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Sample records for abuse-related behavioral effects

  1. Abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of cathinone and 4-methylcathinone stereoisomers in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hutsell, Blake A.; Baumann, Michael H.; Partilla, John S.; Banks, Matthew L.; Vekariya, Rakesh; Glennon, Richard A.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2017-01-01

    Cathinone and many of its analogs produce behavioral effects by promoting transporter-mediated release of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and/or serotonin. Stereoselectivity is one determinant of neurochemical and behavioral effects of cathinone analogs. This study compared effectiveness of the S(−) and R(+) enantiomers of cathinone and 4-methylcathinone to produce in vitro monoamine release and in vivo abuse-related behavioral effects in rats. For neurochemical studies, drug effects were evaluated on monoamine release through dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters (DAT, NET and SERT, respectively) in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioral studies, drug effects were evaluated on responding for electrical brain stimulation in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. The cathinone enantiomers differed in potency [S(−)>R(+)], but both enantiomers were >50-fold selective at promoting monoamine release through DAT vs. SERT, and both enantiomers produced ICSS facilitation. The 4-methylcathinone enantiomers also differed in potency [S(−)>R(+)]; however, in neurochemical studies, the decrease in potency from S(−) to R(+)4-methylcathinone was less for DAT than for SERT, and as a result, DAT vs. SERT selectivity was greater for R(+) than for S(−)4-methylcathinone (4.1- vs. 1.2-fold). Moreover, in behavioral studies, S(−)4-methylcathinone produced only ICSS depression, whereas R(+)4-methylcathinone produced ICSS facilitation. This study provides further evidence for stereoselectivity in neurochemical and behavioral actions of cathinone analogs. More importantly, stereoselective 4-methylcathinone effects on ICSS illustrate the potential for diametrically opposite effects of enantiomers in a preclinical behavioral assay of abuse potential. PMID:26738428

  2. Abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of cathinone and 4-methylcathinone stereoisomers in rats.

    PubMed

    Hutsell, Blake A; Baumann, Michael H; Partilla, John S; Banks, Matthew L; Vekariya, Rakesh; Glennon, Richard A; Negus, S Stevens

    2016-02-01

    Cathinone and many of its analogs produce behavioral effects by promoting transporter-mediated release of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and/or serotonin. Stereoselectivity is one determinant of neurochemical and behavioral effects of cathinone analogs. This study compared effectiveness of the S(-) and R(+) enantiomers of cathinone and 4-methylcathinone to produce in vitro monoamine release and in vivo abuse-related behavioral effects in rats. For neurochemical studies, drug effects were evaluated on monoamine release through dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters (DAT, NET and SERT, respectively) in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioral studies, drug effects were evaluated on responding for electrical brain stimulation in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. The cathinone enantiomers differed in potency [S(-)>R(+)], but both enantiomers were >50-fold selective at promoting monoamine release through DAT vs. SERT, and both enantiomers produced ICSS facilitation. The 4-methylcathinone enantiomers also differed in potency [S(-)>R(+)]; however, in neurochemical studies, the decrease in potency from S(-) to R(+)4-methylcathinone was less for DAT than for SERT, and as a result, DAT vs. SERT selectivity was greater for R(+) than for S(-)4-methylcathinone (4.1- vs. 1.2-fold). Moreover, in behavioral studies, S(-)4-methylcathinone produced only ICSS depression, whereas R(+)4-methylcathinone produced ICSS facilitation. This study provides further evidence for stereoselectivity in neurochemical and behavioral actions of cathinone analogs. More importantly, stereoselective 4-methylcathinone effects on ICSS illustrate the potential for diametrically opposite effects of enantiomers in a preclinical behavioral assay of abuse potential.

  3. Methylphenidate enhances the abuse-related behavioral effects of nicotine in rats: intravenous self-administration, drug discrimination, and locomotor cross-sensitization.

