites suggest that the strain TND35 employs a novel nicotine biodegradation pathway, which is different from the reported pathways of Aspergillus oryzae 112822, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1, Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and other species of Pseudomonas. The metabolite, HPB reported in this study can also be used as biochemical marker for tobacco related cancer studies.

  4. Utilizing dissemination findings to help understand and bridge the research and practice gap in the treatment of substance abuse disorders in Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Santisteban, Daniel; Vega, Rodolfo R; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes

    2006-09-01

    This article focuses on the gap between research and practice in substance abuse treatment, identifies some of the key findings in the technology transfer literature, and discusses their relevance to the adoption of new technology among Hispanic serving agencies and counselors. In organizing the material we present information within the categories of: (1) evidence, (2) context, and (3) facilitation. When considering the "evidence" for empirically supported substance abuse treatments for Hispanics, there is great concern about the shortage of treatments that have been adequately tested with Hispanics. In this article, we analyze the strengths and weaknesses of strategies recommended to address this problem. In terms of the "context" in which evidence-based practices will be implemented, we consider counselor characteristics and organizational structures that may facilitate or hinder the adoption of these practices and discuss how these may impact Hispanic-serving agencies. Finally, the mechanisms necessary for "facilitation" of evidence-based practices in Hispanic-serving agencies are described. Given the dearth of dissemination research with Hispanics, as well as other minorities, each area described in this article presents unique challenges that can benefit from a field-wide discussion.

  5. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid prevents the development of atopic dermatitis through prostaglandin D1 production in NC/Tnd mice.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Kakutani, Saki; Tanaka, Takao; Matsuda, Kenshiro; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginae; Xia, Yan; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2015-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disorder with pruritic skin symptoms. We previously reported that dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) prevented the development of AD in NC/Tnd mice, though the mechanism remained unclear. We attempted to investigate the mechanism of preventive effect of DGLA on AD development in NC/Tnd mice. The clinical outcomes of NC/Tnd mice that were given diets containing DGLA, arachidonic acid, or eicosapentaenoic acid were compared. Lipid mediator contents in the skin in each group were also quantified. In addition, release of lipid mediators from RBL-2H3 mast cells treated with either DGLA or prostaglandin D1 (PGD1) was measured. Furthermore, effect of PGD1 on gene expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in PAM212 keratinocyte cells was determined. Only DGLA containing diet suppressed the development of dermatitis in vivo. By quantifying the 20-carbon fatty acid-derived eicosanoids in the skin, the application of DGLA was found to upregulate PGD1, which correlated with a better outcome in NC/Tnd mice. Moreover, we confirmed that mast cells produced PGD1 after DGLA exposure, thereby exerting a suppressive effect on immunoglobulin E-mediated degranulation. PGD1 also suppressed gene expression of TSLP in keratinocytes. These results suggest that oral administration of DGLA causes preventive effects on AD development in NC/Tnd mice by regulating the PGD1 supply. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Development, dissemination and effectiveness of eugenic (racial public health) ideas in the abuse of the prevention concept in medicine].

    PubMed

    Schneck, P

    1989-02-01

    The scientific social hygiene and the eugenics (racial hygiene) based on biologistical concepts nearly simultaneously developed by the turn from 19th to 20th century. Whereas the prophylaxis has been a centralized social-hygienic request, the eugenics has been orientated on the transfer of the principle of selection and the regulations of the human procreation. The intermixture of partial aspects of both these concepts by uptake of eugenic ideas into social-hygienic samples and the declaration of the eugenics to be the "generative prophylaxis" or "hygiene of procreation" during the first third of the 20th century caused a temporary abuse of the term prophylaxis in the medicine. The modern efforts at a genetic prophylaxis differ by their exact and individual performance and the principle of an absolute voluntariness from eugenic conceptions of any provenance. There term eugenics has for objective, ethical and historical reasons no longer its basis of existence to characterize this purpose of the medicine.

  7. Project MAINSTREAM'S First Fellowship Cohort: Pilot Test of a National Dissemination Model to Enhance Substance Abuse Curriculum at Health Professions Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browna, Richard L.; Marcus, Marianne T.; Lal, S.; Straussner, A.; Graham, Antonette V.; Madden, Theresa; Schoener, Eugene; Henry, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Generalist health professional training on substance abuse prevention is patchy. This study assessed the effects of Project MAINSTREAM, a national interdisciplinary faculty development fellowship program, whose principal objective was to enhance curriculum on basic substance abuse services at health professions training institutions.…

  8. Disseminated sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-03-25

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported.

  9. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported. PMID:22700076

  10. Amelioration of atopic-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice by topical application with distilled Alpinia intermedia Gagnep extracts.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Yosuke; Katsuta, Chihiro; Nomura, Yoshihiro; Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Kenshiro; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Hamasaki, Tetsuyoshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2017-08-16

    Alpinia intermedia, a perennial plant that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, has been used in folk medicine for a long time in the southern region of Japan. Because skin care is an effective approach that enables patients to manage their atopic dermatitis (AD), various herbal ingredients with few adverse effects have been evaluated for use in AD patients in recent years. In this study, we examined whether distilled extracts obtained from A. intermedia were beneficial for AD-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice. Topical application with the A. intermedia extracts significantly reduced the severity of AD, transepidermal water loss and scratching behavior in the mice. Supplementation of the extracts to cell cultures suppressed the expression of Tslp mRNA in PAM212 keratinocytes, degranulation in bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC), and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and dorsal root ganglia. In addition, the component analysis revealed that β-pinene was a major constituent of the A. intermedia extracts. The inhibitory effects of β-pinene both in vivo and in vitro were also demonstrated. These results indicate that topical application with the A. intermedia extract to the skin of NC/Tnd mice improved the condition of the skin by suppressing multiple inflammatory responses. The extracts may become novel skin-care remedies for AD patients. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  12. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  13. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  14. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  15. Disseminating research.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Lesley

    2015-07-01

    THE THEME of this edition of Nurse Researcher, 'disseminating research', is pertinent to researchers across the career spectrum and tackles two important issues: open access publishing and originality in PhD research. In the first paper, Suzanne Fredericks examines and contrasts two models of open access publishing, revealing some notable advantages of 'green' open access, achieved through repositories, as opposed to the more well-known 'gold' open access offered by journals ( Fredericks 2015 ). In the second paper, Paul Gill and Gina Dolan discuss originality in PhD studies, exploring the nature of the concept and how doctoral students can demonstrate originality, which is an essential consideration in their research dissemination activities as well as their thesis preparation ( Gill and Dolan 2015 ).

  16. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and ...

  17. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a ...

  18. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  19. Disseminated histoplasmosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling dust from spore-infected bird droppings. In the disseminated ... fairly high for people with untreated widespread (disseminated) histoplasmosis, but is reduced significantly with treatment.

  20. Dissemination Activities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Hanna; Batatia, Hudj; Bauters, Merja; Ben Ami, Zvi; Drachman, Raul; Flouris, Giorgos; Jadin, Tanja; Jalonen, Satu; Karlgren, Klas; Karpati, Andrea; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Lakkala, Minna; Lallimo, Jiri; Moen, Anne; Nygard, Kathrine; Paavola, Sami; Padiglia, Sheila; Scapolla, Marina; Sins, Patrick; Vasileva, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In the first 24 months of the project, KP-Lab members were highly dedicated to dissemination and were engaged in various dissemination activities that contributed to the prime objective of the KP-Lab dissemination efforts which is "to make the project widely known to a variety of prospective users and, at a later stage, to promote the…

  1. Effective dissemination strategies.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Philip A

    2002-01-01

    Dissemination of research findings or other key messages is increasingly acknowledged as a vital yet complex process. In this paper, Philip Scullion sets out to explore and disentangle some of these complexities, examine examples of successful dissemination strategies and provide valuable insights. It is argued that the process of dissemination needs to be afforded greater emphasis by project-funding bodies, research supervisors, researchers, and those responsible for implementing changes in clinical practice. Important initiatives are acknowledged before the concept of dissemination is explored. The source, message, medium and target groups, all key elements in the dissemination process, are then examined. It is argued that dissemination needs to be carefully considered at the design stage of research projects in relation to each of these elements. This paper concludes that the current commitment to research and evidence-based practice will have limited impact on patient care until a similar commitment to dissemination is evident at both corporate and individual levels.

  2. Inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Storck, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet-underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This clinical report reviews key aspects of inhalant abuse, emphasizes the need for greater awareness, and offers advice regarding the pediatrician's role in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem.

  3. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  4. Technology-based dissemination.

    PubMed

    Jennett, P A; Premkumar, K

    1996-01-01

    Health care reform and restructuring, changes in the scope and definitions of 'health', 'health care' and 'health research', along with a continued emphasis on multidisciplinary health promotion and prevention, all indicate the need for information dissemination, exchange and management. Technology can be a tool to help meet this need, as it can help us disseminate, as well as understand the process of dissemination. Rapid advances in, and reduced costs of technology, permit the integration of this tool. This paper provides a definition for dissemination, along with a background and rationale as to why now is the time and place to harness technology to assist with the dissemination process. In addition, it presents well-designed studies on the effective use of technology as an aid to dissemination. Concrete examples of innovative technology that are being tested are also examined. Finally, the challenge and strategies for technology integration are addressed.

  5. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  6. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  7. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies.

  8. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Alper, Gulay

    2012-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, commonly preceded by an infection. It principally involves the white matter tracts of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, optic nerves, and spinal cord. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mainly affects children. Clinically, patients present with multifocal neurologic abnormalities reflecting the widespread involvement in central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid may be normal or may show a mild pleocytosis with or without elevated protein levels. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) shows multiple demyelinating lesions. The diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis requires both multifocal involvement and encephalopathy by consensus criteria. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis typically has a monophasic course with a favorable prognosis. Multiphasic forms have been reported, resulting in diagnostic difficulties in distinguishing these cases from multiple sclerosis. In addition, many inflammatory disorders may have a similar presentation with frequent occurrence of encephalopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  9. Inhalant abuse

    PubMed Central

    Baydala, L

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic boundaries. Inhalants are pharmacologically diverse products that are selected for their low price, legal and widespread availability, and ability to rapidly induce euphoria. Chronic abuse is associated with serious and often irreversible effects. Widespread screening and early referrals to treatment programs have resulted in significant improvements in the mental, physical and social conditions of those affected. The present statement reviews critical aspects of inhalant abuse, highlighting new information and data that pertain to Aboriginal children and youth, and provides recommendations for treatment and prevention. PMID:21886449

  10. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Marshall, C

    1991-11-01

    Elder abuse encompasses physical, psychological, and financial abuse and also includes the violation of an individual's rights, or social abuse. Detection of elder abuse is often obstructed by the denial or shame of the abused older adult and the denial or improper assessment by health care professionals. The ethical struggle professionals face when they suspect abuse may also impede assessment or intervention. Preliminary data on etiologic factors related to elder abuse suggest that misinformation, the caregiver's lack of understanding of the needs of older adults, social isolation, a history of dysfunctional family relationships, and the psychopathologic factors of the caregiver are salient factors for understanding elder abuse. In addition, caregiver burden related to the care of the impaired elder and other external life events is a risk factor for elder abuse. Self-neglect is the type of elder abuse most often reported and the most difficult to handle, because older adults have a right to refuse services. Home care providers often face practical and ethical dilemmas in cases of self-neglect. When making an assessment for elder abuse, it is best to use a multidisciplinary approach. In addition to physical indicators (bruises, malnutrition, fractures), attention must be paid to the social, family, and sexual history of the patient. The psychological history of the patient and caregiver is also important. Reporting laws exist in all states, and health care practitioners must become familiar with the laws in their states. Awareness of elder abuse by professionals working in home care is essential, because the failure to detect abuse can interfere with interventions and in some cases lead to death.

  11. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to every organ over time.Also, if your child abuses inhalants, he or she is likely to try ... How can I start a discussion about inhalant abuse with my child? Other organizationsNational Inhalant Prevention Coalition (NIPC)National Institute ...

  12. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  13. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  14. Public Service Advertising and Social Problems: the Case of Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, William J.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    This paper explores certain findings of a DAIR (Drug Abuse Information Research) project undertaken at the University of Connecticut which is investigating the dissemination and impact of drug abuse information. Specifically, findings regarding audience response to persuasive antidrug abuse messages on television are discussed. On the basis of the…

  15. 75 FR 42102 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Research Dissemination (1143). Date..., Contract Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS,...

  16. Congenital disseminated tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Ling; Wang, Gang; Gao, Tianwen

    2013-04-01

    Tufted angioma represents a rare vascular tumor that can develop in children and young adults. It usually presents as solitary plaque or large tumor on the extremities, trunk or other anatomic sites. Histopathologically, it is characterized by proliferation of closely packed capillaries in the dermis in a 'cannonball' distribution. We described a 2-month-old child who developed widespread disseminated red papules since her birth. Eight lesions were excised for histopathology, seven of which showed typical cannonball-like distribution of proliferative capillaries, characteristic of tufted angioma, and one on the hand which showed focal disseminated proliferation of endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry showed focal D2-40 positivity in one lesion and was negative in the other seven. Expression of Prox1 and Glut-1 was negative in all lesions. This case represented a disseminated form of tufted angioma.

  17. Disseminated Blastomycosis Mimicking Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer L; Tjarks, B Joel; Berg, Aaron; Oliver, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection commonly found within the Mississippi and Ohio River basins and Great Lakes region. While patients typically present with acute pneumonia, Blastomyces dermatitidis has the potential to spread hematogenously, resulting in disseminated infection of multiple organs. In this report, we describe a 57-year-old male with disseminated blastomycosis acquired in South Dakota. The diagnostic evaluation was confounded by concern for malignancy given the involvement of multiple locations, including brain, lungs, adrenal glands, and testes. Despite aggressive therapy with amphotericin B, the patient succumbed to this infection. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  18. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shurong; Hersh, Andrew M; Naughton, Greg; Mullins, Kevin; Fung, Maxwell A; Sharon, Victoria R

    2013-11-15

    The dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii commonly causes localized cutaneous disease with lymphocutaneous distribution. However, disseminated sporotrichosis occurs predominantly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in a patient with newly diagnosed HIV with a CD4 count of 208. The patient presented with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules as well as fever and malaise. Tissue culture and skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. He was started on itraconazole 200mg twice a day with rapid resolution of fever along with cessation of the development of new lesions.

  19. Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil; Almira-Suarez, M. I.; Reese, Jennifer M.; Hoke, George M.; Mandell, James W.; Roy, Sharon L.; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare cause of human infection, but when infections do occur, they result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A case of disseminated Balamuthia infection is presented. Early diagnosis and initiation of recommended therapy are essential for increased chances of successful outcomes. PMID:26135864

  20. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... Break Up Respectfully Abuse Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Love and Romance Getting Over a Break-Up Dealing With Bullying Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Attraction and Orientation Teens ...

  1. [Disseminated mycosis fungoides].

    PubMed

    Trope, B M; Schmidt, J M; de Oliveira Neto, A A; Pereira Júnior, A C; Marques, A de S; Ishida, C E; Azulay, R D

    1985-01-01

    A case of mycosis fungoides (MF) that began with cutaneous eritemato-papular lesions leading to death with neurological symptoms is reported. Cutaneous histophatology was typical to MF and the liquoric citology showed Sézary cells. Necropsy evidenced extra-cutaneous dissemination of the tumor involving lymphnodes, heart, digestive system, bladder, liver, bone marrow and leptomeninges. The uncommon clinical manifestations and evolution are discussed.

  2. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Panta; Fischer, Max; Meehan, Shane; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2012-12-15

    Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, which was described in 1966, is characterized by small, atrophic patches with distinctive keratin rims that occur on sun-exposed areas of the extremities, shoulders, and back. The diagnosis is based on the histopathologic finding of a cornoid lamella, absence of a granular layer, and often a thin epidermis. It is associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Gene studies suggest a pathway defect in which several mutations in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation lead to development of porokeratosis.

  3. Disseminated superficial porokeratosis.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Mandal, Rajni; Walters, Ruth; Solomon, Gary; Kundu, Roopal V; Strober, Bruce E

    2010-11-15

    A 62-year-old woman with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis presented for evaluation and treatment of a one-week history of pruritic, pink spots on her trunk and extremities. Several weeks prior, therapy with certolizumab pegol and methotrexate was started for her psoriatic arthritis. A biopsy specimen was consistent with the diagnosis of porokeratosis. Owing to the setting of immunosuppression and presence of symmetric pruritic lesions on non-sun exposed areas, the diagnosis of disseminated superficial porokeratosis was made.

  4. Developing an Effective Dissemination Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, Austin, TX. National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research.

    This booklet offers guidelines for the development of dissemination strategies, especially those concerned with research and programs. Individual sections address: the importance of including sound dissemination plans in grant proposals, factors found to be closely related to information utilization in the dissemination process, a philosophical…

  5. Maid abuse.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P

    2009-07-01

    Domestic maid violence is an assault and coercive behaviour, which mainly includes physical, psychological and at times sexual too, by employer or household members of employer against a person hired as a domestic help. Maid abuse is well known but poorly documented in scientific literature. This is an important global issue. In this article, two illustrated cases of maid abuse are discussed. Their employers allegedly subjected both the victims to physical and psychological trauma. The physical examination of the victims showed poor state of clothing, nutrition, and presence of injuries of different duration. The bruises were irregular to patterned, and were inflicted by beating. Both cases had eczematous contact dermatitis over palms and soles, paronechia, and sub-ungal fungal infection due to unprotected working in wet conditions. In both cases, external ears were deformed like cauliflowers due to repeated trauma. All cases had multiple injuries of varying duration. In this paper, medico-legal and social issues related to maid abuse are also discussed in detail. A possible solution to minimise maid abuse is also suggested. This paper highlights and document maid abuse.

  6. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vietnamese Sexual Abuse No. 9; Updated November 2014 Child sexual abuse has been reported up to 80,000 times ... sexual abuse can be devastating to the child. Child sexual abuse can take place within the family, by a ...

  7. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  8. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  9. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... advice. loveisrespect.org : 1-866-331-9474 National Domestic Violence Hotline : 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) National Sexual ... Rape National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence If you’re concerned about abusive relationships, here’s ...

  10. Delusions of Disseminated Fungosis

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Paul Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Delusional infestation is a rare monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It can be a primary disorder or associated with an underlying psychological or physical disorder. It commonly presents as delusional parasitosis, and less than 1% may be fungi related. We present this case as it is a rare presentation of a rare condition. Case Presentation. Our patient is a 60-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 7-year history of delusional infestation manifested as a disseminated fungal infection. He had previously been reviewed by multiple physicians for the same with no systemic illness diagnosed. After multiple reviews and thorough investigation we diagnosed him with a likely delusional disorder. As is common with this patient cohort he refused psychiatric review or antipsychotic medication. Conclusion. A delusion of a disseminated fungal infestation is a rare condition. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as these patients often refuse to believe the investigation results and diagnosis. Furthermore, they either refuse or are noncompliant with treatment. Multidisciplinary outpatient evaluation may be the best way to allay patient fears and improve treatment compliance. PMID:25610675

  11. Disseminated extracranial metastatic meningioma.

    PubMed

    Chua, Felicia H Z; Low, Sharon Y Y; Tham, Chee K; Ding, Cristine; Wong, Chin F; Nolan, Colum P

    2016-11-01

    Meningiomas are usually low-grade, solitary lesions that rarely metastasize. In this group of central nervous system tumours, the higher grade subtypes are notorious for resistance to conventional chemo-radiation therapies. Recent studies have shown efficacy in the use of bevacizumab in patients with recurrent and, or progressive anaplastic meningioma. The authors report a case of a young patient with recurrent anaplastic meningioma who despite being treated with bevacizumab, progressed with disease dissemination to multiple extracranial sites. Although the majority of meningiomas are amendable to treatment, the higher grade subtypes remain therapeutically challenging. The unexpected resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in this patient adds another layer of complexity to an elusive subset of a supposedly benign disease. This patient report reflects the need for in-depth studies, molecular characterization and overall, better disease understanding in order to improve prognosis for affected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spousal Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gullattee, Alyce C.

    1979-01-01

    Spouse abuse is being discussed and agonized over more frequently than in past years. Although interpousal and intrafamilial violence have been behaviors of note and considerable consequence, they have been attributable, almost exclusively, to the lower socioeconomic classes. Many hypotheses have been proposed concerning the etiology of violence. The author discusses some of the more general sociopolitical theories of violence and proposes three areas of significant moment to behaviorists. PMID:439165

  13. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  14. Selected Dissemination/Diffusion Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Marshall L.

    This analysis of selected diffusion and dissemination methods used by developer-demonstrator projects in the National Diffusion Network discusses strategies under the following headings: managing the project, developing materials, disseminating information, conducting awareness sessions, training personnel, using certified trainers, providing…

  15. Lingual ulceration in disseminated histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Guttal, Kruthika S; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Bathi, Renuka J; Rao, Ravikala

    2010-03-01

    Histoplasmosis is a rare systemic fungal infection commonly presenting as mucosal ulceration of the oral cavity. It has been increasingly reported in India as disseminated disease with lesions in the oral cavity as a consequence of rapid spread of HIV infection. The authors report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with oral manifestation in a 40-year-old male patient.

  16. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds of ... a babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at home, school, childcare, or ...

  17. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance Abuse/Use Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Substance Abuse/Use How Are Alcohol and Drug Use Related ... or transmitting HIV is to stop using drugs . Substance abuse treatment programs can help you do this. Many ...

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  19. Image dissemination and archiving.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ian

    2007-08-01

    Images generated as part of the sonographic examination are an integral part of the medical record and must be retained according to local regulations. The standard medical image format, known as DICOM (Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine) makes it possible for images from many different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, to be distributed via a standard internet network to distant viewing workstations and a central archive in an almost seamless fashion. The DICOM standard is a truly universal standard for the dissemination of medical images. When purchasing an ultrasound unit, the consumer should research the unit's capacity to generate images in a DICOM format, especially if one wishes interconnectivity with viewing workstations and an image archive that stores other medical images. PACS, an acronym for Picture Archive and Communication System refers to the infrastructure that links modalities, workstations, the image archive, and the medical record information system into an integrated system, allowing for efficient electronic distribution and storage of medical images and access to medical record data.

  20. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  1. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  2. Methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Voorhees, Kenton I; Pehl, Katherine A

    2007-10-15

    Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation.

