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Sample records for abuse witnessing parental

  1. Parent Abuse: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

  2. Dynamics of Parental Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Eugene; Schlater, Theodore L.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of the various categories of parental abuse are examined with special emphasis on abuse by adult offspring living in the same household or adults acting as caretakers or legal guardians for their elderly parents. Society's role in the dynamics of parental abuse is examined.

  3. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  4. Parents Who Abuse: What Are They Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Alexandra C.; Prinz, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse is a major social concern around the world. Important to tackling the problem is an understanding of the mechanisms contributing to abusive parenting. This article brings together research on the cognitive variables associated with abusive or high-risk parenting. Considered are dysfunctional child-centered and parent-centered…

  5. Resocialization of Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Margot

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that workers focus on strengthening parents' feelings of competence as a positive, stress-reducing approach to the reparenting role. Also analyzes the various responsibilities of the workers as nurturers-cum-educators and describes techniques that can be used in reparenting. (Author)

  6. Parents who abuse: what are they thinking?

    PubMed

    Seng, Alexandra C; Prinz, Ronald J

    2008-12-01

    Child abuse is a major social concern around the world. Important to tackling the problem is an understanding of the mechanisms contributing to abusive parenting. This article brings together research on the cognitive variables associated with abusive or high-risk parenting. Considered are dysfunctional child-centered and parent-centered cognitions as potentially critical correlates of abusive behavior. The development of dysfunctional cognitions is also explored. Cognitive vulnerabilities alone are typically not sufficient for the occurrence of abuse. Interactions with additional factors, such as an ability to inhibit aggression, problem-solving capabilities, parenting skills, social isolation, and societal context are examined. PMID:18548348

  7. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  8. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  9. Parent-youth discordance about youth-witnessed violence: Associations with trauma symptoms and service use in an at-risk sample

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth and parents about youth witnessed violence, and determine whether concordance predicted trauma symptoms and recognition of need and receipt of counseling services. Methods Concordance about youth-witnessed violence was examined in 766 dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Youth participants self-reported trauma symptoms, caregivers indicated youth need for and receipt of services. Both youth and parents provided information about youth-witnessed violence exposure in the last year. Results Results showed youth and caregivers differed significantly about youth-witnessed violence. Specifically, 42% of youth reported youth-witnessed violence, compared to only 15% of parents. For those parents who reported youth-witnessed violence, only 29% reported an identified need for services and only 17% reported the youth had received any mental health services. Concordance between parent-youth dyads was associated with greater identified need for services but was not associated with the use of counseling services or trauma symptoms. Conclusions Youth who reported witnessing violence reported more frequent trauma symptoms regardless of concordance. Parents from dyads in which both informants reported youth-witnessed violence were more likely to endorse need for, but not receipt of counseling services. Given this association between youth-witnessed violence and mental health problems, more work is needed to identify barriers to concordance as well as service utilization. PMID:23153569

  10. Personality Characteristics of Child Abusing Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Clyde; And Others

    A study involving 22 fathers and 21 mothers was conducted to explore several personality characteristics of child abusive parents which may set them apart from nonabusive peers. A social history was taken, and each parent completed both the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Among findings…

  11. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  12. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  13. Working with Abusive Parents from a Psychiatric Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Brandt F.

    Child abuse and neglect is seen as an abnormal parenting behavior which has resulted from neglect or abuse of the abusive parents during their early lives. Included are brief sections on the following topics: the development of the abusive child-rearing pattern (lack of sufficient love and care, extremely high premature demand for performance, and…

  14. Couples therapy with childhood sexual abuse survivors (CSA) and their partners: establishing a context for witnessing.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Ron; Nadan, Yochay

    2013-09-01

    This article proposes a clinical practice for therapy with couples in which one partner suffered sexual abuse in childhood. Such couples often encounter unique difficulties with physical contact, intimacy, sexuality, communication, and trust, and their relationship dynamic may be marked by reenactments of past traumatic relational patterns. This clinical practice is founded on the assumption that establishing the witnessing lacking during the traumatic event in childhood can break the traumatic reenactments in adulthood, and spur recovery. The suggested practice may facilitate twofold witnessing: the couple's therapist witnesses the reenactments of the trauma in the couple's relationship; and the survivor's partner witnesses the trauma's effect on the survivor's personal life and relationship. Twofold witnessing can help break the cycle of traumatic reenactment and help the survivor integrate the events of her life into a more coherent, continuous narrative. The partner's presence also facilitates acknowledgement of what happened to the survivor, and helps the survivor elaborate on her stories of resistance, survival, and strength. Finally, each of the partners is able to appear more wholly and fully, and together to tell the preferred stories of their life as a couple, replete with the multiple relational patterns they wish to live, which may contradict the characteristics of the original trauma. PMID:24033236

  15. Witnessed resuscitation: staff issues and benefits to parents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hazel

    2009-07-01

    Should relatives be made welcome in a resuscitation room to witness emergency medical treatment of a family member? This is a major issue in emergency departments worldwide. Attitudes of staff and relatives are mixed, and the benefits suggest further long-term research is needed to review the psychological effects on loved ones. This article will considers the background of witnessed resuscitation, as well as the views of both staff and relatives involved. The research will be evaluated and implications for practice explored.

  16. Collateral therapy for the abused child and the problem parent.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, M L

    1979-07-01

    Physical or sexual abuse of children is a psychopathic situation wherein both the abused child and the problem parent require collateral therapy with the eventual aim of rehabilitating the family by reinstating the child. The abusive diathesis of the parent is rooted in her or his inadequately nurtured childhood.

  17. Expert I-Witness Accounts of Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Abused as Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthel-Hackman, Tam

    Using a feminist and subversive perspective, a study examined the testimonies of five adult females each having experienced childhood sexual abuse. All the subjects--participants in a multi-medium art show sponsored by an urban mental health center--contacted the researcher voluntarily. Participants ranged in age from 39 to 54; sexual orientation…

  18. Risk factors of abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    It is interesting that there is scant research of abuse of parents by their children and no study was found on the abuse of parents by their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Seventy-four children and adolescents suffering from ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire was developed to assess the children's abuse toward parents. More than half of the parents are suffering from at least one of the forms of abuse by their ADHD children. Scores of parental abuse were not related to gender. Different types of abuse correlated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Fathers' and mothers' age, the level of education, and type of occupation were not risk factors of the abuse scores. ODD and mother's major depressive disorder were predictors of the abuse. There was a very disturbing high rate of abuse by children against parents. There is an interrelation of different forms of abuse. This study contributes to increasing awareness on the abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

  19. Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families.

  20. Does witnessing resuscitation help parents come to terms with the death of their child? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kathryn; Ritchie, Dawn; Adams, Gary

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this review is to determine if witnessed resuscitation helps parents come to terms with the death of their child. Witnessed resuscitation is a controversial subject. There is disagreement in the literature and the opinions of healthcare professionals, as to whether parents should be present during the resuscitation of their children. This is an international problem that occurs consistently, when caring for patients requiring resuscitation. Despite this, however, research indicates that the advantages of this form of resuscitation for parents far outweigh the disadvantages. Electronic searches of PubMed, CINAHL and OVID were performed, with a manual search of retrieved articles. Primary studies, which were included, examined parents' views of witnessed resuscitation in children. Of 1038 articles, eight met the inclusion criteria. These included qualitative and quantitative studies, which explored whether parents wanted to be present. The benefits and detrimental effects were explored, in order to determine whether witnessed resuscitation helps parents come to terms with the death of their child. Of 1253 parents, 87.1% wanted to be present. All but one parent believed witnessing resuscitation should be the choice of the parent and all but one parent who was present would do so again indicating that witnessed resuscitation is beneficial to parents. Effective parental support is needed whatever their choice and policies need to be in place to support witnessed resuscitation. More research is required to establish the long term outcomes of witnessed resuscitation as no randomised controlled trials have yet been completed.

  1. Adolescents Who Witness Community Violence: Can Parent Support and Prosocial Cognitions Protect Them from Committing Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of witnessing violence on committing violence among diverse urban middle school students (11-15 years old) over a 1-year period (N=1,599). It examined parent support and prosocial cognitions as moderators that might interact with one another in buffering adolescents from the effects of witnessing…

  2. Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…

  3. An Examination of the Association between Interviewer Question Type and Story-Grammar Detail in Child Witness Interviews about Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltis, Brooke B.; Powell, Martine B.; Snow, Pamela C.; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effects of open-ended versus specific questions, and various types of open-ended questions, in eliciting story-grammar detail in child abuse interviews. Methods: The sample included 34 police interviews with child witnesses aged 5-15 years ("M" age = 9 years, 9 months). The interviewers' questions and their…

  4. Mental Health Professionals as Expert Witnesses in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: A Legal Perspective on the Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, David W.

    For the past several years, mental health professionals have been asked to testify as expert witnesses in court cases involving child sexual abuse. There is much controversy within the mental health profession and law about the propriety of such expert testimony. The controversy consists of three main issues. The first issue, the conflict between…

  5. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  6. Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania.

  7. Interventions to address parenting and parental substance abuse: conceptual and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Neger, Emily N; Prinz, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Parental substance abuse is a serious problem affecting the well-being of children and families. The co-occurrence of parental substance abuse and problematic parenting is recognized as a major public health concern. This review focuses on 21 outcome studies that tested dual treatment of substance abuse and parenting. A summary of theoretical conceptualizations of the connections between substance abuse and parenting provides a backdrop for the review. Outcomes of the dual treatment studies were generally positive with respect to reduction of parental substance use and improvement of parenting. Research in this area varied in methodological rigor and needs to overcome challenges regarding design issues, sampling frame, and complexities inherent in such a high-risk population. This area of work can be strengthened by randomized controlled trials, use of mixed-methods outcome measures, consideration of parent involvement with child protective services, involvement of significant others in treatment, provision of concrete supports for treatment attendance and facilitative public policies.

  8. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  9. The conversation: interacting with parents when child abuse is suspected.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews some of the challenges and pitfalls in communicating with families when abuse is part of the differential diagnosis and offers some suggestions for improving communication with parents and children in these challenging clinical settings.

  10. The conversation: interacting with parents when child abuse is suspected.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews some of the challenges and pitfalls in communicating with families when abuse is part of the differential diagnosis and offers some suggestions for improving communication with parents and children in these challenging clinical settings. PMID:25242710

  11. Subgroups of physically abusive parents based on cluster analysis of parenting behavior and affect.

    PubMed

    Haskett, Mary E; Scott, Susan Smith; Ward, Caryn Sabourin

    2004-10-01

    Cluster analysis of observed parenting and self-reported discipline was used to categorize 83 abusive parents into subgroups. A 2-cluster solution received support for validity. Cluster 1 parents were relatively warm, positive, sensitive, and engaged during interactions with their children, whereas Cluster 2 parents were relatively negative, disengaged or intrusive, and insensitive. Further, clusters differed in emotional health, parenting stress, perceptions of children, and problem solving. Children of parents in the 2 clusters differed on several indexes of social adjustment. Cluster 1 parents were similar to nonabusive parents (n = 66) on parenting and related constructs, but Cluster 2 parents differed from nonabusive parents on all clustering variables and many validation variables. Results highlight clinically relevant diversity in parenting practices and functioning among abusive parents.

  12. Reviewing the Association between the History of Parental Substance Abuse and the Rate of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi-Doust, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance abuse is a social, and health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. One of its most devastating effects is domestic violence against children. This study examined the association between the history of parental substance abuse, and rate of child abuse in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This was a case-control study. The study population included all parents with high school children in Ahwaz within the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was 384 people in two groups; with a history of substance abuse (case group) and no history of substance abuse (control group). Multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used through the Cochran formula. The data collection tools included a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein, 1995), a demographic questionnaire, Duncan Socioeconomic Index (DSI), and a researcher-made questionnaire for the history of substance abuse. For data analysis, statistical indicators such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and correlation and regression analysis were used. Findings Data analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation among parents with a history of substance abuse and domestic violence toward children. Mean and standard deviation of the violence level in families with normal parents were 61.34 ± 16.88, and in families with a history of substance abuse were 98.99 ± 32.07. Therefore, the test results showed that there was a significant difference between normal families and families with history of substance abuse and violence toward children (P < 0.001, t = 8.60). Conclusion Based on the findings, the history of domestic violence and parental substance abuse (physical and emotional abuse, emotional and physical neglect) had a significant positive correlation with their behavior toward their children. After matching the two groups we found that the most common types of violence against children by their parents were, respectively, emotional violence (r = 58

  13. Understanding the diverse needs of children whose parents abuse substances.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M

    2012-06-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present. PMID:22455509

  14. Understanding the diverse needs of children whose parents abuse substances.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M

    2012-06-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present.

  15. Relation Between Witnessing Violence and Drug Use Initiation Among Rural Adolescents: Parental Monitoring and Family Support as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Kung, Eva M.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation between witnessing violence and drug use initiation among 6th graders attending middle schools in 5 rural counties and investigated the extent to which family support and parental monitoring moderated this relation. Data were obtained from 1,282 adolescents at 2 time points during the 6th grade. Witnessing violence…

  16. Parenting Profiles and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Attitudes and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-05-01

    Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth.

  17. Parenting Profiles and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Attitudes and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-05-01

    Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth. PMID:26906058

  18. Parental Abuse as a Mediator of Codependence among Alcoholics' Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehling, Patricia V.; And Others

    Despite little empirical evidence, many psychotherapists believe that parental alcoholism inevitably results in codependence among alcoholics' offspring. The present study examines the hypothesis that intervening factors, such as abusive parenting, mediate the development of codependence. To test this premise, 247 undergraduates completed…

  19. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect through Parent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppucci, N. Dickon; Britner, Preston A.; Woolard, Jennifer L.

    In 1993, the Community Research Group (CRG) at the University of Virginia was provided the opportunity to gather systematic information on parent education and family support programs for the prevention of abuse and neglect throughout Virginia. Based on the group's research into 25 distinct parenting programs, this book outlines an empowering…

  20. Predictors of Parenting Stress for Abusive and Nonabusive Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Andrea V.; Lewis, Kristen M.; Lynn, Amy E.; Haskett, Mary E.; Behrend, Tara S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined a model of parenting stress for abusive mothers (n = 80) and nonabusive mothers (n = 86) using linear regression analyses. Predictors in the model included (a) the degree to which mothers were bothered by child misbehavior, (b) mothers' general psychological functioning, and (c) observed child behavior during parent-child interactions.…

  1. Parental Expectations and Attitudes About Childrearing in High Risk Vs. Low Risk Child Abusing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Gary C.

    This book presents a critical and integrative review of extant literature on child abuse, and the methodology and results of a study investigating relationships among types of abusing parents (disciplinarian parents and inadequate parents), parental attitudes about childrearing and perceptions of their children, and severity of child abuse.…

  2. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  3. Parenting and children's externalizing problems in substance-abusing families.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-09-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399 children between the ages of 6 and 18, controlling for nonindependence of ratings at the family level. The model also tested potential moderators, including child age, gender, and ethnicity (White vs. other), and caregiver gender (families with a female substance-abusing caregiver vs. families with a male substance-abusing caregiver). Results indicated that caregiver ratings of monitoring predicted rule-breaking behavior and use of inconsistent discipline predicted ratings of all 3 externalizing syndromes, after controlling parenting and externalizing problems for the effects of the moderators and after controlling significant relations among types of parenting and types of externalizing problems.

  4. Parenting and children's externalizing problems in substance-abusing families.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-09-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399 children between the ages of 6 and 18, controlling for nonindependence of ratings at the family level. The model also tested potential moderators, including child age, gender, and ethnicity (White vs. other), and caregiver gender (families with a female substance-abusing caregiver vs. families with a male substance-abusing caregiver). Results indicated that caregiver ratings of monitoring predicted rule-breaking behavior and use of inconsistent discipline predicted ratings of all 3 externalizing syndromes, after controlling parenting and externalizing problems for the effects of the moderators and after controlling significant relations among types of parenting and types of externalizing problems. PMID:15271616

  5. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  6. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  7. Drug Abuse: A Handbook for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittenberg, Erica

    Designed for parents of adolescents, this handbook provides drug information and suggestions for parental action regarding children's drug use. The first of seven chapters places adolescent drug use in its social context. Chapter 2 describes home prevention strategies. Chapter 3 focuses on the reasons children take drugs. Chapter 4 describes…

  8. Youth Drug Abuse in New York. Hearing before the Subcommitte of the Committee on Appropriations. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session. Special Hearing: Congressional Witnesses, Nondepartmental Witnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Appropriations.

    This document contains Congressional and nondepartmental witness testimony from the Congressional hearing on youth drug abuse in New York. Opening statements are presented on the incidence of drug use in America, the role of the federal government, the impact of drugs on youth, foreign country production of illegal drugs, funding to fight illegal…

  9. The Trial of the Expert Witness: Negotiating Credibility in Child Abuse Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Afros, Elena; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee; Lingard, Lorelei

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on forensic letters written by physicians specializing in identifying children who have experienced maltreatment. These writers face an extraordinary exigence in that they must provide an opinion as to whether a child has experienced abuse without specifically diagnosing abuse and thus crossing into a legal domain. Their…

  10. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  11. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  12. Words that Hurt: A Qualitative Study of Parental Verbal Abuse in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Jennifer; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study…

  13. Minority Families Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect through Parenting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Carmen P.

    The main purpose of Avance-San Antonio, Inc. is to strengthen and support families, especially "high risk" Mexican American families, and to help to prevent child abuse and neglect through parenting education services. Avance actively reaches out to the Hispanic population in their own neighborhoods through door-to-door recruiting, flyers, and…

  14. Using hidden cameras to monitor suspected parental abuse.

    PubMed

    Arterburn, T

    2001-01-01

    In using hidden cameras to monitor suspected parental abuse a security requirement or an invasion of privacy? Covert surveillance of patients suspected of having Munchausen syndrome by proxy at an Atlanta children's hospital resulted in considerable media scrutiny when researchers published their findings. This article presents details of the research, the involvement of security officers, and the reactions of local authorities and health officials.

  15. Working With Abusive/Neglectful Indian Parents. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    Considering such factors as disruption of Indian families caused by Anglo educational programs (missionary schools, BIA boarding schools), by Indian relocation programs, and other non-Indian institutions, many of today's abusive and neglectful Indian parents were victims as children in these same institutions. The 9-page information sheet offers a…

  16. Interventions to Address Parenting and Parental Substance Abuse: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Neger, Emily N.; Prinz, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is a serious problem affecting the well-being of children and families. The co-occurrence of parental substance abuse and problematic parenting is recognized as a major public health concern. This review focuses on 21 outcome studies that tested dual treatment of substance abuse and parenting. A summary of theoretical conceptualizations of the connections between substance abuse and parenting provides a backdrop for the review. Outcomes of the dual treatment studies were generally positive with respect to reduction of parental substance use and improvement of parenting. Research in this area varied in methodological rigor and needs to overcome challenges regarding design issues, sampling frame, and complexities inherent in such a high-risk population. This area of work can be strengthened by randomized controlled trials, use of mixed-methods outcome measures, consideration of parent involvement with child protective services, involvement of significant others in treatment, provision of concrete supports for treatment attendance and facilitative public policies. PMID:25939033

  17. Modeling risk for child abuse and harsh parenting in families with depressed and substance-abusing parents.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lawrence, Hannah R; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Henson, James M

    2015-05-01

    Children with substance abusing parents are at considerable risk for child maltreatment. The current study applied an actor-partner interdependence model to examine how father only (n=52) and dual couple (n=33) substance use disorder, as well as their depressive symptomology influenced parents' own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) overreactivity in disciplinary interactions with their children, as well as their risk for child maltreatment. Parents completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), the overreactivity subscale from the Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993), and the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Ondersma, Chaffin, Mullins, & LeBreton, 2005). Results of multigroup structural equation models revealed that a parent's own report of depressive symptoms predicted their risk for child maltreatment in both father SUD and dual SUD couples. Similarly, a parent's report of their own depressive symptoms predicted their overreactivity in disciplinary encounters both in father SUD and dual SUD couples. In all models, partners' depressive symptoms did not predict their partner's risk for child maltreatment or overreactivity. Findings underscore the importance of a parent's own level of depressive symptoms in their risk for child maltreatment and for engaging in overreactivity during disciplinary episodes.

  18. Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision. METHODS: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche. RESULTS: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned. CONCLUSIONS: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance. PMID:26391935

  19. Change Trajectories for Parent-Child Interaction Sequences during Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…

  20. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  1. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  2. Witness recall across repeated interviews in a case of repeated abuse.

    PubMed

    Brubacher, Sonja P; La Rooy, David

    2014-02-01

    In this illustrative case study we examine the three forensic interviews of a girl who experienced repeated sexual abuse from ages 7 to 11. She disclosed the abuse after watching a serialized television show that contained a storyline similar to her own experience. This triggered an investigation that ended in successful prosecution of the offender. Because this case involved abuse that was repeated on a weekly basis for 4 years we thus investigated the degree to which the child's narrative reflected specific episodes or generic accounts, and both the interviewer's and child's attempts to elicit and provide, respectively, specific details across the 3 interviews collected in a 1 month period. Across the 3 interviews, the child's account was largely generic, yet on a number of occasions she provided details specific to individual incidents (episodic leads) that could have been probed further. As predicted: earlier interviews were characterized more by episodic than generic prompts and the reverse was true for the third interview; the child often responded using the same style of language (episodic or generic) as the interviewer; and open questions yielded narrative information. We discuss the importance of adopting children's words to specify occurrences, and the potential benefits of permitting generic recall in investigative interviews on children's ability to provide episodic leads. Despite the fact that the testimony was characterized by generic information about what usually happened, rather than specific episodic details about individual occurrences, this case resulted in successful prosecution. PMID:23906673

  3. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  4. Delinquent Risks of Parental Abuse at the Age of 11 Years among At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2014-01-01

    Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…

  5. Increasing Parent Knowledge of Extra-Familial Child Sexual Abuse through Development and Implementation of a Parent Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernbaum, Barbara Susan

    This document describes a practicum designed to address the needs of the parents of children who have experienced extrafamilial sexual abuse. It notes that, in cases of extrafamilial child sexual abuse, services are directed toward the child and that the neglect of the parents may exacerbate the child's stress. The practicum is aimed at: (1)…

  6. "Reporting costs" to nonoffending parents in cases of intrafamilial child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Massat, C R; Lundy, M

    1998-01-01

    Findings from a study of 104 nonoffending parents and their sexually abused children suggest four areas in which nonoffending parents experience significant change or loss as a result of the disclosure of the sexual abuse of their children. The term reporting cost was coined to describe these changes and losses. The four types of reporting costs found are relational, financial, vocational, and residential. Nonoffending parents experienced an average of three major costs from the disclosure of intrafamilial sexual abuse.

  7. Words that hurt: a qualitative study of s parental verbal abuse in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Loh, Jennifer M I; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D

    2011-07-01

    This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study is designed to address this gap in the literature. The results revealed nine categories of parental verbal abuses namely: (a) Put downs and shaming, (b) Rejection, (c) Blaming, (d) Fault Exaggerating, (e) Threat, (f) Invoking harm, (g) Regrets, (h) Unfair comparison, and (i) Negative prediction. Implications for research and practice were discussed.

  8. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  9. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  10. Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher; Whitfield, Keith; Sudhakar, Shiv; Pearce, Michele; Byrd, Goldie; Wood, Mary; Feliu, Miriam; Leach-Beale, Brittani; DeCastro, Laura; Whitworth, Elaine; Abrams, Mary; Jonassaint, Jude; Harrison, M. Ojinga; Mathis, Markece; Scott, Lydia; Johnson, Stephanie; Durant, Lauren; Holmes, Anita; Presnell, Katherine; Bennett, Gary; Shelby, Rebecca; Robinson, Elwood

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substance abuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substance abuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abused substances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substance abusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substance abusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease. PMID:16573309

  11. The social ecology of adolescent-initiated parent abuse: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is applied, which examines the risk and protective factors for adolescent-initiated parent abuse within micro- (maltreatment, domestic violence, parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies), meso- (peer influence), exo- (media influence), macro- (gender role socialization), and chronosystem (change in family structure) levels. Findings from our review suggest that older and White children are significantly more likely to abuse their parents. Females are selective in the target of their aggression, while males target family members in general. Mothers are significantly more likely to be abused than fathers. However, researchers also report variations in the association between SES and parent abuse. Domestic violence and child maltreatment are risk factors, while findings on parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies are mixed. Peer influence, exposure to media violence, gender role socialization, and change in family structure can potentially increase the risk of parent abuse. Practice and research implications are also discussed. An ecological systems framework allows for an examination of how various contexts interact and influence parent abuse behavior, and can provide needed directions for further research.