    PubMed

    Wooters, Thomas E; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Rush, Craig R; Bardo, Michael T

    2008-04-01

    Stimulant drugs, including D-amphetamine, cocaine, and methylphenidate, increase cigarette smoking in controlled human laboratory experiments. Although the mechanism(s) underlying this effect are unknown, it is possible that stimulants may enhance directly the abuse-related effects of nicotine. In the present study, we characterized the behavioral pharmacological interactions between methylphenidate and nicotine in the intravenous self-administration, drug discrimination, and locomotor cross-sensitization procedures. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for intravenous nicotine (0.01 or 0.03 mg/kg/infusion) or sucrose, and the acute effects of methylphenidate (1.25-10 mg/kg) were determined; in addition, separate groups of rats were treated with methylphenidate (2.5 mg/kg) or saline before 12 consecutive nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration sessions. Next, the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (1.25-10 mg/kg), alone and in combination with a low nicotine dose (0.056 mg/kg), were tested in nicotine-trained rats. Finally, the locomotor effect of repeated methylphenidate (2.5 mg/kg) was tested in rats previously treated with nicotine (0.2-0.8 mg/kg). Results indicated that acute methylphenidate increased the rate of nicotine self-administration at doses that reduced sucrose-maintained responding; furthermore, tolerance to this effect was not apparent following repeated methylphenidate. Methylphenidate, while not substituting for nicotine alone, dose-dependently enhanced the discriminative stimulus effect of a low nicotine dose. In addition, repeated nicotine exposure promoted the development of locomotor sensitization to methylphenidate. Taken together with recent clinical findings, these results suggest that methylphenidate may enhance the abuse-related behavioral effects of nicotine, perhaps increasing vulnerability to tobacco dependence.

  4. Dopamine D3 and D2 receptor mechanisms in the abuse-related behavioral effects of cocaine: studies with preferential antagonists in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Achat-Mendes, Cindy; Grundt, Peter; Cao, Jianjing; Platt, Donna M; Newman, Amy Hauck; Spealman, Roger D

    2010-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) D3 and D2 receptor mechanisms are implicated in cocaine's abuse-related behavioral effects, but the relative contribution of the two receptor subtypes is only partially characterized. This study investigated the role of D3 and D2 subtype mechanisms by determining the degree to which the D3-preferring antagonist PG01037 [N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin- 1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide HCl] and the D2-preferring antagonist L-741626 [3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4- hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]methyl-1H-indole] attenuated several behavioral effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys. Quantitative observational studies established doses of each antagonist that did not produce untoward effects, which were used in subsequent comparisons. In addition, the ability of the D3-preferring agonist PD128907 [(R-(+)-trans-3,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol)] and the D2-preferring agonist sumanirole [(R)-5,6-dihydro-5-(methylamino)-4H- imidazo[4,5,1-ij]quinolin-2(1H)-one(Z)-2-butenedioate] to reproduce cocaine's discriminative stimulus (DS) and priming effects were compared. In monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from vehicle, both DA antagonists attenuated and both DA agonists partially reproduced cocaine's DS effects. PG01037 also selectively attenuated the cocaine-like DS effects of PD128907, whereas L-741626 attenuated the cocaine-like DS effects of both agonists. In self-administration studies, L-741626 nonselectively reduced cocaine- and food-maintained responding, whereas PG01037 was ineffective against either reinforcer. In studies involving reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking, both antagonists attenuated cocaine-induced reinstatement of responding, and both agonists induced at least partial reinstatement of cocaine seeking. L-741626 also attenuated sumanirole-induced, but not PD128907-induced, reinstatement of responding, whereas PG01037 was ineffective against either DA agonist. The results are

  5. Comparison of antidepressant-like and abuse-related effects of phencyclidine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hillhouse, Todd M.; Porter, Joseph H.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2014-01-01

    NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine have emerged as novel candidate treatments for major depressive disorder, but abuse potential of these agents is a concern. The NMDA antagonist phencyclidine has known abuse liability but undefined efficacy as an antidepressant. To further evaluate the relationship between antidepressant-like and abuse-related effects of NMDA antagonists, this study evaluated the effects of phencyclidine (1.0-10.0 mg/kg) in male Sprague-Dawley rats responding under two procedures that have been used to assess antidepressant-like effects [differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 72 s schedule of food reinforcement; N=9] and abuse-related drug effects [intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS); N=6]. Under the DRL 72 s schedule, phencyclidine (10.0 mg/kg) increased reinforcers and decreased responses without shifting the peak location of the interresponse time (IRT) distribution. Ketamine (10.0 mg/kg) also increased reinforcers and decreased responses, but unlike phencyclidine, it produced a rightward shift in the peak location of the IRT distribution. The 10.0 mg/kg phencyclidine dose that decreased DRL 72 s responding also decreased rates of ICSS for 50 min after its administration; however, abuse-related ICSS facilitation was observed at later times (100-300 min) or after a lower phencyclidine dose (3.2 mg/kg). These results suggest that phencyclidine produces weaker antidepressant-like effects, but stronger abuse-related effects than ketamine in these procedures. PMID:25315690