  3. Disseminated Intra-Abdominal Hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Fátima; Maguiña, Ciro; Seas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 26-year-old male Peruvian patient who presented with disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis. The patient was treated with surgical removal of the cysts and prolonged medical treatment with albendazole. PMID:24006293

  4. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  5. Aerogenic Dissemination of Aphtae Epizooticae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-14

    FTD-ID(RS)T-0112-80 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION AEROGENIC DISSEMINATION OF APHTAE EPIZOOTICAE by Jerzy Wisniewski DTIC A Approved for public release...0112-8o Date14 Mar 19.80 AEROGENIC DISSEMINATION oF APHTAE EPIZOOTICAE Jerzy Wisniewski During aphtae epizooticae the principal cause of the virus...8217 e saliva foam assists in spreading the virus nn the air. The aerosol containing the virus can also be found in evaporation from wet floors, as well

  6. Parent Abuse: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

  7. Ethnicity and hazard information dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Ronald W.; Nelson, Lisa

    1991-07-01

    Citizens from two communities were questioned regarding the sources from which they have previously obtained information about environmental hazards and their preferences for different communication channels. Three ethnic groups—whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans—were represented among those questioned. While all three ethnic groups described similar patterns of past information receipt, it was found that Mexican-Americans obtained more information through social network contacts than whites or blacks. Ethnic differentials emerged when citizens were asked about preferred sources for information receipt. While radio was identified as desirable by all three groups, only minority citizens expressed a preference for local television as a dissemination mode and only Mexican-Americans favored neighborhood meetings. Mailed dissemination and newspapers were preferred primarily by whites and blacks. The implications of the results for the conduct of hazard information dissemination are examined.

  8. Kentucky Information Dissemination System. Fall Dissemination Conference Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Communication Services.

    Describing a state conference on information dissemination held in November 1979 in Frankfort, Kentucky, this report contains conference materials and evaluations of the mini-seminars and awareness sessions conducted there. Materials include a final agenda, seminar and roundabout topics, a description of the Kentucky Department of Education…

  9. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Substance Abuse in Rural Areas Substance abuse has long been ... are some options to reduce it? What is substance abuse and what are the signs of substance abuse? ...

  10. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised ... syrup is sometimes diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines ...

  11. Disseminating an Effective Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul

    1992-01-01

    Reasons for the failure to adopt behavior-analytic teaching strategies include the perception that behavior analysis is coercive and controlling, difficulties in implementation, university factors, and marketing problems. The goal of dissemination of these strategies could be met through creating motivational conditions and devising marketing…

  12. Disseminating Educational Research with IT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Niki

    Teachers and researchers need to use the research produced in education to improve their practice. However, the current modes of dissemination through journals and papers are often written for the expert community. The Telematics Centre at the University of Exeter (United Kingdom), School of Education provides creative solutions for the effective…

  13. The Dissemination of Pedagogical Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical patterns have been around since 1995, but several authors claim their impact is limited. However, these claims are based on authors' own observations and not on methodical evaluations of the use and dissemination of pedagogical patterns. This claim is in contrast to the vision of the creators of pedagogical patterns--they think…

  14. The Dissemination of Pedagogical Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Pedagogical patterns have been around since 1995, but several authors claim their impact is limited. However, these claims are based on authors' own observations and not on methodical evaluations of the use and dissemination of pedagogical patterns. This claim is in contrast to the vision of the creators of pedagogical patterns--they think…

  15. What is Elder Abuse?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Links National Elder Abuse Incidence Study Domestic Violence in Later Life What If I Suspect ... Demonstrations (PPHF) Elder Justice Innovation Grants Late Life Domestic Violence World Elder Abuse Awareness Day State Grants ...

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  17. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances, including alcohol and tobacco Family history of substance abuse problems Younger age, especially the teens or early ... assistance program, which may offer counseling services for substance abuse problems You may be embarrassed to ask for ...

  19. Antecedents of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Altemeier, W A; O'Connor, S; Vietze, P M; Sandler, H M; Sherrod, K B

    1982-05-01

    The qualities of parents who batter their children have been determined by interviewing known abusers. Because most studies lack controls and because family characteristics may be changed by abuse, a prospective study was instituted. Fourteen hundred low-income mothers were interviewed in a prenatal clinic, and the characteristics of 23 reported for abuse within two years were compared to the characteristics of the remaining mothers. The predominant antecedents of child abuse were: unwanted pregnancy, aggressive tendencies, and aberrant childhood nurture in which disturbed family relationships were more important than outright abuse. Abusive mother had slightly less self-esteem. Factors which increased exposure between parents and children seemed to increase risk for abuse. In contrast to retrospective findings, abusive mothers did not differ in support available from others, age, education, isolation, family alcohol or drug problems, and expectations of child development.

  20. Preventing Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whether or not you've experienced domestic or child abuse personally, you probably know that it can have ... and Neglect - The Essentials Latest Content Signs of Child Abuse August 5, 2017 @ 10:21 PM | 4 Min ...

  1. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... of older Americans Prev Play Pause Next Elder abuse is a complex issue that intersects with many ... You are a front line defender against elder abuse. Everyone has a role in preventing and combatting ...

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  3. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  4. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  5. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  6. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  7. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  8. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  9. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  10. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  11. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  12. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  13. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  14. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  15. Vocational Rehabilitation of American Indians with Alcohol Disorders. Research Dissemination Workshop Proceedings (Phoenix, Arizona, November 19, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Priscilla Lansing, Ed.; Gahungu, Athanase, Ed.

    A workshop aimed to increase participant knowledge about how to improve vocational rehabilitation (VR) services for American Indians with alcohol disorders. Objectives included dissemination of results of a national research project; an overview of issues related to rehabilitation, alcohol abuse, and American Indian people; and specific…

  16. Creating new realities: program development and dissemination.

    PubMed Central

    Fixsen, D L; Blase, K A

    1993-01-01

    Program development and dissemination in human services present challenges and opportunities for social scientists. Over the past 27 years the Teaching-Family Model of group home treatment has moved from prototype development to widespread dissemination across North America. Reviewing concepts in industry related to product development and dissemination, the application of these concepts to a human services delivery system, and program replication and dissemination data offer information about how innovative human services can be widely adapted and adopted. PMID:8307838

  17. Pemphigus vulgaris and disseminated nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Martín, F J; Pérez-Bernal, A M; Camacho, F

    2000-09-01

    Infectious diseases, in particular septicaemia from Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are the most severe and frequent complications for the immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus. Infection by Nocardia asteroides in subjects with pemphigus vulgaris is rare. We report the sixth case found of such an association; the subject died of disseminated nocardiosis while receiving steroids and immunosuppressive drugs, 4 years after being diagnosed with chronic pemphigus vulgaris.

  18. Risk Factors for Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis, United States

    PubMed Central

    Odio, Camila D.; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Galgiani, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Of 150,000 new coccidioidomycosis infections that occur annually in the United States, ≈1% disseminate; one third of those cases are fatal. Immunocompromised hosts have higher rates of dissemination. We identified 8 patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis who had defects in the interleukin-12/interferon-γ and STAT3 axes, indicating that these are critical host defense pathways. PMID:28098554

  19. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination. PMID:27583270

  20. Skin manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  1. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of intervention dissemination (i.e., what is the best approach to disseminate an intervention). Rather, the paper discusses the challenges specific to finding pathways to disseminate an intervention and describes federal opportunities to support intervention dissemination. Three specific mechanisms are discussed: Federal Registries of Evidence-Based Programs, the Tiered Evidence Grant Programs, and the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and the Small Technology Transfer Research (STTR) programs. The article presents some limitations associated with federal mechanisms for dissemination of effective interventions, but is intended to highlight current and future opportunities they may offer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  3. Schizophrenia and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Hucker, S

    1994-07-01

    Recent research from North America has demonstrated higher than expected rates of drug and alcohol abuse among the seriously mentally ill. Schizophrenics appear to be particularly susceptible to the negative effects of substance abuse. These include psychiatric and social complications, with antisocial behaviour, particularly violence emerging as one of the most worrying features. This review examines the strength of the association and explores the possible explanations for the apparent link between schizophrenia, substance abuse and violence. The literature was searched using Medline, supplemented with a manual literature search. Very few articles specifically approached the problem of violence among substance abusing schizophrenics, but over 80 papers were identified which were helpful in exploring the link between dangerous behaviour and substance abuse by schizophrenics. While there is circumstantial evidence to support the hypothesis that schizophrenics who abuse drugs or alcohol are at an increased risk of behaving violently, longitudinal studies are required to facilitate a better understanding of the mediating mechanisms.

  4. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0074 TITLE: PTSD and Substance Abuse PRINCIPAL...PTSD and Substance Abuse 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0074 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Lisa M...Board, Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2011-pres. Editorial Board, Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 2014-pres

  5. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    W81XWH1020074 TITLE: PTSD and Substance Abuse PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lisa Najavits, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...1 August 2011 – 31 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PTSD and Substance Abuse 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10...months as we then dropped Fort Jackson as a site due 6 to a change in our site PI’s role there (no longer having oversight of the substance abuse

  6. [Disseminated interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Ignacio M; Veltri, Mariano; Manzella, Diego J; Avagnina, María Alejandra; Pereyra, Pablo M; Chavín, Hernán C

    2017-01-01

    A 70 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 3-month history of abdominal pain, weight loss and night sweats. On physical examination, she presented with a 5 cm diameter abdominal mass extended from epigastrium to the left flank, and at least three bilateral supraclavicular adenopathies. A disseminated interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma was diagnosed through a biopsy of the abdominal mass. After that, a CHOP regime (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) was iniciated. She died after completion of the first cycle of treatment, six months after diagnosis.

  7. Cryptococcus neoformans myositis without dissemination.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Khatib, Riad; Jones, Bruce A; Fakih, Mohamad G

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of isolated cryptococcal myositis involving the paraspinal muscle without evidence of disseminated disease in a patient with a large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed at the time of presentation. Biopsy of the muscle involved grew a pure culture of Cryptococcus neoformans and periodic acid-Schiff staining showed numerous budding yeast consistent with Cryptococcus spp. The patient responded to systemic antifungal therapy with complete resolution of his infection. We also present a review of 5 previously published cases of cryptococcal myositis.

  8. Disseminating best practice through teaching.

    PubMed

    Price, B

    A nurse may be invited to deliver teaching sessions to students at a local university, especially if he or she has a reputation as a practice innovator. These invitations are an opportunity for the nurse to disseminate practice wisdom to a wider audience. Planning the session so that it is educational, stimulating and represents the nurse's experience and expertise is crucial. While leading such a session may seem daunting, there are several strategies that can increase the chance of success, and these are discussed in this article.

  9. [Two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Stief, B; Kiesow, C; Ellenberger, C

    2012-01-01

    Two cases of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis of a pet mouse and a red panda are described. The pet mouse had a private owner; the red panda lived in a zoological garden in Saxony. At necropsy, both animals suffered from a systemic toxoplasmosis. A severe necrotizing hepatitis was the main histological feature in both animals. Parasitic cysts could be abundantly found in the liver, moderately in the brain and in a low number in other organs. With the PAS-reaction, cysts showed a weak staining in the mouse and a strong staining in the red panda. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry.

  10. Elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Melissa; Crane, Patricia A

    2006-11-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a critical health care issue that must be brought to the attention of health care providers and older adults' family members. Adults older than 65 who live at home or in long-term care facilities may be at risk for abuse. Nurses should be aware of the causes, screening questions, symptoms of abuse, and resources in the community. Armed with information and a better understanding about the issue, nurses can minimize the devastating effects of abuse on older adults and their families.

  11. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  12. Using stories to disseminate research: the attributes of representative stories.

    PubMed

    Steiner, John F

    2007-11-01

    When researchers communicate their findings to patients, clinicians, policy-makers, or media, they may find it helpful to supplement quantitative data with stories about individuals who represent themes in their research. Whether such stories are gathered during the research itself or identified from other sources, researchers must develop strategies for assessing their representativeness. This paper proposes 5 attributes of representative stories: (1) expression of important themes in the research, (2) explicit location in the "distribution" of stories that exemplify the theme, (3) verifiability, (4) acknowledgment of uncertainty, and (5) compelling narration. This paper summarizes research on substance abuse among physicians, and uses these 5 attributes to assess the representativeness of a published case report and a fictional short story about addicted physicians. While neither story is fully representative of the research, the process of evaluating these stories illustrates an approach to identifying representative stories for use in disseminating research.

  13. Using Stories to Disseminate Research: The Attributes of Representative Stories

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    When researchers communicate their findings to patients, clinicians, policy-makers, or media, they may find it helpful to supplement quantitative data with stories about individuals who represent themes in their research. Whether such stories are gathered during the research itself or identified from other sources, researchers must develop strategies for assessing their representativeness. This paper proposes 5 attributes of representative stories: (1) expression of important themes in the research, (2) explicit location in the “distribution” of stories that exemplify the theme, (3) verifiability, (4) acknowledgment of uncertainty, and (5) compelling narration. This paper summarizes research on substance abuse among physicians, and uses these 5 attributes to assess the representativeness of a published case report and a fictional short story about addicted physicians. While neither story is fully representative of the research, the process of evaluating these stories illustrates an approach to identifying representative stories for use in disseminating research. PMID:17763914

  14. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  15. Online dissemination of probabilistic forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulston, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    Probabilistic weather forecasts intrinsically contain a much larger amount of information than traditional deterministic forecasts. This greatly increases their potential value to end-users, but also creates an obstacle to their dissemination. Traditional media, such as TV, radio and newspapers, are not suitable for presenting probabilistic forecasts to a large number of users who need predictions concerning a range of variables at a range of locations. The web has the potential to allow probabilistic forecasts to be communicated to users without having to make tacit assumptions about how their individual utility functions depend on weather variables. Unfortunately, the majority of weather forecasts currently available on the web are little more than online renditions of the type of forecasts found in more traditional media. We present a demonstration of how probabilistic forecasts might be effectively disseminated using the web. The graphical user interface allows users to view ensembles of the weather variables of interest to them without having to summarise the probabilistic information in the ensemble, and thus make implicit assumptions about the users weather risk exposure. Such a GUI can also be used to view "end-to-end" ensemble forecasts of non-weather, but weather dependent, variables of direct interest to users (e.g. wind power production).

  16. Elder abuse: a review.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, K C

    1997-10-01

    Elder abuse exists in many forms: physical, emotional, financial, and sexual; neglect; and self-neglect. As many as 2.5 million older people are abused each year, and the number of cases will likely increase as this population grows. Elder abuse receives less attention than other forms of domestic violence, and fewer than 10% of cases are reported. Although all states have legislation addressing elder abuse, financial support for evaluation and protective services is lacking. Most states have mandatory reporting; however, it may infringe on the autonomy of competent geriatric individuals. Physicians infrequently report elder abuse because they are not familiar with reporting laws, fear offending patients, are concerned with time limitations, and believe they do not have appropriate evaluation skills. Victims often have low self-esteem, blame themselves for the abuse, and do not want to admit their vulnerabilities or betray their families. The "caregiver stress hypothesis," which suggests abuse stems from caregiver stress and resentment resulting from chronic care of dependent geriatric patients, is a misconception. Abuse is actually better correlated with the emotional and financial dependence of the caregivers on the geriatric victims. Older patients are most commonly abused by the people with whom they live. Older men and women have similar per capita abuse rates. Assessment and management should be supportive without assigning blame and should focus on both the patient and the caregiver. Patients in immediate danger should be hospitalized or placed in emergency shelters. Suspected abuse should be reported directly to the appropriate state agency, which can provide a thorough long-term assessment.

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Shwayder, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Dermatologists and child abuse are not frequently associated in the minds of most physicians. Yet the most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous. This article reviews cutaneous manifestations of physical abuse, including bruises, lacerations, abrasions, human bites, and burns. It also discusses ways that dermatologists can differentiate abusive injuries from accidental ones as well as from the many dermatologic conditions that can mimic child abuse. Finally, we review what actions the dermatologist should take when suspecting abuse in a patient.

  18. Battling Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  19. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  20. Drug Abuse - Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachly, P. H., Ed.

    A review of all facets of the drug abuse problem is offered in this anthology of articles. Moral dilemmas of physicians operating treatment programs are presented at one end of the spectrum and problems of the mass media and education about drug abuse are at the other. Drugs in the military, drugs in the ghettoes, drugs in the work place, and drug…

  1. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  2. Factors Predisposing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Carl D.; Phelps, Brady J.

    The exact nature of the events which may predispose a person to substance abuse is not known. This paper provides a theoretical discussion and review which emphasizes three contexts which have been shown to predispose on individual to drug abuse: (1) prenatal exposure to a given substance; (2) environmental conditions present upon first exposure…

  3. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  4. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  5. [Female child sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Enyedy, Andrea; Csorba, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse is 12-13% worldwide (18% by girls, 8% by boys). The exact knowledge of sexual abuse and the spread of the adequate medical diagnosis is an essential medical, social and national requirement. In our present study we examine the medical diagnosis of female child sexual abuse. Selective literature research in the available international and domestic databases. Majority of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse have normal genital and anal findings. Contrary to popular belief, the majority of child sexual abuse is a chronic multiple event, caused by a family member. The task of the medical staff is difficult and various, due to the diagnostic challenges of child sexual abuse. The difficulties of the medical diagnosis, evaluation and therapy, the complexity of the legal proceedings and prosecution, the isolation of the profession and the victim and the issue treated like a taboo subject often lead to failure. The physicians dealing with children have suboptimal knowledge of child sexual abuse, the characteristics of victims and perpetretors, the medical diagnosis and therapy of sexual abuse and the rehabilitation of victims. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(23): 910-917.

  6. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  7. Signs of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  8. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  9. Antitussives and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  10. Parent abuse: a review.

    PubMed

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-10-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily focused on prevalence rates and the characteristics of perpetrators and victims. While various factors such as gender, age, emotional attachment to parents, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family stress and parenting style and structure have been associated with parent abuse, findings are equivocal. Etiological models are general and untested, and treatment approaches lack empirical support. It is concluded that more rigorous and extensive research is required in order to provide a deeper understanding of this complex issue, and to inform treatment approaches.

  11. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  12. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  13. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  14. NIST Mechanisms for Disseminating Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gills, T. E.; Dittman, S.; Rumble, J. R.; Brickenkamp, C. S.; Harris, G. L.; Trahey, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    The national responsibilities assigned to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) early in the last century for providing measurement assistance and service are carried out today by the four programs that comprise the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Measurement Services (OMS). They are the Calibration Program (CP), the Standard Reference Materials Program (SRMP), the Standard Reference Data Program (SRDP), and the Weights and Measures Program (W&MP). Organized when the U.S. Congress changed the NBS name to NIST, the OMS facilitates access to the measurement and standards activities of NIST laboratories and programs through the dissemination of NIST products, data, and services. A brief historical introduction followed by a perspective of pivotal measurement developments from 1901 to the present and concluding with a look to the future of NIST measurement services in the next decade of the new millennium are presented for each OMS program. PMID:27500025

  15. Weather dissemination and public usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The existing public usage of weather information was examined. A survey was conducted to substantiate the general public's needs for dissemination of current (0-12 hours) weather information, needs which, in a previous study, were found to be extensive and urgent. The goal of the study was to discover how the general public obtains weather information, what information they seek and why they seek it, to what use this information is put, and to further ascertain the public's attitudes and beliefs regarding weather reporting and the diffusion of weather information. Major findings from the study include: 1. The public has a real need for weather information in the 0-6 hour bracket. 2. The visual medium is preferred but due to the lack of frequent (0-6 hours) forecasts, the audio media only, i.e., telephone recordings and radio weathercasts, were more frequently used. 3. Weather information usage is sporadic.

  16. Peer Abuse as Child Abuse and Indications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Jean B.

    2005-01-01

    Peer abuse in the form of bullying is now recognised as an endemic feature of school life and in terms of impact, outcomes and intervention requirements can be equated with other forms of child abuse. It is argued in the light of data presented here that the parallels between peer abuse and more generally accepted forms of child abuse must be…

  17. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  18. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  19. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  20. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  1. Children's Rights Regarding Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1992-01-01

    Sees children's rights as important arena in struggle for human dignity. Asserts that flagrant violation of rights of the child occurs when he or she is abused by a parent or caretaker. Explains children's rights with regard to physical abuse, outlines various definitions of abuse, and discusses the incidence and consequences of child abuse.…

  2. Neurologic aspects of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Harold W; Murtaugh, Reed; Fernandez, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Neurologic aspects of drug abuse vary. This article explains the general nature of drug abuse, identifies the physiologic effects of certain drugs, and briefly describes the neurobiology of addiction. This article also reviews available treatment options for those addicted to substances of abuse, and clarifies common misconceptions, including the differences between tolerance, abuse, and addiction.

  3. Disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera Infection After Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nicholas; Sampath, Rahul; Abu Saleh, Omar M; Tweet, Marysia S; Jevremovic, Dragan; Alniemi, Saba; Wengenack, Nancy L; Sampathkumar, Priya; Badley, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Ten case reports of disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections associated with cardiovascular surgery were published from Europe. We report 3 cases of disseminated M chimaera infections with histories of aortic graft and/or valvular surgery within the United States. Two of 3 patients demonstrated ocular involvement, a potentially important clinical finding.

  4. Disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera Infection After Cardiothoracic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Nicholas; Sampath, Rahul; Abu Saleh, Omar M.; Tweet, Marysia S.; Jevremovic, Dragan; Alniemi, Saba; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Sampathkumar, Priya; Badley, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Ten case reports of disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections associated with cardiovascular surgery were published from Europe. We report 3 cases of disseminated M chimaera infections with histories of aortic graft and/or valvular surgery within the United States. Two of 3 patients demonstrated ocular involvement, a potentially important clinical finding. PMID:27703994

  5. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an...

  6. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an...

  7. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an...

  8. Wisconsin Dissemination Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmatuck, Loretta

    Activities of the final year are reported as they relate to the objectives of the Wisconsin Dissemination Planning (WDP) Project: (1) to develop a plan for coordination among the dissemination functions in the Department of Public Instruction (DPI) through a state-wide steering committee; (2) to complete a needs assessment for dissemination…

  9. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an assurance in its application that the curricula or materials will reach the populations for which...

  10. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  11. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  12. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  13. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  14. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  15. National Dissemination Forum, 1977. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Henry M.

    Presented is an analysis of nine agreements focused on three areas of common concern to dissemination specialists involved in the 1977 National Dissemination Forum: resources, linkage, research, evaluation and quality control. FORUM participants represented the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC of the National Institute of Education…

  16. Disseminated Cryptococcosis in an Immunocompetent Toddler.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neeraj; Sachdev, Anil; Gupta, Dhiren; Radhakrishnan, Nita

    2017-02-15

    Immunodeficient children are more prone for invasive cryptococcal infections. A 2-year-old boy with disseminated cryptococcosis was evaluated for underlying immunodeficiency without success. Child was managed successfully. Immunocompetent children with disseminated cryptococcosis can present diagnostic or therapeutic challenge in resource-limited settings.

  17. 34 CFR 75.192 - Dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.192 Dissemination. If an applicant proposes to publish and disseminate curricula or instructional materials under a grant, the applicant shall include an assurance in its application that the curricula or materials will reach the populations for which the...

  18. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303... PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The degree... effective security control impractical are considerations during the classification process. These...