  12. Parental Communication as a Tool Kit for Preventing Sexual Abuse among Adolescent Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayo, Ajayi Beatrice; Olawuyi, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the survey design to investigate the relevance of parent communication in preventing sexual abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection tagged "Parent Communication Strategy for Preventing Sexual Abuse questionnaire" (PCOSPSAQ), was a researcher designed instrument. It was…

  13. A Multivariate Model for the Study of Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; Rohner, Evelyn C.

    This paper proposes a multivariate strategy for the study of parental acceptance-rejection and child abuse and describes a research study on parental rejection and child abuse which illustrates the advantages of using a multivariate, (rather than a simple-model) approach. The multivariate model is a combination of three simple models used to study…

  14. Case Series: Mental Health Needs and Perspectives of Rural Children Reared by Parents Who Abuse Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa; Haight, Wendy; Black, James; Choi, Ga-Young; Kingery, Linda; Sheridan, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This case-based, mixed-methods study was undertaken to understand the perspectives and mental health needs of rural children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse. Method: Participants were 23 children involved with a state child protective agency because of parental methamphetamine abuse. A semistructured interview provided…

  15. The Social Ecology of Adolescent-Initiated Parent Abuse: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is…

  16. Parenting and Family Stress as Mediators of the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Tiffany Weissmann; Silvern, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Data on child physical/sexual abuse, family stress histories, perceived parental warmth, and current psychological functioning were gathered from 259 working women. Multiple regression analyses showed that parental warmth strongly influenced or mediated the relationship of intrafamilial child abuse to depression and self-esteem levels. However,…

  17. Padres Maltratadores: Grupos de Autoayuda (Abusive Parents: Self-Help Groups).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intebi, Irene V.; Groisman, Adriana E.

    1991-01-01

    Causes of child abuse by parents are discussed. A therapy program in Buenos Aires (Argentina) for abusive parents is described. The program utilizes self-help groups as part of the therapeutic plan and has found them to be promising. Referral, types of interactions with the groups, and short-, medium-, and long-term objectives are discussed. (BRM)

  18. Three-Year Trajectories of Parenting Behaviors among Physically Abusive Parents and Their Link to Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…

  19. Preventing child sexual abuse: parents' perceptions and practices in urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ige, Olusimbo K; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2011-11-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents disagreed with common child sexual abuse myths. In addition, almost all parents ( >90%) reported communicating with their child(ren) about stranger danger. However, about 47% felt their children could not be abused, and over a quarter (27.1%) often left their children alone and unsupervised. There were no significant variations in the perceptions of child sexual abuse and communication practices. The implications of findings for child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.

  20. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt.

  1. Parental Psychological Abuse toward children and Mental Health Problems in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Method: Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Results: Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Conclusion: Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals’ towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents PMID:24772122

  2. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  3. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semiparametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA (2 to 12 y.o.) and HIV/AIDS risk behavior at age 14 (i.e., sexual intercourse & alcohol use). Trajectory analyses revealed a link between a history of CSA and the development of risky behavior. In addition, trajectories for physical and emotional abuse, but not neglect or witnessed violence, contributed to risky behavior over and above the role of CSA. Child gender did not moderate the findings. Findings highlight the signficance of CSA histories, as well as the broader context of maltreatment, for better understanding the development of risk behaviors in both girls and boys. PMID:20706919

  4. Protective and vulnerability factors for physically abused children: Effects of ethnicity and parenting context

    PubMed Central

    Haskett, Mary E.; Allaire, Jason C.; Kreig, Shawn; Hart, Kendrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although social maladjustment appears to be common among abused children, negative outcomes are not inevitable. This investigation was designed to determine whether ethnicity and features of the parenting context predicted children’s social adjustment, and whether the strength and direction of these relations differed for abused and nonabused children. Method Participants included 78 physically abused and 75 demographically-matched nonabused children and one of their parents. Observations of parenting were used to measure parental sensitivity, and parent self-reports of depression were obtained using the SCL-90-R. Children’s peer social adjustment was measured by teacher report. Results Using regression analysis, we tested whether each potential protective or vulnerability factor interacted with abuse status in prediction of social adjustment. Results indicated main effects of ethnicity and sensitivity for prosocial behavior, and a main effect of sensitivity for aggression. In addition, there was a significant interaction of ethnicity and abuse status for aggression such that there was a significant difference between abused and nonabused European American children but not between abused and nonabused African American children. Conclusions Findings indicate that risk for aggressive behavior among abused children might be culturally-specific rather than universal. In addition, results point to beneficial effects of parental sensitivity for maltreated children. PMID:18511116

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  6. Child abuse potential inventory and parenting behavior: relationships with high-risk correlates.

    PubMed

    Haskett, M E; Scott, S S; Fann, K D

    1995-12-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine the construct validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory by comparing maltreating and high-risk parents' CAP Inventory abuse scores to their behavior during interactions with their children. A second purpose was to determine the degree to which CAP Inventory scores and parenting behavior were related to several known correlates of abuse, as measured by parent and teacher reports. Participants (n = 41) included abusive and high-risk parents and their children referred to a treatment group. Correlational analyses revealed that CAP Inventory scores and observed parenting style yielded highly related findings, supporting construct validity of the CAP Inventory. However, the CAP Inventory and observed behavior index showed a different pattern of relationships to the risk correlates. Implications for assessment of risk status are discussed and recommendations are provided for continued research.

  7. Parental Depression and Child Outcomes: The Mediating Effects of Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustillo, Sarah A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Conover, Kate; Burns, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on 1,813 children and parents from a nationally representative child-welfare sample, National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigated physically abusive and neglectful parenting as mediating the effects of parent depression on child mental health by developmental stage. Findings from…

  8. Etiology of Loss among Parents Falsely Accused of Abuse or Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of loss among parents whose children were in child protective custody that resulted from false accusations of abuse or neglect. In practice, child protective service assessments more times than not clear parents of charges of wrongdoing, however the impact of these investigations on parents has not yet been…

  9. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  10. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

  11. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development☆

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater

  12. Adolescent-to-Parent Abuse: A Qualitative Overview of Common Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Barbara; Monk, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent-to-parent abuse is a serious social problem that has received limited attention from researchers and service providers. Most knowledge about this type of violence in the family comes from quantitative studies that focus on intrafamilial characteristics, demographic factors, and overall rates of abuse. The aim of this article is to…

  13. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse VIII: Teens and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    For eight years, the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) has been engaged in the undertaking of surveying attitudes of teens and those who most influence them--parents, teachers and school principals. While other surveys seek to measure the extent of substance abuse in the population, the CASA back to school survey probes…

  14. Protective and Vulnerability Factors for Physically Abused Children: Effects of Ethnicity and Parenting Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Allaire, Jason C.; Kreig, Shawn; Hart, Kendrea C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although social maladjustment appears to be common among abused children, negative outcomes are not inevitable. This investigation was designed to determine whether ethnicity and features of the parenting context predicted children's social adjustment, and whether the strength and direction of these relations differed for abused and…

  15. The Influence of Maternal History of Abuse on Parenting Knowledge and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Shannon Carothers; Guner, Bella Mironovna; Lanzi, Robin Gaines

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of abuse among a sample of 681 teen, adult low-resource, and adult high-resource first-time mothers. Participants ranged in age from 14 to 36 years, with a mean of 20 years. Exposure to childhood emotional and to physical abuse were associated with 6-month parenting behavior but not with…

  16. The drug abuse problem in Peninsular Malaysia: parent and child differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zulkifli, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalail, S; Aye, K W

    1996-10-01

    A survey was carried out to gather information on knowledge, attitudes and perception of parents and their children in relation to drug abuse matters. Significantly more teenagers knew more of the cause of drug addiction, as well as places for treatment and rehabilitation. Both teenagers and parents were also aware of reasons why drug addicts find it difficult to change their habits, mainly lacking motivation to stop taking drugs and that drug addicts do not have the power to control themselves. Teenagers were significantly more aware of effects of negative parental attitudes contributing to drug abuse, apart from school factors. Personal experiences before abusing drugs such as knowledge of pleasurable effects of drugs and where to obtain them has also a role to play in leading to drug abuse. There was also agreement that unfulfilled needs such as 'not being respected recognised for ones capabilities' and 'not being loved or treated fairly by parents', were causes of drug abuse. Significantly more teenagers knew of the ways of abusing drugs, mainly by injection, smoking and sniffing, and also sources of information via the mass media, social clubs, rehabilitation centres and schools. However, both the parents and teenagers were relatively ignorant of the long term effects of abusing drugs.

  17. The drug abuse problem in Peninsular Malaysia: parent and child differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zulkifli, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalail, S; Aye, K W

    1996-10-01

    A survey was carried out to gather information on knowledge, attitudes and perception of parents and their children in relation to drug abuse matters. Significantly more teenagers knew more of the cause of drug addiction, as well as places for treatment and rehabilitation. Both teenagers and parents were also aware of reasons why drug addicts find it difficult to change their habits, mainly lacking motivation to stop taking drugs and that drug addicts do not have the power to control themselves. Teenagers were significantly more aware of effects of negative parental attitudes contributing to drug abuse, apart from school factors. Personal experiences before abusing drugs such as knowledge of pleasurable effects of drugs and where to obtain them has also a role to play in leading to drug abuse. There was also agreement that unfulfilled needs such as 'not being respected recognised for ones capabilities' and 'not being loved or treated fairly by parents', were causes of drug abuse. Significantly more teenagers knew of the ways of abusing drugs, mainly by injection, smoking and sniffing, and also sources of information via the mass media, social clubs, rehabilitation centres and schools. However, both the parents and teenagers were relatively ignorant of the long term effects of abusing drugs. PMID:8889409

  18. Depression and parenting by nonoffending mothers of children who experienced sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Santa-Sosa, Eileen J; Steer, Robert A; Deblinger, Esther; Runyon, Melissa K

    2013-01-01

    Parenting may be one mechanism by which depression in nonoffending mothers impacts child emotional and behavioral adjustment after sexual abuse. This study examined the relationship between self-reported maternal depression and parenting behaviors by nonoffending mothers of children who experienced sexual abuse. The participants were 204 nonoffending biological mother-child pairs recruited from a clinic providing services for children who experienced sexual abuse. The mothers completed pretreatment self-report measures of demographic information, depression, and parenting behaviors. Children (7 to 17 years) completed a measure of mothers' parenting behaviors. Mothers with clinically high levels of self-reported depression employed more inconsistent parenting behavior and provided poorer monitoring/supervision of their children than mothers without clinically high levels of self-reported depression. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  19. Bearing Witness: Supporting Parents and Children in the Transition to Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Rosie; Keenan, Brid

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a brief overview of group work with parents in two working-class communities (Protestant-Unionist-Loyalist and Catholic-Nationalist-Republican) that have been deeply affected by decades of political conflict in the North/Northern Ireland, as well as by post-ceasefire sporadic, violent political events. The paper sets…

  20. Establishing a Short Term Program Component To Build Self-Esteem in a Small Group of Abusive and Potentially Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith

    This practicum was designed to enhance the self-esteem of abusive and potentially abusive parents. A combination of strategies was used to enhance self-esteem and to help parents solve problems in an appropriate manner. The intervention strategy included three objectives: (1) gain the confidence of the participants; (2) use a curriculum that…

  1. Attachment style and defense mechanisms in parents who abuse their children.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2010-09-01

    Adult attachment style, defense mechanisms, and personal history of abuse was studied in a group of abusive parents. As a group, these parents made unusually high use of the defense of denial; this was especially true of those with a Fearful attachment style. However, the use of Identification was characteristic of those with a Preoccupied attachment style. Further, personal abuse history was related to adult attachment style. Those who reported having been abused as a child were less likely to have a Secure attachment style, and a history of physical or sexual abuse was associated with a Preoccupied style. In general, these findings support the deactivating/hyperactivating defensive theory of Mikulincer et al (Emotion Regulation in Couples and Families: Pathways to Dysfunction and Health. 2006; pp 77-99. Washington (WA): American Psychological Association).

  2. Parent-Youth Discordance about Youth-Witnessed Violence: Associations with Trauma Symptoms and Service Use in an At-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Proctor, Laura J.; Litrownik, Alan J.; English, Diana J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence. However, little is known about whether disagreement is associated with poorer outcomes and less utilization of mental health services. The purpose of the current study was to examine disagreement among youth…

  3. Dispositional Empathy in High- and Low-Risk Parents for Child Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Albeniz, A.; de Paul, Joaquin

    2003-01-01

    Parents identified as either at high risk (n=36) or low-risk (n=38) for child physical abuse were assessed for dispositional empathy. High-risk parents showed lower total scores on the Hogan Empathy Scale and the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy. They also scored higher on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index "personal distress" dimension.…

  4. Childhood Abuse and Later Parenting Outcomes in Two American Indian Tribes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Beals, Janette; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). Methods: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and…

  5. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

  6. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Processes, Stress, Personal Control, and Risk for Physical Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study set out to examine whether mothers' individual perceptions of their neighborhood social processes predict their risk for physical child abuse and neglect directly and/or indirectly via pathways involving parents' reported stress and sense of personal control in the parenting role. Methods: In-home and phone interview data…

  7. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  8. Witness to the Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    If, as many allege, we are the stories that we tell, then these stories might well be seen as constituting a fundamental piece of the self. But stories need to be heard, just as the self requires witnesses. In the lives of most people, counselors and teachers, along with parents, represent the most significant witnesses in our lives and hence to…

  9. Development pathways from abusive parenting to delinquency: the mediating role of depression and aggression.

    PubMed

    You, Sukkyung; Lim, Sun Ah

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the long-term relationship between abusive parenting and adolescent mental health, and the path to delinquent behavior. Longitudinal data from 5th through 7th graders from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) were analyzed to examine if abusive parenting was a predictor of early adolescent delinquency behavior, via aggression and depression as mediating factors. The results were as follows. First, parental abuse (both emotional and physical) was found to have significant effects on children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression), while parental neglect (both emotional and physical) had significant effects on depression alone and not on aggression. Second, aggression exerted significant effects on both violent and non-violent delinquent behaviors, while depression had a significant effect on only non-violent delinquent behaviors. Third, children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression) played significant mediating roles between earlier abusive parenting and delinquent behaviors. Fourth, for children living in a family with their grandparents, paths from abusive parenting, psychosocial adaptation, and later delinquent behaviors were not significant, implying that living with grandparents played a protective factor in these relationships.

  10. Development pathways from abusive parenting to delinquency: the mediating role of depression and aggression.

    PubMed

    You, Sukkyung; Lim, Sun Ah

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the long-term relationship between abusive parenting and adolescent mental health, and the path to delinquent behavior. Longitudinal data from 5th through 7th graders from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) were analyzed to examine if abusive parenting was a predictor of early adolescent delinquency behavior, via aggression and depression as mediating factors. The results were as follows. First, parental abuse (both emotional and physical) was found to have significant effects on children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression), while parental neglect (both emotional and physical) had significant effects on depression alone and not on aggression. Second, aggression exerted significant effects on both violent and non-violent delinquent behaviors, while depression had a significant effect on only non-violent delinquent behaviors. Third, children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression) played significant mediating roles between earlier abusive parenting and delinquent behaviors. Fourth, for children living in a family with their grandparents, paths from abusive parenting, psychosocial adaptation, and later delinquent behaviors were not significant, implying that living with grandparents played a protective factor in these relationships. PMID:26038191

  11. How parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Babatsikos, Georgia; Miles, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand how parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse, including prevention as well as early intervention and detection strategies. Using a social constructivist theoretical foundation and grounded theory methods, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with Australian parents between 2006 and 2008. Based on the data, a balance theory was developed, which explains how parents attempt to balance the type of information given to children in order to protect their children from sexual abuse without scaring them as well as how parents manage sexual boundary crossing incidents experienced by their children in the context of complex social relationships. Implications for prevention programs as well as reporting of child sexual abuse are discussed.

  12. Drug Abuse. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Souver, F. Gerald; Plunkett, Thomas G.

    This booklet is concerned with providing information on drug abuse. A brief history of drug traffic and today's problem begin the pamphlet. The second part discusses the identification of drugs including opium, heroin, and marihuana. The next section is concerned with non-narcotic drug abuse, including Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) mascaline,…

  13. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Parents and Children At-Risk for Physical Abuse: An Initial Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Steer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the relative efficacy of two types of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for treating the traumatized child and at-risk or offending parent in cases of child physical abuse (CPA), 24 parents and their children were treated with Combined Parent-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT) and 20 parents were treated with Parent-Only CBT.…

  14. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  15. Parental predictors of children's animal abuse: findings from a national and intergenerational sample.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Ellis, Colter; Simmons, Sara B

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the intra- and intergenerational links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal abuse by analyzing a national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,614 individuals collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study from 1990 to 2004. Using multilevel random-intercept regression modeling, parents' own history of animal abuse is predictive of their later involvement in IPV perpetration and victimization, net of important controls. In turn, parents' IPV violent perpetration (but not violent victimization) is predictive of their children's history of animal abuse-measured 14 years later. Intergenerational continuity of animal abuse, however, is not significant. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study's limitations, and future research directions.

  16. Parents' behavior in response to infant crying: abusive head trauma education.

    PubMed

    Simonnet, Hina; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Yuan, Wenlun; Hully, Marie; Valimahomed, Sakil; Bourennane, Malek; Chevignard, Mathilde

    2014-12-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is still too common, and probably underestimated. It is the leading cause of death from child abuse. Crying is thought to contribute to the act of shaking. Objectives of this study were to (a) assess parents' knowledge about infant crying, their ability to manage crying, and their knowledge about AHT; and (b) assess the feasibility and the impact of a simple educational intervention about crying and AHT with parents shortly after their child's birth. A short questionnaire was completed orally by the parents of 190 consecutive newborns in a maternity hospital at day 2 of life. Then, during the routine examination of the child, the pediatrician gave parents a short talk about infant crying and AHT, and a pamphlet. Finally, parents were contacted by phone at 6 weeks for the post-intervention questionnaire assessing their knowledge about crying and AHT. Among 202 consecutive births, parents of 190 children were included (266 parents; 70% mothers) over a 1-month period and answered the pre-intervention questionnaire. The intervention was feasible and easy to provide. Twenty-seven percent of mothers and 36% of fathers had never heard of AHT. At 6 weeks, 183 parents (68% of the sample; 80% mothers) answered the post-intervention questionnaire. Parents' knowledge improved significantly post-intervention. Parents found the intervention acceptable and useful. Health care professionals such as pediatricians or nurses could easily provide this brief talk to all parents during systematic newborn examination. PMID:25043922

  17. Parents' behavior in response to infant crying: abusive head trauma education.

    PubMed

    Simonnet, Hina; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Yuan, Wenlun; Hully, Marie; Valimahomed, Sakil; Bourennane, Malek; Chevignard, Mathilde

    2014-12-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is still too common, and probably underestimated. It is the leading cause of death from child abuse. Crying is thought to contribute to the act of shaking. Objectives of this study were to (a) assess parents' knowledge about infant crying, their ability to manage crying, and their knowledge about AHT; and (b) assess the feasibility and the impact of a simple educational intervention about crying and AHT with parents shortly after their child's birth. A short questionnaire was completed orally by the parents of 190 consecutive newborns in a maternity hospital at day 2 of life. Then, during the routine examination of the child, the pediatrician gave parents a short talk about infant crying and AHT, and a pamphlet. Finally, parents were contacted by phone at 6 weeks for the post-intervention questionnaire assessing their knowledge about crying and AHT. Among 202 consecutive births, parents of 190 children were included (266 parents; 70% mothers) over a 1-month period and answered the pre-intervention questionnaire. The intervention was feasible and easy to provide. Twenty-seven percent of mothers and 36% of fathers had never heard of AHT. At 6 weeks, 183 parents (68% of the sample; 80% mothers) answered the post-intervention questionnaire. Parents' knowledge improved significantly post-intervention. Parents found the intervention acceptable and useful. Health care professionals such as pediatricians or nurses could easily provide this brief talk to all parents during systematic newborn examination.

  18. Communication About Sexually-Related Topics Among Hispanic Substance-Abusing Adolescents and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Mena, Maite P; Dillon, Frank R; Mason, Craig A; Santisteban, Daniel A

    2008-01-01

    Hispanic adolescents have been shown to have high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and substance abuse has been linked to risky sexual behaviors. The literature indicates that good parent-adolescent communication about sexual risk and safe sexual behaviors may help protect youth, yet little is known about this type of communication in Hispanic families. This article reports data on adolescent and parent factors associated with communication about moral and birth control talk between 108 Hispanic substance abusing adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that Hispanic parents who had older adolescents, reported more involvement, were less concerned of possible negative reactions from their child, and felt more knowledgeable and confident regarding sex and birth control also reported greater frequency of birth control talk. Hispanic parents with a daughter, who reported more involvement, or whose child reported more communication were more likely to report greater frequency of talking about moral issues.

  19. Physically Abused Children’s Adjustment at the Transition to School: Child, Parent, and Family Factors

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Karen Appleyard; Haskett, Mary E.; Loehman, Jessisca; Rose, Roderick A

    2015-01-01

    Childhood physical abuse predicts emotional/behavioral, self-regulatory, and social problems. Yet factors from multiple ecological levels contribute to children’s adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which the social-emotional adjustment of physically abused children in first grade would be predicted by a set of child-, parent-, and family-level predictors in kindergarten. Drawing on a short-term longitudinal study of 92 physically abused children and their primary caregivers, the current study used linear regression to examine early childhood child (i.e., gender, IQ, child perceptions of maternal acceptance), parent (i.e., parental mental health), and family relationship (i.e., sensitive parenting, hostile parenting, family conflict) factors as predictors of first grade internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, emotion dysregulation, and negative peer interactions. We used a multi-method, multi-informant approach to measuring predictors and children’s adjustment. Internalizing symptomatology was significantly predicted by child IQ, parental mental health, and family conflict. Externalizing symptomatology and emotion dysregulation were predicted by child IQ. Although a large proportion of variance in measures of adjustment was accounted for by the set of predictors, few individual variables were unique predictors of child adjustment. Variability in the predictors of adjustment for physically abused children underscores the need for individualized treatment approaches. PMID:26401095

  20. Parenting and Children's Externalizing Problems in Substance-Abusing Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-01-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399…

  1. Social support, collective efficacy, and child physical abuse: does parent gender matter?

    PubMed

    Price-Wolf, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Social support and collective efficacy are related to child physical abuse. However, little is known about whether these relationships differ by gender, although mothers and fathers differ in the quantity and quality of time spent with children. This study examined whether the relationship between social support, collective efficacy, and physical abuse is stronger for mothers than fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with parent respondents in 50 California cities (N = 3,023). Data were analyzed via overdispersed multi-level Poisson models. Results suggest that high levels of emotional support were inversely associated with physical abuse for women and men, although this effect was stronger for women. High levels of companionship support were positively associated with physical abuse for women; however, the opposite was true for men. There were no significant interactions between collective efficacy variables and gender. The relationships between some types of social support and physical abuse appear to vary for men and women suggesting possibilities for more targeted intervention.

  2. Mental health and substance abuse services to parents of children involved with child welfare: a study of racial and ethnic differences for American Indian parents.