  6. Emotional valence and context of social influences on drug abuse-related behavior in animal models of social stress and prosocial interaction

    PubMed Central

    Neisewander, J.L.; Peartree, N.A.; Pentkowski, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Social factors are important determinants of drug dependence and relapse. Objectives We reviewed preclinical literature examining the role of social experiences from early life through the development of drug dependence and relapse, emphasizing two aspects of these experiences: 1) whether the social interaction is appetitive or aversive and 2) whether the social interaction occurs within or outside of the drug-taking context. Methods The models reviewed include neonatal care, isolation, social defeat, chronic subordination, and prosocial interactions. We review results from these models in regard to effects on self-administration and conditioned place preference established with alcohol, psychostimulants, and opiates. Results We suggest that in general, when the interactions occur outside of the drug-taking context, prosocial interactions are protective against drug abuse-related behaviors whereas social stressors facilitate these behaviors. By contrast, positive or negative social interactions occurring within the drug-taking context may interact with other risk factors to enhance or inhibit these behaviors. Conclusions Despite differences in the nature and complexity of human social behavior compared to other species, the evolving animal literature provides useful models for understanding social influences on drug abuse-related behavior that will allow for research on the behavioral and biological mechanisms involved. The models have contributed to understanding social influences on initiation and maintenance of drug use, but more research is needed to understand social influences on drug relapse. PMID:22955569

  7. Acute buspirone dosing enhances abuse-related subjective effects of oral methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated. Ten subjects completed the protocol, which tested three methamphetamine doses (0, 15, and 30mg) in combination with two buspirone doses (0 and 30mg) across 6 experimental sessions. Subjective effects and physiological measures were collected at regular intervals prior to and after dose administration. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and cardiovascular effects. Acute buspirone administration increased some of the abuse-related subjective effects of methamphetamine and also attenuated some cardiovascular effects. The combination of oral methamphetamine and buspirone was safe and well tolerated. Acute buspirone administration may increase the abuse liability of oral methamphetamine. Chronic buspirone dosing studies remain to be conducted, but given preclinical findings and the outcomes of this work, the utility of buspirone for treating methamphetamine use disorder appears limited.

  8. Pharmacological classification of the abuse-related discriminative stimulus effects of trichloroethylene vapor

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Keith L.; Nicholson, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    Inhalants are distinguished as a class primarily based upon a shared route of administration. Grouping inhalants according to their abuse-related in vivo pharmacological effects using the drug discrimination procedure has the potential to provide a more relevant classification scheme to the research and treatment community. Mice were trained to differentiate the introceptive effects of the trichloroethylene vapor from air using an operant procedure. Trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent once used as an anesthetic as well as in glues and other consumer products. It is now primarily employed as a metal degreaser. We found that the stimulus effects of trichloroethylene were similar to those of other chlorinated hydrocarbon vapors, the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene and the vapor anesthetics methoxyflurane and isoflurane. The stimulus effects of trichloroethylene overlapped with those of the barbiturate methohexital, to a lesser extent the benzodiazepine midazolam and to ethanol. NMDA antagonists, the kappa opioid agonist U50,488 and the mixed 5-HT agonist mCPP largely failed to substitute for trichloroethylene. These data suggest that stimulus effects of chlorinated hydrocarbon vapors are mediated at least partially by GABAA receptor positive modulatory effects. PMID:25202471