  19. The Tenth National Dissemination Conference. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlig, Richard K.

    This report on the Tenth National Dissemination Conference of 1977 outlines the purposes of the conference and summarizes the present state of educational information dissemination. National programs are described, including the National Institute of Education State Capacity Building Program, the National Diffusion Network, the Dissemination…

  20. Curriculum Dissemination as Planned Cultural Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean

    The author traces the change from the use of the term "diffusion" to the term "dissemination" with reference to curriculum projects in Britain and discusses implications of the change. Although at one time the two terms were used interchangeably, the term "dissemination" now emphasizes techniques of effective management rather than the educational…

  1. Producing Dissemination Materials. Final Draft Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, David, Comp.; And Others

    This manual is intended to help projects approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel produce materials that will support their dissemination activities. Specifically directed toward career education projects, it should be equally useful for other projects. Section 1 discusses diffusion/adoption and these topics regarding materials: purpose,…

  2. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  3. [Respiratory failure in disseminated sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Popova, L M; Avdiunina, I A; Alferova, V P

    2000-01-01

    The development and patterns of respiratory failure (RF) are analyzed in 9 patients with disseminated sclerosis (DS). Forced ventilation of the lungs was carried out with consideration for main location of the process. Relationship between patterns of respiratory disorders and neuroanatomy of respiratory regulation is discussed. Involvement of the corticospinal routes is paralleled by dissociation during functional pulmonary tests: spontaneous volumes are less than controlled inspirations. The most severe symptom complexes were observed in RF of predominantly bulbar localization: respiratory anarchy, blocking of airways caused by impaired swallowing, impaired mechanism of coughing reflex, loss of spontaneous respiration, sometimes apnea during sleeping. Involvement of the respiratory nuclei of medullary respiratory center and airways and of the corticonuclear routes of caudal cranial nerves causes the development of a triad of symptoms: glossopharyngolaryngeal paralysis, dysfunction of respiratory nuclei of medulla oblongata, and decreased sensitivity of respiratory center to CO2. Aspiration complications caused by dysphagia are characteristic of bulbar DS. Respiratory function in 5 patients without clinical picture of RF are specially discussed. The authors emphasize unfavorable prognostic significance of signs of extracorporeal obstruction indicating the probability of RF long before its manifestation. Special attention is paid to early diagnosis of symptoms of coming RF when evaluating the status of patients with DS during treatment. Timely use of respiratory resuscitation methods reduces the mortality and ensures a good chance for remissions with recovery of respiratory function, which are characteristic of RF.

  4. Disseminated typical bronchial carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Novković, Dobrivoje; Skuletić, Vesna; Vuković, Jelena; Cerović, Snezana; Tomić, Ilija; Karlicić, Vukojica; Stojisavljević, Marko

    2013-05-01

    Bronchial carcinoids belong to a rare type of lung tumors. If they do not expose outstanding neuroendocrine activity, they develop without clearly visible symptoms. They are often detected during a routine examination. According to their clinical pathological features, they are divided into typical and atypical tumors. Typical bronchial carcinoids metastasize to distant organs very rarely. Localized forms are effectively treated by surgery. The methods of conservative treatment should be applied in other cases. We presented a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid lung tumor detected by a routine examination. Additional analysis (chest X-ray, computed tomography of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, skeletal scintigraphy, bronhoscopy, histopathological analysis of the bioptate of bronchial tumor, as well as bronchial brushing cytology and immunohistochemical staining performed with markers specific for neuroendocrine tumor) proved a morphologically typical lung carcinoid with dissemination to the liver and skeletal system, which is very rarely found in typical carcinoids. The presented case with carcinoid used to be showed morphological and pathohistological characteristics of typical bronchial carcinoid. With its metastasis to the liver and skeletal system it demonstrated unusual clinical course that used to be considered as rare phenomenon. Due to its frequent asymptomatic course and varied manifestation, bronchial carcinoid could be considered as a diagnostic challenge requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

  5. GOES satellite time code dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beehler, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The GOES time code system, the performance achieved to date, and some potential improvements in the future are discussed. The disseminated time code is originated from a triply redundant set of atomic standards, time code generators and related equipment maintained by NBS at NOAA's Wallops Island, VA satellite control facility. It is relayed by two GOES satellites located at 75 W and 135 W longitude on a continuous basis to users within North and South America (with overlapping coverage) and well out into the Atlantic and Pacific ocean areas. Downlink frequencies are near 468 MHz. The signals from both satellites are monitored and controlled from the NBS labs at Boulder, CO with additional monitoring input from geographically separated receivers in Washington, D.C. and Hawaii. Performance experience with the received time codes for periods ranging from several years to one day is discussed. Results are also presented for simultaneous, common-view reception by co-located receivers and by receivers separated by several thousand kilometers.

  6. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid. Some opioids are made ... NAS). Opioid abuse may sometimes also lead to heroin use, because some people switch from prescription opioids ...

  7. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? Treatment ... Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma Assessment Assessment Overview ...

  8. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... tos y el resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  9. Safety and abuse testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, G.

    1978-01-01

    A series of abuse tests on large lithium thionyl chloride cells was initiated. Performance data obtained in testing rectangular 2,000 and 10,000 ampere-hour cells are discussed and graphically presented.

  10. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse might not lead to physical dependence and withdrawal, the feelings these drugs give people can cause ... especially important for someone who is going through withdrawal from a CNS depressant to speak with a ...

  11. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  12. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... your community with our ready-to-use, research rich elder abuse presentations and pamphlets Community ... Policies & Disclaimers Right Column Social Media For Employees Office of the Inspector General Open ...

  13. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  14. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  15. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some people misuse ... cancer. It also makes many diseases, such as diabetes, more complicated and disabling. How Common are Drug ...

  16. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    PubMed Central

    Capriola, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. PMID:23869180

  17. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Substance Abuse > Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Ages & Stages ...

  18. Pharmacists' role in addressing opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the scope of the problem of opioid misuse; explore pharmacists' roles and responsibilities regarding opioid use; discuss existing laws, guidelines, and regulations governing opioid management; identify potential patient and practice management strategies to address opioid abuse; and disseminate leader insights on these issues. DATA SOURCES Information presented at a conference convened by the American Pharmacists Association (Pharmacists' Role in Addressing Opioid Abuse, Addiction, and Diversion; held November 15, 2012) and discussed in conference workgroups, as well as related information from the literature. SUMMARY Opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion has grown dramatically since the early 1990s and affects public health considerably. In 2011, more individuals died from drug overdoses than from motor vehicle accidents. Strategies are available that pharmacists can use to reduce the likelihood of opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion while minimizing the impact on legitimate pain management efforts. These strategies and tools can be used to support (1) the assessment of prescriptions that are presented for opioid medications, (2) the management of patients receiving opioids, and (3) follow-up options when misuse, abuse, or diversion has been identified. CONCLUSION Implementation of systems and processes that support pharmacist management of opioid-related issues under financially viable business models would create a number of opportunities to improve patient care.

  19. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  20. [Skin signs in child abuse].

    PubMed

    Pau-Charles, I; Darwich-Soliva, E; Grimalt, R

    2012-03-01

    Child abuse is far more prevalent today than is generally recognized. Up to 90% of victims suffer physical abuse that can be observed in signs on the skin. Dermatologists are particularly qualified to identify these signs and distinguish them from other conditions that can mimic abuse. This review covers the signs of child abuse that can be observed on the skin. We discuss clues that can help differentiate between lesions caused by abuse and those that are accidental, and we describe the skin conditions that mimic physical abuse.

  1. Abuse of medications that theoretically are without abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E; Perry, Candace L; Burke, Randy S; Laizer, Janet T

    2015-03-01

    The potential for abuse of medications that are controlled substances is well known. Abuse of certain noncontrolled prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications also may occur. To some degree, any medication that exerts psychoactive effects may be abused if taken in high enough doses or by means that result in high serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels. Many clinicians may be unaware of the potential for abuse of these medications. This review examines evidence of the possibility of abuse of several common medications that theoretically do not have abuse potential, including cough and cold preparations, antihistamines, anticholinergics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiemetics. Means by which such medications may be abused and biochemical and physiological mechanisms fostering their abuse also are discussed.

  2. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse.

  3. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Liana; Gulletta, Maurizio; Coppini, Davide; Donzelli, Carla; Stellini, Roberto; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero; Matteelli, Alberto

    2007-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well recognized manifestation of AIDS, but the disseminated disease is a rare condition and it has not been associated to HIV seroconversion to our knowledge. We describe a fatal episode of disseminated T. gondii acute infection with massive organ involvement during primary HIV infection. The serological data demonstrate primary T. gondii infection. The avidity index for HIV antibodies supports recent HIV-1 infection.

  4. Fatal disseminated cryptococcosis following intraocular involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, J A; Leveque, C; Coats, M; Lawrence, L; Barber, J C

    1988-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was treated with systemic steroids for a retinal inflammatory lesion before the diagnosis of cryptococcal retinitis and meningitis was suspected. He died from central nervous system disease despite treatment with parenteral antifungals. Histopathological studies demonstrated ocular and disseminated systemic infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. Direct cryptococcal involvement of the eye is rare and is usually associated with disseminated disease. Systemic steroids must be used with caution, and patients who take these drugs require frequent monitoring. Images PMID:3355803

  5. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    PubMed

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  6. The complexities of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  8. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  9. ESID, dissemination, and community psychology: a case of partial implementation?

    PubMed

    Gray, Denis O; Jakes, Susan S; Emshoff, James; Blakely, Craig

    2003-12-01

    Dissemination, the second stage of Experimental Social Innovation and Dissemination (ESID) is a critical, if not defining, element of this social change model. This paper attempts to assess the extent to which community psychology has adopted and implemented ESID's dissemination focus in its training and publications. We identify four levels of commitment to dissemination: dissemination advocate, dissemination activist, dissemination researcher, and experimental dissemination researcher. Content analyses of textbooks, journal publications, and conference papers and a brief survey of doctoral training in the field were conducted. Findings suggest that the dissemination aspects of ESID have been modestly and partially implemented within the field. That is, although there is some evidence of a commitment to dissemination practice (advocate, activist), there is much less evidence of a commitment to dissemination research. The implications of these findings for the effectiveness of the ESID model and for training and practice in community psychology are discussed.

  10. Inhalant abuse by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, T L; Otsuka, K N; Wahl, R A

    2001-03-01

    The deliberate misuse of volatile substances poses a poorly recognized risk for considerable morbidity and mortality in adolescent populations worldwide. The abuse of inhalants continues to be a significant problem among our country's youth. While many household and industrial chemicals can be inhaled, glues, paints, and aerosol propellants are among the most commonly abused. Adolescents are often unaware of the health threats posed by inhalation of solvents. Inhalation can result in serious organ system dysfunction or even sudden death. This review discusses the prevalence of inhalant abuse in the United States, summarizes the various types of substances used, highlights the major physiologic effects of inhalants, and briefly discusses associated risk behaviors, prevention and medical management.

  11. Sexual Abuse Of Children

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1982-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relationships with wives, tendency to be domineering and restrictive, and mothers who are passive. Immediate and longterm intervention includes legal, protective and treatment components. The essential factors in successful intervention are belief in the child's disclosure; communication of that belief to the child; and immediate protection of the child and siblings. PMID:21286177

  12. Partnerships and Pathways of Dissemination: The NIDA-SAMHSA Blending Initiative in the Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steve; Brigham, Gregory S.; Higgins, Christine; Gallon, Steve; Freese, Thomas E.; Albright, Lonnetta M.; Hulsey, Eric G.; Krom, Laurie; Storti, Susan A.; Perl, Harold; Nugent, Cathrine D.; Pintello, Denise; Condon, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2001, the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) has worked to put the results of its trials into the hands of community treatment programs, in large part through its participation in the National Institute on Drug Abuse - Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Blending Initiative and its close involvement with the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment’s Addiction Technology Transfer Centers. This article describes 1) the CTN’s integral role in the Blending Initiative, 2) key partnerships and dissemination pathways through which the results of CTN trials are developed into blending products and then transferred to community treatment programs, and 3) three blending initiatives involving buprenorphine, motivational incentives, and motivational interviewing. The Blending Initiative has resulted in high utilization of its products, preparation of over 200 regional trainers, widespread training of service providers in most U.S. States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and movement toward the development of web-based implementation supports and technical assistance. Implications for future directions of the Blending Initiative and opportunities for research are discussed. PMID:20307793

  13. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  14. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Review Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  15. Chronic time abuse.

    PubMed

    Berglas, Steven

    2004-06-01

    Anyone who has ever managed people who abuse time--whether they are chronic procrastinators or individuals who work obsessively to meet deadlines weeks in advance--knows how disruptive they can be to a business's morale and operating efficiency. But lessons in time management will have no impact on these employees. That's because real time abuse results from psychological conflict that neither a workshop nor a manager's cajoling can cure. Indeed, the time abuser's quarrel isn't even with time but rather with a brittle self-esteem and an unconscious fear of being evaluated and found wanting. This article describes four types of time abusers typically encountered in the workplace: Perfectionists are almost physically afraid of receiving feedback. Their work has to be "perfect," so they can increase their likelihood of earning a positive evaluation or at least avoid getting a negative one. Preemptives try to be in control by handing in work far earlier than they need to, making themselves unpopular and unavailable in the process. People pleasers commit to far too much work because they find it impossible to say no. Procrastinators make constant (and often reasonable-sounding) excuses to mask a fear of being found inadequate in their jobs. Managing these four types of people can be challenging, since time abusers respond differently from most other employees to criticism and approval. Praising a procrastinator when he is on time, for instance, will only exacerbate the problem, because he will fear that your expectations are even higher than before. In fact, some time abusers, like the perfectionist, may need professional treatment. This article will give you insight into why they are the way they are--and what can be done to help them manage their problems.

  16. Methamphetamine enhances Cryptococcus neoformans pulmonary infection and dissemination to the brain.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhavan; Desai, Gunjan M; Frases, Susana; Cordero, Radames J B; DeLeon-Rodriguez, Carlos M; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Martinez, Luis R

    2013-07-30

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a major addictive drug of abuse in the United States and worldwide, and its use is linked to HIV acquisition. The encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of fungal meningitis in patients with AIDS. In addition to functioning as a central nervous system stimulant, METH has diverse effects on host immunity. Using a systemic mouse model of infection and in vitro assays in order to critically assess the impact of METH on C. neoformans pathogenesis, we demonstrate that METH stimulates fungal adhesion, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) release, and biofilm formation in the lungs. Interestingly, structural analysis of the capsular polysaccharide of METH-exposed cryptococci revealed that METH alters the carbohydrate composition of this virulence factor, an event of adaptation to external stimuli that can be advantageous to the fungus during pathogenesis. Additionally, we show that METH promotes C. neoformans dissemination from the respiratory tract into the brain parenchyma. Our findings provide novel evidence of the impact of METH abuse on host homeostasis and increased permissiveness to opportunistic microorganisms. Methamphetamine (METH) is a major health threat to our society, as it adversely changes people's behavior, as well as increases the risk for the acquisition of diverse infectious diseases, particularly those that enter through the respiratory tract or skin. This report investigates the effects of METH use on pulmonary infection by the AIDS-related fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. This drug of abuse stimulates colonization and biofilm formation in the lungs, followed by dissemination of the fungus to the central nervous system. Notably, C. neoformans modifies its capsular polysaccharide after METH exposure, highlighting the fungus's ability to adapt to environmental stimuli, a possible explanation for its pathogenesis. The findings may translate into new knowledge and development of therapeutic and public health

  17. Vaccines against drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R

    2012-01-01

    The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

  18. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The role of imaging in cases of child abuse is to identify the extent of physical injury when abuse is present and to elucidate all imaging findings that point to alternative diagnoses. Effective diagnostic imaging of child abuse rests on high-quality technology as well as a full appreciation of the clinical and pathologic alterations occurring in abused children. This statement is a revision of the previous policy published in 2000.

  19. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  20. Child Abuse and Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlands, Mary; Emery, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A search was made of confidential health department records in Great Britain for abused children, or children at risk for abuse, with siblings who had died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). An association was found between child abuse and about 10 percent of deaths of children diagnosed as SIDS. (BRM)

  1. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  2. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  3. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  4. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  5. Recognizing the adolescent drug abuser.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A

    1987-03-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.

  6. The Drug-Abuse Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The drug-abuse questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the alcoholism questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about drug abuse and drug abusers, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  7. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  8. Abuse and the Special Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Corte, Suzanne Della

    1987-01-01

    The issue's major feature, on physical and sexual abuse of handicapped children, focuses on education and adult awareness of the problem. It has been well documented that children with handicaps are especially vulnerable to abuse. Parents or other adults who believe that abuse has occurred should first write down exactly what the child has told…

  9. Literature Review of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePanfilis, Diane

    This document provides a review of recent, state-of-the-art literature concerning the nature, extent, dynamics, and effects of child sexual abuse and examines America's preventive intervention and treatment efforts for child sexual abuse. After an extensive presentation of the problems of defining terms in sexual abuse, these topics are discussed:…

  10. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  11. Intravenous methylphenidate abuse. Prototype for prescription drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Parran, T V; Jasinski, D R

    1991-04-01

    Data are presented from a case series of 22 patients who abused methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin-SR). The abuse pattern and symptoms of toxicity were similar to that seen with cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulfate addiction; yet, the morbidity and mortality seen in this case series were greater than usual for a group of patients involved in intravenous drug abuse. We describe the characteristics of the methylphenidate abuse syndrome in terms of the pharmacology of methylphenidate, the constituents of the Ritalin-SR preparation, and the disease of chemical dependence. We propose solutions to the problem of methylphenidate abuse.

  12. The Archstone Foundation Elder Abuse and Neglect Initiative: outcomes and lessons learned in three years from 2006 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Huba, George J; Melchior, Lisa A; Philyaw, Meredith L; Northington, Kendra R

    2010-07-01

    An independent evaluation of the Archstone Foundation Elder Abuse and Neglect Initiative was conducted to identify major outcomes and lessons learned collectively by 20 funded projects, as well as to document innovative program models for dissemination. Data from the first three years of this initiative show these projects have been productive and have had a measurable impact on services for elder abuse and neglect. Major lessons learned address issues in recruiting, engaging, and maintaining active involvement of diverse stakeholders, as well as innovative and effective models of education, training, and direct services for elder abuse and neglect.

  13. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Pre-Offenders Before First Offense.

    PubMed

    Levine, James A; Dandamudi, Krishna

    2016-10-01

    The population of potential child abuse offenders has largely been unstudied. In the current study, we examine whether a six-component model used for primary diabetes prevention could be adapted to child sexual abuse pre-offenders, whereby individuals who are prone to sexual abuse but have not yet committed an offense can be prevented from committing a first offense. The six components include: define and track the magnitude of the problem, delineate a well-established risk factor profile so that at-risk persons can be identified, define valid screening tests to correctly rule in those with the disease and rule out those without disease, test effectiveness of interventions-the Dunkelfeld Project is an example, produce and disseminate reliable outcome data so that widespread application can be justified, and establish a system for continuous improvement. By using the diabetes primary prevention model as a model, the number of victims of child sexual abuse might be diminished.

  14. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  15. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  16. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  17. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  18. CBOs Helping Inhalant Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Gloria

    1980-01-01

    Noting the high barrio use of inhalants, the environment often surrounding inhaling, and various treatment approaches, the article describes the programs of several Hispanic community-based organizations in Mexico, Arizona, and California which have been developed to assist inhalant abusers and their families in overcoming the habit. (SB)

  19. Handbook On Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Robert I.; And Others

    A decade of professional research on drug abuse has produced both an abundance of materials and a vocabulary that is not shared by planners, clinicians, and policy makers. This handbook compiles the major developments of the period and their treatment and research implications in a style intended to be understood by all three types of…

  20. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... hurting or harming someone) might have frightened the boy or girl into staying quiet. No matter what the abuser ... suit or underwear: breasts, vagina, and bottom for girls, and penis and bottom for boys. If an adult or another kid touches a ...

  1. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  2. Abused and Traumatized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This document is a class presentation designed to present a history of child abuse and interventions for the beginning play therapist. Attempts to understand child behavior are traced back to their roots in the fields of mental retardation and special education as early as 1799 and followed through the mental health and child guidance movements of…

  3. Educating against Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book is a compilation of drug education and drug abuse prevention materials collected by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) along with example of activities carried out by various countries. It opens with four introductory papers by separate authors: (1) "Prevention of Drug Dependence: A Utopian…

  4. Prenatal substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Gittler, J; McPherson, M

    1990-01-01

    Beginning in the middle of the 1980s, there was an alarming rise in the number of drug-exposed newborns that was directly attributable to the rise in the abuse of cocaine and its highly addictive smokeable derivative, known as crack, by pregnant women. "Crack babies" have now become a major national problem.

  5. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases.

  6. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  7. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. PMID:24977089

  8. Reaching standards for dissemination: a case study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Helen; Griffiths, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    At what stage are web applications ready for dissemination? A set of standards for efficacy, effectiveness and readiness for dissemination of (prevention) interventions has been developed by the Society for Prevention Research (SPR) (Flay et al., 2005) [1]. In this case study paper, we examine these standards criteria with reference to MoodGYM, an automated web application designed to reduce depression symptoms using cognitive behaviour therapy training. We examine evidence for its efficacy, its effectiveness in real world situations, and its capacity to meet recommended standards for dissemination. We conclude that MoodGYM has substantially met the standards of evidence required for dissemination. This successful application of the SPR standards to the evaluation of a web application, suggests that these prevention standards might be usefully applied to web/Internet context. Web applications might be assessed for dissemination by the International Society for Research into Internet Interventions (ISRII), or some other professional organization to assist policy makers in making decisions about the funding, adoption and promotion of applications.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni

    2016-11-01

    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  10. Sharing Dissemination Responsibilities: A Guide for Articulating Vocational Education Disseminating Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, William L.; Oldsen, Carl F.

    Designed for state vocational education Research Coordinating Units (RCU) personnel who manage dissemination programs, this guide offers suggestions for sharing dissemination responsibility with other state programs. The guide examines the possibilities of integrating activities in a horizontal dimension, i.e., across state educational agency…

  11. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  12. Children's knowledge of sexual abuse prevention in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P < .012). A museum exhibit that addresses CSA prevention is an effective way of communicating CSA prevention to children. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assertive Outreach Strategies for Narrowing the Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Gap: Implications for Research, Practice, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    2009-01-01

    In any given year, only about 10% of the nearly two million adolescents exhibiting substance abuse or dependence in the United States receive substance abuse treatment. Given this state of affairs, it is unlikely that the massive effort and expenditure of resources over the past decade on developing, testing, and disseminating effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse can have an appreciable impact on the prevalence of substance use disorders among the adolescent population. In order to substantially diminish the pervasive gap between levels of need for and utilization of adolescent substance abuse treatment, specialized assertive outreach strategies may be needed. This paper outlines a framework for assertive outreach for adolescents with substance use disorders, and proposes specific types of strategies for identifying and enrolling such adolescents into treatment. Implications for practice and policy pertaining to adolescent substance abuse treatment service delivery are considered. PMID:18690540

  14. Childhood sexual abuse and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B

    2004-08-01

    The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care.