    PubMed

    Libby, Anne M; Orton, Heather D; Barth, Richard P; Webb, Mary Bruce; Burns, Barbara J; Wood, Patricia A; Spicer, Paul

    2007-03-01

    American Indian (AI) parents of children involved with child welfare were compared to White, Black and Hispanic parents on mental health and substance abuse problems and access to treatment. Data came from the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children aged 0-14 years involved with child welfare. Weighted statistics provided population estimates, and multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of caregivers receiving mental health or substance abuse services. There were significant disparities in the likelihood of receiving mental health, but not substance abuse, services. Unmet need for mental health and substance abuse treatment characterized all parents in this study. AI parents fared the worst in obtaining mental health treatment. Parents of children at home and of older children were less likely to access mental health or substance abuse treatment.

  3. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  4. Accessing substance abuse treatment: issues for parents involved with child welfare services.

    PubMed

    Rockhill, Anna; Green, Beth L; Newton-Curtis, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The complex issues associated with barriers to treatment entry for parents who are involved with child welfare has not been well explored. Accessing timely treatment is now critical for these parents since the introduction of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, limiting the time until a permanency decision is made. Using a longitudinal, qualitative approach, substance-abusing parents from 15 families, their relevant family members, and service providers were interviewed approximately every 3 months over an 18-month period. The experiences of these parents add to our knowledge of the unique barriers this population faces, and expands our understanding of the mechanisms by which certain barriers may delay treatment.

  5. Mental health services for children of substance abusing parents: voices from the community.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Laila F M; Celedonia, Karen L; Cruz, Mario; Douaihy, Antoine; Kogan, Jane N; Marin, Robert; Stein, Bradley D

    2012-02-01

    This qualitative study explores how to improve services for children of parents with Substance Use Disorders (SUD) with unmet mental health needs. Focus groups were conducted with parents and caregivers to identify perceived barriers to services, including: (1) attitudes and beliefs about mental health care, (2) inadequacies in mental health services, (3) children's ambivalence about treatment, and (4) parental disagreement and lack of involvement. Peer support, afterschool activities, and family counseling were identified as potential improvements. This information can serve as a foundation and guide to develop services for the underserved population of children and adolescents of substance abusing parents.

  6. Association between Parental Addiction and Types of Child Abuse in High-School Students of Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eslami-Shahrbabaki, Amir; Eslami-Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Kalantari, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background Child abuse is one of the vulnerabilities that threaten child's physical and mental health in childhood and is associated with serious short-term and long-term complications. The present study aimed to review the association of parental addiction with types of child abuse in high-school students of Kerman, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 360 students were recruited and studied through cluster sampling method. Abuse and the related factors were assessed using a standard self-report 48-item questionnaire. Findings Average child abuse among the study subjects was 27.6%. Physical behavior, negligence, and emotional abuse were seen in 9.7%, 23.6%, and 17.9% of the subjects, respectively. Parental addiction had a significant association (P = 0.001) with incidence of all the child abuse domains. Conclusion Special consideration to families of addicted parents and early identification of child abuse cases may prevent the adverse side effects. PMID:24494167

  7. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.

  8. Ego development, psychopathology, and parenting problems in substance-abusing mothers.

    PubMed

    Suchman, Nancy; McMahon, Thomas; Decoste, Cindy; Castiglioni, Nicole; Luthar, Suniya

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined maternal ego development in relation to psychopathology and parenting problems in a sample of substance abusing mothers. Given predilections at higher levels of ego development for introspection and guilt, the authors expected mothers at higher levels to report more psychopathology. Given predilections at lower levels of ego development for dichotomous perceptions and limited conceptions of causation, the authors expected mothers at low levels to report more problematic parenting behaviors. Intelligence was expected to correlate but not overlap with ego development. Subjects were 182 mothers who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial for a new parenting intervention. Measures included the Washington University Sentence Completion Task--Short Form, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Results of correlation and multivariate analyses of variance confirmed predictions. Implications for future development of interventions for substance abusing mothers are discussed.

  9. Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-10-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse.

  10. Community-based parenting and family support interventions and the prevention of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Sanders, M R

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the development of a comprehensive, multilevel, preventively-oriented parenting and family support strategy to reduce family risk factors associated with drug abuse in young people. If parenting interventions are to make a significant impact at a population level on the prevalence of dysfunctional parenting practices, there is a need for an ecological approach to parenting support. Such an approach needs to target a variety of social contexts that are in a position to provide parents with access to evidence-based parenting interventions. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is discussed as an example of such an approach to illustrate the distinguishing features of a population level strategy. The core constructs underpinning the Triple P system include the promotion of parental self-regulation (self-sufficiency, self-efficacy, self-management, personal agency, and problem solving), through making parenting programs of adequate intensity widely available in the community through flexible delivery modalities (individual, group, telephone assisted and self-directed). The system comprises a tiered continuum of increasingly intensive parenting interventions ranging from media interventions with wide reach, to intensive behavioural family interventions with narrow reach for high-risk families where parenting problems are complicated by other factors including marital conflict, parental mood disturbance, and lack of social support. The scientific basis of the system of intervention and possible directions for future research is discussed.

  11. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  12. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  13. Parent Emotional Expressiveness and Children's Self-Regulation: Associations with Abused Children's School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused…

  14. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  15. Interpartner Conflict and Child Abuse Risk among African American and Latino Adolescent Parenting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David R.; Florsheim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify links between observed conflict interactions and risk for child abuse and harsh parenting among a multiethnic sample of adolescent mothers (14-19 years) and young fathers (14-24 years). Methods: Prior to childbirth (T1), observation-based relationship data were collected from 154 expectant…

  16. Arab Parents' Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of Clinical Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Baker, Khawla

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses parents' reactions to sexual abuse cases in their families. The study analyzed the clinical records of individual and family therapy sessions with 35 cases of Arab Palestinian clients, citizens of Israel (27 individuals and 8 families). Families were categorized as either functional or dysfunctional. It was concluded that…

  17. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  18. Gender Differences in Empathy in Parents at High- and Low-Risk of Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Albeniz, A.; de Paul, Joaquin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The present research was designed to study empathy in high-risk parents for child physical abuse. The main objective was to study if high-risk mothers and fathers, compared to low-risk mothers and fathers, presented more Personal distress, less Perspective-taking, less Empathic concern and a deficit in dispositional empathy toward…

  19. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse XV: Teens and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This 15th annual "back-to-school survey" continues the unique effort of The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University to track attitudes of teens and those, like parents, who influence them. Over a decade and a half, through this survey the researchers have identified factors that increase or decrease the…

  20. Witnessed Suicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Charles P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents epidemiologic and forensic description of 50 witnessed suicides drawn from 15-year series of over 1,000 cases. Develops taxonomy based on role played by witnesses and relates to previous work on self-destructive behavior and its motivation. Uses vignettes to illustrate interpersonal dynamics associated with witnessed suicides. (Author/NB)

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  2. Examining the Relationship between Marijuana Use, Medical Marijuana Dispensaries, and Abusive and Neglectful Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-01-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent’s ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452

  3. Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: evidence and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Barth, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors-substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems-that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly focus on improving parenting skills, says Richard Barth, remains uncertain. Barth begins by describing how each of the four parental issues is related to child maltreatment. He then examines a variety of parent education interventions aimed at preventing child abuse. He cautions that many of the interventions have not been carefully evaluated and those that have been have shown little effect on child maltreatment or its risk factors. Although some argue that parent education cannot succeed unless family problems are also addressed, much evidence suggests that first helping parents to be more effective with their children can address mental health needs and improve the chances of substance abuse recovery. Barth recommends increased public support for research trials to compare the effectiveness of programs focused on parenting education and those aiming to reduce related risk factors. Child welfare services and evidence-based parent training, says Barth, are in a period of transformation. Evidence-based methods are rapidly emerging from a development phase that has primarily involved local and highly controlled studies into more national implementation and greater engagement with the child welfare system. The next step is effectiveness trials. Citing the importance and success of multifaceted campaigns in public health policy, Barth discusses a multifaceted parenting campaign that has demonstrated substantial promise in several large trials. The goal of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is to help parents deal with the full gamut of children's health and behavioral issues. The campaign includes five levels of intervention

  4. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse in China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Communication Practices of Parents of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…

  5. Guide to Children Affected by Parental Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Leah

    2010-01-01

    A conservative estimate is that one in six children in school today has a parent dependent on or addicted to alcohol or other drugs. This places these students at high risk for social and emotional problems, as well as for school failure, drug use, and delinquency. Schools, however, are a logical place to reach them. Identifying children of those…

  6. Parenting of Men with Co-Occurring Intimate Partner Violence and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Carla Smith; Easton, Caroline; McMahon, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective No studies to date have compared parenting behaviors of men with co-occurring intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse (SA) with community controls. This study was designed to document mediators of differences in parenting behavior of fathers and the emotional-behavioral problems of their children for men with co-occurring SA and IPV. Method The self-reported parenting (negative, positive and co-parenting behaviors) and the child emotional-behavioral problems of 43 fathers with children aged 2 to 6 years with a recent history of SA + IPV were compared to a sample of 43 community control fathers with the same socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. Fathers completed measures on their parenting behavior with a target child, co-parenting behavior with the child’s mother, emotion regulation, romantic attachment, psychiatric symptoms, and the behavior of the target child. Results Men with co-occurring SA + IPV had significantly less positive co-parenting and more negative parenting behaviors than community control fathers. Negative parenting and co-parenting were mediated by the fathers’ avoidant attachment problems. SA + IPV fathers also reported more emotional and behavioral problems in their children. These poor child outcome differences between groups were mediated by the negative parenting behaviors of the fathers. Conclusions These results suggest areas of potential focus in interventions with fathers who have co-occurring SA + IPV issues. Focus on attachment difficulties with his co-parent, which may include affect regulation, coping with emotions, and communication skills training related to co-parenting, may yield significant changes in parenting behaviors and ultimately child functioning. PMID:23422845

  7. Parental rearing patterns and drug abuse. Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kokkevi, A; Stefanis, C

    1988-01-01

    Results from a controlled study on a sample of 91 imprisoned drug dependents on perceived parental rearing practices using the EMBU and on parental family characteristics are presented. While few differences were observed between drug dependents and imprisoned controls-father less warm and mother more permissive in drug dependent group--comparisons of drug dependents with a general population sample revealed more differences between the two populations: drug dependents perceive both parents compared to the general population group as less rejective, very permissive, their mother as warmer and more overprotective and their father more inconsistent and less favouring them than siblings. Supportive evidence on the dependents' family psychopathology is provided by studying family characteristics. While our findings seem to support the prevailing view in the literature on the role of the mother of the drug dependent characterised by strong emotional bonds and overprotection as well as of the rather emotionally distant father, the question is raised on the contribution of other factors, such as psychopathic personality, on the above findings. PMID:3227982

  8. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females with Substance Abusing Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Chenarani, Maryam Shakeri; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Ardani, Amir Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. Results: The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Conclusion: Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls. PMID:26383218

  9. Substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.

  10. The Relationship among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Alcoholism, Family Environment and Suicidal Behavior in Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yama, Mark F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among childhood sexual abuse and parental alcoholism, retrospective reports of family functioning, and having had a history of either suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Subjects (n=420) were drawn from a sample of undergraduate college women. Results indicate the experiences of childhood sexual abuse and parental…

  11. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse: Impact in Reducing Parental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a home visiting program in reducing malleable parental risk factors for child abuse in families of newborns identified, through population-based screening, as at-risk of child abuse. Methods: This randomized trial focused on Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based organizations on…

  12. Awareness of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education among Parents of Grade 3 Elementary School Pupils in Fuxin City, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing Qi; Chen, Da Guang

    2005-01-01

    Several recent studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in Chinese society have shown that the problem is not uncommon, and is associated with poor mental health and health-related risk behaviors of abused youth. It is very important to understand and improve public awareness of CSA prevention, especially for the parents. However, there are few…

  13. Relationship between Family Functioning and Parenting Beliefs and Feelings among Women Who Have a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…

  14. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Witnessed Parental and Community Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although research suggests that witnessed violence is linked to adverse mental health outcomes among adolescents, little is known about its prevalence or its significance in predicting psychiatric symptoms beyond the contribution of co-occurring risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the national prevalence of…

  15. Making It Work Without a Family Drug Court: Connecticut's Approach to Parental Substance Abuse in the Child Welfare System.

    PubMed

    Ungemack, Jane; Giovannucci, Marilou; Moy, Samuel; Ohrenberger, Karen; Dematteo, Thomas; Smith, Staceyann

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse presents, complex challenges for the child welfare system and courts. This article describes the State of Connecticut's experience implementing the Recovery Specialist Voluntary Program (RSVP), a recovery support program designed to confront the problem of parental substance abuse within the child welfare system without, a family drug court. The state-level collaboration efforts, system changes, factors affecting development and implementation of RSVP, program participants, and preliminary outcomes are described.

  16. Co-Occurrence of Parental Substance Abuse and Child Serious Emotional Disturbance: Understanding Multiple Pathways to Improve Child and Family Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Becci, A Akin; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H

    2015-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods examination of the prevalence and impact of parental substance abuse among families involved in foster care who have a child with a serious emotional disturbance. Data utilized for this study were both administrative and assessment data collected by case managers and parents as part of a federally funded demonstration project in a Midwestern state. At baseline, parent self-report and case manager ratings of family functioning found that parents affected by substance abuse fared worse in domains related to socioeconomics, parental trauma, parental mental health, and social supports when compared to families without parental substance abuse. Case managers and independent raters scored parents affected by substance abuse higher on effective parenting than parents not affected by substance abuse. While all children in the sample have a serious emotional disturbance, parents and case managers rated children's functioning higher among children whose families were characterized by parental substance abuse. These results suggest that, among families who have children with a serious emotional disturbance and are in foster care, those with and without substance abuse may represent two distinct service groups, each with a unique set of needs and contextual factors. For families with parental substance abuse, findings suggest that an appropriate child welfare response should attend to both children's and parent's behavioral health needs and include strategies that are well matched to the families' socioeconomic and social support needs.

  17. Co-Occurrence of Parental Substance Abuse and Child Serious Emotional Disturbance: Understanding Multiple Pathways to Improve Child and Family Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Becci, A Akin; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H

    2015-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods examination of the prevalence and impact of parental substance abuse among families involved in foster care who have a child with a serious emotional disturbance. Data utilized for this study were both administrative and assessment data collected by case managers and parents as part of a federally funded demonstration project in a Midwestern state. At baseline, parent self-report and case manager ratings of family functioning found that parents affected by substance abuse fared worse in domains related to socioeconomics, parental trauma, parental mental health, and social supports when compared to families without parental substance abuse. Case managers and independent raters scored parents affected by substance abuse higher on effective parenting than parents not affected by substance abuse. While all children in the sample have a serious emotional disturbance, parents and case managers rated children's functioning higher among children whose families were characterized by parental substance abuse. These results suggest that, among families who have children with a serious emotional disturbance and are in foster care, those with and without substance abuse may represent two distinct service groups, each with a unique set of needs and contextual factors. For families with parental substance abuse, findings suggest that an appropriate child welfare response should attend to both children's and parent's behavioral health needs and include strategies that are well matched to the families' socioeconomic and social support needs. PMID:26827477

  18. Social support, collective efficacy, and child physical abuse: does parent gender matter?

    PubMed

    Price-Wolf, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Social support and collective efficacy are related to child physical abuse. However, little is known about whether these relationships differ by gender, although mothers and fathers differ in the quantity and quality of time spent with children. This study examined whether the relationship between social support, collective efficacy, and physical abuse is stronger for mothers than fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with parent respondents in 50 California cities (N = 3,023). Data were analyzed via overdispersed multi-level Poisson models. Results suggest that high levels of emotional support were inversely associated with physical abuse for women and men, although this effect was stronger for women. High levels of companionship support were positively associated with physical abuse for women; however, the opposite was true for men. There were no significant interactions between collective efficacy variables and gender. The relationships between some types of social support and physical abuse appear to vary for men and women suggesting possibilities for more targeted intervention. PMID:25520320

  19. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test.

    PubMed

    Kunseler, Florentina C; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H M; Verhage, Marije L; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood.

  20. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test

    PubMed Central

    Kunseler, Florentina C.; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Verhage, Marije L.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood. PMID:26848573

  1. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test.

    PubMed

    Kunseler, Florentina C; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H M; Verhage, Marije L; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood. PMID:26848573

  2. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  3. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951

  4. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N

    2014-11-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  5. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N

    2014-11-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951

  6. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  7. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects. PMID:24983655

  8. Differential responsiveness to a parenting intervention for mothers in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Paris, Ruth; Herriott, Anna; Holt, Melissa; Gould, Karen

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between levels of psychological distress in substance-dependent mothers and their differential response to a dyadic parent-child intervention. A sample of 66 mothers who were receiving treatment for substance abuse, as well as a simultaneous parenting intervention, were interviewed pre and post-treatment on measures of psychological distress, adult and child trauma history, parental reflective functioning, and child social-emotional development. Additionally, clinicians provided assessments of the parent-child relationships. As anticipated, trauma histories for mothers and children, children's social emotional development, and parental reflective functioning were associated with aspects of maternal psychological distress. Kruskal-Wallis and subsequent Wilcoxson signed rank tests revealed that women with highest levels of baseline psychological distress showed significant improvements in psychological functioning post-treatment while women with moderately elevated levels of psychological distress did not. Women who were most distressed at baseline showed increased levels of parental reflective functioning post-treatment while women with moderate and lower levels of baseline psychological distress showed improvements on clinician-rated assessments of parent-child relationships. Chi Square analyses showed that parents who endorsed the highest levels of distress at baseline reported that their children's risk status regarding social-emotional development decreased post-treatment. Despite similarities in substance dependence, mothers in this sample had different needs and outcomes in the context of this parenting intervention due to variation in mental health. Given this variation, parenting interventions for substance-dependent mothers need to account for the individual differences in levels of psychological distress.

  9. Differential responsiveness to a parenting intervention for mothers in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Paris, Ruth; Herriott, Anna; Holt, Melissa; Gould, Karen

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between levels of psychological distress in substance-dependent mothers and their differential response to a dyadic parent-child intervention. A sample of 66 mothers who were receiving treatment for substance abuse, as well as a simultaneous parenting intervention, were interviewed pre and post-treatment on measures of psychological distress, adult and child trauma history, parental reflective functioning, and child social-emotional development. Additionally, clinicians provided assessments of the parent-child relationships. As anticipated, trauma histories for mothers and children, children's social emotional development, and parental reflective functioning were associated with aspects of maternal psychological distress. Kruskal-Wallis and subsequent Wilcoxson signed rank tests revealed that women with highest levels of baseline psychological distress showed significant improvements in psychological functioning post-treatment while women with moderately elevated levels of psychological distress did not. Women who were most distressed at baseline showed increased levels of parental reflective functioning post-treatment while women with moderate and lower levels of baseline psychological distress showed improvements on clinician-rated assessments of parent-child relationships. Chi Square analyses showed that parents who endorsed the highest levels of distress at baseline reported that their children's risk status regarding social-emotional development decreased post-treatment. Despite similarities in substance dependence, mothers in this sample had different needs and outcomes in the context of this parenting intervention due to variation in mental health. Given this variation, parenting interventions for substance-dependent mothers need to account for the individual differences in levels of psychological distress. PMID:26455262

  10. Parents with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Abuse Conditions Involved in Child Protection Services: Clinical Profile and Treatment Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromwall, Layne K.; Larson, Nancy C.; Nieri, Tanya; Holley, Lynn C.; Topping, Diane; Castillo, Jason; Ashford, Jose B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings of an exploratory study of 71 parents with substance abuse conditions involved in a child dependency court. Over half (59%) of the parents had a co-occurring mental health condition. Parents with co-occurring conditions (PWCC) differed in several important ways from those with only substance abuse conditions. PWCC…

  11. Skill Training versus 12-Step Facilitation for Parents of Substance-Abusing Teens

    PubMed Central

    McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Papandonatos, George D.

    2014-01-01

    Distressed parents (N = 85) with a substance-abusing adolescent not receiving treatment were randomized to 12 weeks of coping skill training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment control (DTC). At the end of treatment/delay, CST showed greater coping skillfulness than TSF, and both CST and TSF were more skillful than DTC. The percentage of parent problem days (PPD)—days when the adolescent’s substance use caused a problem—also was reduced in CST and TSF, relative to DTC. Both CST and TSF reported significantly reduced monthly PPD by the end of a 12-month follow-up. Skill training and TSF interventions appear equally effective for this underserved parent population. PMID:25306932

  12. Skill training versus 12-step facilitation for parents of substance-abusing teens.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy, Neil B; Rychtarik, Robert G; Papandonatos, George D

    2015-03-01

    Distressed parents (N=85) with a substance-abusing adolescent not receiving treatment were randomized to 12 weeks of coping skill training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment control (DTC). At the end of treatment/delay, CST showed greater coping skillfulness than TSF, and both CST and TSF were more skillful than DTC. The percentage of parent problem days (PPD)-days when the adolescent's substance use caused a problem-also was reduced in CST and TSF, relative to DTC. Both CST and TSF reported significantly reduced monthly PPD by the end of a 12-month follow-up. Skill training and TSF interventions appear equally effective for this underserved parent population.

  13. Risk Factors of Parents Abused as Children: A Mediational Analysis of the Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment (Part I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of…

  14. Attributions and Behaviours of Parents Abused as Children: A Mediational Analysis of the Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study extends previous research (Dixon, Browne, & Hamilton-Giachritsis, 2004) by exploring the mediational properties of parenting styles and their relation to risk factors in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child…

  15. The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse in Later Family Life; Mental Health, Parenting and Adjustment of Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; O'Connor, Tom; Dunn, Judy; Golding, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate links between child sexual abuse (occurring before 13 years), later mental health, family organization, parenting behaviors, and adjustment in offspring. Method: The present study investigates a subsample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children an ongoing study of women and their families in the area of…

  16. A Cross-Validation of Paulson's Discriminant Function-Derived Scales for Identifying "At Risk" Child-Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Don; And Others

    1984-01-01

    When the six scales were cross-validated on an independent sample from the population of child-abusing parents, significant shrinkage in the accuracy of prediction was found. The use of the special subscales for identifying "at risk" parents in prenatal clinics, pediatric clinics, and mental health centers as originally suggested by Paulson and…

  17. Relations among Parental Alcoholism, Eating Disorders, and Substance Abuse in Nonclinical College Women: Additional Evidence against the Uniformity Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The relationship of parental alcoholism to eating disorder symptomology and substance abuse in a nonclinical sample of college women was examined. In addition, differences among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) related to level of distress concerning parental alcohol use was examined. Results add additional evidence to the notion that not all…

  18. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  19. Covert video surveillance of parents suspected of child abuse: the British experience and alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    One million cases of child maltreatment and twelve hundred child deaths due to abuse and neglect occur per year. But since many cases of abuse and neglect remain either unreported or unsubstantiated due to insufficient evidence, the number of children who are abused, neglected, and killed at the hands of family caregivers is probably higher. One approach to combat child abuse in the U.K. has been the employment of hospital-based covert video surveillance (CVS) to monitor parents suspected of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP). The use of CVS, however, raises concerns about voluntary informed consent, research on human subjects, privacy, and the appropriateness of healthcare providers to conduct CVS. More broadly, the use of CVS raises concerns about the ethical life of healthcare institutions and their moral obligations to the families and communities they serve. The U.K. protocol for CVS is examined in light of these concerns. Three alternative CVS protocols and two procedures for selecting a protocol are then proposed for use in the U.S. The paper concludes that any CVS protocol selected for use by hospitals ought to be selected by means of open and democratic processes that permit community input and, subsequently, the possibility of a consensus on the moral status and scope of CVS.

  20. [Strengthening family interventions for the prevention of substance abuse in children of addicted parents].