  9. Abuse-Related Neurochemical Effects of Para-Substituted Methcathinone Analogs in Rats: Microdialysis Studies of Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Julie A.; Sakloth, Farhana; Kolanos, Renata; Glennon, Richard A.; Lazenka, Matthew F.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Methcathinone (MCAT) is a monoamine releaser and parent compound to a new class of designer drugs that includes the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and flephedrone. Using MCAT and a series of para-substituted (or 4-substituted) MCAT analogs, it has been previously shown that expression of abuse-related behavioral effects in rats correlates both with the volume of the para substituent and in vitro neurochemical selectivity to promote monoamine release via the dopamine (DA) versus serotonin (5-HT) transporters in rat brain synaptosomes. The present study used in vivo microdialysis to determine the relationship between these previous measures and the in vivo neurochemical selectivity of these compounds to alter nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA and 5-HT levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae targeting the NAc. MCAT and five para-substituted analogs (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Br, 4-CH3, and 4-OCH3) produced dose- and time-dependent increases in NAc DA and/or 5-HT levels. Selectivity was determined as the dose required to increase peak 5-HT levels by 250% divided by the dose required to increase peak DA levels by 250%. This measure of in vivo neurochemical selectivity varied across compounds and correlated with 1) in vivo expression of abuse-related behavioral effects (r = 0.89, P = 0.02); 2) in vitro selectivity to promote monoamine release via DA and 5-HT transporters (r = 0.95, P < 0.01); and 3) molecular volume of the para substituent (r = −0.85, P = 0.03). These results support a relationship between these molecular, neurochemical, and behavioral measures and support a role for molecular structure as a determinant of abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of MCAT analogs. PMID:26645638

  10. Abuse-Related Neurochemical Effects of Para-Substituted Methcathinone Analogs in Rats: Microdialysis Studies of Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine and Serotonin.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Julie A; Sakloth, Farhana; Kolanos, Renata; Glennon, Richard A; Lazenka, Matthew F; Negus, S Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Methcathinone (MCAT) is a monoamine releaser and parent compound to a new class of designer drugs that includes the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and flephedrone. Using MCAT and a series of para-substituted (or 4-substituted) MCAT analogs, it has been previously shown that expression of abuse-related behavioral effects in rats correlates both with the volume of the para substituent and in vitro neurochemical selectivity to promote monoamine release via the dopamine (DA) versus serotonin (5-HT) transporters in rat brain synaptosomes. The present study used in vivo microdialysis to determine the relationship between these previous measures and the in vivo neurochemical selectivity of these compounds to alter nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA and 5-HT levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae targeting the NAc. MCAT and five para-substituted analogs (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Br, 4-CH3, and 4-OCH3) produced dose- and time-dependent increases in NAc DA and/or 5-HT levels. Selectivity was determined as the dose required to increase peak 5-HT levels by 250% divided by the dose required to increase peak DA levels by 250%. This measure of in vivo neurochemical selectivity varied across compounds and correlated with 1) in vivo expression of abuse-related behavioral effects (r = 0.89, P = 0.02); 2) in vitro selectivity to promote monoamine release via DA and 5-HT transporters (r = 0.95, P < 0.01); and 3) molecular volume of the para substituent (r = -0.85, P = 0.03). These results support a relationship between these molecular, neurochemical, and behavioral measures and support a role for molecular structure as a determinant of abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of MCAT analogs.

  11. Effects of the neuropeptide S receptor antagonist RTI-118 on abuse-related facilitation of intracranial self-stimulation produced by cocaine and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bonano, Julie S.; Runyon, Scott P.; Hassler, Carla; Glennon, Richard A.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neurotransmitter that activates the NPS receptor to modulate biological functions including anxiety-like behaviors, feeding, and drug reinforcement. RTI-118 is a novel NPS receptor antagonist that decreased cocaine self-administration in rats at doses that had little or no effect on food-maintained responding. To build on these previous findings, this study examined effects of RTI-118 on cocaine-induced facilitation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. To provide a context for data interpretation, effects of RTI-118 were compared to effects of the kappa opioid receptor agonist U69,593, because the kappa opioid receptor is another peptide neurotransmitter receptor reported to modulate abuse-related cocaine effects. RTI-118 effects were also examined on ICSS facilitation produced by methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a novel designer drug of abuse with some cocaine-like effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle responded under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule for range of brain stimulation frequencies. Under control conditions, brain stimulation maintained a frequency-dependent increase in ICSS rates. Cocaine (1.0–10 mg/kg) and MDPV (3.2 mg/kg) facilitated ICSS. RTI-118 (3.2––32 mg/kg) alone produced little effect on ICSS but dose dependently blocked cocaine-induced ICSS facilitation. U69,593 (0.25–0.5 mg/kg) also attenuated cocaine effects, but blockade of cocaine effects was incomplete even at a U69,593 dose that alone depressed ICSS. RTI-118 (32 mg/kg) failed to block MDPV-induced ICSS facilitation. These results support further consideration of NPS receptor antagonists as candidate treatments for cocaine abuse and provide evidence for differential effects of a candidate treatment on abuse-related effects of cocaine and MDPV. PMID:25220242