  15. Precise time dissemination via portable atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1982-01-01

    The most precise operational method of time dissemination over long distances presently available to the Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) community of users is by means of portable atomic clocks. The Global Positioning System (GPS), the latest system showing promise of replacing portable clocks for global PTTI dissemination, was evaluated. Although GPS has the technical capability of providing superior world-wide dissemination, the question of present cost and future accessibility may require a continued reliance on portable clocks for a number of years. For these reasons a study of portable clock operations as they are carried out today was made. The portable clock system that was utilized by the U.S. Naval Observatory (NAVOBSY) in the global synchronization of clocks over the past 17 years is described and the concepts on which it is based are explained. Some of its capabilities and limitations are also discussed.

  16. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent individual.

    PubMed

    Yap, Felix Boon-Bin

    2011-10-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection caused by the ubiquitous fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis is an uncommon entity and is usually present in the immunosuppressed. Here, a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This 70-year-old healthy woman presented with multiple painful ulcerated nodules on her face and upper and lower extremities of 6-month duration, associated with low-grade fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy revealed epidermal hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with budding yeast. Fungal culture identified S. schenckii. She had total resolution of the lesions after 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 months of oral itraconazole. All investigations for underlying immunosuppression and internal organ involvement were negative. This case reiterates that disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis, although common in the immunosuppressed, can also be seen in immunocompetent patients.

  17. Public information, dissemination, and behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    Behavior analysts have become increasingly concerned about inaccuracies and misconceptions in the public, educational, and professional information portraying their activities, but have done little to correct these views. The present paper has two purposes in this regard. First, the paper describes some of the conditions that have given rise to these concerns. Second, and more important, the paper surveys various procedures and programs for the dissemination of public information that may correct inaccuracies and misconceptions. Special consideration is also given to issues involving (a) the assessment of the problem, (b) the content and means of dissemination, (c) the possible contributions of behavior analysts to current misunderstandings, and (d) relationships between behavior analysts and the media. The dissemination of accurate and unbiased information constitutes an important new undertaking for behavior analysis. The future of the field may depend in part on such activity. PMID:22478623

  18. Interdisciplinary research training in substance abuse and addictions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that the management of complex problems of and related to substance abuse and addictions require comprehensive approaches based on solid research. Nonetheless, timely and widespread dissemination of research findings remains uncommon, hindering nursing practice, impeding the health of individuals and families, and imposing untoward costs for society. Shifts in science paradigms underscore the need for efficient and effective interdisciplinary research teams to carry out innovative research within a translational science framework. This means that early career investigators will need the knowledge and skills to conduct research as part of an interdisciplinary team and to contribute systematically to translational research in the area of substance abuse and addictions. This brief report describes a nursing research training program sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse that evolved into an interdisciplinary program administrated within a school of nursing. Factors conducive to program development are described, along with the structure and elements of the program and examples of the scholars' projects and accomplishments. The common benefits of interdisciplinary research training for both predoctoral and postdoctoral research scholars include consistent exposure to new and alternative scientific models and methodological approaches as well as endurance of cross-discipline network connections. Benefits and challenges of this program carry implications for the design of future nursing research training programs in the field of substance abuse and addictions.

  19. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  20. Modes of invasion during tumour dissemination.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Pahini; Orgaz, Jose L; Sanz-Moreno, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cell migration and invasion underlie metastatic dissemination, one of the major problems in cancer. Tumour cells exhibit a striking variety of invasion strategies. Importantly, cancer cells can switch between invasion modes in order to cope with challenging environments. This ability to switch migratory modes or plasticity highlights the challenges behind antimetastasis therapy design. In this Review, we present current knowledge on different tumour invasion strategies, the determinants controlling plasticity and arising therapeutic opportunities. We propose that targeting master regulators controlling plasticity is needed to hinder tumour dissemination and metastasis. © 2016 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  2. Drug abuse and stroke.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José M

    2013-02-01

    Cerebrovascular disorders contribute to the morbidity and disability associated with illicit drug use. Drug abusers have an increased risk of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. In geographic areas with a high prevalence of illicit drug use, drug abuse is a frequent cause of stroke in the young adult. The illicit drugs more commonly associated with stroke are psychomotor stimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine. Less commonly implicated are opioids and psychotomimetic drugs, including cannabis. Toxicology screening for illicit drugs should be done in young patients with stroke with no obvious cause, or if suggested by history or examination. Although in some patients the mechanism of stroke is identified using neuroimaging and other modern diagnostic tools, in a sizeable fraction of cases the mechanism of stroke remains unclear. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of hemodynamic and immunologic mechanisms in these cases.

  3. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.; Allcorn, Eric

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  4. [Resilience and child abuse].

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Maria de Fátima Pinheiro da Silva; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses the resilience concept from a critical review. It prioritizes texts produced by organizations with leading roles in the field of child and adolescent health (PAHO, Pan-American Health Organization; ASBRA, the Brazilian Association for Adolescence). The main definitions of resilience are discussed, along with a debate on the contributions and limitations of the current literature. Furthermore, the conceptual and operative possibilities of resilience when confronted with child abuse are discussed, specifically using intra-familial sexual abuse as an example. The authors conclude that the concept of resilience presents polarization around certain axes: "adaptation/overcoming process", "innate/acquired" "permanent/circumstantial". However, they all point to a common ground: the singularity and delicacy of micro-social health-promoting relationships.

  5. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  6. Medicare fraud and abuse.

    PubMed

    Scala-Foley, Marisa; Bryant, Natasha

    2004-01-01

    Medicare fraud and abuse affects the quality of services and the cost of health care. The Department of Health and Human Services is partnering with federal and local agencies to educate consumers to recognize and report suspected cases. In this brief we discuss the Senior Medicare Patrol Project and the roles of the federal agency organizations in preventing fraudulent activities in the Medicare system. We also profile the Ohio Seniors Fight Fraud Project.

  7. The FAIR-INNOVATION dissemination project.

    PubMed

    Gormley, R

    2001-08-01

    The goal of the FAIR-INNOVATION dissemination project (FLAIR-FLOW 3) (1997-2000) was to disseminate R&D results from the EU FAIR programme to small and medium-sized food enterprises (SMEs), health professionals (HPs) and consumer groups (CGs) in 19 European countries. The dissemination routes were: (i) one-page technical documents on research results; (ii) their reproduction on the internet; (iii) their reproduction in journals Europe-wide; (iv) workshops on results from EU-supported food research programmes; and (v) lectures and poster presentations by FLAIR-FLOW network personnel. Of the 135 one-pagers produced, 62% were targeted at SMEs, 18% at HPs and 5% at CGs. The remaining 15% were on food safety and were common to the three target groups. There were 1047 publications arising from one-pages in trade journals, and over 8000 requests (paper route) were received for follow-up information. These were in addition to 240 k downloads from the FLAIR-FLOW 3 web site (www.flair-flow.com). Initiatives for HPs included specially collated versions of the one-pagers for major conferences, 20 focused workshops, and interaction with the European Federation of Associations of Dieticians. Currently, dissemination is continuing through FLAIR-FLOW 4 (2001-2003) in 24 countries. FLAIR-FLOW 4 is co-ordinated by M. Jean François Quillien from INRA-CRIAA (FR) at criaa@rennes.inra.fr.

  8. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  9. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presenting with hypertensive emergency.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Samrat; Das, Mousumi; Bagchi, Nilay Ranjan

    2014-04-01

    We report a 12-year-old girl presenting with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) along with hypertensive emergency. Hypertension persisted for few weeks following recovery and subsided with oral clonidine. Although autonomic instability in ADEM has been reported before, hypertensive emergency was not previously documented as presenting feature of ADEM.

  10. Defining encephalopathy in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fridinger, S E; Alper, Gulay

    2014-06-01

    The International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group requires the presence of encephalopathy to diagnose acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Clinical characteristics of encephalopathy are inadequately delineated in the pediatric demyelinating literature. The authors' purpose was to better define encephalopathy in pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis by describing the details of the mental status change. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 25 children diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis according to the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group guidelines. Frequency of encephalopathy-defining features was determined. Clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid findings, and electroencephalography (EEG) findings were compared between patients with different stages of encephalopathy. The authors found irritability (36%), sleepiness (52%), confusion (8%), obtundation (20%), and coma (16%) as encephalopathy-defining features in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Twenty-eight percent had seizures, and 65% demonstrated generalized slowing on EEG. Approximately half of the patients in this study were diagnosed with encephalopathy based on the presence of irritability and/or sleepiness only. Such features in young children are often subtle and transient and thus difficult to objectively determine.

  11. Factors that Influence Dissemination in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, B. T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational materials and methods in engineering education is increasing, the process of disseminating (making target groups become aware of, accept, and use) these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. The purpose of this article is to identify…

  12. Disseminated intravascular coagulation with Fusobacterium necrophorum septicaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, M. N.; Drysdale, H. C.; Price, P. A.; Buck, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    A 23 year old woman died within six hours of admission from acute disseminated intravascular coagulation. Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram negative anaerobic organism, was isolated as a single pathogen from the blood cultures. This association has not previously been reported. PMID:3174529

  13. Indigenous Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Hsu; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chin, Chuen; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2007-01-01

    We report the first indigenous case of disseminated histoplasmosis in Taiwan diagnosed by histopathology of bone marrow, microbiologic morphology, and PCR assay of the isolated fungus. This case suggests that histoplasmosis should be 1 of the differential diagnoses of opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients in Taiwan. PMID:17370526

  14. A Proposed Framework for Educational Innovation Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Benjamin T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, Chetan S.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational technologies is increasing, the process for disseminating these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive framework or coordinated research agenda that may be used to guide such investigation. This…

  15. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  16. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  17. Active Tools for Better Knowledge Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Peter; Mikulecka, Jaroslava

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a solution to the inadequacy and passivity problems with push and pull technologies could be in a combination of both, with an active component, adding more intelligence to the whole process of information and knowledge dissemination and supply. Describes basic principles of activity components in intelligent systems, and some…

  18. A case of disseminated blastomycosis in Vermont.

    PubMed

    Monaco, William E; Batsis, John A

    2013-04-01

    Blastomyces dermatitides is increasingly found in Canada along the St. Lawrence River. However, there are only rare reports of this disease in New England. We describe a case of disseminated blastomycosis in a patient from northern Vermont who acquired the fungus while gardening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture. PMID:12001504

  20. Measles with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM).

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, J; Ashraf, S M; Khajuria, K

    2009-01-01

    We report a seven year old male with measles associated acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) despite having received measles vaccination in infancy. The diagnosis was based on serum antimeasles antibodies and MRI brain. The patient was managed with high dose corticosteroids along with supportive measures. There was a complete neurologically and physica recovery.

  1. Disseminated granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    A 6-year-old, intact, female miniature Doberman pinscher was evaluated for lethargy, intermittent back pain, and unstable gait. Physical and neurological findings included bradycardia, hypothermia, hyperesthesia, progressive and ascending ataxia, and proprioceptive deficits in all limbs. Laboratory findings and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with disseminated granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, confirmed later by microscopy. PMID:11802671

  2. A Proposed Framework for Educational Innovation Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Benjamin T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, Chetan S.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational technologies is increasing, the process for disseminating these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive framework or coordinated research agenda that may be used to guide such investigation. This…

  3. CHRONIC DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS WITH PROLONGED LATENCY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis in an ex-serviceman is described. Evidence is presented to support a latency period of over sixty years between acquisition of infection and clinical manifestation. This is the longest latency period for histoplasmosis described in the medical literature...

  4. Florida Dissemination Capacity Building Grant. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, G. Michael

    This report describes the goals, objectives, activities, and accomplishments of the Florida Capacity Building Project, which was undertaken to improve the information dissemination capabilities of the Florida educational community and which resulted in the establishment of the Florida Resources in Education Exchange (FREE). A detailed statement of…

  5. Computer software management, evaluation, and dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center involving the collection, processing, and distribution of software developed under the auspices of NASA and certain other federal agencies are reported. Program checkout and evaluation, inventory control, customer services and marketing, dissemination, program maintenance, and special development tasks are discussed.

  6. Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

    PubMed Central

    Klepper, Arielle; Branch, Andrea D

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are key components of the innate immune system yet they are often the victims of attack by infectious agents. This review examines the significance of viral infection of macrophages. The central hypothesis is that macrophage tropism enhances viral dissemination and persistence, but these changes may come at the cost of reduced replication in cells other than macrophages. PMID:26949751

  7. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  8. The Hawaii Educational Dissemination Diffusion System Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Kellet; And Others

    Hawaii's endeavor to use information technology to improve educational practices within the state is described in four major sections: (1) the framework of the plan, including a brief history of dissemination, the goals of the plan, and philosophic statements on resources, linkages, and leadership; (2) the resource component, including an…

  9. ESEA III Evaluation and Dissemination: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balyeat, Ralph R.; Norman, C. Douglas

    This study surveyed evaluation and dissemination/diffusion practices of ESEA III projects funded in the 1969 fiscal year, which projects are nearing the end of their operations as federally supported programs. The study attempted to discover if (1) the projects were evaluated in accordance with generally accepted procedures, (2) the project…

  10. Evolution of diffusion and dissemination theory.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a review and considers how the diffusion of innovations Research paradigm has changed, and offers suggestions for the further development of this theory of social change. Main emphases of diffusion Research studies are compared over time, with special attention to applications of diffusion theory-based concepts as types of dissemination science. A considerable degree of paradigmatic evolution is observed. The classical diffusion model focused on adopter innovativeness, individuals as the locus of decision, communication channels, and adoption as the primary outcome measures in post hoc observational study designs. The diffusion systems in question were centralized, with fidelity of implementation often assumed. Current dissemination Research and practice is better characterized by tests of interventions that operationalize one or more diffusion theory-based concepts and concepts from other change approaches, involve complex organizations as the units of adoption, and focus on implementation issues. Foment characterizes dissemination and implementation Research, Reflecting both its interdisciplinary Roots and the imperative of spreading evidence-based innovations as a basis for a new paradigm of translational studies of dissemination science.

  11. Disseminated Tuberculosis Presenting as Baker's Cyst Infection

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Sami; Waqar, Sana

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of coexisting immunocompromised state and lack of specific symptoms a reactivation of treated mycobacterial tuberculosis (MTB) infection is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis of leg pain. We present a unique case of disseminated tuberculosis presenting as an infected Baker's cyst in a 73-year-old immunocompetent male. PMID:28163945

  12. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab.

    PubMed

    Dendle, Claire; Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab.

  13. Factors that Influence Dissemination in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, B. T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational materials and methods in engineering education is increasing, the process of disseminating (making target groups become aware of, accept, and use) these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. The purpose of this article is to identify…

  14. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  15. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use and feasibility of telemedicine technology in the dissemination of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Beverly W; Ware, Lisa M; Altshuler, Elizabeth; Chaffin, Mark

    2008-11-01

    This brief report discusses the use and feasibility of telemedicine technology in the dissemination of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). PCIT is an empirically supported behavioral parent training program for reducing disruptive behavior in young children and for reducing future rates of child physical abuse. The positive impact PCIT has demonstrated in reducing child maltreatment has galvanized interest in widespread dissemination of the PCIT model into child service systems. PCIT has traditionally been taught in university-based training programs in a mentored cotherapy model. By contrast, in field settings, PCIT training typically consists of workshop training supplemented by a period of telephone consultation (PC). Given concerns with the level of practitioner competency and fidelity yielded by the PC model, PCIT training programs have begun to examine Internet-based telemedicine technology to deliver live, mentored PCIT training to trainees at remote locations (Remote Real-Time or RRT) to better approximate the university-based training model. Challenges of disseminating evidence-based practices are discussed, using PCIT as a model of how these challenges are being addressed by telemedicine technology.

  17. A Tale of Two Cities: Financing Two Voucher Programs for Substance Abusers Through Community Donations

    PubMed Central

    Amass, Leslie; Kamien, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) is an effective drug abuse treatment, but the cost of VBRT rewards has limited its dissemination. Obtaining VBRT incentives through donations may be one way to overcome this barrier. Two direct mail campaigns solicited donations for use in VBRT for pregnant, postpartum, and parenting drug users in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and in Los Angeles, California. In Toronto, 19% of those contacted over 2 months donated $8,000 ($4,000/month) of goods and services. In Los Angeles, nearly 26% of those contacted over 34 months donated $161,000 ($4,472/month) of goods and services. Maintaining voucher programs by soliciting donations is feasible and sustainable. The methods in this article can serve as a guide for successful donation solicitation campaigns. Donations offer an alternative for obtaining VBRT rewards for substance abuse treatment and may increase its dissemination. PMID:15122959

  18. Metabolic syndrome in drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew K; Ali, Syed F; Gaetani, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Drug abuse is associated with significant health risk. Whether drug abusers are at a higher risk of suffering the metabolic syndrome is not widely known. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, including hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity, and is probably triggered by initial imbalances at the cellular level in various critical metabolic pathways. These initially small metabolic imbalances are believed to cascade with time and lead to larger problems. Some indications that drug abuse may increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome include the following: Drug-abusing patients have higher rates of diabetes complications. Substance abuse is a significant contributing factor for treatment noncompliance in diabetes. Nutrition education can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. Each type of drug/substance abuse has a unique profile of toxicity. For example, the amphetamines generally affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems, worsening the risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. Methamphetamine (meth) abusers suffer cognitive deficits and abnormal metabolic activity, which affect nutritional status. This condition is further worsened by a drastic reduction in oral health in meth abusers, resulting in improper chewing and, therefore, digestion. Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse would increase the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by increasing cell damage, augmenting excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. Another potential risk factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome is genetic vulnerability, especially in combination with drug abuse and nutritional deficiencies. The strategies available to treat this problem include pharmacological agents as well as dietary antioxidants. Such measures may be useful in reducing drug abuse-related toxicity that may lead to the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  20. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  1. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  2. Incest and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collins, J L; Hamlin, W T; Minor, M A; Knasel, A L

    1982-06-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

  3. Reciprocal Abuse: Elder Neglect and Abuse by Primary Caregivers and Caregiver Burden and Abuse in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Boyacıoğlu, Nur Elçin; Sertçelik, Elmas

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the neglect and abuse that older people were exposed to by their primary caregivers and the experiences of caregivers' burden and abuse by their charges. This descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted with 186 individuals over the age of 65 and 136 caregivers. The data were collected using questionnaires to determine neglect and abuse experienced by both older people and caregivers, and the Zarit Burden Scale. Abuse rate of the older people and their caregivers is both high and similar. This study is to make psychiatric nursing professionals aware of the problem of elder abuse and neglect. For researchers, educators, practitioners, and policymakers in the fields of aging, health, and mental health this study provides important data about elder abuse and neglect.

  4. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a child's brain as a result of child abuse. Abusive head trauma (AHT) can be caused by ... trauma is the leading cause of death in child abuse cases in the United States. Because the anatomy ...

  5. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance abuse? Families strive to find the best ways to ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  6. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance abuse problem simultaneously. Dual diagnosis is a very broad ... person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person ...

  7. The Silent Screams: Recognizing Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jean; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presents information about types of physical and sexual child abuse and child neglect. Notes symptoms by which helping professionals such as teachers may identify abused children and explains how to report child abuse. (SB)

  8. Abuse during pregnancy in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Olavarrieta, C; Paz, F; Abuabara, K; Martínez Ayala, H B; Kolstad, K; Palermo, T

    2007-04-01

    Measure the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse during pregnancy, determine the nature and severity of abuse, and assess correlates with abuse. A total of 1314 women seeking prenatal care between July 2000 and January 2003 were approached at three public hospitals in Mexico City. An original composite case record form was created to measure physical and sexual abuse before and during pregnancy. Forty-one percent of respondents had a history of physical or sexual abuse, with current abuse reported by 11.1%, and abuse during pregnancy by 7.6%. Among abused women, 71% reported an increase in the severity of abuse since becoming pregnant. Logistic regression revealed physically fighting with a partner and a history of abuse best predict violence during pregnancy. The severity of abuse among abused women appears to increase during pregnancy. Prenatal care visits in Mexico are an important opportunity for violence screening and intervention.

  9. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including..., productivity, integration and inclusion of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. (b) The UAP must be a resource for information for individuals with developmental disabilities and...

  10. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including..., productivity, integration and inclusion of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. (b... the knowledge base through publications and presentations, including those based on research...

  11. How do people with intellectual disabilities view abuse and abusers?

    PubMed

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-12-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what people with intellectual disabilities' views are concerning abuse. Data were gathered via individual interviews (n = 14) and focus groups (7 groups involving 47 people in total), which were then analysed via a process of sorting statements into themes followed by group discussion and analysis of these themes. Participants expressed a range of views regarding abuse, some of which revealed strong emotions: a number of participants indicated that abuse could make people feel as though their lives are not worth living. People with intellectual disabilities can discuss their feelings around abuse and recognise the impact this has on their lives. There is, however, a need for improved responses to disclosures of abuse and the provision of ongoing support to address psychological issues.

  12. Breaking the Abuser-Abused Paradigm in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Lois; Strickland, Gloria

    The STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome (STOP ABS) Project attempts to implement a community-based discipline model for inner-city elementary schools that avoids both physical and emotional abuse by teachers and students, while contributing to the students' overall development. Prevailing disciplinary models either relate to children as objects to be…

  13. Epidemiology Abuse: Epidemiological and Psychosocial Models of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Phillip E.

    1976-01-01

    In a paper presented at the National Drug Abuse Conference April 4-7, 1975, New Orleans, Louisiana, epidemiological and psychosocial approaches to drug abuse are discussed. An approach reflecting an appreciation of the psychological/social/political realities involved in addiction as well as a grounding in epidemiological principles and data is…

  14. Drug Abusers' Perceptions of Factors Related to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billips, Kathleen; And Others

    Researchers surveyed 78 clients in drug abuse treatment facilities to determine their perceptions regarding factors related to their use and abuse of drugs. About 40% of the sample began using drugs between 11 and 15 years of age. Males tended to begin using drugs at an earlier age than did females. Over 90% of participants reported using drugs…

  15. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  16. Child abuse: betrayal and disclosure.

    PubMed

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J; Deprince, Anne P

    2009-04-01

    The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure would vary as a function of victim-perpetrator closeness. Data collected from 202 undergraduate participants using a survey methodology were submitted to logistic regression analyses. The relative variance explained by other variables was also examined. Compared to survivors of emotional abuse (EA) who were in not very close (NVC) victim-perpetrator relationships, EA survivors in very close (VC) victim-perpetrator relationships were significantly more likely to wait 1 or more years to disclose, or never to disclose, than to wait a period of time less than 1 year (OR=2.65). Further, survivors of physical abuse (PA) in VC victim-perpetrator relationships were significantly more likely to wait 1 or more years to disclose their abuse, if it was disclosed at all, than PA survivors of NVC victim-perpetrator relationships (OR=3.99). Results for sexual abuse were not significant. For EA and PA, VC victim-perpetrator relationships predicted longer durations of time from abuse to its disclosure than NVC victim-perpetrator relationships. Although delayed disclosure may support necessary (albeit abusive) attachments with caregivers, it may also prolong the abuse and prevent receipt of support. Increased awareness that VC victim-perpetrator relationships may predict longer durations of time from abuse to its disclosure, and that these delays may serve a functional purpose, can help guide supportive and empathic responses to traumatic disclosures.