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Johnson, Jeannette L

    2007-01-01

    The scientific literature consistently reports that while children of substance abusers may be at biological, psychological, or environmental risk, the effects of these risks can be abbreviated through the use of effective interventions and treatments. Research has consistently demonstrated reductions in family and child dysfunction when effective family intervention programs are consistently utilized. While a number of effective family-based approaches have been developed and evaluated, only a few have been designed specifically for children of substance abusing parents. Just two have been tested in randomized control trials -The Streghtening Families Program and Focus on the Family. The Streghtening Families Program has demonstrated statistically significant reductions in family and child dysfunctions across several ethnocultural groups when consistently utilized. Clinical and advanced graduate programs should stress training in these evidence-based practices as well as how to adapt these models to be more culturally sensitive and age or gender appropriate in order to serve a growing and needy population of families.

  1. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, was strongly and positively correlated with participating in more deviant subsistence strategies (e.g., stealing) since being on the street. Young people who participated in a greater number of delinquent acts were more likely to report higher levels of dating violence. Study results highlight the extent of social learning within the lives of homeless young adults, which is evident prior to their leaving home and while they are on the street. PMID:26989342

  2. What Can Parents Do? A Review of State Laws Regarding Decision Making for Adolescent Drug Abuse and Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Speziali, Dominic; Duggan, Morgan; Mellitz, Cynthia; Versek, Brian; McNamara, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    This study examined US state laws regarding parental and adolescent decision-making for substance use and mental health inpatient and outpatient treatment. State statues for requiring parental consent favored mental health over drug abuse treatment and inpatient over outpatient modalities. Parental consent was sufficient in 53%–61% of the states for inpatient treatment, but only for 39% – 46% of the states for outpatient treatment. State laws favored the rights of minors to access drug treatment without parental consent, and to do so at a younger age than for mental health treatment. Implications for how these laws may impact parents seeking help for their children are discussed. PMID:25870511

  3. Family-Based Intervention Program for Parents of Substance-Abusing Youth and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bisetto Pons, David; González Barrón, Remedios

    2016-01-01

    The use of drugs among adolescents/youth often results in a high degree of distress for the family members who live with them. This in turn can lead to a deterioration of mental (psychological) health, hindering any attempt to successfully cope with the situation. The goal of our research was to study the effect of the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) program on parents of adolescents/young adult drug users. Study volunteers (n = 50) were parents from Valencia (Spain) that were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n = 25) was made up of parents whose sons and daughters exhibited problems with drug use and the constructed noncausal baseline group (n = 25) was made up of parents whose sons and daughters did not show any substance abuse problems. For both groups, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI-II) were evaluated before and after the application of the CRAFT program. Results show a significant improvement in the experimental group's self-esteem, depression, and anger state and a decrease in negative moods. These changes in parents produce a positive effect on their substance-using sons and daughters: of the 25 participants, 15 contacted specialized addiction treatment resources for the first time. PMID:27800208

  4. Families parenting adolescents with substance abuse--recovering the mother's voice: a narrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jackie M; Estefan, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol and substance dependency are complex, problematic phenomena, which are growing worldwide. In particular, drug use and abuse among young people is a significant concern. Although addiction presents as a problem of dependent individuals, families are also profoundly affected by the family member's addiction. In this narrative literature review, we review published research from 1937 to 2014 to capture a narrative and historical perspective of addiction and family. We condense and analyze the experiences of parents with alcohol- and drug-dependent children, to emphasize the need for a more specific, in-depth exploration of mothers' experiences. Such exploration may advance nurses' understandings of individual, familial, and social complexities of parenting an addicted child.

  5. Crime Witness

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    Damaging BPA Transmission lines and property is a crime – and it can also be extremely dangerous. BPA’s toll-free, crime informant hotline allows you to report any illegal or suspicious activity you witness against BPA’s transmission system, property or personnel.

  6. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  7. Consulting for substance abuse: mental disorders among adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, S; Tengström, A; Bylin, S; Göranson, M; Hagen, L; Janson, M; Larsson, A; Lundgren-Andersson, C; Lundmark, C; Norell, E; Pedersen, H

    2007-01-01

    Studies conducted outside of Scandinavia indicate that most adolescents with substance misuse problems suffer from co-morbid mental disorders. The present study assessed the mental health of adolescents seeking help for substance misuse problems in a large Swedish city. Parents' mental health was also examined. The sample included 97 girls with their 90 mothers and 52 fathers, and 81 boys with their 72 mothers and 37 fathers. The adolescents completed a diagnostic interview, either the Kiddie-SADs or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) depending on their age. Their parents underwent diagnostic interviews with the SCID. Ninety per cent of the girls and 81% of the boys met criteria for at least one disorder other than substance misuse, and on average, they suffered from three other disorders, most of which had onset before substance misuse began. Almost 80% of the mothers and 67% of the fathers met criteria for at least one mental disorder other than alcohol and drug-related disorders. The findings concur with those reported from studies conducted in North America. The results suggest that in Sweden mental disorders are not being identified and effectively treated among some children and young adolescents who subsequently abuse alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Adolescents who consult for substance abuse problems require assessments and treatment by mental health professionals.

  8. Parental control, parental warmth, and psychosocial adjustment in a sample of substance-abusing mothers and their school-aged and adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Suchman, Nancy E; Rounsaville, Bruce; DeCoste, Cindy; Luthar, Suniya

    2007-01-01

    Parenting interventions for substance-abusing adults have been broadly based on two approaches, one emphasizing parental control as a means to managing children's behavior and the second emphasizing parental warmth and sensitivity as means to fostering children's psychological development. In this investigation, we examined associations of parental control and parental warmth, respectively, with children's behavioral and psychological adjustment in a sample of 98 women enrolled in methadone maintenance and their school-aged and adolescent children. Using collateral data collected during the baseline phase of a randomized clinical trial (Luthar, S. S., Suchman, N. E., & Altomare, M. [in press]. Relational Psychotherapy Mothers Group: A randomized clinical trial for substance abusing mothers [in preparation]), we tested predictions that (a) parental control would be more strongly associated with children's behavioral adjustment and (b) parental warmth would be more strongly associated with children's psychological adjustment. Both predictions were generally confirmed, although some crossover among parenting and child dimensions was also evident. Results support the theoretical stance that parental limit setting and autonomy support, as well as nurturance and involvement, are important factors, respectively, in children's behavioral and psychological adjustment. PMID:17175393

  9. The Relationship between Parental Abuse and Psychological Safety of the Children at the City of Amman and the Central Valleys of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Anani, Hanan Abd Al-Hameed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the degree of parental abuse and psychological security of the child, as well as the degree differences of these variables, based on the gender, the age and place of residency. The aim of this study also was to detect the relationship between parental abuse and the psychological security of the child. The…

  10. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semi-parametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA…

  11. Child Abuse: What We Know about Prevention Strategies. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine strategies for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. Witnesses include the director of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, several representatives from Parents Anonymous, a psychiatric social worker who is also a…

  12. Hearing on Drug Abuse Prevention and Education. Hearing before the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The text of a hearing on drug abuse prevention and education is provided in this document. After an opening statement by Representative Augustus Hawkins which briefly describes progress that has been made towards drug abuse prevention legislation, statements are given by these witnesses: (1) Carolyn Burns of the National Federation of Parents for…

  13. Awareness of child sexual abuse prevention education among parents of Grade 3 elementary school pupils in Fuxin City, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing Qi; Chen, Da Guang

    2005-10-01

    Several recent studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in Chinese society have shown that the problem is not uncommon, and is associated with poor mental health and health-related risk behaviors of abused youth. It is very important to understand and improve public awareness of CSA prevention, especially for the parents. However, there are few published reports on the problem of parents' awareness. To fill this gap, knowledge, attitudes and practice of CSA prevention education were explored in 385 parents of Grade 3 pupils from four schools in Fuxin City of Liaoning Province in the northeast part of China by self-administered anonymous questionnaires. Among this sample, more than 80% of parents approved of school CSA prevention education. However, at the same time, 47.3% of parents expressed some concern that this education may induce the children to learn too much about 'sex'. Overall, about 60% of parents had told their children that their 'private parts' should not be touched by others and discussed strategies of 'Say "No!", Leave and Tell' in dealing with CSA situations or the situations that may lead to CSA. Only 4.2% of parents had provided books or other material about CSA prevention for their children. The parents' CSA prevention knowledge was inadequate. The findings from this research will be useful in developing CSA prevention education programs in schools and communities, designed to improve parents' knowledge and practice of CSA prevention.

  14. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Drug Abuse and Smoking in Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Mohamadi, Neda; Mohamadi, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children. In addition to pharmacotherapy, non-drug treatments such as appropriate parenting are also very important in the treatment of these children. Diagnosis and treatment of parents with psychiatric disorders and substance abuse and evaluation of the frequency of these disorders in parents is critical. Methods In this case-control study, 200 parents were studied. The target population included parents of 7 to 12 year-old children who referred to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics. The control group included parents of children who referred to child non-psychiatric clinics. The parents were evaluated via a demographic information form, and structured interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) for nicotine and drug addiction. Then, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was used to assess their anxiety and depression. Findings Among the studied parents, the comparison of drug abuse, smoking, and stress showed significant differences between the two groups. In terms of depression and ADHD, the difference between the case and control groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion The higher prevalence of these disorders in parents of children with ADHD may indicate the possible role of this disorder in the etiology. PMID:27274792

  15. The Influence of Witnessing Inter-parental Violence and Bullying Victimization in Involvement in Fighting among Adolescents: Evidence from a School-based Cross-sectional Survey in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo

    2016-01-01

    Background Witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization is common for many children and adolescents. This study examines the role of witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization in involvement in physical fighting among Peruvian adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,368 randomly selected adolescents in 2015. We conducted logistic regression analyses to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for involvement in fighting among male and female adolescents. Results Among all adolescents, 35.8% had been involved in fighting in the last 12 months, 32.9% had been victim of verbal bullying and 37.9% had been the victim of physical bullying. Additionally, 39.2% and 27.8% of adolescents witnessed violence against their mother and father, respectively, at least once in their lives. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that late adolescence, participation in economic activities, being the victim of verbal bullying, stress, and witnessing violence against the father among male adolescents, and self-rated academic performance and being the victim of physical or verbal bullying among female adolescents were associated with higher odds of being involved in fighting. Conclusion Verbal bullying victimization and witnessing violence against the father in males and bullying victimization in females were associated with greater odds of adolescents being involved in fighting. Creating a non-violent environment at both home and school would be an effective strategy for reducing fighting among the adolescent population. PMID:27358837

  16. Big Girls Don't Cry: The Effect of Child Witness Demeanor on Juror Decisions in a Child Sexual Abuse Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Jonathan M.; Fryman, Heather M.; Marsil, Dorothy F.; Yozwiak, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effect of child witness demeanor (defined as crying) on mock jurors' decisions in a simulated First-Degree rape trial. Method: One hundred and thirty-three undergraduates serving in the role of mock jurors read a trial summary in which the primary independent variable was the demeanor of the alleged child…

  17. Emotional Reactivity to Network Stress in Middle and Late Adulthood: The Role of Childhood Parental Emotional Abuse and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…

  18. Examining the Relationship between a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse and Later Dissociation, Breast-Feeding Practices, and Parenting Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…

  19. The "Word Game": An Innovative Strategy for Assessing Implicit Processes in Parents at Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, Julie L.; Irwin, Lauren M.; Wells, Brett M.; Shelton, Christopher R.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed.…

  20. Preadoptive Child Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Moves in Care, Adoption Disruptions, and Inconsistent Adoptive Parent Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Ryan, Scott D.; Howard, Jeanne A.; Smith, Susan Livingston

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To date, little empirical attention has been given to the impact of preadoptive child sexual abuse (CSA) on adoption adjustment. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether preadoptive CSA was associated with more placement moves, adoption disruption, and inconsistent parental commitment compared to adopted…

  1. Reading between the Lines: Implicit Assessment of the Association of Parental Attributions and Empathy with Abuse Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Cook, Anne E.; Jedrziewski, Chezlie T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Researchers in the child maltreatment field have traditionally relied on explicit self-reports to study factors that may exacerbate physical child abuse risk. The current investigation evaluated an implicit analog task utilizing eye tracking technology to assess both parental attributions of child misbehavior and empathy. Method: Based…

  2. The Impact of Gender, Family Type and Age on Undergraduate Parents' Perception of Causes of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…

  3. Parent/child transactional processes predictive of resilience or vulnerability to "substance abuse disorders".

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Bluth, Barye

    2004-04-01

    This article discusses implications of a theoretical model of resilience--the Resilience Framework, including the impact of parent/child transactional processes in moderating or mediating a child's biological or environmental risks and later substance misuse. Research is presented on behavioral and emotional precursors of substance abuse disorders in children of substance users. Detrimental processes within dysfunctional family environments are presented followed by a listing of strategies for increasing resilience in youth by improving family dynamics. The value in elucidating these interactive processes is to increase our understanding of ways to reduce the impact of risk factors. Prevention providers should use these strategies as benchmarks for selecting or developing effective family-focused prevention programs. Resources are presented for finding effective family interventions as well as an example of a family intervention based on resilience principles, namely the Strengthening Families Program. Recommendations are made for future research and better dissemination of evidence-based family interventions.

  4. Abuse and neglect in adolescents of Jammu, India: the role of gender, family structure, and parental education.

    PubMed

    Charak, Ruby; Koot, Hans M

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess the factor structure of the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), and use it to describe the prevalence of abuse and neglect in Indian adolescents, and its associations with gender, family structure (nuclear vs. joint), and level of parental education. Participants were 702 adolescents from Jammu in the age range of 13-17 years (41.5% female). We found acceptance for a four-factor intercorrelated model for the CTQ with emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (5 emotional neglect and 2 physical neglect items) factors following a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Forty-one to sixty-one percent of adolescents reported maltreatment which is higher in comparison with CTQ based studies from the West. Analysis of CFA with covariates (MIMIC model) indicated that males, and adolescents of less educated mothers' and from joint families reported higher abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse, respectively, while fathers' education level was not associated with abuse or neglect. Implications of these findings are highlighted.

  5. Parents with co-occurring mental health and substance abuse conditions involved in Child Protection Services: clinical profile and treatment needs.

    PubMed

    Stromwall, Layne K; Larson, Nancy C; Nieri, Tanya; Holley, Lynn C; Topping, Diane; Castillo, Jason; Ashford, José B

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings of an exploratory study of 71 parents with substance abuse conditions involved in a child dependency court. Over half (59%) of the parents had a co-occurring mental health condition. Parents with co-occurring conditions (PWCC) differed in several important ways from those with only substance abuse conditions. PWCC were also more likely than their case managers were to report a need for mental health treatment. Implications for child welfare practice and research are offered.

  6. A quantitative exploratory evaluation of the circle of security-parenting program with mothers in residential substance-abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Horton, Evette; Murray, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Maternal substance abuse is a risk factor for child maltreatment, child attachment insecurity, and maladaptive social information processing. The aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative exploratory evaluation of the effectiveness of an attachment-based parent program, Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P; G. Cooper, K. Hoffman, & B. Powell, 2009), with a community sample of 15 mothers in residential treatment for substance abuse. Participants attended nine weekly group sessions and were given three measures at pretest and posttest: the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (J.J. Gross & O.P. John, 2003), the Parent Attribution Test (D. Bugental, ), and the Parenting Scale (D.S. Arnold, S.G. O'Leary, L.S. Wolff, & M.M. Acker, 1993). The results indicate that mothers who attended the majority of group sessions showed greater improvements on all three variables. Participants who attended some of the sessions showed some improvements on the measures, but participants who did not attend the group sessions had no improvements, and on some measures, declined significantly. Further analyses of demographic data indicates that participants with more education, no personal history of child maltreatment, less time in the residential program, and lower social desirability scores demonstrated more positive outcomes. These findings suggest that the COS-P may positively impact parental risk factors associated with child maltreatment and maladaptive social information processing in the context of residential substance-abuse treatment.

  7. Maternal Emotional Distress, Abuse Risk, and Children's Symptoms: Child Gender as a Moderator of Parent Sensitivity as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Thomas, Rae; Hendrickson, Kym; Avdagic, Elbina; Webb, Haley; McGregor, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Mothers' distress is a correlate of their children's elevated behaviour problems and symptoms. Parenting practices have been shown to mediate these associations, but few studies have observed parenting or focused on parents at risk of child abuse. In this study of 269 high-risk mothers and their young children (M?=?4.2?years), structural…

  8. Delay in disclosure of non-parental child sexual abuse in the context of emotional and physical maltreatment: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Sarah M; Goldfarb, Deborah; Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Edelstein, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The present pilot study sought to identify predictors of delays in child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, specifically whether emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure contributes to predicting delays over and above other important victim factors. Alleged CSA victims (N=79), whose parental figures were not the purported sexual abuse perpetrators, were interviewed and their case files reviewed, across two waves of a longitudinal study. Regression analyses indicated that experiencing both emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure was uniquely predictive of longer delays in disclosure of CSA perpetrated by someone other than a parental figure. Victim-CSA perpetrator relationship type and sexual abuse duration also significantly predicted CSA disclosure delay, whereas victim age at the time of the police report, victim gender, and victims' feelings of complicity were not significant unique predictors. Child abuse victims' expectations of lack of parental support may underlie these findings. Parent-child relationships are likely crucial to timely disclosure of CSA, even when a parent is not the CSA perpetrator. PMID:27380625

  9. Factors Influencing School Counselors' Suspecting and Reporting of Childhood Physical Abuse: Investigating Child, Parent, School, and Abuse Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Kathleen S.; Prazak, Michael D.; Burrier, Lauren; Miller, Sadie; Benezra, Max; Lynch, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore possible child abuse reporting problems for children, including both disparities among school counselors. The participants in this study were elementary school counselors (N = 398) from across the United States. Each participant read a series of vignettes and completed a survey regarding their inclinations about…

  10. Identifying the characteristics of child sexual abuse cases associated with the child or child's parents withdrawing the complaint.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Larissa S; Sharman, Stefanie J; Powell, Martine B

    2016-07-01

    Most child sexual abuse cases do not result in a full trial or guilty plea; rather, case attrition occurs at earlier stages of the criminal justice system. One reason for the attrition of these cases is the withdrawal of complaints, by children or their caregivers. The aim of the current study was to determine the case characteristics associated with complaint withdrawal in child sexual abuse cases by the child or his or her parents once a report has been made to authorities. All child sexual abuse incidents reported to authorities in one jurisdiction of Australia in 2011 were analyzed (N=659). A multinomial logistic regression was used to predict the following case outcomes: (1) withdrawn by the child or his or her parents, (2) exited for other reasons (e.g., the alleged offender was not identified, the child refused to be interviewed), and (3) resulted in a charge. Five predictors significantly added to the prediction of case outcome: child age, suspect gender, suspect age, child-suspect relationship, and abuse frequency. These results should contribute to the design of interventions in order to reduce complaint withdrawals if these withdrawals are not in the child's best interests. PMID:27318035

  11. Lonely Parents: Observations by Public Health Nurses of Alienation in Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marjorie

    Public health nurses (n=191) were queried regarding their observations of alienation in families who abuse their children. Comparison was made of social isolation and powerlessness in abusive families and a control group of non-abusive families, through the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and FIRO-B, with significant differences noted in…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  13. Retrospective reports of attachment disruptions, parental abuse and neglect mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Kendal; Huprich, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Studies have shown a direct relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem; however, there have not been many studies that have empirically tested which theoretically relevant variables mediate this relationship. In the present study, we evaluated how self-reported, early negative childhood experiences with parental figures mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. Four-hundred eight-five undergraduates from a Midwestern university retrospectively assessed their experiences of parental attachment and bonding, as well as their levels of pathological narcissism and current self-esteem. There was a significant correlation among all pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem, except for the Exploitativeness subscale. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with all negative childhood experiences on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and was positively correlated with positive childhood experiences on the Parental Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ). The parental relationship quality was negatively associated with all but one Pathological Narcissism Inventory subscale, as was the PAQ total score. Lastly, emotional neglect on the CTQ significantly mediated the relationship between several pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem. When investigating parental attachment and parental bonding, the quality of the relationship with the parent was a significant mediator between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the adverse effects of parental abuse and neglect on healthy development of the self and self-esteem. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25331543

  14. Retrospective reports of attachment disruptions, parental abuse and neglect mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Kendal; Huprich, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Studies have shown a direct relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem; however, there have not been many studies that have empirically tested which theoretically relevant variables mediate this relationship. In the present study, we evaluated how self-reported, early negative childhood experiences with parental figures mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. Four-hundred eight-five undergraduates from a Midwestern university retrospectively assessed their experiences of parental attachment and bonding, as well as their levels of pathological narcissism and current self-esteem. There was a significant correlation among all pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem, except for the Exploitativeness subscale. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with all negative childhood experiences on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and was positively correlated with positive childhood experiences on the Parental Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ). The parental relationship quality was negatively associated with all but one Pathological Narcissism Inventory subscale, as was the PAQ total score. Lastly, emotional neglect on the CTQ significantly mediated the relationship between several pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem. When investigating parental attachment and parental bonding, the quality of the relationship with the parent was a significant mediator between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the adverse effects of parental abuse and neglect on healthy development of the self and self-esteem. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Parent gender as a moderator: The relationships between social support, collective efficacy, and child physical abuse in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-01-01

    Social support and collective efficacy are related to child physical abuse. However, little is known about whether these relationships differ for women and men, although mothers and fathers differ in the quantity and quality of time spent with children. This study examined whether the relationship between social support, collective efficacy, and physical abuse is stronger for mothers than fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with parent respondents in 50 California cities (n=3,023). Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results suggest that high levels of emotional support were inversely associated with physical abuse for women and men, although this effect was stronger for women. High levels of companionship support were positively associated with physical abuse for women; however the opposite was true for men. There were no significant interactions between collective efficacy variables and gender. The relationships between some types of social support and physical abuse appear to vary for men and women suggesting possibilities for more targeted intervention. PMID:25520320

  16. Pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata in parents at-risk for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether parents with varying degrees of child physical abuse (CPA) risk differed in pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Participants included 91 (51 low CPA risk and 40 high CPA risk) general population parents. Participants were randomly assigned to complete either an easy or a difficult anagram task. Pain tolerance and pain sensitivity were assessed using a cold pressor task. Accessibility of aggression-related schemata was assessed at the outset of the data collection session and at the end of the session using a word completion task. Parents' self-reported negative affect was assessed three times over the course of the study: baseline, after the anagram task, and after the cold pressor task. As expected, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents reported higher levels of negative affect at each time point. Moreover, after completing the difficult anagram task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited higher pain sensitivity during the cold pressor task. Following completion of the cold pressor task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited greater accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Collectively, these findings indicate that under certain conditions, high-risk parents experience a confluence of aggression-related risk factors (i.e., negative affect, pain sensitivity, and aggression-related information processes) that may predispose them to aggressive behavior.

  17. [Blood transfusions in Jehovah's witnesses].

    PubMed

    Aguilera, P

    1993-04-01

    Jehovah Witnesses cite religious motives to refuse transfusions of whole blood or its components for themselves and their children, even when life is endangered. An ethical analysis of decision making in health problems is made, giving priority to the alternatives chosen by the patient. One of the elements that turns a therapeutic procedure into extraordinary is the moral impossibility of its use, originated in a subjective cause. The right to act with freedom in religious matters must also be considered. It is concluded that the denial of a Jehovah Witness to be transfused must be respected. However, in the case of children, the physicians should disregard the parents rejection. PMID:8272620

  18. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  19. Childhood experiences of abuse, later substance use, and parenting outcomes among low-income mothers.