  12. Abuse-related effects of dual dopamine/serotonin releasers with varying potency to release norepinephrine in male rats and rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Bauer, Clayton T; Blough, Bruce E; Rothman, Richard B; Partilla, John S; Baumann, Michael H; Negus, S Stevens

    2014-06-01

    d-Amphetamine selectively promotes release of both dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) versus serotonin (5HT), and chronic d-amphetamine treatment decreases cocaine-taking behavior in rats, nonhuman primates, and humans. However, abuse liability limits the clinical utility of amphetamine maintenance for treating cocaine abuse. One strategy to improve safety and efficacy of monoamine releasers as candidate anticocaine medications has been to develop dual DA/5HT releasers like 1-napthyl-2-aminopropane (PAL-287), but the pharmacology of this class of compounds has not been extensively examined. In particular, PAL-287 has similar potencies to release DA, 5HT, and NE, and the role of manipulating NE release potency on abuse-related or anticocaine effects of dual DA/5HT releasers is not known. To address this issue, the present study compared effects of four novel DA/5HT releasers that varied >800-fold in their selectivities to release DA/5HT versus NE: [1-(5-chloro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-542), 1-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-544), 1-(1H-indol-5-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-571), and (R)-1-(1H-indol-1-yl)propain-2-amine (PAL-569). Abuse-related effects of all four compounds were evaluated in assays of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats and cocaine discrimination in rats and monkeys, and none of the compounds reliably facilitated ICSS or substituted for cocaine. Anticocaine effects of the compound with highest selectivity to release DA/5HT versus NE (PAL-542) were tested in an assay of cocaine versus food choice in rhesus monkeys, and PAL-542 failed to reduce cocaine choice. These results suggests that potency to release NE has minimal influence on abuse liability of dual DA/5HT releasers, and reducing relative potency to release NE versus DA/5HT does not improve anticocaine efficacy.

  13. Abuse-related effects of µ-opioid analgesics in an assay of intracranial self-stimulation in rats: modulation by chronic morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Altarifi, Ahmad A; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-09-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is an operant procedure in which responding is maintained by electrical brain stimulation. Stimulation frequency can be varied rapidly to maintain a wide range of baseline response rates, and drugs' effects can be evaluated simultaneously on both low ICSS rates maintained by low stimulation frequencies and high ICSS rates maintained by high stimulation frequencies. ICSS 'facilitation' indicates drug-induced increases in low ICSS rates and is often considered an abuse-related effect, whereas ICSS 'depression' indicates decreases in high ICSS rates and may indicate abuse-limiting effects. This study examined the roles of µ-agonist efficacy and of previous µ-agonist exposure as determinants of µ-agonist effects on ICSS in rats with electrodes implanted into the medial forebrain bundle. The high-efficacy, intermediate-efficacy, and low-efficacy µ agonists methadone, fentanyl, and nalbuphine were tested during escalating regimens of morphine exposure (vehicle, 3.2, and 18 mg/kg/day). During vehicle treatment, methadone and fentanyl primarily depressed ICSS, whereas nalbuphine produced weak facilitation that was not dose dependent. Chronic morphine produced tolerance to ICSS depression and increased expression of ICSS facilitation. These results suggest that µ-agonist exposure increases the expression of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by µ agonists with a broad range of efficacies at µ receptors.