  17. Dissemination of Educational Tools and Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, C.

    1998-05-01

    The IDEAS program is oriented towards innovative approaches to education and therefore result in a wide range of programs including Astro Capella (the creation of a capella astronomy songs written and performed by a group from NASA/GSFC, Smale, Boyd, and Granger), video kiosks in the Air and Space Museum (SAO, Dow), teaching astronomy in the parks (U of Wisconsin, Bjorkman, Wilcots), as well as the more bread and butter programs of teacher training and curriculum development. In addition to describing some of the diverse programs to come out of the IDEAS programs, I will discuss the dissemination of the results of those programs, and especially the role of the broker/facilitator in that dissemination. The audience is invited to participate in this discussion.

  18. [Acute arterial occlusion associated disseminated hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Somocurcio, Jose; Alvarez, Gamero; Lara Campos, Gloria; Cahuana Aparco, Judith; Calongos Porras, Estefanny; Bermejo Cataño, Pedro; Tejada Llacsa, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Hydatidosis or echinococcosis are terms used to denote the zoonotic infestation caused by adult and larval stages (metacestode) of the cestode from the genus Echinococcus (family tenidae). The term hydatidosis should be applied to the infestation caused by the metacestode while echinococcosis for the larval and adult stages. In Peru there is a high prevalence of this infection, liver and lung being the most affected organs. There are factors from the host and from the infectious agent that contribute to this infection, with the immune component of the host as an important infection and dissemination point. A case of acute arterial occlusion associated with disseminated hydatidosis in a 54 years old patient, born and from Huancavelica, with sudden onset of an acute arterial obstruction is reported. The patient did not improve after surgery and died within 48 hours of presentation.

  19. Breastfeeding and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    D'Apolito, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding method for infants. The decision to allow women to breastfeed while consuming alcohol and other drugs postpartum presents a problem for the health care provider. This article discusses the biochemical properties of various drugs as they relate to breastfeeding. Women in a methadone treatment program should be allowed to breast feed; however, more research is needed to determine the efficacy of breastfeeding when women are receiving buprenorphine. Breastfeeding should not be recommended in women who abuse heroin recreationally until more information is known about the actual amount of morphine present in the breast milk.

  20. Tilidine abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Trojan, A; Beil, H W

    1978-11-01

    Tilidine (Valoron) is a new strong analgesic which was introduced into the market in West Germany in 1970. In February 1978 tilidine was placed under the regulations of the German Narcotics Act because it had rapidly become an easily acquired substitute for opiates on the drug scene. Cases have become known where tilidine dependence developed during the treatment of pain in patients without any preceding addiction to other drugs. The relevant literature on tilidine is reviewed in regard to pharmacological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of tilidine dependence and abuse.

  1. Disseminated nocardiosis masquerading as metastatic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Arjun, Rajalakshmi; Padmanabhan, Arjun; Reddy Attunuru, Bhanu Prakash; Gupta, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an uncommon gram-positive bacterial infection caused by aerobic actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia. It can be localized or systemic and is regarded as an opportunistic infection that is commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica in a patient with underlying malignancy in whom the clinical presentation was highly suggestive of a metastatic disease. PMID:27578940

  2. Disseminated adiaspiromycosis in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Echavarria, E; Cano, E L; Restrepo, A

    1993-01-01

    A case of disseminated adiaspiromycosis in an AIDS patient is described. The most notable characteristic of the infection was the extensive osteomyelitis exhibited by the patient. Positive cultures for Chrysosporium parvum var. parvum were obtained from pus taken from a lesion of the wrist during surgery as well as from sputum samples and a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with amphotericin B controlled the fungal infection.

  3. Dissemination and implementation: INQRI's potential impact.

    PubMed

    Titler, Marita G; Wilson, Deleise S; Resnick, Barbara; Shever, Leah L

    2013-04-01

    Application of research evidence in care delivery improves patient outcomes. Large gaps still exist, however, between recommended care and that used in practice. To increase the understanding of implementation studies, and dissemination of research findings, we present the perspective of investigators from seven Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI)-funded studies. To describe implementation strategies, challenges, and lessons learned from conducting 5 INQRI-funded implementation studies, and present 2 case examples of other INQRI studies to illustrate dissemination strategies. Potential impact of study findings are set forth. Qualitative descriptive methods were used for the implementation studies. Case examples were set forth by investigators using reflection questions. Four of the 5 implementation studies focused on clinical topics and 1 on professional development of nurse managers, 4 were multisite studies. Common implementation strategies used across studies addressed education, ongoing interaction with sites, use of implementation tools, and visibility of the projects on the study units. Major challenges were the Institutional Review Board approval process and the short length of time allocated for implementation. Successes and lessons learned included creating excitement about research, packaging of study tools and resources for use by other organizations, and understanding the importance of context when conducting this type of research. Case examples revealed that study findings have been disseminated to study sites and to the health care community through publications and presentations. The potential impact of all 7 studies is far reaching. This study captures several nuanced perspectives from 5 Principal Investigators, who were completing INQRI-funded implementation studies. These nuanced perspectives are important lessons for other scientists embarking on implementation studies. The INQRI case examples illustrate important

  4. Antibody response that protects against disseminated candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Y; Cutler, J E

    1995-01-01

    We previously showed that surface mannans of Candida albicans function as adhesins during yeast cell attachment to mouse splenic marginal zone macrophages. The mannan adhesin fraction was encapsulated into liposomes and used to vaccinate mice over a 5- to 6-week period. Circulating agglutinins specific for the fraction correlated with increased resistance to disseminated candidiasis. Antiserum from vaccinated animals protected naive BALB/cByJ mice against C. albicans serotype A and B strains and Candida tropicalis. Antiserum also protected SCID mice against disseminated disease. The serum protective ability was stable at 56 degrees C, but this ability was adsorbed by C. albicans cells. The antiserum was divided into three fractions after separation by high-performance liquid chromatography. One fraction contained all of the agglutinin activity and transferred resistance to naive mice. A second fraction also transferred resistance. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for candidal surface determinants were obtained. MAb B6.1 is specific for a mannan epitope in the adhesin fraction, and MAb B6 is specific for a different epitope in the fraction. Both MAbs are immunoglobulin M, and both strongly agglutinate candidal cells, but only MAb B6.1 protected both normal and SCID mice against disseminated candidiasis. In one experiment, 10 normal mice were given MAb B6.1 and challenged with yeast cells. Six mice survived the 67-day observation period; 4 of the survivors were cured as evidenced by the lack of CFU in the kidney and spleen. Our studies show that antibodies against certain cell surface antigens of C. albicans help the host resist disseminated candidiasis. PMID:7790089

  5. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Shital; Khatu, Swapna

    2014-08-01

    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that typically presents in immunocompromised patients, most commonly in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It rarely has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Defects in the host defense mechanisms due to hyperglycemia predispose diabetic patients to opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis. We present a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a 48-year-old HIV-negative man with DM.

  6. Disseminated aspergillosis associated with tsunami lung.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yutaka; Tagami, Takashi; Kusakabe, Takashi; Kido, Norihiro; Kawaguchi, Takanori; Omura, Mariko; Tosa, Ryoichi

    2012-10-01

    Many survivors of the tsunami that occurred following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, contracted a systemic disorder called "tsunami lung," a series of severe systemic infections following aspiration pneumonia caused by near drowning in the tsunami. Generally, the cause of aspiration pneumonia is polymicrobial, including fungi and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, but Aspergillus infection is rarely reported. Here we report a case of tsunami lung complicated by disseminated aspergillosis, as diagnosed during autopsy.

  7. Time dissemination in the Hydro Quebec network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Missout, G.; Lefrancois, W.; Laroche, L.

    1979-01-01

    The ever increasing complexity of electrical networks combined with the increasing cost of power losses during a network failure has led public utilities to become equipped with more powerful and precise tools for pinpointing the causes of such a fault. Hydro Quebec has developed and is now using a time dissemination system which uses a modified IRIG B code transmitted on its own telecommunication network. The reasons for using such a system and the way it was carried out are discrete.

  8. Twiddlenet: Metadata Tagging and Data Dissemination in Mobile Device Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    METADATA TAGGING AND DATA DISSEMINATION IN MOBILE DEVICE NETWORKS by Christopher T. Clotfelter Jonathon E. Towle September 2007 Thesis...Metadata Tagging and Data Dissemination in Mobile Device Networks 6. AUTHOR(S) Clotfelter, Christopher T. Towle , Jonathon E. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...DISSEMINATION IN MOBILE DEVICE NETWORKS Jonathan E. Towle Captain, United States Maine Corps B.S., California State University Humboldt

  9. 10 CFR 602.18 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 602.18 Section 602.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.18 Dissemination of results. (a) Recipients are encouraged to disseminate research...

  10. 10 CFR 602.18 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 602.18 Section 602.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.18 Dissemination of results. (a) Recipients are encouraged to disseminate research...

  11. 10 CFR 602.18 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 602.18 Section 602.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.18 Dissemination of results. (a) Recipients are encouraged to disseminate research...

  12. 10 CFR 602.18 - Dissemination of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 602.18 Section 602.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.18 Dissemination of results. (a) Recipients are encouraged to disseminate research...

  13. 48 CFR 2905.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of disseminating information. 2905.101 Section 2905.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Dissemination of Information 2905.101 Methods of disseminating information. Contracting officers...

  14. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    dissemination in 70% of the cases of patients with bone marrow DTCs (Disseminated Tumor Cells). SA2 focuses on elucidate how S-TMEM (Secondary Tumor...by the detection of circulating cancer cells at this stage and disseminated cancer cells in target organs such as lung and bone marrow . Briefly

  15. Disseminated nocardiosis after unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yutaro; Doki, Noriko; Senoo, Yasushi; Sekiya, Noritaka; Kurosawa, Shuhei; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2016-12-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare bacterial infection occurring mainly in patients with deficient cell-mediated immunity. Although disseminated nocardiosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a rare complication, it is associated with high mortality. Moreover, after allo-HSCT, nocardiosis may be mistaken for other bacterial or fungal infections because clinical and radiographic findings of pulmonary, cerebral, and cutaneous nocardiosis lesions are non-specific. Here, we report a case of disseminated nocardiosis (caused by Nocardia abscessus) with skin, pulmonary, liver, lymph node, and multiple brain abscesses in a patient after allo-HSCT. The patient initially responded clinically and radiographically to imipenem/cilastin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of nocardiosis in allo-HSCT recipients who are treated with multiple immunosuppressive agents to control chronic graft-versus-host disease. Accurate diagnosis and identification of disseminated nocardiosis is important to ensure administration of the correct antibiotic regimen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Elkhihal, B; Hasnaoui, A; Ghfir, I; Moustachi, A; Aoufi, S; Lyagoubi, M

    2015-09-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis is a serious opportunistic fungal infection caused by a yeast-encapsulated fungus of the genus Cryptococcus neoformans. It occurs most often in patients with a significant deficit of cellular immunity and preferentially affects the central nervous system. The skin and the lungs are the most commonly affected sites outside the neuro-subarachnoid location. We report the case of a patient apparently immunocompetent who had a disseminated cryptococcosis. The disease started with the multiple purplish skin lesions, large umbilicated on the face, groin, forearm and leg with progressively increasing volume. This symptomatology had evolved in the context of weight loss and poor general condition. The diagnosis was established by the presence of cryptococcal at the skin biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid. Research of immunosuppression common pathologies were negative. Treatment was initiated based on amphotericin B for 40 days. The patient's condition deteriorates onset of paraplegia and swallowing disorders causing death in an array of cachexia. This observation points out that disseminated cryptococcosis can occur in an immunocompetent patient. The skin lesions may be the first sign of the disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Dissemination: bringing translational research to completion.

    PubMed

    Clark, Florence; Park, Daniel J; Burke, Janice P

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of innovative health care research, a gap exists between research-generated knowledge and the utilization of that knowledge in real-world practice settings. This article examines the transition from research to implementation in the context of the dissemination of A. Jean Ayres' sensory integration procedures and of the challenges currently facing the University of Southern California Well Elderly Studies research team. Drawing from the emerging field of implementation science, this article discusses how researchers can develop an implementation plan to more easily translate evidence into practice. Such plans should address the intervention's reach (i.e., its capacity to penetrate into the intended target population), the settings for which it is applicable, the leaders who will encourage practitioner uptake, stakeholder groups, and challenges to dissemination. By taking action to ensure the more effective dissemination of research-generated knowledge, researchers can increase the likelihood that their interventions will lead to improvements in practice and more effective care for consumers.

  18. Evidence-based radiology: review and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Santiago; Blackmore, C Craig

    2007-08-01

    Evidence-based radiology (EBR) is an important tool for the practice of radiology. The user of the EBR approach identifies evidence in a systematic fashion and then assimilates information through in-depth, explicit critical review of the best-designed and most recent literature on the subject in question. Clinical decision making is then based on the best current evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values. Substantial progress has been made in the review and dissemination of EBR. Dissemination of EBR within radiology has two critical aspects. The first is increased understanding of the methods required for EBR and of the appropriate use of EBR. The second important component is the dissemination of the data and critical literature reviews necessary to allow use of the EBR approach. Resources available for both EBR methods and EBR data in radiology include societies, journals, medical meetings, Web sites, and textbooks. Although radiology has made important progress in this field in recent years, the specialty is still behind other specialties that have been at the forefront of evidence-based medicine in the past decade.

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lodico, M., & DiClemente, R. (1993). The effects of child abuse and race on risk-taking in male adolescents. ... suicide. html National Association of Adult Survivors of Child Abuse: www. naasca. org Pandora’s Project: http: / / www. pandys. ...

  20. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone number Apply Clear Cancel Show per page Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Emergency Mental Health Services All / ... Reverse   Persons with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders   Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) ...

  1. Drug Abuse and the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    1971-01-01

    In reviewing some of the background information regarding the extent of drug abuse and the types of measures presently being used, this article describes in more detail the role of the school in drug abuse. Emphasis is placed on drug education from the viewpoint of youth. (Author)

  2. A World of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    This third chapter in "Elementary School Counseling in a Changing World" contains five journal articles which focus on substance abuse prevention. "Perspectives on Substance Abuse Prevention" by John Horan, Andres Kerns, and Christine Olson emphasizes how important it is for children to be able to say "no" to drugs and provides a review of…

  3. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1971-01-01

    This article concerns the drug abuse related definitions of the words education" and prevention" as they have come to be used today. The writer infers that the changing uses of these words reflects an increasingly more enlightened approach to ameliorating the problem of drug abuse. (Author)

  4. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  5. Inhalant abuse in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Michael; Frampton, Laura; Fountain, John

    2006-05-05

    To describe patterns of inhalant abuse in New Zealand and discuss management. Calls to the National Poisons Centre (NPC) from January 1 2003 to December 31 2004 were analysed. In addition, deaths following inhalational abuse were identified from the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) database for 2001 and 2002 and available data for 2003. Seventy calls were classified as relating to inhalational abuse incidents. In abusers whose age was known, 83% were between 11 and 20 years, and 61% were male. Over half (44/70) of the calls involved abuse of propane or butane, either alone or in combination with a synthetic pyrethroid. ESR coronial data identified 11 inhalant abuse related deaths, most commonly attributed to cardiac effects. 73% of deaths were in teenagers and all but one fatality involved propane and/or butane. Inhalant abuse is a persisting problem in New Zealand. NPC and ESR data demonstrate that teenagers are more likely to abuse inhalants than other age groups and butane and propane are the inhalants of choice. Acute management can be difficult, with significant mortality and morbidity. Continued education and other preventive measures are essential to help curb an extremely dangerous practice.

  6. Amnesia Affecting Some Opioid Abusers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Memory Opioid Abuse and Addiction Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Memory Opioid Abuse and Addiction ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  7. Drug Abuse: The Company Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Roy D.

    This paper establishes a uniform drug abuse policy for organizational employees. This policy is modeled after recommendations made by the National Council on Alcoholism, Inc., and deals with alcoholism as an element of the drug abuse problem. Organizational behavior understudy involves the standard of on-the-job-performance. When…

  8. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  9. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  10. Spouse Abuse; A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carolyn, Comp.; And Others

    This collection of resources is designed to assist those helping professionals dealing with victims of spouse abuse as well as those individuals interested in learning more about this particular subject area. This annotated bibliography has been compiled to highlight the problem of spouse abuse and the various forms of intervention currently…

  11. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  12. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  13. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  14. Counseling with the Drug Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demos, George D.

    Counselors, in the past few years, have had to work with a great many drug abusers. While successes are difficult to evaluate, the failures are glaringly evident. In a search for a more effective method of working with drug abusers, 12 questions were devised. These are self-evaluative and directed at the counselor. If a counselor can openly and…

  15. Personality Development Following Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Liz; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The follow-up study evaluated 37 girls and 12 boys (aged 5-19 years) who had been sexually abused an average of 2.6 years previously. Results found that, compared to control children, abused children had less confidence, fewer friends, more aggression, increased sexual awareness, and more behavior and academic problems. (Author/JDD)

  16. Bringing attention to domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2014-06-03

    Nursing skills are vital to the roles of those working with victims of domestic abuse in Nottinghamshire. Specialist nurses at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust are involved in referring patients on to further support services and training hospital staff to identify and respond to signs of abuse.

  17. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  18. Child Abuse in Setswana Folktales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malimabe-Ramagoshi, Refilwe M.; Maree, Jacobus G.; Alexander, Daleen; Molepo, Maisha M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the possible role played by African folk literature, taking Setswana folktales as a case in point, in justifying and perpetuating the abusive behaviour so often witnessed and decried in postmodern society. We found some evidence that certain folktales may depict real-life child abuse by adults (male and female), and, indeed,…

  19. Sexual Abuse or Tourette Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, David E.; Comings, Brenda G.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that sexual abuse of children is common and serious problem and that wide range of behavioral abnormalities have been linked to sexual and physical abuse. Notes that many symptoms also are seen in children with other disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Tourette syndrome. Presents case report of seven-year-old…

  20. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    MedlinePlus

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The parents are unable to explain how ... the fractures is not child abuse. It is osteogenesis imperfecta , or OI. OI is a genetic disorder characterized ...

  1. Dissemination of health information through social networks: Twitter and antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Scanfeld, Vanessa; Larson, Elaine L.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study reviewed Twitter status updates mentioning “antibiotic(s)” to determine overarching categories and explore evidence of misunderstanding or misuse of antibiotics. Methods One thousand Twitter status updates mentioning antibiotic(s) were randomly selected for content analysis and categorization. To explore cases of potential misunderstanding or misuse, these status updates were mined for co-occurrence of the following terms: “cold + antibiotic(s),” “extra antibiotic(s),” “flu + antibiotic(s),” “leftover antibiotic(s),” and “share antibiotic(s)” and reviewed to confirm evidence of misuse or misunderstanding. Results Of the 1,000 status updates, 971 were categorized into 11 groups: General Use (n=289), Advice/Information (n=157), Side Effects/Negative Reactions (n=113), Diagnosis (n=102), Resistance (n=92), Misunderstanding and/or Misuse (n=55), Positive Reactions (n=48), Animals (n=46), Other (n=42), Wanting/Needing (n=19), and Cost (n=8). Cases of misunderstanding or abuse were identified for the following combinations: “flu + antibiotic(s)” (n=345), “cold + antibiotic(s)” (n=302), “leftover antibiotic(s)” (n=23), “share antibiotic(s)” (n=10), and “extra antibiotic(s)” (n=7). Conclusions Social media sites offer means of health information sharing. Further study is warranted to explore how such networks may provide a venue to identify misuse or misunderstanding of antibiotics, promote positive behavior change, disseminate valid information, and explore how such tools can be used to gather real-time health data. PMID:20347636

  2. Lifetime physical and sexual abuse, substance abuse, depression, and suicide attempts among Native American women.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Diane K

    2003-01-01

    Although there is preliminary evidence that violence against women and children may be particularly prevalent in some Native American communities, associations between abuse and substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide attempts have rarely been studied in this population. This study examined lifetime and current physical and sexual abuse among 30 Native American women. Nearly half had experienced physical and/or sexual abuse as children, over half were sexually abused at some time in their lives, and over three-fourths were abused by a partner. All but four women (87%) had experience physical or sexual abuse in their lifetime. Significant relationships were found among childhood abuse, substance abuse, and adult revictimization, and among cumulative lifetime abuse events, substance abuse, and depression. Further research is needed to examine abuse and relationships between abuse and health sequelae in Native American populations. An accelerated public health and community response is needed to address abuse issues in this community.

  3. [Inhalant abusers and psychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Okudaira, K; Yabana, T; Takahashi, H; Iizuka, H; Nakajima, K; Saito, A

    1996-01-01

    There are different opinions about the cause of chronic psychiatric symptoms observed in drug abusers between Japanese and foreign psychiatrists. The Japanese seem to recognize the chronic psychosis as the result of drug abuse. In the other hand, foreigners diagnose these cases as dual diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis. Authors studied the problem in this research. One of the authors has examined 120 inhalant abusers of all, in- and out-patients in Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Psychiatry, Serigaya Hospital from 1991 to 1995. These patients were classified into three groups: psychosis group (23 patients), dependence group (51 patients) and abuse group (46 patients) according to their clinical courses and psychiatric symptoms. The psychosis group consists of patients who showed psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, delusion and thought disturbance for long time after detoxification. The dependence group contains patients whose inhalant dependence was severe and met DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence, but manifested no chronic psychiatric symptoms after detoxification. The patients belonging to abuse group were at the earlier stages of inhalant abuse and had no chronic psychiatric symptoms. The average age of the first inhalant abuse was 14.7 years old in the psychosis group, 14.8 years in the dependence group and 14.7 years in the abuse group. The average years of abuse was 9.0 years in the psychosis group, and 8.5 years in the dependence group. There was little difference between these two groups. The psychosis patients manifested chronic symptoms 5.7 years on average after the first abuse of inhalants. About one forth (26.1%) of the psychosis patients and only 5.9% of the dependence patients had family history of schizophrenia. The difference was statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic psychiatric symptoms are caused not only by inhalant abuse, but also by the genetic factors of psychosis of each patient. There have

  4. Methamphetamine abuse and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, D T; Rhodus, N L

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive powerful stimulant that increases wakefulness and physical activity and produces other effects including cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, hallucinations, and violent behavior. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is estimated at 35 million people worldwide and 10.4 million people in the United States. In the United States, the prevalence of methamphetamine use is beginning to decline but methamphetamine trafficking and use are still significant problems. Dental patients who abuse methamphetamine can present with poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, rampant caries ('Meth mouth'), and excessive tooth wear. Dental management of methamphetamine users requires obtaining a thorough medical history and performing a careful oral examination. The most important factor in treating the oral effects of methamphetamine is for the patient to stop using the drug. Continued abuse will make it difficult to increase salivary flow and hinder the patient's ability to improve nutrition and oral hygiene. Local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors should be used with care in patients taking methamphetamine because they may result in cardiac dysrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular accidents. Thus, dental management of patients who use methamphetamine can be challenging. Dentists need to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients.