    PubMed

    Marcenko, M O; Kemp, S P; Larson, N C

    2000-07-01

    Relationships among childhood abuse, subsequent adult functioning (with a focus on severity of substance abuse), and child placement were explored in an urban sample of low-income, African-American mothers. Childhood sexual trauma and age were found to be correlated with severity of later drug use; history of physical or sexual abuse was significantly related to psychological distress in adulthood; and addiction was highly correlated with child placement. Implications of the findings are discussed, with particular reference to collaborations between child welfare and substance abuse treatment. PMID:10953778

  20. Facilitators and barriers to the successful implementation of a protocol to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Dechesne, Mark; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2014-11-01

    To determine the critical facilitating and impeding factors underlying successful implementation of a method to detect child abuse based on parental rather than child characteristics known as the Hague Protocol. The original implementation region of the protocol (The Hague) was compared to a new implementation region (Friesland), using analysis of referrals, focus group interviews (n=6) at the Emergency departments (ED) and at the Reporting Centers for Child abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) as well as questionnaires (n=76) at the EDs. Implementation of the Hague Protocol substantially increased the number of referrals to the RCCAN in both regions. In Friesland, the new implementation region, the number of referrals increased from 2 out of 92,464 patients (three per 100,000) to 108 out of 167,037 patients (62 per 100,000). However in Friesland, child abuse was confirmed in a substantially lower percentage of cases relative to the initial implementation region (62% vs. 91%, respectively). Follow-up analyses suggest that this lower positive predictive value may be due to the lack of training for RCCAN professionals concerning the Hague Protocol. The focus group interviews and questionnaires point to time limitations as the main impediment for implementation, whereas an implementation coach has been mentioned as the most important facilitating factor for success. The Hague Protocol can be used to detect child abuse beyond the initial implementation region. However, training is essential in order to assure a consistent evaluation by the RCCAN. PMID:25192959

  1. Facilitators and barriers to the successful implementation of a protocol to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Dechesne, Mark; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2014-11-01

    To determine the critical facilitating and impeding factors underlying successful implementation of a method to detect child abuse based on parental rather than child characteristics known as the Hague Protocol. The original implementation region of the protocol (The Hague) was compared to a new implementation region (Friesland), using analysis of referrals, focus group interviews (n=6) at the Emergency departments (ED) and at the Reporting Centers for Child abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) as well as questionnaires (n=76) at the EDs. Implementation of the Hague Protocol substantially increased the number of referrals to the RCCAN in both regions. In Friesland, the new implementation region, the number of referrals increased from 2 out of 92,464 patients (three per 100,000) to 108 out of 167,037 patients (62 per 100,000). However in Friesland, child abuse was confirmed in a substantially lower percentage of cases relative to the initial implementation region (62% vs. 91%, respectively). Follow-up analyses suggest that this lower positive predictive value may be due to the lack of training for RCCAN professionals concerning the Hague Protocol. The focus group interviews and questionnaires point to time limitations as the main impediment for implementation, whereas an implementation coach has been mentioned as the most important facilitating factor for success. The Hague Protocol can be used to detect child abuse beyond the initial implementation region. However, training is essential in order to assure a consistent evaluation by the RCCAN.

  2. Child abuse history in teen mothers and parent-child risk processes for offspring externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Pasalich, Dave S; Cyr, Maeve; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J; Spieker, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined whether child abuse history in teen mothers impacts offspring externalizing problems indirectly, through its influence on attachment and maternal hostility. In a longitudinal sample of 112 teen mother-child dyads, mothers reported on their own abuse experiences, attachment and maternal hostility were assessed via direct observations, and externalizing problems were measured using maternal reports. Compared with mothers with no abuse history, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse were more likely to have an insecurely attached infant, which predicted higher externalizing problems in preschool, which in turn predicted subsequent increases in externalizing problems in Grade 3. Furthermore, relative to the no abuse history group, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse showed more hostility toward their child at preschool, which in turn predicted elevated externalizing problems in Grade 3. Mothers' history of either sexual or physical abuse alone did not have significant indirect effects on externalizing problems. Fostering secure attachment and reducing risk for maternal hostility might be important intervention goals for prevention programs involving at-risk mothers with abuse histories. PMID:27174770

  3. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse VII: Teens, Parents and Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuses surveys have consistently found that the family is fundamental to keeping children away from tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs. This 2002 survey keeps the focus on family and seeks to assess the impact of siblings on the likelihood of teen substance abuse. This year 1,000 teens ages 12 to 17…

  4. Parental Employment Status and Symptoms of Children Abused during a Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center…

  5. The Specific Role of Childhood Abuse, Parental Bonding, and Family Functioning in Female Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family. PMID:25905734

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Dating Partner Violence and Suicidal Ideation in a Representative Household Sample in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on future intimate partner violence (IPV) in dating relationship in Hong Kong, China. A total of 1,154 Chinese adult respondents engaged in dating relationships were interviewed face-to-face about their CSA histories, childhood witnessing of parental violence, adult…

  7. The relationship between parental physical availability and child sexual, physical and emotional abuse: a study among a sample of university students in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between perceived parental physical availability and child sexual, physical and emotional abuse was investigated. The sample comprised 722 undergraduate students of psychology at the University of the North, South Africa. Participants filled in a retrospective self-rated questionnaire in a classroom setting. The questionnaire asked about perceived parental physical availability during childhood, and childhood sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that, among all the participants, the factors "the participant not living with the natural (biological) mother until he or she was at least 16 years old" and "have ever had a stepfather or adoptive father until he or she was at least 16 years old" predicted child sexual abuse; and "have ever had a stepfather or adoptive father until he or she was at least 16 years old" predicted child emotional abuse. None of the other aspects of parental availability considered predicted child physical abuse. Mental health and social workers, educators and law enforcement agencies dealing with prevention and protection against child abuse should take note of the above identified predictors while designing programs for the eradication of child sexual, physical and emotional abuse.

  8. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  9. Longitudinal study on the effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence, parent-child attachments, and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Tajima, Emiko A; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, for those who were abused only and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children.

  10. Reduced visual cortex gray matter volume and thickness in young adults who witnessed domestic violence during childhood.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV) or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner) were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years) including 22 (6 males/16 females) with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females) unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18) (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level). Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure. PMID:23300699

  11. Reduced Visual Cortex Gray Matter Volume and Thickness in Young Adults Who Witnessed Domestic Violence during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M.; Teicher, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV) or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner) were obtained on 52 subjects (18–25 years) including 22 (6 males/16 females) with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females) unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18) (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level). Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11–13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure. PMID:23300699

  12. Reduced visual cortex gray matter volume and thickness in young adults who witnessed domestic violence during childhood.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV) or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner) were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years) including 22 (6 males/16 females) with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females) unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18) (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level). Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.

  13. Parents of Minors Who Have Sexually Abused: Legal Liability and Clinical Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oz, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    While children and adolescents generally do not have the right to vote, marry, or sign contracts independently, they are often held responsible for their crimes. In spite of this, some parents of minor victims file civil suits against parents of the youth responsible for the harm. The courts must then decide to what extent, if any, parents are…

  14. Parental Alcohol Use, Family Relationship Quality, Self-Esteem, and Depression in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan; Christensen, Sue A.

    1995-01-01

    Family relationship quality, not parental alcohol use, predicted levels of depression and self-esteem in 201 college students. Witnessing spousal abuse related to increased depression in adult children of alcoholics, whole poorer family relationship quality was associated with lower self-esteem, suggesting the experience of paternal alcoholism is…

  15. The Expert Witness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    As consumers organize and industry begins to feel the economic pinch of pollution control laws, litigation may increase as will the need for the expert witness. Discussed are the functions and preparations of expert witnesses, their role and conduct in judicial proceedings, and the techniques of being an expert witness. (BT)

  16. The relationship between parents with a history of childhood problems and incidence of consequent child abuse.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hiroko; Tani, Hiroe; Ninomiya, Tsuneo; Mori, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors related to the need for cooperation with child guidance centers with a focus on the presence or absence of a history of childhood problems in at-risk parents receiving support from their municipality. Among the 1890 parents who received child care support from public health nurses in the municipalities, 164 parents (8.7%) had a history of childhood problems. Among these, 50 parents (30.5%) received support from child guidance centers. The parents with a history of childhood problems had a higher incidence rate for receiving support from child guidance centers than other parents. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that "marital strife or domestic violence", and "financial problems" were associated with consultations with child guidance centers among parents with a history of childhood problems. The results showed that family situations of parents who had a history of childhood problems may, in time, become more severe, even if they have received support from public health nurses in the municipalities. Therefore, parents with a history of childhood problems need support as early as possible. In addition, those parents with "marital strife or domestic violence" and "financial problems" also need guidance and early nursing care interventions. J. Med. Invest. 63: 209-215, August, 2016. PMID:27644560

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  18. Parent-Centered Intervention: A Practical Approach for Preventing Drug Abuse in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…

  19. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  20. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  1. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…

  2. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  3. Can Control Theory Explain the Link between Parental Physical Abuse and Delinquency? A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebellon, Cesar J.; Van Gundy, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Although a growing literature suggests that physical abuse is associated with delinquency, little empirical research has attempted to probe the nature of the mechanism that underlies the apparent relationship. Moreover, because the theoretical literature tends to invoke learning and strain theories as explanations for the apparent relationship,…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Psychoeducational Groups for Preschoolers and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Teaching parents and their young children about ways to avoid harm can be accomplished with much success in a group setting. Parents as Teachers of Safety (PaTS) is a multi-family educational group which instructs families on environmental and personal body safety rules, with an emphasis on improving knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse…

  5. Can Parents Provide Brief Intervention Services to Their Drug-Abusing Teenager?

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of parents as “interventionists” is supported by reviews of the treatment literature (e.g., Smit, Verdurmen, Monshouwer, & Smit, 2008; Winters, Botzet, Fahnhorst, & Koskey, 2009) as well as the emerging science that home-based initiatives by parents can contribute to desired health changes in adolescents (Fearnow, Chassin, Presson, & Sherman, 1998; Jackson & Dickinson, 2006). Parental influences on an adolescent can include reducing initiation, as well as altering its maintenance if it has started. This paper describes a project aimed helping parents to deal with a teenager who has already started to use alcohol or other drugs. Home Base is a home-based, parent-led program aimed at reversing the trajectory of drug use in an already drug-using adolescent. The program’s content is organized around motivational enhancement and cognitive behavioral techniques. The ongoing study will also be discussed. PMID:25866459

  6. The Consequences of Witnessing Family Violence on Children and Implications for Family Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of children are directly abused, an even larger number may indirectly experience the effects of abuse as witnesses of family violence. However, the effects on children who witness such violence have long been unaddressed, although a growing body of research indicates that these children are affected in various domains,…

  7. Extremal entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Leif Ove; Hauge, Andreas; Myrheim, Jan; Sollid, Per Øyvind

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of extremal entanglement witnesses on a bipartite composite quantum system. We define the cone of witnesses as the dual of the set of separable density matrices, thus TrΩρ≥0 when Ω is a witness and ρ is a pure product state, ρ=ψψ† with ψ=ϕ⊗χ. The set of witnesses of unit trace is a compact convex set, uniquely defined by its extremal points. The expectation value f(ϕ,χ)=TrΩρ as a function of vectors ϕ and χ is a positive semidefinite biquadratic form. Every zero of f(ϕ,χ) imposes strong real-linear constraints on f and Ω. The real and symmetric Hessian matrix at the zero must be positive semidefinite. Its eigenvectors with zero eigenvalue, if such exist, we call Hessian zeros. A zero of f(ϕ,χ) is quadratic if it has no Hessian zeros, otherwise it is quartic. We call a witness quadratic if it has only quadratic zeros, and quartic if it has at least one quartic zero. A main result we prove is that a witness is extremal if and only if no other witness has the same, or a larger, set of zeros and Hessian zeros. A quadratic extremal witness has a minimum number of isolated zeros depending on dimensions. If a witness is not extremal, then the constraints defined by its zeros and Hessian zeros determine all directions in which we may search for witnesses having more zeros or Hessian zeros. A finite number of iterated searches in random directions, by numerical methods, leads to an extremal witness which is nearly always quadratic and has the minimum number of zeros. We discuss briefly some topics related to extremal witnesses, in particular the relation between the facial structures of the dual sets of witnesses and separable states. We discuss the relation between extremality and optimality of witnesses, and a conjecture of separability of the so-called structural physical approximation (SPA) of an optimal witness. Finally, we discuss how to treat the entanglement witnesses on a complex Hilbert space as a subset of the

  8. [Sexual abuse of underage children: incest and extra-familial abuse].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y

    1992-01-01

    After defining the concept of sexual abuse and its limitations, the author demonstrates how the confrontation with sexual abuse may provoke counter-transferential movements in staff members and spoil the quality of help programs. The author then outlines the pathogenesis of the concept and describes clinical signs, acute or chronic, presented by the abused child. He then discusses the diagnostic process according to diverse disclosure situations (by the child him/herself, parent-witness, etc.). Reliability of the revelations are then discussed. Two important parts of this paper deal with intervention methods: first, the crisis intervention, focused on collecting information, support to the suffering persons, active protection of the child and possible collaboration with judiciary authorities; cure intervention: social help to the family, speech groups, role of punishment, etc.

  9. Pilot Evaluation of Outcomes of Combined Parent-Child Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Families at Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Schroeder, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Child physical abuse (CPA) is not only a highly prevalent public health problem, but it has been associated with a wide range of debilitating psychosocial sequelae that may develop during childhood and persist into adulthood. This paper outlines a treatment model, Combined Parent-Child Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT), that addresses the…

  10. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  11. Caring for Children and Youth Who Have Been Sexually Abused: A Training Manual for Child and Youth Care Workers and Foster Parents. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Linda

    This facilitator's guide is part of an overall program developed as a resource for child and youth care workers and foster parents. Those using the facilitator's guide must possess considerable knowledge and training in the areas of child abuse, child welfare, child laws, human development, and group and family dynamics. Facilitators must be able…

  12. Caring for Children and Youth Who Have Been Sexually Abused: A Training Manual for Child and Youth Care Workers and Foster Parents. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Linda

    This manual, which incorporates a developmental perspective, targets child and youth care workers and foster parents who are ready to enhance their practical skills in providing care and treatment for young people who have been sexually abused. Users of this manual should have some previous understanding in human growth and development, effective…

  13. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  14. African American parents' behaviors and attitudes about substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Paschal, Angelia M; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia

    2007-01-01

    Limited information exists about African American parents' substance use and attitudes, independent of how they relate to their children. This study examined whether the behaviors and attitudes of a sample of African American parents differed from the general population of adults. Results indicated their attitudes were relatively more conservative, and that alcohol and illicit drug use were lower. Cigarette and marijuana use were comparable. Correlations between attitudes and behaviors were found. Findings suggest that increased educational efforts are needed among parents, especially about cigarettes, marijuana, and the negative impact these attitudes and behaviors may have on their children.

  15. USING THE PARENT-INFANT RELATIONSHIP GLOBAL ASSESSMENT SCALE TO IDENTIFY CAREGIVER-INFANT/TODDLER DYADS WITH ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Hatzinikolaou, Kornilia; Karveli, Vassiliki; Skoubourdi, Aggeliki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Antonucci, Gianluca; Visci, Giovanni; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; MagalhÃes, Eunice; Essau, Cecilia; Allan, Sharon; Pithia, Jayshree; Walji, Fahreen; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Perez-Robles, Ruth; Fanti, Kostas A; Katsimicha, Evita; Hadjicharambous, Maria-Zoe; Nikolaidis, George; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-07-01

    The study examined whether the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC: 0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver-infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children's ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and already had been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver-child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect's (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parental Version (ICAST-P; D.K. Runyan et al., ), a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both the PIR-GAS and the ICAST-P. Interrater reliability for the PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0-3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed. PMID:27351372

  16. USING THE PARENT-INFANT RELATIONSHIP GLOBAL ASSESSMENT SCALE TO IDENTIFY CAREGIVER-INFANT/TODDLER DYADS WITH ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Hatzinikolaou, Kornilia; Karveli, Vassiliki; Skoubourdi, Aggeliki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Antonucci, Gianluca; Visci, Giovanni; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; MagalhÃes, Eunice; Essau, Cecilia; Allan, Sharon; Pithia, Jayshree; Walji, Fahreen; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Perez-Robles, Ruth; Fanti, Kostas A; Katsimicha, Evita; Hadjicharambous, Maria-Zoe; Nikolaidis, George; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-07-01

    The study examined whether the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC: 0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver-infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children's ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and already had been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver-child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect's (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parental Version (ICAST-P; D.K. Runyan et al., ), a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both the PIR-GAS and the ICAST-P. Interrater reliability for the PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0-3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed.

  17. Abuse and Neglect of Healthy Newborn by Parents: A Social Problem with a Long History

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Ahmadshah; Ghasemi, Ali; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    A Two-day-old girl who was found in garbage by police and transferred to hospital. She was irritable and dehydrated; also there were burn injuries around her knees and right cheek. Her weight was 3100 grams and physical examinations were normal. Opium was found in urine. Phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day intravenous every 12 hours) was started for her irritability. After 20 days, infant was entrusted to a welfare organization with coordination of social support of hospital. The prevention of child abuse and neglect is an urgent public health concern. Home visit by welfare organization has been proposed as a promising approach to prevent health and developmental problems among children. We report this case of an abused and neglected newborn. PMID:26675006

  18. Abuse and Neglect of Healthy Newborn by Parents: A Social Problem with a Long History.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Ahmadshah; Ghasemi, Ali; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf; Sezavar, Majid

    2015-11-01

    A Two-day-old girl who was found in garbage by police and transferred to hospital. She was irritable and dehydrated; also there were burn injuries around her knees and right cheek. Her weight was 3100 grams and physical examinations were normal. Opium was found in urine. Phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day intravenous every 12 hours) was started for her irritability. After 20 days, infant was entrusted to a welfare organization with coordination of social support of hospital. The prevention of child abuse and neglect is an urgent public health concern. Home visit by welfare organization has been proposed as a promising approach to prevent health and developmental problems among children. We report this case of an abused and neglected newborn. PMID:26675006

  19. To Stay or Not To Stay: Adolescent Client, Parent, and Counselor Perspectives on Leaving Substance Abuse Treatment Early

    PubMed Central

    Landrum, Brittany; Knight, Danica K.; Becan, Jennifer E.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing motivation and raising retention rates are considerable challenges for providers of adolescent substance abuse treatment. Research has shown that motivation for treatment, social influences (peers, family, counselors), and for some clients external pressure from the juvenile justice system, can serve as key factors in successful retention. To further understand influences on motivation and retention, focus groups were conducted in two residential treatment facilities. Adolescent clients, parents, and treatment staff were asked to describe their experiences with the treatment process focusing specifically on factors related to treatment attrition and retention. Qualitative data analysis revealed five themes affecting retention either positively or negatively. Themes included relationships (with family, peers, and counselors), responsibility (degree to which clients embrace jobs, roles, and rules), emotional regulation (ability to express feelings appropriately), thinking (identifying behavior patterns and recognizing consequences), and self-efficacy (feelings of empowerment). Implications for future research and for developing strategies aimed at increasing motivation and retention are discussed. PMID:26457049

  20. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  1. Hubble Witnesses Comet Crash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Quick Time Movie for PIA02122 Hubble Witnesses Comet Crash

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Hubble Witnesses Comet Crash

    These pictures of comet Tempel 1 were taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. They show the comet before and after it ran over NASA's Deep Impact probe.

  2. Universal nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, Marcin; Kotowski, Michal

    2010-06-15

    We give a universal recipe for constructing nonlinear entanglement witnesses able to detect nonclassical correlations in arbitrary systems of distinguishable and/or identical particles for an arbitrary number of constituents. The constructed witnesses are expressed in terms of expectation values of observables. As such, they are, at least in principle, measurable in experiments.

  3. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    PubMed

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  4. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.

  5. Parent-Adolescent Relations and Adolescent Functioning: Self-Esteem, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jennifer S.; Benson, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined parental support and monitoring as they relate to adolescent outcomes. It was hypothesized that support and monitoring would be associated with higher self-esteem and less risky behavior during adolescence. The diverse sample included 16,749 adolescents assessed as part of the National Educational Longitudinal Study.…

  6. Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naïve youth.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Liu, Xun; Shulz, Kurt; Fan, Jin; London, Edythe; Friston, Karl; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-28

    It is hypothesized that the development of substance abuse (SA) may be due to imbalance in functions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems in the brain. This speaks to the search for biological risk factors for SA in drug-naïve children who also exhibit motivational and inhibitory control deficits; however, this type of research is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to establish a neurobiological basis for addiction vulnerability using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in drug-naïve youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD alone would show higher activity in regions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems than children with ADHD and a parental history of SA. Toward this goal we scanned 20 drug-naïve children with ADHD ages 8-13 while performing an event-related reward task. High (N=10) and low (N=10) risk subjects were identified, based on parental history of SA. The effects of anticipation, conflict, and reward were assessed with appropriate linear contrasts, and between-group differences were assessed using statistical parametric mapping. The two groups did not differ on behavioral measures of the task. The fMRI results show heightened activation in the brain motivational-reward system and reduced activation of the inhibitory control system in high-risk compared to low-risk children. These results suggest that a functional mismatch between these two systems may represent one possible biological underpinning of SA risk, which is conferred by a parental history of addiction.

  7. Correlation between drugs of abuse and alcohol by hair analysis: parents at risk for having children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulaga, Vivian; Shor, Sarit; Koren, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) hair test, a biomarker of excessive alcohol exposure, has demonstrated its potential for use in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnosis. FASD may be compounded by polydrug exposure. Our objective was to determine the likelihood of positive FAEE test among parents testing positive for other drugs of abuse. Samples submitted for FAEE hair analysis by Children's Aid Societies between October 2005 and May 2007, also concurrently tested for cocaine, cannabinoids, opiates, methamphetamine, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, methadone, and/or oxycodone, were included in our analysis. Subjects consisted of parents suspected of using excessive amounts of alcohol. Parents testing positive for drugs of abuse had a significantly increased risk for testing positive for high FAEE. Mothers testing positive for heavy chronic alcohol use were found to have a threefold increased risk of testing positive for cocaine (odds ratio=3.26, 1.1-9.7). Our results suggest that parents abusing stimulants are at risk of high alcohol exposure, which put their unborn children at risk for FASD. PMID:20580184

  8. Witnessing entanglement without entanglement witness operators

    PubMed Central

    Pezzè, Luca; Li, Yan; Li, Weidong; Smerzi, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts the existence of correlations between composite systems that, although puzzling to our physical intuition, enable technologies not accessible in a classical world. Notwithstanding, there is still no efficient general method to theoretically quantify and experimentally detect entanglement of many qubits. Here we propose to detect entanglement by measuring the statistical response of a quantum system to an arbitrary nonlocal parametric evolution. We witness entanglement without relying on the tomographic reconstruction of the quantum state, or the realization of witness operators. The protocol requires two collective settings for any number of parties and is robust against noise and decoherence occurring after the implementation of the parametric transformation. To illustrate its user friendliness we demonstrate multipartite entanglement in different experiments with ions and photons by analyzing published data on fidelity visibilities and variances of collective observables. PMID:27681625

  9. The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE) scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Martin H; Parigger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several additional

  10. Using hidden cameras to monitor suspected parental abuse: a security requirement or an invasion of privacy?

    PubMed

    2000-09-01

    Covert surveillance of patients suspected of having Munchausen syndrome by proxy at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite (formerly Scottish Rite Children's Medical Center), Atlanta, GA, resulted in considerable media scrutiny when researchers published their findings in the June issue of the journal Pediatrics. The researchers hid surveillance cameras in the rooms of 41 patients over a four-year period and, more than half the time, the videotapes confirmed doctors' fears that mothers were intentionally injuring their babies. Some of the most serious abuse involved mothers injecting their children with urine and feces, switching their medication, and even suffocating them to make them sick. This report presents details of the research, the involvement of security officers, and the reactions of local authorities and health officials.

  11. Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna; Sarbicki, Gniewomir

    2009-12-01

    We provide a class of indecomposable entanglement witnesses. In 4×4 case, it reproduces the well-known Breuer-Hall witness. We prove that these witnesses are optimal and atomic, i.e., they are able to detect the “weakest” quantum entanglement encoded into states with positive partial transposition. Equivalently, we provide a construction of indecomposable atomic maps in the algebra of 2k×2k complex matrices. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels. This result supports recent conjecture by Korbicz [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062105 (2008)].