  5. Child abuse by drowning.

    PubMed

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  6. Summary - National Dissemination and the Five Target States, Part 3, Final Report for Phase II--Dissemination, Rural Shared Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre.

    The dissemination phase (Phase II) of the Rural Shared Services Project is reported in this document. Efforts of the dissemination phase were concentrated in 5 target states: Vermont, Georgia, Wyoming, Montana, and New Mexico; national dissemination was limited to attendance at national conferences, the U. S. Office of Education PREP materials for…

  7. Changing systems to address elder abuse: examples from aging services, the courts, the long-term care ombudsman, and the faith community.

    PubMed

    Malks, Betty F; Strobel, Donna M; Leung, Yolanda; Court, Michelle Williams; Morris, Janet R; May, Gus; Reeves, Shawna; Davies, Molly; Cartan, Heidi; Philyaw, Meredith L

    2010-07-01

    The authors describe their use of systems change as a means of ameliorating elder abuse. After assessing the needs of their target audiences, projects developed a variety of strategies. These include disseminating promising practices in courts, creating Elder Law Clinics to assist with conservatorships, educating older adults about predatory mortgage lending, building a new response system for complaints of abuse and neglect in unlicensed care facilities, and convening clergy and lay leader groups to learn how faith communities can make a difference in elder abuse and neglect. The authors share tips on replicating their work, describing barriers to implementation and possible solutions.

  8. Concomitant disseminated histoplasmosis and disseminated tuberculosis after tumor necrosis factor inhibitor treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Oca, Juan E; Villarreal Morales, Martha L; Nieves-Rodriguez, Aracelis; Martínez-Bonilla, Lemuel

    2017-01-13

    Tumor necrosis factor antagonist inhibitors have transformed the approach to patients with severe autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Although the therapy can be highly effective, TNF-α inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Here, we report a case of concomitant disseminated histoplasmosis and tuberculosis in a 65-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis treated with TNF-α inhibitor. Both conditions can be found in disseminated form in immunosuppressed hosts, but co-infection is rare with only a few cases having been reported, to our knowledge, all in HIV patients. This case posed a considerable challenge for diagnosis and treatment due to the unusual disseminated co-infection, the overlapping symptoms, and the interactions between medications.

  9. Designing Opioids That Deter Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Muñiz, Edmundo; Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Prescription opioid formulations designed to resist or deter abuse are an important step in reducing opioid abuse. In creating these new formulations, the paradigm of drug development target should be introduced. Biological targets relating to the nature of addiction may pose insurmountable hurdles based on our current knowledge and technology, but products that use behavioral targets seem logical and feasible. The population of opioid abusers is large and diverse so behavioral targets are more challenging than they appear at first glance. Furthermore, we need to find ways to correlate behavioral observations of drug liking to actual use and abuse patterns. This may involve revisiting some pharmacodynamic concepts in light of drug effect rather than peak concentration. In this paper we present several new opioid analgesic agents designed to resist or deter abuse using physical barriers, the inclusion of an opioid agonist or antagonist, an aversive agent, and a prodrug formulation. Further, this paper also provides insight into the challenges facing drug discovery in this field. Designing and screening for opioids intended to resist or deter abuse is an important step to meet the public health challenge of burgeoning prescription opioid abuse. PMID:23213510

  10. Nocardia mikamii a Novel Species Causing Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Literature Review of Disseminated Nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Mohammed Muqeet; Mujeeb, Sufyan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia is an uncommon Gram-positive organism. It typically appears as delicate filamentous Gram-positive branching rods. In the United States it was estimated to be approximately 500 to 1000 new cases per year. The organism causes disease in immunocompromised individuals with pulmonary infection representing the most common site of infection. Nocardia mikamii has been a recently isolated pathogen and not many cases of disseminated infection with this organism has been reported in the literature; we present a case of disseminated nocardiosis (mikamii sp.) in an immunocompromised patient. We also present a literature review on nocardiosis. PMID:27437492

  11. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects.

  12. The future of time and frequency dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Judah

    1994-01-01

    I will try to extrapolate the changes in the dissemination of time and frequency information that have taken place during the last 25 years to predict the future developments both in the methods of disseminating time and frequency and in the kinds of customers we will be asked to serve. Two important developments are likely to play pivotal roles in driving the evolution of dissemination. The first is the commercial availability of very high quality clocks -- devices whose performance may eventually rival that of the current generation of primary frequency standards. The widespread use of these devices may blur the traditional distinction between client and server, and may replace it with a more symmetrical interchange of data among peers. The second is the increasing demand for digital time and frequency information driven by the increasing sophistication of everything from traffic lights to electric power meters. The needs of these individual users may not tax the state of the art of primary frequency standards in principle, but their large numbers and wide geographical distribution present a technological challenge that is difficult to meet at a reasonable price using existing methods. Some of these problems may be solved (or at least addressed) using developments in communications and consumer electronics such as the increasing use of fiber-optic telephone circuits and the increasing bandwidth and sophistication of the cable network used to transmit television pictures. To be useful, these advances in hardware must stimulate parallel advances in software algorithms and methods. These advances are more difficult to predict with great confidence, but the developments of the last few years will be examined to provide some indications of the future.

  13. The future of time and frequency dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Judah

    1994-05-01

    I will try to extrapolate the changes in the dissemination of time and frequency information that have taken place during the last 25 years to predict the future developments both in the methods of disseminating time and frequency and in the kinds of customers we will be asked to serve. Two important developments are likely to play pivotal roles in driving the evolution of dissemination. The first is the commercial availability of very high quality clocks -- devices whose performance may eventually rival that of the current generation of primary frequency standards. The widespread use of these devices may blur the traditional distinction between client and server, and may replace it with a more symmetrical interchange of data among peers. The second is the increasing demand for digital time and frequency information driven by the increasing sophistication of everything from traffic lights to electric power meters. The needs of these individual users may not tax the state of the art of primary frequency standards in principle, but their large numbers and wide geographical distribution present a technological challenge that is difficult to meet at a reasonable price using existing methods. Some of these problems may be solved (or at least addressed) using developments in communications and consumer electronics such as the increasing use of fiber-optic telephone circuits and the increasing bandwidth and sophistication of the cable network used to transmit television pictures. To be useful, these advances in hardware must stimulate parallel advances in software algorithms and methods. These advances are more difficult to predict with great confidence, but the developments of the last few years will be examined to provide some indications of the future.

  14. Caveats of bisphosphonate abuse

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Sanjay; Agashe, Vikas M; Shetty, Vivek; Mohrir, Ganesh; Moonot, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the common drugs used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Short term benefits of the BPs are well known. However, there are concerns regarding their long term use. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between atypical femoral fractures and BP misuse/abuse as well as study the outcome of management of these fractures. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of a prospectively studied patients who presented with atypical femoral fractures between January 2010 and August 2012 and were followed up upto June 2014. The cohort consisted of nine female patients (12 fractures) with an average age of 71 years (range 58-85 years). Analysis was done for the indications, duration of BP use, configuration of associated fractures and method of treatment. Results: The mean duration of BP use was 6.6 years (range 4-10 years). BP treatment was initiated without sufficient indication and continued without proper review and followup in most cases. Most patients did not followup and continued to consume BPs without any review by the doctors. All patients had prodromal thigh pain of various duration, which was inadequately investigated and managed before the presentation. Two cases with an incomplete fracture and no thigh pain were managed successfully with conservative treatment. The rest were treated by surgery with intramedullary nailing. The average union time was longer and two fractures went into nonunion which required further surgical intervention. Conclusion: Atypical femoral fractures appear to be strongly related to abuse of BPs. Great care is to be exercised at initiation as well as the continuation of BP therapy, and regular review is required. There is a need for improved awareness among physicians about the possibility of such fractures, and interpretation of thigh pain and radiological findings, especially if the patient has been on BPs therapy. Internal fixation for complete fractures and for

  15. Trends in volatile substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry; Lorenz, Douglas J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether social, geographic, and demographic factors have a relationship to trends in volatile substance abuse. Two datasets were obtained. Dataset 1 was all patients reported to U.S. poison centers with inhalation abuse of a non-pharmaceutical substance between 2000 and 2005. Dataset 2 was annual data from the U.S. Dept of Labor and U.S. Census Bureau for each of the 50 states for the years 2000 through 2005 for unemployment rate, population density, poverty rate, high school graduation rate and percentage of population with bachelor degree. The two datasets were compared for geographic (by state) and temporal (by year) relationships using U.S. government demographic categories. The U.S. poison centers state that 12,428 patients with volatile substance abuse have been reported over the 6 year period of 2000-2005, with a mean of 2,071 patients annually. A strong negative trend was found between volatile substance abuse and population density, with volatile substance abuse increasing as population density decreased. This trend remained consistent over the 6 years of evaluation. A negative trend was found with percentage of population with a bachelor's degree and volatile substance abuse. No trend was found when comparing volatile substance abuse and poverty rate, unemployment rate, or high school graduation rate. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as population density decreases, following a previously suggested relationship with a rural setting. Volatile substance abuse appears to increase as percentage of population with a bachelor's degree decreases.

  16. Disseminated lupus vulgaris: a case report.

    PubMed

    Can, Burce; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Demir, Filiz Topaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a secondary form of cutaneous tuberculosis which persists for years if not treated. The head and neck are the most commonly affected sites. While less frequently arms and legs, and rarely the trunk and the scalp are involved. Herein, we describe a 73-year-old man with a 5-year history of slowly growing, atrophic, some eroded and ulcerated, red-brown plaques on his forehead, nose, cheeks, ear lobes, trunk and extremites. All of his disseminated lesions healed after antituberculosis therapy.

  17. Disseminated lupus vulgaris: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Can, Burce; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Demir, Filiz Topaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a secondary form of cutaneous tuberculosis which persists for years if not treated. The head and neck are the most commonly affected sites. While less frequently arms and legs, and rarely the trunk and the scalp are involved. Herein, we describe a 73-year-old man with a 5-year history of slowly growing, atrophic, some eroded and ulcerated, red-brown plaques on his forehead, nose, cheeks, ear lobes, trunk and extremites. All of his disseminated lesions healed after antituberculosis therapy. PMID:28058303

  18. The National Dissemination of International Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sahagia, Maria; Woods, Mike

    2008-08-14

    The paper presents the most significant actions which a primary Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory must accomplish, in order to disseminate the international equivalence to the entire national traceability chain: absolute standardization methods and demonstration of international equivalence, construction and calibration of a consistent set of secondary standardization equipment, preparation of radioactive standards. Delivery of radioactive standards to the end users and carrying out metrological services. Organization of national proficiency tests with the users. International validation of secondary standards by proficiency tests and establishment of a Quality System Assurance.

  19. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after pertussis infection.

    PubMed

    Budan, B; Ekici, B; Tatli, B; Somer, A

    2011-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system which is usually precipitated by a viral infection or vaccination. A 3-month-old boy is reported who developed ADEM a week after full recovery from pertussis. MRI detected a high-intensity lesion extending from the pons to the mesencephalon, compatible with ADEM. Following the administration of intravenous immunoglobulins, the patient's clinical symptoms improved. This case report demonstrates that pertussis is capable of inducing an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system.

  20. The National Dissemination of International Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Woods, Mike

    2008-08-01

    The paper presents the most significant actions which a primary Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory must accomplish, in order to disseminate the international equivalence to the entire national traceability chain: absolute standardization methods and demonstration of international equivalence, construction and calibration of a consistent set of secondary standardization equipment, preparation of radioactive standards. Delivery of radioactive standards to the end users and carrying out metrological services. Organization of national proficiency tests with the users. International validation of secondary standards by proficiency tests and establishment of a Quality System Assurance.

  1. Geothermal Energy Information Dissemination and Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John W. Lund

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project is to continue on-going work by the Geo-Heat Center to develop and disseminate information; provide educational materials; develop short courses and workshops; maintain a comprehensive geothermal resource database; respond to inquiries from the public, industry and government; provide engineering, economic and environmental information and analysis on geothermal technology to potential users and developers; and provide information on market opportunities for geothermal development. These efforts are directed towards increasing the utilization of geothermal energy in the US and developing countries, by means of electric power generation and direct-use.

  2. Disseminated coccidoidomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Stalis, Ilse H; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-03-01

    A16-yr-old male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented for nonspecific signs of illness and weight loss. Despite 2 mo of diagnostics and supportive care, the koala's health declined and euthanasia was elected. On histopathologic examination, lesions containing fungal organisms morphologically consistent with coccidioidomycosis were found in the lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, heart, eye, and bone marrow. Although disseminated infection was present, the koala was IgM and IgG seronegative for Coccidioides spp. 1 mo prior to euthanasia.

  3. EUMETCast: The Meteorological Data Dissemination Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, V. K.; Koenig, M.

    2006-05-01

    EUMETCast is EUMETSAT's broadcast system for environmental data. It utilises telecommunications satellites and the services of telecommunication providers to distribute data files using Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) standards to a wide audience located within the combined geographical coverage zones of the individual telecommunication satellites used to transmit the data. The telecommunication zones are now covering Europe, Africa, South America and parts of Asia and North America. This service has been established to provide the meteorological communities with satellite data and other meteorological products in near real-time for operational, but also research, education and training purposes. The following EUMETSAT services are currently available via EUMETCast: - Second Generation Meteosat - High Rate SEVIRI Image Data (every 15 minutes) - First Generation Meteosat - Indian Ocean Data Coverage (IODC) (every 30 minutes) - Other Geostationary Data from NOAA (GOES E/W) and JMA (MTSAT), (every 3 hours) - Data Collection and Retransmission (DCP) and Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD) - Basic Meteorological Data (BMD) (Ku-band Europe only) - Meteorological Products (including some Satellite Application Facility products) - EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS) (Ku-band Europe only) - DWDSAT (Ku-band Europe only) - VEGETATION data (C-band Africa only) Progressively during 2006 users will find an increasing amount of polar satellite data and products available on EUMETCast. As part of the extension of the EUMETCast Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS), ERS scatterometer data and NOAA satellite AVHRR data have already been introduced in early 2006. The ERS- SCAT demonstration service is a forerunner for the future pilot EARS-ASCAT service and the pilot EARS- AVHRR service will continue to expand during 2006 with the inclusion of data from additional AVHRR stations in the EARS network. The EUMETCast System will be also be used to provide dissemination of

  4. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  5. Family of Origin Violence and Courtship Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Linda L.; Rose, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Responses from 336 undergraduates revealed 75 percent of respondents had expressed threats or actual violence and 64 percent had received abuse in intimate relationship. In the sample, 30 percent had parents who abused each other; less often the mother or father had been sole abuser. Multiple regression indicated being abused as child predicted…

  6. A Review of the Child Abuse Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeannine

    The paper presents a review of the literature on physical child abuse. Aspects covered include the history of child abuse, incidence and statistics, definitions, improved reporting and detection systems, the physician's role, informing the public, child abuse theories, potential for abuse in the parent, the child's own contribution to his or her…

  7. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  8. Psychological Distress in Abused, Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Schiff, Matthew M.

    2000-01-01

    Study assessed whether differences exist in levels of psychological distress in abused, chemically dependent adolescents when compared to non-abused counterparts, and non-abused, non-chemically dependent adolescents. Results indicated abused adolescents demonstrated more severe levels of distress, and earlier onset of alcohol and drug use.…

  9. Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    as family violence and substance abuse . This study advances existing research by using the Army’s unique data resources to simultaneously study...experiencing violence and/or substance abuse and establish best practices for coordinating multiple service delivery for these families. Researchers...hypothesize significant overlap of child abuse , spouse abuse , and/or substance abuse in Army families experiencing violence , and that Army and civilian

  10. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  11. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…

  12. Women and Drugs: The Heroin Abuser and the Prescription Drug Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierres, Sara E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on female drug use/abuse and derived descriptions of the female heroin abuser and the female prescription drug abuser. Researchers suggest that problems of female drug abusers should be viewed in terms of the feminine role as well as the role of drug abuser. (BH)

  13. Dissemination stability and phase noise characteristics in a cascaded, fiber-based long-haul radio frequency dissemination network.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Wang, B; Zhu, X; Yuan, Y B; Wang, L J

    2015-09-01

    To study the dissemination stability and phase noise characteristics of the cascaded fiber-based RF dissemination, we perform an experiment using three sets of RF modulated frequency dissemination systems. The experimental results show that the total transfer stability of the cascaded system can be given by σ(T)(2)=∑(i=1)(N)σ(i)(2) (σ(i) is the frequency dissemination stability of the ith segment and N is the quantity of segments). Furthermore, for each segment, the phase noise of recovered frequency signal is also measured. The results show that for an N-segment, cascaded dissemination system, its stability degrades only by a factor of N. This sub-linear relation makes the cascaded, RF-dissemination method a very attractive one for long-haul, time and frequency dissemination network.

  14. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited.

  15. Parental methamphetamine abuse and children.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Pollack, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine has alluring properties, such as the ability to promote weight loss and wakefulness, and because of its low price and ease of synthesis, methamphetamine abuse is now a nationwide problem in the United States. Unfortunately, the scope of the problem extends beyond adult users to the children of parents who are users. As methamphetamine abuse increases, the consequences of the epidemic pose major health and child welfare concerns. This article describes methamphetamine abuse and the long-term consequences of use, as well as specific nursing interventions to mitigate its effects.

  16. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 5. Maltreatment and Abuse of the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Roberta; Allen, Brad

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to investigate the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, examines two elder abuse projects whose research was widely disseminated and used. The two studies are first described--one conducted at the University of Maryland's Center on Aging with another at the University…

  17. [Disseminated sporotrichosis - clinical case and discussion].

    PubMed

    Barroso Pereira, João Cláudio; Grijó, Amorita; Ribeiro Machado Pereira, Rosângela; Noel S Oliveira, Andreza; de Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia M; Corrêa Brant Machado, Christiane; Veiga Coutinho, Débora; Vale Rios, Danilo; Pereira Pires, Bárbara

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient with a prior history of alcohol abuse who developed nodules and ulcerated skin lesions on his trunk and lower extremities along the line of the lymphatic draining area. The patient's X-ray showed reticular nodular intersticial infiltrates at the lung bases. There was a positive culture of supraclavicular lymph node for Sporothrix schenckii. After specific treatment using mainly potassium iodide, there was regression of cutaneous lesions and lung infiltrates. The authors present a discussion on the deseases' forms of presentation, highlighting the lung involvement ans further discuss the diagnosis and treatment of sporotrichosis.

  18. Care for survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Tidy, H

    1996-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse affects at least 18% of British women but the true figure may be far higher. Repressed memories may resurface at childbirth. Midwives need to be aware of certain behavioural tendencies which may indicate childhood sexual abuse. There are four recognised labour styles which may be adopted by abuse survivors. Extra sensitivity should be used by midwives when caring for a possible abuse survivor. Disclosure of abuse must always come from the client.

  19. The treatment of disseminated vasculitis with methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M S; Gifford, R H; Bertino, J R; Kenney, J D; Malawista, S E

    1976-06-01

    With the great interest in recent years in the use of immunosuppressive/antiinflammatory drugs for the treatment of severe systemic inflammatory disorders, it is surprising that, except in Wegener's granulomatosis, the use of methotrexate (MTX) in disseminated vasculitides has been neglected. We have treated three patients with MTX, each with a different form of severe, corticosteroid-resistant, life-threatening, disseminated vasculitis. One had a nonspecific vasculitis characterized by excruciating muscle pain, weakness, and atrophy; the second had rheumatoid vasculitis with extensive skin ulceration and four-limb mononeuritis multiplex; the third had polyarteritis nodosa with hypertension, eventually fatal renal disease, and severe peripheral neuropathy. Treatment in each case was associated with a dramatic, favorable change in a course previously marked by relentless deterioration; two patients are alive 4 and 5 years later, without MTX. The purpose of this preliminary report is to indicate the possible efficacy of MTX in a wider group of disorders than those to which it is generally limited at present, and to stimulate its further evaluation.

  20. Disseminated Cerebrospinal Embryonal Tumor in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Armocida, Daniele; Caporlingua, Federico; Lapadula, Gennaro; Elefante, Grazia Maria; Antonelli, Manila; Salvati, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. According to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System, the term Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor has been replaced by the term Embryonal Tumor (ET). We present a case of disseminated cerebrospinal ET presenting in an adult patient. Illustrative Case. A 49-year-old male presenting with low back pain, dysuria, and hypoesthesia of the lower extremities referred to our emergency department. Brain and whole spine contrast-enhanced MRI documented a diffusively disseminated heterogeneous neoplasm with intradural extra- and intramedullary involvement of the cervicothoracic tract and cauda equina. A primary biopsy of the lumbosacral localization was performed through L5 bilateral laminectomy. Histologic diagnosis was Embryonal Tumor Not Otherwise Specified. The patient underwent chemotherapy with postoperative adjuvant alternating Vincristine-Doxorubicin-Ifosfamide (VAI) and Ifosfamide-Etoposide (IE). Discussion. Spinal ETs are exceedingly rare especially when presenting in the adult patient. Neurosurgical and oncologic management is still unclear. When feasible, surgical removal should always be performed to obtain a histologic diagnosis. Postoperative adjuvant therapy might entail both chemo- and radiotherapy; however a consensus on this matter is still lacking. PMID:27818821

  1. [Disseminated histoplasmosis treated by boluses of fluconazole].

    PubMed

    Mandengue Ebenye, C; Takuefou Mfangam, B; Nouédoui, C; Atangana, P J A

    2015-01-01

    We report a case in which an HIV-infected man was cured of disseminated histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii) after treatment by high-dose fluconazole (1,600 mg taken four times daily) for 2 months, combined with active antiretroviral therapy. The choice of fluconazole at this dosage was motivated by its availability as a generic and thus inexpensive medication, the patient's precarious status, and his critical clinical condition. At the end of the second month of treatment, the patient chose to stop the fluconazole, which he could no longer afford, while continuing the antiretroviral treatment, which was free. The clinical and laboratory improvement observed from the first week has continued to progress for more than 8 months after fluconazole treatment stopped. This single case needs - and deserves - to be confirmed in a series of patients. Nonetheless it makes it possible to envision fluconazole as a low-cost and efficacious antifungal agent for the treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. A Proposal to Disseminate Patterns in Arithmetic and to Determine Effectiveness of Dissemination. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.

    The primary purpose of this project was to disseminate information about Patterns in Arithmetic (PIA), a grade one through six mathematics program developed by the Wisconsin Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning. Over 30,000 short brochures were mailed to mathematics supervisors, elementary principals, superintendents,…

  3. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    SciTech Connect

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  4. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  5. Eating disorders and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E

    2001-06-01

    This review examines the current debate on the role that sexual and physical abuse may play in predisposing to eating disorders in women. Despite some discordant opinions, clinicians agree that the experience of abuse in early childhood may be important for understanding the complex genesis of the eating disorders of some women. Three groups of studies are presented: those in which no connections emerge between sexual abuse and eating disorders, those in which a strong link is present and those in which the results refer to a multifactorial interpretative model. Some of the main symptoms, such as reactualization of the trauma, dissociation, personality disorders, pathological relationship with food, distortion of body image, suicide attempts and self-inflicted punishment that victims of abuse and eating disordered subjects share are examined.

  6. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e- ...

  7. Abuse and toxicity of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2002-04-01

    The therapeutic use of methylphenidate for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is increasing. As therapeutic use increases, the risk increases of unintentional overdoses, medication errors, and intentional overdoses caused by abuse, misuse, or suicide gestures and attempts. Side effects during therapy, which include nervousness, headache, insomnia, anorexia, and tachycardia, increase linearly with dose. Clinical manifestations of overdoses include agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Methylphenidate tablets can be abused orally, or they can be crushed and the powder injected or snorted. Despite its abuse potential, there is disagreement regarding the extent to which methylphenidate is being diverted from legitimate use to abuse in preteens and adolescents.

  8. Spine Injuries in Child Abuse.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Julio J; Perfetti, Dean C; Cautela, Frank S; Frumberg, David B; Naziri, Qais; Paulino, Carl B

    2016-09-22

    Although rare, spinal injuries associated with abuse can have potentially devastating implications in the pediatric population. We analyzed the association of pediatric spine injury in abused children and determined the anatomic level of the spine affected, while also focusing on patient demographics, length of stay, and total hospital charges compared with spine patients without a diagnosis of abuse. A retrospective review of the Kids' Inpatient Database was conducted from 2000 to 2012 to identify pediatric patients (below 18 y) who sustained vertebral column fractures or spinal cord injuries. Patients with a documented diagnosis of abuse were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Our statistical models consisted of multivariate linear regressions that were adjusted for age, race, and sex. There were 22,192 pediatric patients with a diagnosis of spinal cord or vertebral column injury during the study period, 116 (0.5%) of whom also had a documented diagnosis of abuse. The most common type of abuse was physical (75.9%). Compared with nonabused patients, abused patients were more likely to be below 2 years of age (OR=133.4; 95% CI, 89.5-198.8), female (OR=1.67; 95% CI, 1.16-2.41), and nonwhite (black: OR=3.86; 95% CI, 2.31-6.45; Hispanic: OR=2.86; 95% CI, 1.68-4.86; other: OR=2.33; 95% CI, 1.11-4.86). Abused patients also presented with an increased risk of thoracic (OR=2.57; 95% CI, 1.67-3.97) and lumbar (OR=1.67; 95% CI, 1.03-2.72) vertebral column fractures and had a multivariate-adjusted mean length of stay that was 62.2% longer (P<0.001) and mean total charges that were 52.9% higher (P<0.001) compared with nonabused patients. Furthermore, 19.7% of all pediatric spine patients under 2 years of age admitted during the study period belonged to the abused cohort. Spine injuries are rare but can be found in the pediatric population. With an additional documented diagnosis of abuse, these injuries affect younger patients in the thoracolumbar region of the spine

  9. Community characteristics associated with elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Jogerst, G J; Dawson, J D; Hartz, A J; Ely, J W; Schweitzer, L A

    2000-05-01

    To help define the relationship between elder abuse rates and counties' demographics, healthcare resources, and social service characteristics. County-level data from Iowa were analyzed to test the association between county characteristics and rates of elder abuse between 1984 and 1993 using univariate correlation analysis and stagewise linear regression. Ninety-nine counties in Iowa. Iowa residents aged 65 years and older. County-level population-adjusted numbers of abused elderly, abused children, children in poverty, high school dropouts, physicians and other healthcare providers, hospital beds, social workers and caseworkers in the Department of Human Services (DHS). Community characteristics that had a positive association with rates of reported or substantiated elder abuse at the P < .001 level were population density, children in poverty, and reported child abuse. Lower substantiated elder abuse rates were associated at P < .05 with higher community rates of high school dropouts, number of chiropractors, and number of nurse practitioners. After adjusting for number of DHS caseworkers and reported child abuse rates (a surrogate for workload) a district effect persists for substantiated elder abuse cases (P = .002). County demographics are risk factors for reported and substantiated elder abuse. The strongest risk factor for reported elder abuse was reported child abuse. The difference in districts may reflect differences in resources and/or differing characteristics of caseworkers who substantiate elder abuse. The risk factors may reflect conditions that influence the amount of elder abuse or the detection of existing elder abuse.

  10. Methamphetamine abuse and "meth mouth".

    PubMed

    Rhodus, Nelson L; Little, James W

    2005-01-01

    Dental management for the patient who abuses drugs is always a challenge. The number of patients abusing methamphetamines appears to be increasing. The dentist needs to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients and to attempt to get the patient to seek professional help. Additionally, special attention will be necessary for the high prevalence and severity of oral manifestations including rampant caries, enamel erosion, xerostomia, bruxism, and muscle trismus.

  11. Methamphetamine abuse and "meth mouth".

    PubMed

    Rhodus, Nelson L; Little, James W

    2008-01-01

    Dental management for the patient who abuses drugs is always a challenge. The numbers of patients abusing methamphetamines appears to be increasing. The dentist needs to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients and to attempt to get the patient to seek professional help. Additionally, special attention will be necessary for the high prevalence and severity or oral manifestations including: rampant caries, enamel erosion, xerostomia, bruxism and muscle trismus.

  12. The prescription drug abuse epidemic.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, the nonmedical use of prescription drugs is the second most common illicit drug use, behind only marijuana. This article discusses the abuse issues with three of the most widely abused prescription drugs: opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants (eg, benzodiazepines), and stimulants (eg, amphetamine-dextroamphetamine and methylphenideate) in the United States. Efforts to deal with the problem are described as well.

  13. Abuse and misuse of antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit into the growing crisis of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO using the search terms “antidepressant”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “nonmedical use”, “dependence”, and “addiction”, as well as individual antidepressant classes (eg, “SSRI”) and individual antidepressants (eg, “fluoxetine”) in various combinations, to identify articles of antidepressant misuse and abuse. Results A small but growing literature on the misuse and abuse of antidepressants consists largely of case reports. Most cases of antidepressant abuse have occurred in individuals with comorbid substance use and mood disorders. The most commonly reported motivation for abuse is to achieve a psychostimulant-like effect. Antidepressants are abused at high doses and via a variety of routes of administration (eg, intranasal, intravenous). Negative consequences vary based upon antidepressant class and pharmacology, but these have included seizures, confusion, and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusion The majority of individuals prescribed antidepressants do not misuse the medication. However, certain classes of antidepressants do carry abuse potential. Vulnerable patient populations include those with a history of substance abuse and those in controlled environments. Warning signs include the presence of aberrant behaviors. Physicians should include antidepressants when screening for risky prescription medication use. When antidepressant misuse is detected, a thoughtful treatment plan, including referral to an addiction specialist, should be developed and

  14. Screening for childhood physical and sexual abuse among outpatient substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, T L; Westerberg, V S; Little, L M; Trujillo, M

    1994-01-01

    Research demonstrates that substance-abusing individuals report substantially higher rates of childhood sexual and physical abuse than the general population. This study sought to test a method of identifying substance-abusing clients with histories of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse and to explore the differences between those reporting childhood abuse and those not. Files of substance abusing clients from two distinct time periods were examined for reports of childhood abuse. At Time 1 (n = 399) clients were not systematically asked about experiences of childhood abuse, and at Time 2 (n = 305) clients were routinely asked about this issue. Results indicate that significantly more male and female clients disclosed childhood abuse at Time 2. Additionally, male clients reporting childhood abuse appeared more distressed than those not reporting abuse; female clients reporting childhood abuse did not appear more distressed than their counterparts.

  15. Drug abuse in slum population

    PubMed Central

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  16. Detection of disseminated peritoneal tumors by fluorescein diacrylate in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yoshinori; Furuta, Hirokazu; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Dai, Ping; Fujikawa, Yuta; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo; Morishita, Koki; Hasegawa, Akira; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    Tumor invasion to the peritoneum is a poor prognostic factor in cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of disseminated peritoneal tumors is essential to accurate cancer staging. To date, peritoneal washing cytology during laparotomy has been used for diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of gastrointestinal cancer, but its sensitivity has not been satisfactory. Thus, a more direct approach is indispensable to detect peritoneal dissemination in vivo. Fluorescein diacrylate (FDAcr) is an esterase-sensitive fluorescent probe derived from fluorescein. In cancer cells, fluorescent fluorescein generated by exogenous application of FDAcr selectively deposits owing to its stronger hydrolytic enzyme activity and its lower leakage rate. We examined whether FDAcr can specifically detect disseminated peritoneal tumors in athymic nude mouse models. Intraperitoneally administered FDAcr revealed disseminated peritoneal microscopic tumors not readily recognized on white-light imaging. These results suggest that FDAcr is a useful probe for detecting disseminated peritoneal tumors.

  17. Optimal teaching strategy in periodic impulsive knowledge dissemination system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan-Qing; Wu, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Xin; Guo, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Accurately describing the knowledge dissemination process is significant to enhance the performance of personalized education. In this study, considering the effect of periodic teaching activities on the learning process, we propose a periodic impulsive knowledge dissemination system to regenerate the knowledge dissemination process. Meanwhile, we put forward learning effectiveness which is an outcome of a trade-off between the benefits and costs raised by knowledge dissemination as objective function. Further, we investigate the optimal teaching strategy which can maximize learning effectiveness, to obtain the optimal effect of knowledge dissemination affected by the teaching activities. We solve this dynamic optimization problem by optimal control theory and get the optimization system. At last we numerically solve this system in several practical examples to make the conclusions intuitive and specific. The optimal teaching strategy proposed in this paper can be applied widely in the optimization problem of personal education and beneficial for enhancing the effect of knowledge dissemination. PMID:28665961

  18. Optimal teaching strategy in periodic impulsive knowledge dissemination system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan-Qing; Wu, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Xin; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Accurately describing the knowledge dissemination process is significant to enhance the performance of personalized education. In this study, considering the effect of periodic teaching activities on the learning process, we propose a periodic impulsive knowledge dissemination system to regenerate the knowledge dissemination process. Meanwhile, we put forward learning effectiveness which is an outcome of a trade-off between the benefits and costs raised by knowledge dissemination as objective function. Further, we investigate the optimal teaching strategy which can maximize learning effectiveness, to obtain the optimal effect of knowledge dissemination affected by the teaching activities. We solve this dynamic optimization problem by optimal control theory and get the optimization system. At last we numerically solve this system in several practical examples to make the conclusions intuitive and specific. The optimal teaching strategy proposed in this paper can be applied widely in the optimization problem of personal education and beneficial for enhancing the effect of knowledge dissemination.

  19. Macrophage Function in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0365 TITLE: Macrophage Functions in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nina...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Macrophage Function in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0365... breast cancer , that contained macrophage+/E-Cadherinlo microenvironments frequently had disseminated cancer cell (DCCs) in the bone marrow. We

  20. Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in an Immunocompetent Host

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Pratibha Balasaheb; Chandak, Sachet Vijay; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-01-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a devastating syndrome due to uninhibited immune activation. Disseminated histoplasmosis is a rare cause of HLH. There have been few case reports and series demonstrating a relation between the two disease entities in immunosuppressed hosts. HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis is even rarer in an immunocompetant host. We report a rare case of HLH triggered by disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetant patient. PMID:27134914

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Packer, R.J.; Goldberg, H.I.; Hackney, D.B.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy is a rare syndrome of progressive neurologic deterioration seen most often in patients who have received central nervous system irradiation combined with intrathecal or systemic chemotherapy in the treatment or prophylaxis of various malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting white matter abnormalities in the case of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy reported here. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in diagnosing incipient white matter changes in disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy, thus permitting early, appropriate therapeutic modifications.

  2. Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase. If one accepts the term “late metastases” to indicate a period exceeding 10 years from the removal of the primary tumor, then the two malignancies in which this occurs most frequently are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched with the keywords “metastases,” “early dissemination,” “late recurrences,” “inadvertently transmitted cancer,” “tumor growth rate,” “dormancy,” “circulating tumor cells,” and “transplantation of cancer.” RESULTS Several case reports of early dissemination and late recurrences of various types of malignancies were found. Analyses of the growth rates of several malignant tumors in the original host indicated that the majority of cancers had metastasized years before they were detected. CMM, RCC, and malignant glioblastoma were the three most common malignancies resulting from an organ transplantation. CMM and RCC were also the two most common malignancies that showed dormancy. In several cases of transplanted CMM and RCC, the donor did not have any known malignancy or had had the malignancy removed so long ago that the donor was regarded as cured. CONCLUSION (1) Metastases can frequently exist prior to the detection of the primary tumor. (2) Metastatic cells may reside in organs in the original host that are not

  3. Erythropoietin use and abuse

    PubMed Central

    John, M. Joseph; Jaison, Vineeth; Jain, Kunal; Kakkar, Naveen; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient's disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge. PMID:22470858

  4. Moving knowledge to action through dissemination and exchange.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Michelle L

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the knowledge dissemination and exchange components of the knowledge translation process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically sound application of knowledge. This article presents and discusses approaches to knowledge dissemination and exchange and provides a summary of factors that appear to influence the effectiveness of these processes. It aims to provide practical information for researchers and knowledge users as they consider what to include in dissemination and exchange plans developed as part of grant applications. Not relevant. Dissemination is targeting research findings to specific audiences. Dissemination activities should be carefully and appropriately considered and outlined in a dissemination plan focused on the needs of the audience who will use the knowledge. Researchers should engage knowledge users to craft messages and help disseminate research findings. Knowledge brokers, networks, and communities of practice hold promise as innovative ways to disseminate and facilitate the application of knowledge. Knowledge exchange or integrated knowledge translation involves active collaboration and exchange between researchers and knowledge users throughout the research process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissemination strategy for Lean thinking in health care.

    PubMed

    Dannapfel, Petra; Poksinska, Bozena; Thomas, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about dissemination strategies for Lean thinking throughout multiple healthcare organisations. The Ostergötland county council, Sweden (CCO) was chosen as a case study for an healthcare Lean-thinking dissemination strategies. Document analysis and interviews were used and results were compared with similar strategies employed by staff at the National Health Service Institute for Innovation (NHSI) and improvement in Great Britain and the Odense University Hospital in Denmark. The Lean improvement programme was introduced to tackle challenges such as an ageing society, rising care expectations and budgetary and economic constraints. It was designed as a long-term programme to create added value for patients and employee involvement. The dissemination strategy was: forming clear visions and objectives; piloting; training potential adopters; and formal dissemination. The CCO strategy was focused primarily on managers and was not meant to involve all staff until the implementation stage. Staff at the NHSI attempted to address nurses needs during dissemination, which questioned whether the CCO managers' dissemination strategy is sustainable. This paper inspires healthcare managers and decision makers who aim to disseminate Lean production in their organisations. There are many case studies describing Lean implementation in single healthcare organisations, but little is known about effective dissemination and implementation strategies in large healthcare systems. The authors, therefore, suggest activities for developing and implementing dissemination strategies in multiple healthcare organisations.

  6. Immune-inflammatory markers in massively disseminated cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Panda, Akhila Kumar; Pati, Binod Kumar

    2014-04-09

    Disseminated cysticercosis is a common endemic tropical infection. We report a 24-year-old man who presented with a single episode of focal seizure and transient depression. Imaging studies revealed disseminated vesicular cysticercosis involving almost all the body parts. In spite of severe dissemination and significantly raised immunological inflammatory markers, the patient had negligible symptoms. He was subsequently followed up with oral corticosteroid and antiepileptic drug without further complication. The extensive dissemination, relatively benign nature of the disease and clinicoradiological discordance are interesting to describe. This neglected tropical infection can sometimes be alarming and needs public health awareness.

  7. Methamphetamine Enhances Cryptococcus neoformans Pulmonary Infection and Dissemination to the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhavan; Desai, Gunjan M.; Frases, Susana; Cordero, Radames J. B.; DeLeon-Rodriguez, Carlos M.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Martinez, Luis R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Methamphetamine (METH) is a major addictive drug of abuse in the United States and worldwide, and its use is linked to HIV acquisition. The encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of fungal meningitis in patients with AIDS. In addition to functioning as a central nervous system stimulant, METH has diverse effects on host immunity. Using a systemic mouse model of infection and in vitro assays in order to critically assess the impact of METH on C. neoformans pathogenesis, we demonstrate that METH stimulates fungal adhesion, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) release, and biofilm formation in the lungs. Interestingly, structural analysis of the capsular polysaccharide of METH-exposed cryptococci revealed that METH alters the carbohydrate composition of this virulence factor, an event of adaptation to external stimuli that can be advantageous to the fungus during pathogenesis. Additionally, we show that METH promotes C. neoformans dissemination from the respiratory tract into the brain parenchyma. Our findings provide novel evidence of the impact of METH abuse on host homeostasis and increased permissiveness to opportunistic microorganisms. PMID:23900172

  8. Psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K

    1991-12-01

    This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.

  9. Disseminated lupus vulgaris presenting as granulomatous folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Hruza, G J; Posnick, R B; Weltman, R E

    1989-01-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of scattered, grouped, asymptomatic follicular papules, pustules, and nodules tending toward coalescence into large geographic aggregates. Repeated cutaneous biopsy specimens showed granulomatous folliculitis with negative Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Finally, biopsy material submitted for mycobacterial culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. No evidence of active systemic tuberculosis was found. The patient had a very rare form of tuberculosis, disseminated lupus vulgaris, presenting with granulomatous folliculitis, which is usually not seen in lupus vulgaris. The lesions resolved after an 18-month course of isoniazid and rifampin. The unusual clinical and histologic presentation as well as occasional partial remissions following a variety of nonspecific empiric therapies delayed diagnosis despite multiple evaluations. This case illustrates the importance of obtaining mycobacterial cultures from skin biopsy specimens in addition to special stains whenever cutaneous tuberculosis is suspected.

  10. Multilocular disseminated tarlov cysts: importance of imaging.

    PubMed

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management.

  11. Multilocular Disseminated Tarlov Cysts: Importance of Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P. Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management. PMID:25191117

  12. Disseminating natural language processed clinical narratives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Hripcsak, George; Friedman, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, information can be extracted from clinical narratives for a variety of applications (e.g., patient management). While the complex and nested output of NLP systems can be expressed in standard formats, such as the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), these representations may not be directly suitable for certain end-users or applications. The availability of a âeuro tabular' format that simplifies the content and structure of NLP output may facilitate the dissemination and use by users who are more familiar with common spreadsheet, database, or statistical tools. In this paper, we describe the knowledge-based design of a tabular representation for NLP output and development of a transformation program for the structured output of MedLEE, an NLP system at our institution. Through an evaluation, we found that the simplified tabular format is comparable to existing more complex NLP formats in effectiveness for identifying clinical conditions in narrative reports.

  13. [Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a pediatric case report].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, P; Demonceau, N; Mulder, A; Lebrun, F; Demaret, P

    2015-02-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mainly affecting children. It usually occurs within 2 days to 4 weeks following a triggering factor such a viral infection or an immunization. Clinical presentation is characterized by an acute encephalopathy and by multifocal neurologic abnormalities. In the absence of specific biologic marker, the diagnosis of ADEM is based on clinical, biological and radiological data including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain MRI typically shows multifocal lesions predominantly involving the white matter. Treatment is based on high doses of steroids. Intravenous immunoglobulins or plasmapheresis are sometimes required. The prognosis is usually favorable but neurological sequellae can occur.

  14. Disseminated gonococcal infection: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Saroj; Nazir, Salik; Tachamo, Niranjan; Patel, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Gonococcus typically affects the mucosal surfaces but in rare cases can spread to bloodstream causing disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). The usual presentation of DGI is rash, polyarthralgia, and tenosynovitis. We present the case of a 23-year-old female who presented to our hospital with pustular rash and tenosynovitis of hand and was sent home on Augmentin. Her symptoms worsened despite treatment and she presented back to the ED. On investigation, she was found to have DGI and was appropriately treated. DGI should be kept in mind in sexually active youngsters who have only one or two features of the classic triad of rash, tenosynovitis, and arthritis. Timely management and appropriate treatment of DGI is very important to avoid complications and morbidity. PMID:27406461

  15. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence. PMID:27293443

  16. Prostate cancer: beware of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Mihir; John, Babbin; Evans, Gillian; Eddy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a pathological systemic condition resulting from aberrant activation of the coagulation system. It is characterised by the release and activation of procoagulants into the blood, with an associated consumption coagulopathy. Its association with solid and haematological malignancies is well described in literature. This case describes an elderly man, known to have prostate cancer, who following transurethral resection of the prostate developed DIC with haematuria, spontaneous ecchymoses and mucosal bleeding. Subsequent investigations revealed a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >1000 µg/L, and staging CT showed multiple sclerotic metastatic lesions affecting the thoracic and lumbar vertebra, as well as infiltration into his left femur. Coagulation normalised with blood products and vitamin K within 1 week, and the patient responded to antiandrogen therapy with a reduction in pain and PSA on discharge. PMID:25819815

  17. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in dengue viral infection.

    PubMed

    Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Inche Mat, Liyana Najwa; Hashim, Hasnur Zaman; Hoo, Fan Kee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohamed, Mohd Hazmi; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination. This monophasic illness is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Many dengue studies and case reports have linked ADEM with dengue virus infection but the association is still not clear. Therefore, this article is to review and discuss concerning ADEM in dengue as an immune-medicated neurological complication; and the management strategy required based on recent literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissemination and implementation research in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Steven L; Stoney, Catherine M; Rothman, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Published medical research takes years to change clinical practice. The reasons for this evidence-to-practice gap are many. To address this gap, in recent years the field of dissemination and implementation (D&I) science has grown dramatically. D&I studies design and test strategies to accelerate the movement of new evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers into real-world clinical practice. This article summarizes the proceedings of sessions at the 2011 and 2012 annual meetings of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine that discussed D&I studies in emergency medicine. Examples of current studies are provided, along with a review of D&I methods, funding opportunities, and suggestions for future research.