  12. Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna; Sarbicki, Gniewomir

    2009-12-15

    We provide a class of indecomposable entanglement witnesses. In 4x4 case, it reproduces the well-known Breuer-Hall witness. We prove that these witnesses are optimal and atomic, i.e., they are able to detect the 'weakest' quantum entanglement encoded into states with positive partial transposition. Equivalently, we provide a construction of indecomposable atomic maps in the algebra of 2kx2k complex matrices. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels. This result supports recent conjecture by Korbicz et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062105 (2008)].

  13. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress.

  14. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. PMID:24004246

  15. Witnessing nonclassical multipartite states

    SciTech Connect

    Saguia, A.; Rulli, C. C.; Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Sarandy, M. S.

    2011-10-15

    We investigate a witness for nonclassical multipartite states based on their disturbance under local measurements. The witness operator provides a sufficient condition for nonclassicality that coincides with a nonvanishing global quantum discord, but it does not demand an extremization procedure. Moreover, for the case of Z{sub 2}-symmetric systems, we rewrite the witness in terms of correlation functions so that classicality is found to necessarily require either vanishing magnetization in the invariant axis or isotropy of the two-point function in the transverse spin plane. We illustrate our results in quantum spin chains, where a characterization of factorized ground states (with spontaneously broken Z{sub 2} symmetry) is achieved. As a by-product, the witness is also shown to indicate a second-order quantum phase transitions, which is illustrated for both the XY and the Ashkin-Teller spin chains.

  16. Witnessed resuscitation by relatives.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R

    2000-02-01

    Witnessed resuscitation is the process of active 'medical' resuscitation in the presence of family members. Witnessed resuscitation though not as yet wide spread in practice is becoming established. Early reports of programs designed to promote such a process first appeared in the early 1980s. More recent work appears to show both public support and a desire for inclusion in the resuscitation process. Some research has been produced that indicates both satisfaction and psychological benefit for those relatives enabled to witness. Limited work only, exists pertaining to the effects on health care providers and these reports currently do not show any significant deleterious effects. Approval of witnessed resuscitation programs is not universal amongst all groups of health care workers. Concerns about the ethics of witnessed resuscitation and its medico-legal implications have been raised. The quality of the initial witnessed resuscitation reports is however variable and there is a great need for further work to validate the initial findings particularly in the areas of psychological stressors in staff and risk management implications.

  17. Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act Amendments of 1983. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Sentate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (April 6, 11, and 14, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Statements and papers presented to the U.S. Senate during 3 days of hearings on the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act Amendments of 1983 are included in this document. Witnesses include physicians, psychologists, human services administrators, parents, heads of social service agencies, and organizations advocating…

  18. Fostering the Battered and Abused Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a 20-hour, eight-week course for experienced foster parents. Goals include understanding the causes of child abuse, understanding the consequences of child abuse, and understanding the interaction patterns which provoke child abuse. (Author/DB)

  19. [Parenting].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions to this theme issue of a bulletin on infants aged birth to three, point out that becoming a parent is an evolving process and that infants' meanings to their parents shape parenting behavior and the capacity to change. Articles also examine the challenge of how to support parents as they come to, and continue in, the process of…

  20. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE

    PubMed Central

    LYON, THOMAS D.; DENTE, JULIA A.

    2014-01-01

    After the Supreme Court’s ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant’s right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children’s evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child’s vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities. PMID:25364063

  1. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  2. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities. PMID:25364063

  3. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  4. Witness Disclaiming During Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutman, Randall K.

    1986-01-01

    Supports research indicating that disclaimers have no effect on perceptions of source credibility. Reveals that frequency of disclaimer use was unrelated to subject-juror evaluations of witness credibility and testimony believability; females did not use more disclaimers than males during examination; and when females used disclaimers, they were…

  5. The inner witness.

    PubMed

    Amir, Dana

    2012-08-01

    The inner witness is a mechanism that develops in response to a reasonable experience of infantile helplessness, the resulting maternal impingement and the presence of a sufficient experience of a third. Being crucial to the subject's capacity to shift between the first person and the third person of experience, it also has an essential role in coping with trauma. Three types of testimonial narrative are differentiated in terms of the presence of the inner witness in their syntax. The first mode is one in which the inner witness is accessible, enabling the imaginary shift between the voice of the victim and the voice of the witness. The second mode, which remains a 'first-person' mode of report, preserves and enacts the traumatic memories and the traumatic features. The third, psychotic mode attacks both the first and the third person, separating the subject from both his memories and his sense of selfhood. This mode can evolve as a reaction to an adult massive trauma, but is more likely to emerge as a result of early traumatization. The above ideas and their implications for recovery are illustrated by a case study and through a reading of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot.

  6. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    WIT is a self-sufficient mobile semitrailer for nondestructive evaluation and nondestructive assay of nuclear waste drums using x-ray and gamma-ray tomography. The recently completed Phase I included the design, fabrication, and initial testing of all WIT subsystems installed on-board the trailer. Initial test results include 2 MeV digital radiography, computed tomography, Anger camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, gamma-ray spectroscopy, collimated gamma scanning, and active and passive computed tomography using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with 3 simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba with 9-250 {mu}Ci activities. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively in Phase I. Currently ongoing Phase II involves DOE site field test demonstrations at LLNL, RFETS, and INEL with real nuclear waste drums. Current WIT experience includes 55 gallon drums of cement, graphite, sludge, glass, metals, and combustibles. Thus far WIT has inspected drums with 0-20 gms of {sup 239}Pu.

  7. The inner witness.

    PubMed

    Amir, Dana

    2012-08-01

    The inner witness is a mechanism that develops in response to a reasonable experience of infantile helplessness, the resulting maternal impingement and the presence of a sufficient experience of a third. Being crucial to the subject's capacity to shift between the first person and the third person of experience, it also has an essential role in coping with trauma. Three types of testimonial narrative are differentiated in terms of the presence of the inner witness in their syntax. The first mode is one in which the inner witness is accessible, enabling the imaginary shift between the voice of the victim and the voice of the witness. The second mode, which remains a 'first-person' mode of report, preserves and enacts the traumatic memories and the traumatic features. The third, psychotic mode attacks both the first and the third person, separating the subject from both his memories and his sense of selfhood. This mode can evolve as a reaction to an adult massive trauma, but is more likely to emerge as a result of early traumatization. The above ideas and their implications for recovery are illustrated by a case study and through a reading of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot. PMID:22900554

  8. Victim/Witness Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Robert H.; Blew, Carol Holliday

    This monograph highlights the elements of four victim-assistance programs which demonstrate the range of services currently being offered. It provides a preliminary look at the impact of such programs and points out where more information is needed. Major topics include victim and witness services and monitoring thereof. The two goals of…

  9. The ‘Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure’ (MACE) Scale for the Retrospective Assessment of Abuse and Neglect During Development

    PubMed Central

    Teicher, Martin H.; Parigger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen’s Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several

  10. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse during Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Alaptagin; McCormack, Hannah C.; Bolger, Elizabeth A.; McGreenery, Cynthia E.; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The adverse childhood experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age. Methods: 560 (223M/337F) young adults (18–25 years) were recruited from the community without regard to diagnosis and balanced to have equal exposure to 0–4 plus types of maltreatment. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure Scale assessed severity of exposure to 10 types of maltreatment across each year of childhood. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and current symptoms were evaluated by SCID, interview, and self-report. Predictive analytics assessed importance of exposure at each age and evaluated whether exposure at one or two ages was a more important predictor than number, severity, or duration of maltreatment across childhood. Results: The most important predictors of lifetime history of MDD were non-verbal emotional abuse in males and peer emotional abuse (EA) in females at 14 years of age, and these were more important predictors across models than number of types of maltreatment (males: t9 = 16.39, p < 10-7; females t9 = 5.78, p < 10-4). Suicidal ideation was predicted, in part, by NVEA and peer EA at age 14, but most importantly by parental verbal abuse at age 5 in males and sexual abuse at age 18 in females. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for sensitive exposure periods when maltreatment maximally impacts risk for depression, and provides an alternative interpretation of the ACE study results. These findings fit with emerging neuroimaging evidence for regional sensitivity periods. The presence of sensitive exposure periods has important implications for prevention

  11. Reduced Fractional Anisotropy in the Visual Limbic Pathway of Young Adults Witnessing Domestic Violence in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeewook; Jeong, Bumseok; Polcari, Ann; Rohan, Michael L.; Teicher, Martin H.

    2011-01-01

    Witnessing domestic violence (WDV) is a traumatic childhood experience associated with increased risk for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder and reduced IQ scores. Specific affects of WDV on brain development have not been assessed. We sought to ascertain whether WDV was associated with abnormalities in white matter (WM) tract integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty subjects who witnessed domestic violence (16F/ 4M, mean age 22.4±2.48 yrs) but were not physically or sexually abused were compared to 27 healthy controls (19F/ 8M, 21.9±1.97 yrs) without exposure to trauma or Axis I and II disorders. DTI images were acquired with a 3T Siemens Trio scanner. Group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), covaried by age, gender, parental education, perceived financial sufficiency, IQ and degree of exposure to parental verbal aggression were assessed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), which projects FA values onto an alignment-invariant fiber tract representation. FA values in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus of left lateral occipital lobe were significantly lower (p<0.05 corrected for multiple comparison) in the WDV group. FA values correlated inversely with ratings of depression, anxiety, somatization, ‘limbic irritability’ and neuropsychological measures of processing speed. Measures of radial but not axial diffusivity were affected suggesting alterations in myelination. Degree of FA reduction was associated with duration of witnessing interparental verbal aggression and with exposure between ages 7 – 13 years. The inferior longitudinal fasciculus connects occipital and temporal cortex and is the main component of the visual–limbic pathway that subserves emotional, learning and memory functions that are modality specific to vision. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to childhood maltreatment is associated with alterations in fiber pathways that convey the adverse experience to frontal, temporal

  12. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  13. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  14. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse II: Teens and Their Parents Conducted by Luntz Research Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    Illegal drug use by adolescents is on the rise. This alarming trend was quantified in this national survey of the attitudes of teens and their parents (1,200 teens and 1,166 parents, including 819 sets of teens and parents from the same households) towards cigarettes, alcohol, inhalants, marijuana, LSD, cocaine, heroin, and other illegal drugs.…

  15. Family-witnessed resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Melanie

    2010-09-01

    Family-witnessed resuscitation is a controversial subject for healthcare professionals and support for the practice is not universal (Albarran and Stafford 1999, Kissoon 2006). Research suggests, however, that the advantages of this form of resuscitation for relatives far outweigh the disadvantages, and that hospital staff can support the practice without hindering the clinical care of patients. This article explores the ethical issues raised, as well as the views of patients, families and staff on the subject, and suggests that there should be guidelines on the practice in all emergency departments where it is likely to take place.

  16. Do physical abuse, depression, and parental substance use influence patterns of substance use among child welfare involved youth? Substance use misuse.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Smith, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11-17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.

  17. New hospital-based policy for children whose parents present at the ER due to domestic violence, substance abuse and/or a suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; van der Lee, Johanna H; Teeuw, Arianne H

    2013-02-01

    Child maltreatment is a major social problem with many adverse consequences, and a substantial number of maltreated children are not identified by health care professionals. In 2010, in order to improve the identification of maltreated children in hospitals, a new hospital-based policy was developed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This policy was adapted from another policy that was developed in The Hague, the Netherlands, in 2007. In the new Amsterdam policy, all adults presenting at the emergency department due to domestic violence, substance abuse, and/or a suicide attempt are asked whether they have any children in their care. If this is the case, parents are urged to visit the outpatient pediatric department together with all of their children. During this visit, problems are evaluated and voluntary referrals can be arranged to different care organizations. If parents refuse to cooperate, their children are reported to the Dutch Child Abuse Counseling and Reporting Centre. The two aims of this study are to describe (1) characteristics of the identified families and (2) the referrals made to different voluntary and involuntary care organizations during the first 2 years after implementation of the policy. Data were collected from medical records. One hundred and six children from 60 households were included, of which 68 children because their mother was a victim of domestic violence. Referrals to care organizations were arranged for 99 children, of which 67 on a voluntary basis. The Amsterdam policy seems successful in arranging voluntary support for the majority of identified children.

  18. 24 CFR 180.655 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... striking all or part of the testimony that may have been given by the witness, or for any other action... Witnesses. (a) Witnesses shall testify under oath or affirmation. (b) If a witness fails or refuses...

  19. The Emotional Child Witness Effect Survives Presentation Mode.

    PubMed

    Melinder, Annika; Burrell, Lisa; Eriksen, Maria Olaussen; Magnussen, Svein; Wessel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The emotional witness effect - the phenomenon whereby people are affected by the emotional manner in which a witness presents testimony - constitutes a possible source of wrongful decisions in legal contexts. One stereotypical view of abused children is that they should be sad when talking about their experiences of maltreatment, whereas children may in fact express a variety of emotional expressions when talking about abusive events. This raises the question as to whether there is an optimal mode in which to present child victim testimony that could reduce the possible influence of displayed emotions. In the present study, mock police interviews were carried out with female child actors, role-playing the victims of physical abuse by their stepfather, telling the same story with four emotional expressions (neutral, sad, angry, or positive). Laypersons (N = 465) were presented with the interviews as transcripts with the emotional reactions of the child witness noted, audio recordings, or videotaped recordings. Participants then rated the credibility of the victim witness. Replicating previous results, the "sad" expression elicited the highest credibility ratings across all modes of presentations. Presentation mode affected ratings of credibility, with the transcript versions resulting in the highest ratings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26990221

  20. Curriculum Development around Parenting Strategies to Prevent and Respond to Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Program Collaboration Between Families Matter! and Global Dialogues

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kim S.; Winskell, Kate; Pruitt, Kaitlyn L.; Saul, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition of child sexual abuse (CSA) as a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), few far-reaching programmatic interventions addressing CSA in this setting are currently available, and those interventions that do exist tend to focus on response rather than prevention. Parents are in a unique position to engage their children in dialogues about sexuality-related issues and thereby both help prevent CSA and take swift action to stop CSA, address trauma, and minimize harm, in the event CSA does occur. The Families Matter! Program (FMP) is an evidence-based intervention for parents and caregivers of 9-12 year-olds in sub-Saharan African countries that promotes positive parenting practices and effective parent-child communication about sex-related issues and sexual risk reduction. This paper describes the enhancement of a new FMP session on CSA, drawing on authentic narratives contributed by young people to the Global Dialogues/Scenarios from Africa (GD/SfA) youth scriptwriting competition. The GD/SfA data permitted incorporation of young Africans’ voices and resulted in an interactive curriculum that is grounded in contextually-relevant and emotionally-compelling scenarios and adapted to the needs of low-literacy adult learners in SSA. Experiences are shared with a view to informing the development of interventions addressing CSA in SSA. PMID:26701277

  1. Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication.

    PubMed

    Jennison, K M; Johnson, K A

    2001-05-01

    Important trends in research over the past decade indicate that women are as greatly affected by familial alcoholism as are men. Although it is increasingly recognized that the adverse drinking outcomes predicted for adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are not inevitable, and only a small percentage develop alcohol dependence or grow up to be alcoholic, relatively little knowledge exists regarding moderating factors that reduce their vulnerability. This study identifies a multiple mediator latent structural model of the intergenerational transmission of risk for DSM-IV-assessed alcohol abuse and dependence among women COAs in adulthood. The effects of both parental alcoholism and family environment are estimated at three time points spanning 10 years across 5-year intervals (1984, 1989, and 1994) using data from a subsample of 4,449 women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Dyadic cohesion in marital communication (greater marital cohesion, harmony, and less verbal disagreement, discord, and conflict) is a proposed moderating factor that may operate in adulthood to lower the risk of female COAs developing alcohol abuse and dependence. Maximum likelihood standardized estimates of the effects of alcohol mediators measured over time indicate that direct parental effects for adverse outcomes decline when COAs are in their late 20s and early 30s. Indirect parental effects through environmental influences dramatically increase the risk of abuse and dependence among COAs at this time if they have one or more alcoholic siblings, especially an alcoholic sister. Dyadic cohesion and positive interpersonal communication patterns were found to moderate effectively the relationship that existed among parental alcoholism, environmental influences, and adverse alcohol consequences. COAs with satisfactory marital communication also evidenced higher levels of intimacy with their partners, perceived the division of housework to be fairer, shared more responsibilities

  2. 15 CFR 904.252 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the witness, or any other action deemed appropriate by the Judge. (f) Testimony in a foreign language... and mileage as witnesses in the courts of the United States. (b) Witness counsel. Any witness not a... otherwise participate in the hearing. (c) Witness exclusion. Witnesses who are not parties may be...

  3. Adjudication of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…

  4. Witnessed resuscitation: beneficial or detrimental?

    PubMed

    Terzi, Angela B; Aggelidou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the existing literature and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of witnessed resuscitation for health professionals, relatives, and patients themselves. Keywords "witnessed resuscitation," "patient perspective," "health professionals," and "resuscitation room" were entered into MEDLINE, Medscape, and Science Direct databases. The issue of witnessed resuscitation, along with the benefits and disadvantages of its implementation, is discussed widely with increasing controversy among health professionals. Many authors accept the existence of benefits of witnessed resuscitation, but they each have reservations on certain aspects of the practice. Although witnessed resuscitation has demonstrable benefits, the dearth of research literature on the subject makes it difficult to come to a concrete conclusion about its value in practice. More studies are needed focusing on the impact of witnessed resuscitation on staff, family members, and patients. Larger sample sizes are needed in future studies, and studies are needed in which geographical, cultural, religious, and sociological factors are taken into consideration.

  5. Perioperative Jehovah's Witnesses: a review.

    PubMed

    Lawson, T; Ralph, C

    2015-11-01

    There are many patient groups who may refuse blood products; the most well known amongst them is the Jehovah's Witness faith. Treatment of anaemia and bleeding in such patients presents a challenge to medical, anaesthetic, and surgical teams. This review examines the perioperative issues and management of Jehovah's Witnesses. The history and beliefs of Jehovah's Witnesses are outlined together with their impact on ethics and the law, and different management options throughout the perioperative period are discussed. PMID:26068896

  6. Perioperative Jehovah's Witnesses: a review.

    PubMed

    Lawson, T; Ralph, C

    2015-11-01

    There are many patient groups who may refuse blood products; the most well known amongst them is the Jehovah's Witness faith. Treatment of anaemia and bleeding in such patients presents a challenge to medical, anaesthetic, and surgical teams. This review examines the perioperative issues and management of Jehovah's Witnesses. The history and beliefs of Jehovah's Witnesses are outlined together with their impact on ethics and the law, and different management options throughout the perioperative period are discussed.

  7. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  8. Siblings, Parents, and Peers: A Longitudinal Study of Social Influences in Adolescent Risk for Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Reuter, Martha A.

    1996-01-01

    Early adolescent alcohol use and abuse has become a public health issue. Research studies indicate that early adolescent drinking may lead to emotional, social, and academic impairments, health and developmental problems, and even death. This study emphasized the need to better understand the predisposing triggers of adolescent alcohol use…

  9. What Adolescents Need to Prevent Relapse after Treatment for Substance Abuse: A Comparison of Youth, Parent, and Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acri, Mary C.; Gogel, Leah P.; Pollock, Michele; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about what factors and supports youths identify as important for their sustained recovery after substance abuse treatment, and if their caregivers and treatment staff identify similar needs. The purpose of this study was to explore what youths, caregivers, and staff perceive as important to remain substance free after…

  10. The First Lady Talks about Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Mrs. Reagan discusses effects of drug use among teenagers and offers suggestions to teachers, parents, and students for combating drug abuse. She stresses parent involvement and the formation of parent peer groups, as well as teachers' responsibilities. (NJ)

  11. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  12. Estimating concurrence via entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Jurkowski, Jacek; Chruscinski, Dariusz

    2010-05-15

    We show that each entanglement witness detecting a given bipartite entangled state provides an estimation of its concurrence. We illustrate our result with several well-known examples of entanglement witnesses and compare the corresponding estimation of concurrence with other estimations provided by the trace norm of partial transposition and realignment.

  13. Witnessed resuscitation: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    2006-03-01

    The science and practice of resuscitation is recognised and endorsed on an international level, yet for more than a decade it has appeared in the literature alongside words such as witnessing or witnessed to signify the practice of family presence during a resuscitation attempt. This paper explores the meaning of witnessed resuscitation using the process for concept analysis proposed by Rodgers. The term resuscitation is explored, followed by identification of relevant uses of the concept of witnessed resuscitation. The reader is introduced to conceptual variations that challenge the way in which the concept has become associated with family or relatives presence in the resuscitation room of an accident and emergency department. Conceptual clarity is further enhanced through the identification of references, antecedents and consequences of witnessed resuscitation and by providing a model case of the concept that includes its defining attributes.

  14. Witnessed resuscitation: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    2006-03-01

    The science and practice of resuscitation is recognised and endorsed on an international level, yet for more than a decade it has appeared in the literature alongside words such as witnessing or witnessed to signify the practice of family presence during a resuscitation attempt. This paper explores the meaning of witnessed resuscitation using the process for concept analysis proposed by Rodgers. The term resuscitation is explored, followed by identification of relevant uses of the concept of witnessed resuscitation. The reader is introduced to conceptual variations that challenge the way in which the concept has become associated with family or relatives presence in the resuscitation room of an accident and emergency department. Conceptual clarity is further enhanced through the identification of references, antecedents and consequences of witnessed resuscitation and by providing a model case of the concept that includes its defining attributes. PMID:16043184

  15. 5 CFR 1201.37 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... witness fees and travel costs. The party requesting the presence of a witness must pay that witness' fees. Those fees must be paid or offered to the witness at the time the subpoena is served, or, if the witness appears voluntarily, at the time of appearance. A Federal agency or corporation is not required to pay...

  16. 5 CFR 1201.37 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... witness fees and travel costs. The party requesting the presence of a witness must pay that witness' fees. Those fees must be paid or offered to the witness at the time the subpoena is served, or, if the witness appears voluntarily, at the time of appearance. A Federal agency or corporation is not required to pay...

  17. 5 CFR 1201.37 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... witness fees and travel costs. The party requesting the presence of a witness must pay that witness' fees. Those fees must be paid or offered to the witness at the time the subpoena is served, or, if the witness appears voluntarily, at the time of appearance. A Federal agency or corporation is not required to pay...

  18. Treatment for Child Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  19. Long-Term Psychological Adjustment to Witnessing Interparental Physical Conflict during Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Kris; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 1,452 undergraduate students was used to examine the long-term psychological impact of witnessing interparental physical aggression during childhood. The 203 students who reported witnessing at least one such incident reported higher levels of current psychological distress. Negative effects increased when a parent of the same sex was…

  20. Testifying as a Competent and Credible Witness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, William J.

    1983-01-01

    Personnel professionals have increasingly found themselves on witness stands in various forms of litigation. Certain types of conduct that may damage testimony as a witness are highlighted. Guidelines that witnesses should follow are identified. (MLW)

  1. 33 CFR 20.706 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... all or part of the testimony given by the witness or to take any other measure he or she deems.... (a) Each witness shall testify under oath or affirmation. (b) If a witness fails or refuses to...

  2. Issues of the '80s: Infertility, Child Sexual Abuse, Sex Roles, Herpes & AIDS, Single Parents, and Latchkey Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This issue of Emphasis contains 10 articles dealing with important issues for the 1980s. "A Place for Youth" (L. Lefstein) discusses programs for latchkey children. "Transcending the Norm" (S. Miller Perry) describes a black single parent program in Washington, D.C. "Safety First" (M. Stone and L. Loontjens) presents a child sexual abuse…

  3. Disorganized Behavior in Adolescent-Parent Interaction: Relations to Attachment State of Mind, Partner Abuse, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Katherine; Brumariu, Laura E.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    Disoriented, punitive, and caregiving/role-confused attachment behaviors are associated with psychopathology in childhood, but have not been assessed in adolescence. A total of 120 low-income late adolescents (aged 18-23 years) and parents were assessed in a conflict-resolution paradigm. Their interactions were coded with the Goal-Corrected…

  4. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  5. 14 CFR 16.217 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... may designate as a witness any person who is able and willing to give testimony that is relevant and... witness has no right to examine the witness or otherwise participate in the development of testimony. ... section. (b) The hearing officer may exclude testimony of witnesses that would be irrelevant,...