  19. Cultural dissemination in a complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X. H.; Ye, G. W.; Wang, B.; He, M. F.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a complex contact network is constructed as substrate for cultural diffusion. Agents are partitioned into “clusters”, interpreted as sub-cultural groups. Cultural dissemination works both within the cluster and across clusters. To reflect connection intensity, an extra-cluster interaction damping coefficient is defined. The probability of interaction between agents through the intra-cluster contact is higher than through extra-cluster. Dynamical behavior of the cultural diffusion model is studied in this contact network. It is found that there is a critical value of extra-interaction intensity that separates the system from a multicultural to mono-cultural state for low values of the number of vectors (options) per cultural feature (attribute).

  20. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, J W; Novilla, M N; Fayer, R; Iverson, G C

    1984-12-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  1. Peripartum disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis simulating ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sherer, David M; Osho, Joseph A; Zinn, Harry; Demetus, Spiro; Huang, Jennifer; Temkin, Sarah; Abulafia, Ovadia

    2005-10-01

    Disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis is an uncommon complication of pregnancy. We present a 26-year-old multiparous immigrant from Haiti who was admitted following an extramural preterm delivery. Marked ascites was confirmed by computerized tomography, which also revealed a thickened greater omentum. These findings were considered suggestive of advanced ovarian carcinoma, although extrapulmonary tuberculosis was also considered despite negative tuberculin skin test screening. Image-guided omental biopsy demonstrated caseating granulomas substantiating the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, which was later confirmed by cultures. The patient responded well to antituberculosis medications. This case describes the unusual peripartum presentation of abdominal tuberculosis simulating advanced ovarian carcinoma, and demonstrates the importance of considering extrapulmonary tuberculosis when encountering ascites and omental thickening during pregnancy despite negative tuberculin skin test screening.

  2. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.; Fayer, R.; Iverson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  3. [Analysis of dissemination pathways for poliovirus].

    PubMed

    Ohka, Seii

    2009-06-01

    Poliomyelitis is an acute disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by poliovirus (PV). In humans, an infection is initiated by oral ingestion of the virus, followed by multiplication in the alimentary mucosa, from which the virus spreads through the bloodstream. Paralytic poliomyelitis initiates from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus, probably via the blood-brain barrier. After the virus enters the central nervous system, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, a neuron-specific pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene. It is important for the efficient virus dissemination to overcome the barriers as follows; i) to access the target tissue, ii) to enter the cells, iii) to reach the place for the replication, iv) to replicate efficiently. PV is easily transferred to humans orally; however, no rodent model for oral infections has been developed. We analyzed the each barrier above, and showed that PV is inactivated by the low pH of the gastric contents in mice. We also demonstrated that type 1 interferon signaling plays an important role in determining permissivity in the alimentary tract. As for the neural pathway, we demonstrated that direct efficient interaction between the cytoplasmic domain and cytoplasmic dynein is essential for the efficient retrograde transport of PV-containing vesicles along microtubules for the hPVR-dependent PV transport. On the other hand, we found that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV was also observed in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist.

  4. Mimics of child abuse: Can choking explain abusive head trauma?

    PubMed

    Edwards, George A

    2015-10-01

    Choking is one of the alternative explanations of abusive head trauma in children that have been offered in courtroom testimony and in the media. Most of these explanations - including choking - are not scientifically supported. This article highlights four points. (1) The origins of choking as an explanation for intracranial and retinal hemorrhages are speculative. (2) Choking has been used in high profile court testimony as an explanation for the death of a child thought to have been abused. (3) A case report that proposes choking as an alternative explanation for the death of a child diagnosed with abusive head trauma includes omissions and misrepresentations of facts. (4) There was a decision by the editor of the journal that published the case report that it was not necessary to include all the facts of the case; moreover, the editor indicated that facts are not required when presenting an alternative explanation. The use of scientifically unsupported alternative explanations for abusive head trauma based on inaccurate and biased information constitutes further victimization of the abused child and represents a travesty of justice.

  5. Abuse of older persons: an overview.

    PubMed

    Wieland, D

    2000-07-01

    As demographics in the United States indicate that by 2050 older persons will constitute one-fourth of the population, statistics indicating abuse of older persons will also increase. As a serious social problem, nurses will need to assess and intervene with families where this type of family violence occurs. The types of abuse of older persons include physical, psychological, sexual, and financial abuse; neglect, self-neglect; and other types such as violation of rights, denial of privacy, and denial of participation in decision making. This article examines types of abuse, who is at risk, identifying characteristics of abusers, and nursing assessment and nursing interventions related to abuse of older persons.

  6. Development of the scale of economic abuse.

    PubMed

    Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2008-05-01

    Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.

  7. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypothesis: Disseminated Intravascular Inflammation as the Inflammatory Counterpart to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Brian S.; Bull, Maureen H.

    1994-08-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances-such as erythrocyte salvage-in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality.

  9. Abuse potential of dronabinol (Marinol).

    PubMed

    Calhoun, S R; Galloway, G P; Smith, D E

    1998-01-01

    Dronabinol is an oral form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol indicated for treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in individuals with AIDS, and nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. The authors reviewed the literature and conducted surveys and interviews among addiction medicine specialists, oncologists, researchers in cancer and HIV treatment, and law enforcement personnel to determine the abuse liability of dronabinol. There is no evidence of abuse or diversion of dronabinol. Available prescription tracking data indicates that use remains within the therapeutic dosage range over time. Healthcare professionals have detected no indication of "scrip-chasing" or "doctor-shopping" among the patients for whom they have prescribed dronabinol. Cannabis-dependent populations, such as those treated in our Clinic and seen by the addiction medicine specialists we interviewed, have demonstrated no interest in abuse of dronabinol. There is no street market for dronabinol, and no evidence of any diversion of dronabinol for sale as a street drug. Furthermore, dronabinol does not provide effects that are considered desirable in a drug of abuse. The onset of action is slow and gradual, it is at most only weakly reinforcing, and the overwhelming majority of reports of users indicate that its effects are dysphoric and unappealing. This profile of effects gives dronabinol a very low abuse potential.

  10. [Posturographic alterations in thinner abusers].

    PubMed

    Ishiwara-Niembro, K; Poblano-Luna, A; Pineda-Hernández, G; Ortega-Hernández, P

    Abuse of thinner is a recognized problem in underdeveloped countries, because is in increasing frequency and results in neurological impairments. The objective of this study is to describe the posturographic alterations present in a group of thinner abusers. Thirty patients were recruited from a toxicology center and controls were non exposed subjects age and gender matched; 28 males and 2 females in each group. Posturographic recordings were performed blind to group to study Sensory Organization (SO): visual, somatosensory and vestibular ratios and Strategy Analyses. In SO somatosensory, visual and vestibular systems showed lower values in the thinner abusers group (p= 0.003, 0.0007 and 0.000001 respectively). Significant negative correlation were disclosed between duration of thinner exposure and vestibular ratio performance in sensory analysis (r= 0.48, p= 0.01). In strategy analyses, visual (p= 0.005) and vestibular strategy (p= 0.02) also showed lower values in the thinner abusers group. Data from this study show that thinner abusers present posturographic alterations related to chronic thinner consumption.

  11. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Baker, Amanda L; Deane, Frank P; Brooks, Adam C; Mitchell, Alexandra; Marshall, Sarah; Whittington, Meredith; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2012-02-10

    will also complete weekly self-report measures during the treatment period. This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of introducing a computer delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy based co-morbidity treatment program within a residential substance abuse setting. If shown to be effective, this intervention can be disseminated within other residential substance abuse programs. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000618954.

  12. The Impact of Child Abuse Can Last a Lifetime

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical and emotional neglect, such as withholding affection; sexual and physical abuse; emotional abuse; and witnessing partner abuse. Then they examined the associations of child neglect and abuse with adult job absenteeism, unemployment, ...

  13. Critical care nurses' perspectives on elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Daly, Jeanette M; Schmeidel Klein, Amy N; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2012-01-01

    To explore through interviews of critical care nurses their perspectives on elder abuse to achieve a better understanding of the problems of reporting and generate ideas for improving the process. In 44 states and the District of Columbia health care providers are required by law to report elder abuse but the patient, patient's family and health care providers all have barriers to reporting allegations of elder abuse. This study design is qualitative. Through a mailed survey, critical care nurses were invited to participate in a taped in-depth qualitative interview. Ten nurses were interviewed. A thematic analysis was used to describe the following core themes: types of elder abuse, suspicions of elder abuse, reporting of elder abuse, barriers to reporting elder abuse, legislation and improvement in practice. Critical care nurses are aware of elder abuse and somewhat systematically evaluate for abuse at admission to their unit. They recognize signs and symptoms of abuse and are suspicious when it is warranted. They are aware of why an older person does not want to report abuse and take this into consideration when soliciting information. Facts, values and experience influence personally defining abuse, suspicion and dependence for each individual health care professional. Critical care unit protocols and/or policies and procedure for reporting elder abuse are needed in critical care settings and are warranted for providing quality of care. © 2012 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  14. The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations.

    PubMed

    Bernet, W; Chang, D K

    1997-01-01

    Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

  15. Initial Assessment of Stewards of Children Program Effects on Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Rates in Selected South Carolina Counties

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Nietert, Paul J.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs often include a focus on increased reporting of suspected abuse, in addition to other prevention components such as helping trainees recognize suspected abusive situations. This study aimed to determine whether the Stewards of Children prevention program is associated with increased CSA reporting. Analyses examined whether rates of CSA allegations increased over time in three counties in South Carolina (SC) targeted with program dissemination efforts and whether CSA reporting trends differed between the three targeted counties and three comparison counties that did not experience substantial program dissemination. CSA allegation data were obtained by county and year for predissemination and postdissemination periods from the SC Department of Social Services. Results indicated that, for the targeted counties but not the nontargeted counties, estimated allegation rates increased significantly over time, corresponding with the onset of significant program dissemination efforts. Results also indicated significant between-groups differences in allegation trends for targeted versus nontargeted counties. These findings suggest that the Stewards prevention intervention may be associated with increased CSA allegations. However, results require replication with randomization of counties. Moreover, whether increased reporting is associated with decreased CSA incidence remains unknown. PMID:26530898

  16. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance. 56.6 Section 56.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators...

  17. 40 CFR 56.6 - Dissemination of policy and guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dissemination of policy and guidance. 56.6 Section 56.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.6 Dissemination of policy and guidance. The Assistant Administrators of...

  18. Dissemination of Research to Parents: Issues, Barriers and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pamela J.

    Intended for educational researchers, the paper stresses the importance of disseminating research knowledge to parents, particularly to parents of handicapped children. Barriers to disseminating research knowledge to parents include the low priority of this activity among members of the academic community, the trickles down theory of dissemination…

  19. Ultra-stable radio frequency dissemination in free space.

    PubMed

    Miao, J; Wang, B; Gao, C; Bai, Y; Zhu, X; Wang, L J

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-stable radio frequency (RF) dissemination scheme over 80 m free space. The frequency dissemination stability is 3.2 × 10(-13)/s and 4.4 × 10(-17)/day, which can be applied to transfer frequency signal without compromising its stability in a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) or radio astronomy.

  20. Disseminated Mycobacterium kansasii in an HIV-negative patient.

    PubMed

    Tabarsi, Payam; Baghaei, Parvaneh; Kashani, Babak Sharif; Adimi, Parisa; Novin, Atieh; Mansouri, Davood

    2012-03-01

    Disseminated Mycobacterium kansasii infection is a rare infection in non-HIV patients. This research has uncovered a very rare manifestation of disseminated M. kansasii infection in a non-HIV patient with lung and pericardial involvement. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Do Haphazard Reviews Provide Sound Directions for Dissemination Efforts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen; Littell, Julia H.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts by Kathryn R. McHugh and David H. Barlow. The lead article in the February-March issue by McHugh and Barlow (2010) emphasized the need for "dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments."…

  2. Improvement of the Dissemination Function of State Departments of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Virginia M.

    This project was undertaken by the Texas Education Agency to strengthen the dissemination function of state education departments. Among objectives were to (1) clarify understanding and increase knowledge of information dissemination, (2) strengthen the state's information link between information sources and practitioners in schools, (3) provide…

  3. Cultivating Change: Disseminating Innovation in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannaway, Deanne; Hinton, Tilly; Berry, Bianca; Moore, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    Effective dissemination is crucial if innovation and development in teaching and learning in higher education are to lead to sustainable changes in practice. In 2003, King used an agricultural metaphor to challenge innovators to understand the purposes behind their dissemination aims. Similar to the way that seed can be spread, one could choose to…

  4. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... best practices. (c) Specific target audiences must be identified for dissemination activities and... Affiliated Programs, and State service systems to disseminate information to target audiences. (e) The... of disabilities, and appropriate target audiences. (i) The UAP must contribute to the development of...

  5. 21 CFR 99.101 - Information that may be disseminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information that may be disseminated. 99.101 Section 99.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disseminate written information concerning the safety, effectiveness, or benefit of a use not described in...

  6. A Dissemination Model for New Technical Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    The Technical Education Research Center-SW has conceived, tested, and refined a model for disseminating newly developed programs and materials throughout the nation. The model performed successfully in the dissemination of more than 50,000 educational units (modules) of Laser/Electro-Optics Technician (LEOT) materials during a four-year period…

  7. Herculean appearance due to disseminated cysticercosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Jain, Shraddha; Kashikar, Shivali

    2012-12-01

    Cysticercosis is a common tropical disease. Disseminated form is one of the uncommon manifestations and a rare complication of this disease. We report an immunocompetent patient with disseminated cysticercosis who had involvement of the brain and skeletal muscles giving rise to Herculean appearance. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photoletter to the editor: Disseminated histoplasmosis with initial oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Surabhi; Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K

    2013-03-30

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that may present in a variety of clinical manifestations. Involvment of the oral mucosa is very rare and may occur as part of disseminated histoplasmosis or as isolated involvement. We present a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis, in whom oral lesions were the initial manifestation of the disease.

  9. A Dissemination Model for New Technical Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    The Technical Education Research Center-SW has conceived, tested, and refined a model for disseminating newly developed programs and materials throughout the nation. The model performed successfully in the dissemination of more than 50,000 educational units (modules) of Laser/Electro-Optics Technician (LEOT) materials during a four-year period…

  10. Tracheal and endobronchial involvement in disseminated histoplasmosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Youness, Houssein; Michel, Ross G; Pitha, Jan V; Jones, Kellie R; Kinasewitz, Gary T

    2009-12-01

    Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection that can involve any organ when disseminated. Although oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and endobronchial involvement have been described, direct tracheal involvement has not been reported. We describe the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis with direct involvement of the trachea. The endobronchial manifestations of histoplasmosis are reviewed.

  11. Cultivating Change: Disseminating Innovation in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannaway, Deanne; Hinton, Tilly; Berry, Bianca; Moore, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    Effective dissemination is crucial if innovation and development in teaching and learning in higher education are to lead to sustainable changes in practice. In 2003, King used an agricultural metaphor to challenge innovators to understand the purposes behind their dissemination aims. Similar to the way that seed can be spread, one could choose to…

  12. ASCEND: A Systematic Career Education Network for Dissemination. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Center for Career and Occupational Education.

    Project ASCEND (A Systematic Career Education Network for Dissemination) of the Center for Career and Occupational Education (CCOE) in New York City developed (1) a sustained communication network in career education and (2) a kit for the dissemination of career education concepts, strategies, and materials into this network. Surveys of the…

  13. Abuse and violence in families.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2017-03-31

    Abuse and violence within families is both a global and gendered health issue (World Health Organization, 2013, 2014). In fact, one in every three women have experienced violence from an intimate partner in their lifetime, presenting equity, social justice and human rights concerns across the globe (García-Moreno, Jansen, Ellsberg, Heise, & Watts, 2005). Abuse and violence in families occurs in varying forms: intimate partner violence or maltreatment of children (often referred to as domestic violence), child to mother violence, or abuse of elder family members. These cut across ethnic groups, socioeconomic levels, and family configurations, including nuclear families comprised of two parents and children as well as extended family networks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. BRIEF INTERVENTIONS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil

    2000-01-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority. PMID:21407932

  15. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  16. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Long, Patricia J.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual, physical, and psychological abuse with a sample of 633 college women. Survivors of CSA experienced more instances of physical abuse and psychological maltreatment than nonvictims. They were more likely to report unwanted sexual intercourse both by acquaintances due to force, and by acquaintances…

  18. DDDRC: decentralised data dissemination in VANET using raptor codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2015-06-01

    The design of data dissemination protocol has been a great challenge due to the highly dynamic and unreliable wireless channel in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET). In literature, several interesting solutions are proposed to perform data dissemination for this environment. But these solutions either use architectures requiring centralised coordination or global network knowledge or large intermediate buffers. In this paper, we propose a decentralised technique that overcomes above requirements and provides reliable and scalable communication in both dense and sparse traffic for VANET. Random walks are used in the proposed technique to disseminate data from one vehicle to other vehicles in the network. We use raptor codes to provide low decoding complexity and more scalability for data dissemination. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique has better fault tolerance with lower complexity than general random-walk-based dissemination process and more scalability as compared to the other protocols.

  19. Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based.

  20. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished

  1. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  2. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164283.html Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace Survey, analysis reveal the ... 24, 2017 FRIDAY, March 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Substance abuse exacts a heavy toll on the American workplace, ...

  4. Smoking Slows Recovery from Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... illicit drug users also smoke cigarettes, but many substance abuse programs do not include treatment for nicotine dependence, ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Drug Abuse Smoking Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  5. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Parents > Cough ... cough and cold medicine. Why Do Kids Abuse Cough and Cold Remedies? Before the U.S. Food and ...

  6. Child Abuse: One Tree in the Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burland, J. Alexis; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The records of 28 abused or severely neglected children, as reviewed and analyzed, show the importance of meeting the child's and parent's dependency needs, rather than focusing exclusively on the abuse itself. (Author/CS)

  7. Violence and Abuse in Rural America

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be damaged. This guide addresses the wide range of abuses that may take place in rural communities, including but not limited to: Neglect Child abuse Domestic violence, also known as intimate partner violence (IPV) Sex ...

  8. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too much alcohol might forget things that happened when they were ...

  9. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  10. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts Social Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Abuse At around the age of 10, I ... the company of other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. ...

  11. Preventing Drug Abuse Through Behavior Change Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses several principles derived from learning theory which aid in understanding the use and abuse of drugs and illustrates their role in behavioral group counseling, a promising new strategy for drug abuse prevention. (JC)

  12. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  13. Neighborhood Crime Rates among Drug Abusing and Non-Drug Abusing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Norris; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…

  14. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  15. Growing up with Parental Alcohol Abuse: Exposure to Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Shanta R.; Anda, Robert F.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Croft, Janet B.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 8,629 adults examined the association between parental alcohol abuse and child abuse, neglect, and other household dysfunction. Compared to households without alcohol abuse, the adjusted odds ratio for each category of adverse childhood experience was 2 to 13 times higher if parents abused alcohol. (Contains references.) (CR)

  16. Human rights abuses, transparency, impunity and the Web.

    PubMed

    Miles, Steven H

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews how human rights advocates during the "war-on-terror" have found new ways to use the World Wide Web (Web) to combat human rights abuses. These include posting of human rights reports; creating large, open-access and updated archives of government documents and other data, tracking CIA rendition flights and maintaining blogs, e-zines, list-serves and news services that rapidly distribute information between journalists, scholars and human rights advocates. The Web is a powerful communication tool for human rights advocates. It is international, instantaneous, and accessible for uploading, archiving, locating and downloading information. For its human rights potential to be fully realized, international law must be strengthened to promote the declassification of government documents, as is done by various freedom of information acts. It is too early to assess the final impact of the Web on human rights abuses in the "war-on-terror". Wide dissemination of government documents and human rights advocates' reports has put the United States government on the defensive and some of its policies have changed in response to public pressure. Even so, the essential elements of secret prisons, detention without charges or trials, and illegal rendition remain intact.

  17. [Adolescents who sexually abuse children].

    PubMed

    Boden, S; Malchair, A; Bertrand, J

    1999-06-01

    The adolescents responsible for sexual abuses on children confront the medico-psycho-social workers with many questions. In this article, thanks to a bibliographical approach, we first discuss the definitions concerning sexual abuses and paedophilia as well as family, psychodynamic and legal specificities of adolescents. We then mention a few epidemiological facts as well as the different behavioural cognitive, psychodynamic and family hypotheses related to that problem. We finally illustrate all this through two clinical cases encountered during our ambulatory exercise and submit some thinking to readers.

  18. Neurobehavioral Sequelae of Psychostimulant Abuse.

    PubMed

    Djamshidian, Atbin

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a heterogeneous group of drugs known not only for its arousal and motor activity enhancing effects but also for its high risk of abuse. In susceptible individuals, chronic use can cause addiction leading to devastating physical, psychological, and social health consequences. This chapter will focus on the neurobehavioral consequences of psychostimulant abuse. Different models and theories of addiction and possible underlying mechanisms as well as changed in decision making on neuropsychological tasks have been discussed. Prevention and early behavioral intervention are of paramount importance given the lack of approved drug therapies for these patients. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What's a Kid To Do about Child Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittleman, Margo

    This booklet discusses child abuse, targeting pre-teenagers and teenagers. It describes what child abuse is, why it happens, and what a teenager can do about it. These topics are covered: (1) definition of child abuse and types of child abuse; (2) differentiating between child abuse and discipline; (3) sexual abuse; (4) family types of child…

  20. Abuse and Misuse of Pregabalin and Gabapentin.

    PubMed

    Evoy, Kirk E; Morrison, Megan D; Saklad, Stephen R

    2017-03-01

    Gabapentinoid (pregabalin and gabapentin) abuse is increasingly being reported. To assess the extent of gabapentinoid abuse, characteristics of typical abusers, patterns of abuse, and potential harms in order to bring this trend to providers' attention. A systematic review of MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and US FDA data, indexed through 28 July 2016, utilizing the following searches: pregabalin OR gabapentin OR gabapentinoid AND one of the following: abuse, misuse, overdose, or substance-related disorders[MESH], was conducted. Additional studies were identified through review of references. English-language epidemiological studies, clinical studies, and case reports/series of gabapentinoid abuse/misuse/overdose were included. The authors reached consensus regarding study inclusion after full-text review. The body of literature was assessed for bias qualitatively. Fifty-nine studies were included in this systematic review (24 epidemiological, three clinical abuse liability, 16 abuse/misuse/dependence case reports/series, 17 acute overdose case reports/series-one included both an epidemiological study and case series and was included in both counts). Analysis of these studies indicates increasing numbers of patients are self-administering higher than recommended doses to achieve euphoric highs. In the general population, a 1.6% prevalence of gabapentinoid abuse was observed, whereas prevalence ranged from 3% to 68% among opioid abusers. An international adverse event database identified 11,940 reports of gabapentinoid abuse from 2004-2015, with >75% reported since 2012. Risk factors include a history of substance abuse, particularly opioids, and psychiatric co-morbidities. While effects of excessively high doses are generally non-lethal, gabapentinoids are increasingly being identified in post-mortem toxicology analyses. Evidence suggests gabapentinoids possess potential for abuse, particularly in individuals with a history of opioid abuse, and