  6. 28 CFR 301.310 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... scheduled hearing date, the name and address of each proposed witness, along with an outline of each witness' testimony. The Committee may limit the number of witnesses who may appear at a hearing, however, the Committee has no authority to compel the attendance of any witness. (b) Any person confined in a...

  7. 4 CFR 28.26 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... their normal duties caused by their testimony, and shall not receive witness fees. Payment of travel and... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witness fees. 28.26 Section 28.26 Accounts GOVERNMENT... Parties, Practitioners and Witnesses § 28.26 Witness fees. The costs involved in the appearance...

  8. 45 CFR 501.4 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cause shown, testimony may be taken by deposition. (b) Witness fees and mileage. Witnesses summoned by.... Witness fees and mileage will be paid by the Commission or by the party at whose request the witness appears. (c) Transcript of testimony. Every person required to attend and testify will be entitled,...

  9. Blood transfusions and Jehovah's Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H A

    1989-04-01

    Jehovah's Witnesses believe that a human must not sustain his life with another creature's blood, and they recognize no distinction "between taking blood into the mouth and taking it into the blood vessels." It is their deep-seated religious conviction that Jehovah will turn his back on anyone who receives blood transfusions (1). Thus, Jehovah's Witnesses regularly refuse transfusions for themselves and their children because they believe the procedure creates a risk of losing eternal salvation. Legally, such refusals are based on the constitutional grounds that the transfusion is an invasion of the right of privacy and a violation of the individual's freedom of religious practice. When courts review these refusals they focus on state interests that outweigh the individual's rights. With an eye toward providing guidance to Texas physicians in dealing with such refusals, this article reviews case law on the subject of blood transfusions and Jehovah's Witnesses. PMID:2727941

  10. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    PubMed

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. PMID:23062586

  11. Violence Against Women in Mexico: A Study of Abuse Before and During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Roberto; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Ruiz, Agustin

    2003-01-01

    Objective. We identified the prevalence and types of violence experienced by pregnant women, the ways victimization changed during pregnancy from the year prior to pregnancy, and factors associated with violence during pregnancy. Methods. We interviewed 914 pregnant women treated in health clinics in Mexico about violence during and prior to pregnancy, violence during childhood and against their own children, and other socioeconomic indicators. Results. Approximately one quarter of the women experienced violence during pregnancy. The severity of emotional violence increased during pregnancy, whereas physical and sexual violence decreased. The strongest predictors of abuse were violence prior to pregnancy, low socioeconomic status, parental violence witnessed by women in childhood, and violence in the abusive partner’s childhood. The probability of violence during pregnancy for women experiencing all of these factors was 61%. Conclusions. Violence is common among pregnant women, but pregnancy does not appear to be an initiating factor. Intergenerational violence is highly predictive of violence during pregnancy. PMID:12835194

  12. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  13. Myocardial revascularization in Jehovah Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Seifert, P E; Auer, J E; Hohensee, P

    1989-04-01

    The refusal of certain patients to accept blood transfusions need not be a deterrent to surgery. We report on nine Jehovah's Witnesses who over a one-year period underwent myocardial revascularization without significant blood loss or decrease in hematocrit values. PMID:2786287

  14. Rhenium-Foil Witness Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Cylindrical portion of wall of combustion chamber replaced with rhenium foil mounted on holder. Rhenium oxidizes without melting, indicating regions of excess oxidizer in combustion-chamber flow. Rhenium witness foils also useful in detecting excess oxygen and other oxidizers at temperatures between 2,000 and 3,600 degrees F in burner cores of advanced gas-turbine engines.

  15. Witnessed resuscitation: good practice or not?

    PubMed

    Rattrie, E

    Should relatives be given the choice to witness the resuscitation of a family member? From the available literature, three main topic areas emerge: research studies that allow witnessed resuscitation, the effects on relatives of witnessed resuscitation, and A&E staff attitudes towards witnessed resuscitation. There is abundant literature on the positive effects for relatives of witnessing the attempted resuscitation of a loved-one, the main benefit being that the grieving process was made easier. However, staff attitudes are mixed, making witnessed resuscitation a controversial topic.

  16. Observing Bullying at School: The Mental Health Implications of Witness Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie; Ashurst, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bullying on the mental health of students who witness it. A representative sample of 2,002 students aged 12 to 16 years attending 14 schools in the United Kingdom were surveyed using a questionnaire that included measures of bullying at school, substance abuse, and mental health risk. The results suggest that…

  17. Bruising and Hemophilia: Accident or Child Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles F.; Coury, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Two case histories illustrate the difficulty in evaluating abuse/neglect in children with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Discussed are guidelines for diagnosis and prevention of abuse, including: screening techniques, the need for protection from environmental trauma, parental stress, evaluation of parents' disciplinary methods, and the…

  18. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Sarbicki, Gniewomir; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2011-11-01

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces Hm,n=Cm⊗Cn such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span Hm,n. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2⊗n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak , J. Phys. APLRAAN1751-811310.1088/1751-8113/44/21/212001 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces Hm,n with m,n≥3.

  19. 29 CFR 1603.212 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.212 Witness fees. Witnesses summoned under this...

  20. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Sarbicki, Gniewomir; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2011-11-15

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n}=C{sup m} x C{sup n} such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span H{sub m,n}. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2 x n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak et al., J. Phys. A 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n} with m,n{>=}3.

  1. Total Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect: Knowing when to Intervene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pass, Susan

    2007-01-01

    If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…

  3. Entanglement witnessing in superconducting beamsplitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soller, H.; Hofstetter, L.; Reeb, D.

    2013-06-01

    We analyse a large class of superconducting beamsplitters for which the Bell parameter (CHSH violation) is a simple function of the spin detector efficiency. For these superconducting beamsplitters all necessary information to compute the Bell parameter can be obtained in Y-junction setups for the beamsplitter. Using the Bell parameter as an entanglement witness, we propose an experiment which allows to verify the presence of entanglement in Cooper pair splitters.

  4. Aircraft accident survivors as witnesses.

    PubMed

    Dodge, R E

    1983-02-01

    This is a study of the reliability of aircrash survivors as witnesses. Some of their statements are compared to known facts at the time of the crash, including the time of the accident and the weather conditions. Other facts are compared between the survivors, such as the mood of the passengers immediately post-crash. The KLM-Pan Am accident in the Canary Islands is used as the study accident. A suggestion for future use of survivors' statements is tendered.

  5. Healthcare system simulation using Witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakdaman, Masoud; Zeinahvazi, Milad; Zohoori, Bahareh; Nasiri, Fardokht; Yew Wong, Kuan

    2013-02-01

    Simulation techniques have a proven track record in manufacturing industry as well as other areas such as healthcare system improvement. In this study, simulation model of a health center in Malaysia is developed through the application of WITNESS simulation software which has shown its flexibility and capability in manufacturing industry. Modelling procedure is started through process mapping and data collection and continued with model development, verification, validation and experimentation. At the end, final results and possible future improvements are demonstrated.

  6. Understanding emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Rees, C A

    2010-01-01

    Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits of intervention. This article considers factors contributing to professional difficulty. It is suggested that understanding emotional abuse from the first principles of the causes and implications of the dysfunctional parent-child relationships it represents can help prevention, recognition and timely intervention. It may facilitate the professional communication needed to build up a picture of emotional abuse and of the emotional context of physical and sexual abuse. Doing so may contribute to the safety of child protection practice. The long-term cost of emotional abuse for individuals and society should be a powerful incentive for ensuring that development of services and clinical research are priorities, and that the false economy of short-term saving is avoided.

  7. 47 CFR 1.339 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Witness fees. 1.339 Section 1.339....339 Witness fees. Witnesses who are subpenaed and respond thereto are entitled to the same fees... the party at whose instance the testimony is taken....

  8. 45 CFR 160.538 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) of this section, testimony at the hearing must be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony of witnesses other than the testimony of expert witnesses... sworn testimony of experts that has been subject to adverse examination, such as a deposition or...

  9. 38 CFR 42.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or... such witness, in a manner which allows sufficient time for other parties to subpoena the witness...

  10. 15 CFR 25.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be... all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner which...

  11. 46 CFR 221.83 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Witnesses. A Party may present the testimony of any witness either through a personal appearance or through... personal appearance of a witness. The request must be in writing and state the reasons why a written statement would be inadequate, the issue or issues to which the testimony would be relevant, and...

  12. 14 CFR 1264.132 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the presiding officer, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or deposition... such witness, in a manner which allows sufficient time for other parties to subpoena such witness...

  13. 22 CFR 521.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be... all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner which...

  14. 40 CFR 27.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the presiding officer, testimony... provided to all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner which...

  15. 22 CFR 224.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony... provided to all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner which...

  16. 25 CFR 11.439 - Witness tampering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Witness tampering. 11.439 Section 11.439 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.439 Witness tampering. (a) A person commits a misdemeanor if... attempts to induce or otherwise cause a witness or informant to: (1) Testify or inform falsely; or...

  17. 20 CFR 410.642 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Witnesses. 410.642 Section 410.642 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.642 Witnesses. Witnesses at the hearing...

  18. 20 CFR 410.642 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Witnesses. 410.642 Section 410.642 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.642 Witnesses. Witnesses at the hearing...

  19. 33 CFR 1.07-50 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hearing Officer determines that the personal appearance of the witness may materially aid in the decision on the case, the Hearing Officer seeks to obtain the witness' appearance. Because many statutes... request the assistance of the Hearing Officer in obtaining the personal appearance of a witness....

  20. 32 CFR 516.49 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RELATIONS LITIGATION Release of Information and Appearance of Witnesses Scope Da Personnel As Witnesses in Private Litigation § 516.49 Expert witnesses. (a) General rule. Present DA personnel will not provide... in which the United States has an interest for a party other than the United States. Former...

  1. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expert witnesses. 1025.44 Section 1025.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.44 Expert witnesses. (a) Definition. An expert witness is one who, by reason of education, training, experience,...

  2. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expert witnesses. 1025.44 Section 1025.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.44 Expert witnesses. (a) Definition. An expert witness is one who, by reason of education, training, experience,...

  3. Psychological Abuse among College Women in Exclusive Heterosexual Dating Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, Randolph B.; LeBov-Keeler, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'…

  4. Child Abuse Hysteria and the Elementary School Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Lawrence D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes child abuse phenomenon and history of current public hysteria concerning child abuse. Discusses trend of high numbers of false reports of child abuse and neglect and need for counselors to be cognizant of problems of overzealous reporting, professionals looking for abuse in otherwise innocuous situations, and parents using accusations of…

  5. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities. PMID:26798885

  6. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities.

  7. Financial Fraud and Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Allison Dare

    2014-01-01

    A modern form of abuse of children by parents and foster parents is to use the identity of children in their care for their own financial benefit, such as accessing their unused social security numbers to secure credit. This article reviews examples and implications of this identity theft.

  8. Task Force on Alcohol and Drug Abuse: Productive People, Productive Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC. Center for Policy Research and Analysis.

    The first part of this report on alcohol and drug abuse summarizes major recommendations from testimony and written statements from a hearing on alcohol and drug abuse. Testimony from these witnesses is included: (1) Reed Bell, Director, Office of Substance Abuse Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services; (2) Merita…

  9. Differential Effects Associated with Self-Reported Histories of Abuse and Neglect in a College Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loos, Mary Elizabeth; Alexander, Pamela C.

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the long-term effects of parental physical abuse, verbal abuse, and emotional neglect in a sample of 247 female and 154 male college students. Results suggest that parental physical abuse and verbal abuse predicted current anger and that emotional neglect predicted loneliness and social isolation. Paternal maltreatment predicted negative…

  10. Coping with Parental Loss because of Termination of Parental Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kerri M.; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the process by which children and adolescents cope with severe acute stress of parental loss from causes other than divorce or death. Participants were 60 children and adolescents from a residential treatment facility. Most had experienced neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse, and their parents had their parential…

  11. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  12. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  13. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  14. Educational Summaries 1, 2, and 3: A Summary for Parents and Students on the Subject of Teenage Drug Abuse, Stop the 'Street Market' Suppliers, and Diseases and Disorders That May Result from Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Contained are three brochures designed to provide understandable information on the drugs, narcotics, and chemicals that are being most frequently abused. They also portray the illegal "street market," and how the user will look, act, and be harmed as a result of drug use. The first brochure summarizes some characteristics and effects of…

  15. 21 CFR 17.37 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Witnesses. 17.37 Section 17.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES HEARINGS § 17.37 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses...

  16. Total parenting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins to cast being a parent as a matter of "parenting," a technological deployment of skills and techniques, with the loss of older, more spontaneous and intuitive relations between parents and children. Smith examines this phenomenon further through a discussion of how it is captured to some extent in Hannah Arendt's notion of "natality" and how it is illuminated by Charles Dickens in his classic novel, Dombey and Son. PMID:20662172

  17. Total parenting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins to cast being a parent as a matter of "parenting," a technological deployment of skills and techniques, with the loss of older, more spontaneous and intuitive relations between parents and children. Smith examines this phenomenon further through a discussion of how it is captured to some extent in Hannah Arendt's notion of "natality" and how it is illuminated by Charles Dickens in his classic novel, Dombey and Son.

  18. Evolving and Combining Facial Composites: Between-Witness and Within-Witness Morphs Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Tim; Davis, Josh P.; Thorner, Kate; Solomon, Chris; Gibson, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Student participant-witnesses produced 4 composites of unfamiliar faces with a system that uses a genetic algorithm to evolve appearance of artificial faces. Morphs of 4 composites produced by different witnesses (between-witness morphs) were judged better likenesses (Experiment 1) and were more frequently named (Experiment 2) by participants who…

  19. 32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... States Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former DA personnel as expert or opinion witnesses from DOJ or other attorneys representing the United States will be referred to Litigation Division unless the request involves a matter that has been delegated by Litigation Division to...

  20. 32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... States Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former DA personnel as expert or opinion witnesses from DOJ or other attorneys representing the United States will be referred to Litigation Division unless the request involves a matter that has been delegated by Litigation Division to...

  1. Perceptions of Witness Credibility: Variations across Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Peter A.; Bransgrove, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Potential jurors' abilities to discriminate between accurate and inaccurate responses to interviewer questions were investigated. Young child witnesses were expected to be judged as less credible than older children and adult witnesses. Participant-jurors viewed videotaped interviews that paired an accurate respondent with an inaccurate respondent…

  2. 7 CFR 1.331 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or... address of such witness, in a manner which allows sufficient time for other parties to subpoena...

  3. 10 CFR 1013.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form... parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner which allows sufficient time...

  4. 45 CFR 79.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be... all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner which...

  5. 49 CFR 31.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a... with the last known address of such witness, in a manner which allows sufficient time for other...

  6. 24 CFR 26.46 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a... other parties along with the last known address of the witness, in a manner that allows sufficient...

  7. 28 CFR 71.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be... all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner which...

  8. 29 CFR 22.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or... address of such witness, in a manner which allows sufficient time for other parties to subpoena...

  9. 34 CFR 33.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing must be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a... with the last known address of the witness, in a manner that allows sufficient time for other...

  10. 42 CFR 3.538 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing must be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony of witnesses other than the testimony of expert... prior sworn testimony of experts that has been subject to adverse examination, such as a deposition...

  11. 5 CFR 185.134 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 185.134 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing..., testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or deposition. Any such written statement must be provided to all others parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a...

  12. 6 CFR 13.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing will be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form... parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner that allows sufficient time...

  13. 22 CFR 35.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form... parties along with the last known address of such witness, in a manner which allows sufficient time...

  14. 41 CFR 105-70.033 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or... address of such witness, in a manner which allows sufficient time for other parties to subpoena...

  15. 20 CFR 355.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or... address of such witness, in a manner which allows sufficient time for other parties to subpoena...

  16. 43 CFR 35.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND STATEMENTS § 35.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony... the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or deposition. Any such written statement must be provided to all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in...

  17. 20 CFR 498.216 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 498.216 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing..., testimony (other than expert testimony) may be admitted in the form of a written statement. Any such written statement must be provided to all other parties along with the last known address of such witness, in...

  18. 10 CFR 590.315 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Witnesses. 590.315 Section 590.315 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.315 Witnesses. (a) The...

  19. 6 CFR 13.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Witnesses. 13.33 Section 13.33 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing will be given orally...

  20. 6 CFR 13.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Witnesses. 13.33 Section 13.33 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, testimony at the hearing will be given orally...

  1. 42 CFR 412.270 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Witnesses. 412.270 Section 412.270 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... parties or their representatives to also examine any witnesses called....

  2. 42 CFR 422.680 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Witnesses. 422.680 Section 422.680 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Contract Determinations and Appeals § 422.680 Witnesses....

  3. 42 CFR 93.518 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.518 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, witnesses must...

  4. 39 CFR 952.20 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Witness fees. 952.20 Section 952.20 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.20 Witness fees. The Postal Service does not pay fees and expenses...

  5. 12 CFR 308.532 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Witnesses. 308.532 Section 308.532 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.532 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided...

  6. 12 CFR 308.524 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Witness fees. 308.524 Section 308.524 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.524 Witness fees. The party requesting...

  7. 12 CFR 308.532 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witnesses. 308.532 Section 308.532 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.532 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided...

  8. 12 CFR 308.524 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Witness fees. 308.524 Section 308.524 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.524 Witness fees. The party requesting...

  9. 12 CFR 308.532 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Witnesses. 308.532 Section 308.532 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.532 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided...

  10. 12 CFR 308.532 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Witnesses. 308.532 Section 308.532 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.532 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided...

  11. 12 CFR 308.524 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Witness fees. 308.524 Section 308.524 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.524 Witness fees. The party requesting...

  12. 12 CFR 308.524 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Witness fees. 308.524 Section 308.524 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.524 Witness fees. The party requesting...

  13. 12 CFR 308.524 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witness fees. 308.524 Section 308.524 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.524 Witness fees. The party requesting...

  14. 12 CFR 308.532 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Witnesses. 308.532 Section 308.532 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.532 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided...

  15. 10 CFR 590.315 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witnesses. 590.315 Section 590.315 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.315 Witnesses. (a) The...

  16. 10 CFR 590.315 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Witnesses. 590.315 Section 590.315 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.315 Witnesses. (a) The...

  17. Child is father of the man: child abuse and development of future psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

    2014-01-01

    Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually

  18. Change in Parent- and Child-Reported Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors among Substance Abusing Runaways: The Effects of Family and Individual Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Feng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Shelter-recruited adolescents are known to have high rates of substance abuse and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Many studies have documented these mental health concerns, but only a small number of studies have tested interventions that may be useful for ameliorating these vulnerabilities. The current study…

  19. Spiritual abuse.

    PubMed

    Purcell, B C

    1998-01-01

    Spiritual abuse is the act of making people believe--whether by stating or merely implying--that they are going to be punished in this life and/or tormented in hell-fire forever for failure to live life good enough to please God and thus earn admission to heaven. Spiritual terrorism is the most extreme form of spiritual abuse and may cause serious mental health problems. Those people who have not been spiritually terrorized have not necessarily been spared from spiritual abuse and therefore may still be in need of competent, spiritual counseling. Spiritual abuse, which may be active or passive, can best be conceptualized on a continuum from terroristic to zero abuse. Severity is determined by intensity, age of onset, duration, and individual reaction. The underlying issue in all forms of abuse is control. PMID:9729974

  20. A proposed intergenerational model of substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, M J

    1995-05-01

    Although the link between substance abuse and child maltreatment has been relatively well established, there is a general recognition that this is not a simple cause-effect relationship. The current study explored the relationships among substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect in a sample of incarcerated substance abusers. Data were gathered on the earlier life experiences of 81 men and women serving sentences in two maximum security prisons, including assessments of their parents' substance abuse problems; levels of family competence within their families-of-origin; their exposure, as children and adults, to physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical/emotional neglect; and their own levels of substance abuse. Results showed generally high percentages of parental substance abuse and abuse/neglect, and relatively low levels of family competence. Correlational analyses revealed significant direct and indirect relationships among parental substance abuse, family dynamics, and exposure to both child and adult maltreatment. These four variables were also significantly associated with respondents' own substance abuse in later life, suggesting the potential for continuation of these patterns into successive generations. An intergenerational model of these family and personal functioning variables is presented and implications for service delivery with correctional clients is discussed.

  1. Co-Animation of and Resistance to the Construction of Witness, Victim, and Perpetrator Identities in Forensic Interviews with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckert, Sharon K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the interrelated identities of witness, victim, and perpetrator are co-constructed in forensic interviews occurring after allegations of child sexual abuse are made. Work related to issues of power in the area of forensic interviews with children tends to focus on coerciveness, and interviewers have power relative to…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slan, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  3. Solid rocket motor witness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Witness Test was undertaken to examine the potential for using thermal infrared imagery as a tool for monitoring static tests of solid rocket motors. The project consisted of several parts: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. For data acquisition, thermal infrared data were obtained of the DM-9 test of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor on December 23, 1987, at Thiokol, Inc. test facility near Brigham City, Utah. The data analysis portion consisted of processing the video tapes of the test to produce values of temperature at representative test points on the rocket motor surface as the motor cooled down following the test. Interpretation included formulation of a numerical model and evaluation of some of the conditions of the motor which could be extracted from the data. These parameters included estimates of the insulation remaining following the tests and the thickness of the charred layer of insulation at the end of the test. Also visible was a temperature signature of the star grain pattern in the forward motor segment.

  4. Medical treatment of Jehovah's witnesses.

    PubMed

    Hua, May; Munson, Ronald; Lucas, Art; Rovelstad, Susan; Klingensmith, Mary; Kodner, Ira J

    2008-04-01

    A 35-year-old man attempted suicide by a shotgun discharge to his abdomen. Although the patient had been awake, oriented, and conversing about baseball during the emergency medical services ride to the hospital, he made no mention of his religious beliefs. He is bleeding profusely when he arrives at the emergency room (ER). He is taken to the operating room (OR) for abdominal surgery to stop the bleeding and repair his damaged liver. He has lost a critical amount of blood and is under anesthesia when a call to the OR comes from an ER nurse who has been approached by the patient's family and given a Jehovah's Witness card signed by the patient. The card states: "NO BLOOD TRANSFUSION! As a God-fearing Christian and a believer in Jehovah's word, the Bible, I hereby demand that blood, in any way, shape or form, is NOT to be fed into my body; however, blood substitutes may be used in case of extreme loss of blood."

  5. 32 CFR 516.54 - Witnesses for the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Witnesses for the United States. 516.54 Section..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.54 Witnesses for the United States. (a) Status of witness. A military member authorized to appear as a witness for the United States, including those authorized...

  6. 32 CFR 516.54 - Witnesses for the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Witnesses for the United States. 516.54 Section..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.54 Witnesses for the United States. (a) Status of witness. A military member authorized to appear as a witness for the United States, including those authorized...

  7. 32 CFR 516.54 - Witnesses for the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Witnesses for the United States. 516.54 Section..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.54 Witnesses for the United States. (a) Status of witness. A military member authorized to appear as a witness for the United States, including those authorized...

  8. 32 CFR 516.54 - Witnesses for the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Witnesses for the United States. 516.54 Section..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.54 Witnesses for the United States. (a) Status of witness. A military member authorized to appear as a witness for the United States, including those authorized...

  9. Sexual Abuse of Children: A Clinical Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Roland; Kryso, JoAnn

    1978-01-01

    The paper suggests that incest has been underestimated as a significant determinant of emotional disturbance, and that misuse of sexuality between parents and children can have detrimental consequences that parallel those resulting from other forms of child abuse. (Author)

  10. Reading about Child Abuse: Fact and Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1986-01-01

    Selected nonfiction and fiction titles that contain basic information on and insights into child abuse are given. Safety tips for children and suggestions for protecting children from abduction by the non-custodial parent are also offered. (MT)

  11. Potential Mediators of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Kym L.; Williams, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined variables that might mediate the incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in 20 Australian child witnesses (ages 6-12) to domestic violence. Results found PTSD was not mediated by maternal emotional well-being, age and gender of the child, or the child's style of coping with parental conflict. (Author/CR)

  12. Parents, Peers and Pot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

  13. Parents, The Real Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multicultural Drug Abuse Prevention Resource Center, Arlington, VA.

    In this pamphlet, advice is provided for Pacific Asian American parents about how they can work to help their children to develop positive self-images and to deal with racism and other social problems. The importance of parent-child communication, strong ethnic identity, education, and a sense of self-worth as methods of preventing drug abuse and…

  14. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  15. Malignant Neglect: Substance Abuse and America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…

  16. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  17. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine

    2016-02-01

    Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803

  18. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  19. After Abuse: Child Coping Patterns and Social Work Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Elizabeth M.

    The hypothesis that abused children develop a life style of overt expression of aggression and depression was examined in a study of 56 physically abused first grade children who were placed in foster care due to parental physical abuse. As no test instrument existed, the Childhood Social Functioning Inventory was developed, pretested, and used to…

  20. Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program. 1974-75 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Substance Abuse Prevention Education (SAPE) program aims at: (1) having a direct impact on young people to prevent substance abuse; (2) working with school teachers, parents, and other citizens to develop specific skills that will facilitate substance abuse prevention; and (3) providing program participants with better understanding of the…

  1. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  2. Reducing Child Witnesses' False Reports of Misinformation from Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Debra Ann; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Explored whether source-monitoring training (SMT) would help 3- to 8-year-olds report only experienced events during a target interview. Found that SMT reduced 7- and 8- year-olds' false reports in response to direct questions but had no impact on younger children's performance. Findings suggest a transition between 3 and 8 years in strategic use…

  3. 29 CFR 18.613 - Prior statements of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.613 Prior statements of witnesses.... (b) Extrinsic evidence of prior inconsistent statement of witness. Extrinsic evidence of a...

  4. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  5. A Review of Recent Literature on Child Abuse and Sequelae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John L.

    This paper addresses moderate- to long-term psychological effects of child abuse. It begins by discussing characteristics of effective and ineffective parenting to provide a background of potential contributors to child abuse within the family system. Belsky's (1984) developmental model of determinants of parenting behavior is explained and his…

  6. WEDDS: The WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J.; Backes, P.

    1999-01-01

    WEDDS, the WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System, is a framework for supporting distributed mission operations by automatically transferring sensitive mission data in a secure and efficient manner to and from remote mission participants over the internet.

  7. 29 CFR 1603.212 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE... served, or, if the witness appears voluntarily, at the time of appearance. A federal agency...

  8. 32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... States Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former DA personnel as expert... SJA or legal adviser. In no event, may present or former DA personnel furnish expert or...

  9. 49 CFR 845.25 - Examination of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... witnesses. (b) Materiality, relevancy, and competency of witness testimony, exhibits, or physical evidence... inquiry, opportunity shall be given to show materiality, relevancy, or competency of the testimony...

  10. Debunking the myths around expert witnesses.

    PubMed

    Deal, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The expert witness is a well known legal role, which conjures up images of a glowering judge and fierce cross-examination by a Rumpole of the Bailey-style barrister. Nick Deal is a barrister who works for Bond Solon, a company that provides training for expert witnesses. Here, he considers some of the points raised during a course for pathologists at the Royal Veterinary College. PMID:25556145

  11. Child Abuse Intervention: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchter, Arnold

    Written from a criminal justice perspective, the report on child abuse intervention provides a model system that emphasizes prompt medical treatment for the child and due process for both parents and children. The authors recommend that court action take the form of a civil proceeding whenever possible. Part I provides a framework for the…

  12. Outcome Evaluation of a Group Treatment of Sexually Abused and Reactive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffany, Adrienne; Panos, Patrick T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of group therapy in treating sexually abused children to prevent recidivism (subsequently re-abused or becoming abusers themselves). Methods: Recidivism rates of 617 children were compared between sexually abused children who received group treatment with those whose parents refused treatment.…

  13. 3 CFR 8949 - Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of the... experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that goes tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse... addressing child abuse a priority. Since I took office, we have advocated for responsible parenting...

  14. Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Manpower and Personnel and the Subcommittee on Preparedness of the Committee on Armed Services. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Armed Services.

    This document presents prepared statements and witness testimony from the Congressional hearing on drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs in the armed services. An opening statement by Senator Gordon J. Humphrey (chairman) highlights the importance of drug abuse prevention in the military. Witness testimony is given by the Assistant Secretary…

  15. Change in parent- and child-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors among substance abusing runaways: the effects of family and individual treatments.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Feng, Xin

    2013-07-01

    Shelter-recruited adolescents are known to have high rates of substance abuse and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Many studies have documented these mental health concerns, but only a small number of studies have tested interventions that may be useful for ameliorating these vulnerabilities. The current study compared three empirically supported psychotherapy interventions, Motivational Interviewing (MI), the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), and Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT) with 179 substance abusing runaway adolescents (47 % female, 74 % minority) and their primary caretaker recruited through a Midwestern runaway crisis shelter. Examining both child and primary caretaker reports, each treatment was associated with significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing behaviors to 24 months post-baseline. However, the trajectory of change differed among the treatments. Adolescents receiving MI showed a quicker reduction in internalizing and externalizing behaviors but also a quicker increase in these behaviors compared to adolescents receiving EBFT, who continued to evidence improvements to 24 months. The findings provide support for continued evaluation of these treatments for use with this vulnerable population of adolescents.

  16. Parental Awareness: A Social Cognitive Explanation of Adolescent Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Louise H.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    The role of psychosocial immaturity in the behavior of adolescent mothers remains unexplained. This project explores the validity of Newberger's Parental Awareness (PA) model which outlines the development of parents' conceptions of their parental role. PA distinguishes parents reported to be abusive from non-abusive parents. This study tests the…

  17. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  18. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  19. Perceived Neighborhood Violence and Use of Verbal Aggression, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse by a National Sample of Parents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstok, Zeev; Straus, Murray A.

    2011-01-01

    This study, based on an ecological perspective, examined the relation of perceived neighborhood violence, child misbehavior, parental attitudes to aggressive discipline tactics, and the actual use of aggressive discipline tactics. Research questions were: To what extent is perceived neighborhood violence associated with aggressive discipline by…

  20. Promoting Resilience: Helping Young Children and Parents Affected by Substance Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Depression in the Context of Welfare Reform. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane

    As states respond to major welfare legislation in providing assistance and other interventions to help adults on welfare become ready to work, the challenge of helping these adults in their parenting skills and in promoting resilience in their children has often been ignored. This issue brief addresses the challenge of promoting resilience in…

  1. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  2. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  3. Family structure and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Oliver, William J; Kuhns, Lawrence R; Pomeranz, Elaine S

    2006-03-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of family structure may be helpful to the pediatrician for predicting child abuse. During the past several decades progressive shifts from the classic family unit of two biological parents and their children to a variety of parental living arrangements have occurred. Most notable are the increases in teenage pregnancies, unmarried motherhood, divorce rates approximating 50% of marriage rates, and frequency of unrelated surrogate parents, most often male, cohabitating in the home. In these settings, identifiable characteristics of the mother, the father or surrogate, the child, the family history, and the immediate neighborhood of the family have been associated with a greater likelihood of child and/or spousal abuse. The accumulated information may be used for preventative intervention. PMID:16528430

  4. Through the (In)visible Witness in "Through the Wire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This essay analyses "Through the Wire", an Australian verbatim play by and about asylum seekers, in order to investigate both the figure of the performing witness and the function of performing witness in and through theatre. It suggests that while the characters, actors and spectators involved in the play are all "performing witness(es)", how…

  5. Witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, D.

    1995-12-01

    It would seem with the advent of electronic measurement and electronic custody transfer of natural gas and other petroleum products that witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing would become an obsolete practice in the petroleum industry. This however, is not the case. Due to low volume measurement, remote locations, dollar cost of electronic measurement, and arrangements between companies regarding electronic custody, transfer, witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing will continue to be an integral part of the petroleum industry`s future. Even as technology moves forward and electronic measurement becomes common within the petroleum industry, electronic hardware used in measurement will, like the orifice recorder, only be a secondary measuring device. The meter tube and orifice plate will continue to be the primary measuring device. Due to these circumstances witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing will also continue to be important even though some emphasis will be shifted to witnessing field testing of electronic equipment. The information in this paper is not meant to be an absolute, but, to be used as a guide in witnessing and field testing orifice meters. There are many variables in testing that. due to the length of this paper, will not be discussed.

  6. Parental Levels of Empathy as Related to Risk Assessment in Child Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Paula

    1995-01-01

    This review of the literature and of 29 child abuse cases resulted in the conclusion that a complete assessment of risk of child physical abuse must include a measure of parental empathy, such as the Adult-Adolescent Parent Inventory. Child physical abuse was predicted by a negative correlation between parental empathy and stress in the…

  7. Evidence in court: witness preparation and cross-examination style effects on adult witness accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M; Ellison, Louise E

    2012-01-01

    Witnesses play a clear and pivotal role in the criminal justice system and there is an obvious public interest in identifying procedures that both undermine and maximize the quality of evidence received by the criminal courts. This paper reports an investigation into the effects of witness familiarization and cross-examination type on adult witness accuracy that situates outcomes in both legal and psychological context. 60 mock witnesses observed a crime event and each witness was then cross-examined by a practising barrister in a moot courtroom according to two conditions - either via a scripted complex version of cross-examination or by a simpler but equivalent scripted examination. Mock witnesses were also allocated to two further conditions - half the participants received a guidance booklet on cross-examination and the other half received no familiarization to the process. Study outcomes showed that familiarization of witnesses to cross-examination processes increased accurate responses and reduced errors. The guidance seemingly allowed accessibility to cognitive information that enabled witnesses to process information more effectively. On this basis, advance written information about the nature of the cross-examination and potentially misleading tactics used by advocates could help to immunize against negative lawyerly influence.

  8. 45 CFR 160.518 - Exchange of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exchange of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits. 160.518 Section 160.518 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE... hearing, except that if a respondent intends to introduce the evidence of a statistical expert,...

  9. 45 CFR 160.518 - Exchange of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exchange of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits. 160.518 Section 160.518 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE... hearing, except that if a respondent intends to introduce the evidence of a statistical expert,...

  10. 45 CFR 160.518 - Exchange of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exchange of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits. 160.518 Section 160.518 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE... hearing, except that if a respondent intends to introduce the evidence of a statistical expert,...

  11. 45 CFR 160.518 - Exchange of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exchange of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits. 160.518 Section 160.518 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE... hearing, except that if a respondent intends to introduce the evidence of a statistical expert,...

  12. Parents Were Children Once Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Parents who love their children sometimes harm them. They harm them by physically or sexually abusing them and by failing to provide the nurturance that children have the right to expect. They neglect and abuse their children because they lack the necessary combination of knowledge, patience, empathy, and problem-solving capabilities. Intervening…

  13. From entanglement witness to generalized Catalan numbers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, E; Hansen, T; Itzhaki, N

    2016-07-27

    Being extremely important resources in quantum information and computation, it is vital to efficiently detect and properly characterize entangled states. We analyze in this work the problem of entanglement detection for arbitrary spin systems. It is demonstrated how a single measurement of the squared total spin can probabilistically discern separable from entangled many-particle states. For achieving this goal, we construct a tripartite analogy between the degeneracy of entanglement witness eigenstates, tensor products of SO(3) representations and classical lattice walks with special constraints. Within this framework, degeneracies are naturally given by generalized Catalan numbers and determine the fraction of states that are decidedly entangled and also known to be somewhat protected against decoherence. In addition, we introduce the concept of a "sterile entanglement witness", which for large enough systems detects entanglement without affecting much the system's state. We discuss when our proposed entanglement witness can be regarded as a sterile one.

  14. Ethical issues of expert witness testimony.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Alberto R

    2014-07-01

    Being a surgical expert witness (EW) in professional liability claims implies ethical responsibilities, which are usually unknown to the parties who try to obtain such testimony as well as to the surgeons involved in providing the expert opinion required by the courts. Giving medical testimony can be included in the field of surgery since (1) being an expert medical witness and judge the performance of another surgeon means that the witness must have a medical license and preferably be board-certified as a surgeon, and (2) the EW opinion sets the standard of care to be applied in each particular case. Thus, the role of the surgeon EW in the legal arena must have the same degree of integrity as the surgeon in his practice with direct patient care and it should be reviewed and subject to regulation. PMID:24852436

  15. Witnessing violence: biopsychosocial impact on children.

    PubMed

    Skybo, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    Many school-age children from low-income areas witness violence such as gang activities, gunshots, and physical assault, which can lead to an acute stress response. A correlational, descriptive design was used with a convenience sample of 62 children, ages 7-14 years, from an inner-city school district to assess children's appraisal of violence and their biopsychosocial symptoms associated with violent encounters. Most (95%) of these children witnessed violent acts. Appraisals of these events were consistent with Lazarus' appraisal categories of harm/loss and threat. Total number of witnessed violent encounters correlated with the number of stress symptoms (r = .272) and frequency of symptoms (r = .336). There was no significant difference between gender and race and exposure to violence or their biopsychosocial symptoms. These results enhance our understanding of children's perceptions of violence and their stress responses.

  16. Overcoming resistance to family-witnessed resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Jordahl, Erica; Hyde, Yolanda M; Kautz, Donald D

    2015-01-01

    Giving family members the option of being present during resuscitation has been shown to be beneficial for both family and staff. However, only a small percentage of intensive care units have policies promoting family-witnessed resuscitation. This article reviews current research showing the benefits of family-witnessed resuscitation, outlines how to successfully integrate a family facilitator during resuscitation, and includes research that has been effective in changing the prevailing attitudes of staff. The authors also argue for the resuscitation team to practice ethical and cultural humility when involving family members so that all resuscitation efforts are a success, whether the patient lives or dies.

  17. Entanglement witness operator for quantum teleportation.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Nirman; Adhikari, Satyabrata; Majumdar, A S; Chatterjee, Jyotishman

    2011-12-30

    The ability of entangled states to act as a resource for teleportation is linked to a property of the fully entangled fraction. We show that the set of states with their fully entangled fraction bounded by a threshold value required for performing teleportation is both convex and compact. This feature enables the existence of Hermitian witness operators, the measurement of which could distinguish unknown states useful for performing teleportation. We present an example of such a witness operator illustrating it for different classes of states. PMID:22243295

  18. Entanglement witness operator for quantum teleportation.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Nirman; Adhikari, Satyabrata; Majumdar, A S; Chatterjee, Jyotishman

    2011-12-30

    The ability of entangled states to act as a resource for teleportation is linked to a property of the fully entangled fraction. We show that the set of states with their fully entangled fraction bounded by a threshold value required for performing teleportation is both convex and compact. This feature enables the existence of Hermitian witness operators, the measurement of which could distinguish unknown states useful for performing teleportation. We present an example of such a witness operator illustrating it for different classes of states.

  19. Confessions of an expert ethics witness.

    PubMed

    Kipnis, K

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this essay is to describe and reflect upon the concrete particulars of one academician's work as an expert ethics witness. The commentary on my practices and the narrative descriptions of three cases are offered as evidence for the thesis that it is possible to act honorably within a role that some have considered to be inherently illicit. Practical measures are described for avoiding some of the best known pitfalls. The discussion concludes with a listing of the distinctive competencies and understandings that are useful in serving as an expert ethics witness. PMID:9309547

  20. Mothers in Substance Abuse Treatment: Differences in Characteristics Based on Involvement with Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…

  1. Ethical issues in research with abused children.

    PubMed

    Kinard, E M

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses sensitive ethical issues encountered in conducting research with abused children and the potential consequences of various methods of handling these dilemmas. Important ethical questions arise at three stages of the research: (1) obtaining consent for participation in the research; (2) conducting interviews with or administering tests to the subjects; and (3) providing information about test results to parents or others outside the research team. Concern with children's rights has been extended to the question of who can give consent for children to participate in research. In the case of abused children, the consent issue is complicated by the potential adversarial relationship between abusing parent and abused child. Procedures for interviewing or testing abused children must include provisions for three special situations: (1) when a child is distressed by the interviewing or testing; (2) when a child's answers or test results indicate emotional problems; and (3) when a child's answers or comments indicate that the child is being abused. Decisions concerning whether to inform parents or others about an individual child's answers must balance the parents' right to know against the child's right to privacy. All these circumstances require serious deliberation concerning the role and responsibility of the research investigator.

  2. Jehovah's Witnesses in the emergency department: what are their rights?

    PubMed

    Woolley, S

    2005-12-01

    The Jehovah's Witnesses Society is best known to outsiders for its refusal of blood products, even when such a refusal may result in death. Since the introduction of the blood ban in 1945, Jehovah's Witness (JW) parents have fought for their rights to refuse blood on behalf of their children, based on religious beliefs and their right to raise children as they see fit. Adolescent JWs have also sought to refuse blood products based on their beliefs, regardless of the views of their parents. Adult JWs have fought to protect their autonomy when making both contemporaneous and advance treatment refusal. The refusal of blood products by JWs raises ethical and legal dilemmas that are not easily answered. Do an individual's rights (namely bodily control, right to privacy, right to decide about life/death issues, right to religious freedom) outweigh society's rights (namely the preservation of life, the prevention of suicide, the protection of innocent third parties, and the maintenance of the ethical integrity of the medical profession)? Does the right to choose outweigh the value of human life? For doctors, conflict occurs between the desire to respect patient autonomy and the need to provide good medical care. The Watchtower Society (the JW governing body) imposes a strict code of moral standards among its members, and it is unlikely that individual JWs are making truly autonomous decisions about blood transfusions. While young children and adolescents are protected by the courts and conscious adults are afforded autonomy, dilemmas still arise in the emergency situation. This article examines the rights of young children, adolescents, and adults, focusing in the latter half on adults in the emergency situation. PMID:16299196

  3. 42 CFR 426.545 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Witness fees. 426.545 Section 426.545 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an...

  4. 42 CFR 426.445 - Witness fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Witness fees. 426.445 Section 426.445 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an...

  5. 21 CFR 17.37 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Witnesses. 17.37 Section 17.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES....25(a). (c) The presiding officer shall exercise reasonable control over the manner and order...

  6. 21 CFR 17.37 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Witnesses. 17.37 Section 17.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES....25(a). (c) The presiding officer shall exercise reasonable control over the manner and order...

  7. 21 CFR 17.37 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Witnesses. 17.37 Section 17.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES....25(a). (c) The presiding officer shall exercise reasonable control over the manner and order...

  8. 21 CFR 17.37 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Witnesses. 17.37 Section 17.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES....25(a). (c) The presiding officer shall exercise reasonable control over the manner and order...

  9. 42 CFR 1005.16 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.16 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in... form of a written statement. The ALJ may, at his or her discretion, admit prior sworn testimony of experts which has been subject to adverse examination, such as a deposition or trial testimony. Any...

  10. Surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses – our experience

    PubMed Central

    Kujawski, Ryszard; Mik, Michał; Berut, Maciej; Dziki, Łukasz; Dziki, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgeons face a special challenge in treating Jehovah's Witnesses who refuse blood transfusion. Aim To present our surgical experience with this group of patients operated on in our department. Material and methods A retrospective study of 16 unselected Jehovah's Witnesses patients was conducted between October 2004 and February 2012. We analysed gender, age, haemogram before and after surgery, types of surgery, postoperative complications and the need for blood transfusion, and/or other drugs stimulating erythrogenesis. Results Eighty-one percent of patients were women; the average age of all patients was 57.3 years. Mean haemoglobin level, preoperative, postoperative, and on the day of discharge from hospital, was 12.5 g/dl, 9.7 g/dl, and 9.29 g/dl, respectively. Over the same time period, mean red blood cell count was 4.53 mln/µl, 3.58 mln/µl, and 3.37 mln/µl, respectively. Two out of 16 patients agreed to have blood transfusion. Drugs used for erythropoiesis stimulation included rEPO, ferrum, and folic acid. No surgical death was noted. Conclusions We found that abdominal surgery was safe in our small group of Jehovah's Witness patients. However, all Jehovah's Witness patients should be fully informed about the type of procedure and possible consequences of blood transfusion refusal. Two of our patients agreed to blood transfusion in the face of risk of death. PMID:25960813

  11. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... peculiar knowlege concerning the matter of science or skill to which his or her testimony relates and from... otherwise ordered by the Presiding Officer, a detailed written statement of the elements of the direct... testimony of an expert witness shall not include points not contained in the written statement. A party...

  12. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... peculiar knowlege concerning the matter of science or skill to which his or her testimony relates and from... otherwise ordered by the Presiding Officer, a detailed written statement of the elements of the direct... testimony of an expert witness shall not include points not contained in the written statement. A party...

  13. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... peculiar knowlege concerning the matter of science or skill to which his or her testimony relates and from... otherwise ordered by the Presiding Officer, a detailed written statement of the elements of the direct... testimony of an expert witness shall not include points not contained in the written statement. A party...

  14. 10 CFR 13.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or deposition. Any such written statement must be provided to all other parties along with the last known address of such...

  15. 31 CFR 16.33 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section, testimony at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation. (b) At the discretion of the ALJ, testimony may be admitted in the form of a written statement or deposition. Any such written statement must be provided to all other parties along with the last known address of such...

  16. 42 CFR 423.660 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Witnesses. 423.660 Section 423.660 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Medicare Contract Determinations and Appeals §...

  17. Immodest Witnesses: Reliability and Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Chris W.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a survey of three reliability theories in writing assessment: positivist, hermeneutic, and rhetorical. Drawing on an interdisciplinary investigation of the notion of "witnessing," this survey emphasizes the kinds of readers and readings each theory of reliability produces and the epistemological grounds on which it…

  18. 20 CFR 725.457 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has previously prepared a medical report, shall so notify all other parties to the claim at least 10..., unless the lawful mileage and witness fee for 1 day's attendance is paid in advance of the hearing date... relevant to the physical condition of the miner, such physician must have prepared a medical...

  19. Expert witness testimony: rules of engagement.

    PubMed

    Satiani, Bhagwan

    2006-01-01

    Overlooked in most legislative remedies to address the medical malpractice (MMP) crisis is stringent prohibition against the use of "junk science'' in the courtroom and defining the qualifications of an expert witness. Expert witnesses should be required to: (1) to disclose information materially related to the reliability of expert testimony. (2) Filing of a "Daubert brief'': a summary of the plaintiff's expert's opinion along with a resume outlining his/her knowledge, skill, experience, training and education, reputation in the field relevant to the litigation, and complete details of the methodology employed by the expert. (3) An oath or declaration that acknowledges the duty to disclose to the court all information known to the person to be material to the reliability of the expert witness. Rules of evidence: The "Frye test'' or the "general acceptance rule'' has been used by judges to exclude expert testimony unless it is "sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs.'' Stricter standards need to be legislated at the state level. The mandatory use of scientific panels by judges in all MMP cases is needed. Legislative relief has been sought by the medical community to address the serious disconnect between negligence and MMP litigation. The use of junk science in the courtroom remains largely unaddressed in the judicial system. Medical societies and legislatures must act to define an expert witness and restrain plaintiff's attorneys from using junk science to influence juries.

  20. Bearing witness: to promote therapeutic effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Minden, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative educational approach to developing soft skills that underpin therapeutic effectiveness and are critical for safe patient care. Called Bearing Witness, it derived from 10 years of partnering with residents of a low-income neighborhood to provide undergraduate nursing students with wellness-focused interviewing experiences that were paradoxically real and simulated. PMID:23580103