  14. The Development and Psychometric Properties of the HIV and Abuse Related Shame Inventory (HARSI)

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Sharon A. S.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Lee, Rachel S.; Kochman, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    Shame has been shown to predict sexual HIV transmission risk behavior, medication non-adherence, symptomatic HIV or AIDS, and symptoms of depression and PTSD. However, there remains a dearth of tools to measure the specific constructs of HIV-related and sexual abuse-related shame. To ameliorate this gap, we present a 31-item measure that assesses HIV and sexual abuse-related shame, and the impact of shame on HIV-related health behaviors. A diverse sample of 271 HIV-positive men and women who were sexually abused as children completed the HIV and Abuse Related Shame Inventory (HARSI) among other measures. An exploratory factor analysis supported the retention of three-factors, explaining 56.7% of the sample variance. These internally consistent factors showed good test–retest reliability, and sound convergent and divergent validity using eight well-established HIV specific and general psychosocial criterion measures. Unlike stigma or discrimination, shame is potentially alterable through individually-focused interventions, making the measurement of shame clinically meaningful. PMID:22065235

  15. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach).

  16. The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…

  17. Children's emotional and behavioral reactions following the disclosure of extrafamilial sexual abuse: initial effects.

    PubMed

    Ligezinska, M; Firestone, P; Manion, I G; McIntyre, J; Ensom, R; Wells, G

    1996-02-01

    Despite a dramatic increase of the empirical literature on child sexual abuse, very few investigations have examined the initial effects of extrafamilial sexual abuse (ESA). The present study evaluated the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 41 children (mean age 10 years, range 5.4 to 15.5 years) within the first 3 months following the disclosure of ESA. Children's functioning was compared to that of a nonclinical comparison group of 43 children, matched on child's age, gender, and family constellation. Child functioning was assessed using a combination of child-report, primary caregiver-report (i.e., parent), and teacher-report measures. Results revealed that sexually abused children, in comparison to nonabused children, suffered deleterious and clinically significant effects. Standard multiple regressions found that the children's perceptions of self-blame and guilt for the abuse and the extent of traumatization predicted their self-reported symptomatology of depression, social efficacy, and general and abuse-related fears. As well, child's gender predicted the level of general fearfulness. None of the other demographic or abuse-related variables were related to children's functioning. These results underscore the need for multidimensional and multisource assessment of children who experience ESA, and point to the clinical importance of addressing the abuse-related attributions of these children.

  18. [Providing Effective Behavior Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAIL: Technical Assistance Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue addresses the provision of behavioral support for students with behavior disorders. The first article, "Providing Effective Behavior Support to All Students: Procedures and Processes" (George Sugai), summarizes the literature on the effectiveness of various interventions and offers several models for examining the…

  19. Morphologic alterations in the corpus callosum in abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Noriyuki; Brummer, Marijn; Hertz, Lois; Quinn, Sinead; Kim, Yoshiharu; Bremner, J Douglas

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in children with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have demonstrated smaller corpus callosum area, with the greatest magnitude of change in posterior portions of the corpus callosum. The purpose of this study was to measure corpus callosum area in adult female patients with childhood abuse-related PTSD and comparison subjects. MRI was used to measure the midsagittal area of the corpus callosum as well as subregions of the corpus callosum in 9 female subjects with abuse-related PTSD and 9 healthy female subjects. No differences were found in total area of the corpus callosum or in individual subregions, but the subregion/total area ratio was significantly smaller in posterior midbody in PTSD compared with the healthy subjects. These results suggest that relatively smaller areas of the posterior midbody of the corpus callosum are associated with childhood abuse related PTSD in adults; these findings are consistent with findings in children with abuse-related PTSD.

  20. Emotional, cognitive and physiological correlates of abuse-related stress in borderline and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2010-02-01

    Childhood abuse is an important precursor of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The current study compared the emotional reactivity to abuse-related stress of these patients on a direct and an indirect level. Changes in self-reported affect and schema modes, psychophysiology and reaction time based cognitive associations were assessed following confrontation with an abuse-related film fragment in patients with BPD (n=45), ASPD (n=21), Cluster C personality disorder (n=46) and non-patient controls (n=36). Results indicated a hyperresponsivity of BPD-patients on self-reported negative affect and schema modes, on some psychophysiological indices and on implicit cognitive associations. The ASPD-group was comparable to the BPD group on implicit cognitions but did not show self-reported and physiological hyper-reactivity. These findings suggest that BPD and ASPD-patients are alike in their implicit cognitive abuse-related stress reactivity, but can be differentiated in their self-reported and physiological response patterns.

  1. Abuse-related trauma forward medical care in a randomly sampled nationwide population

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cheng-Maw; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Lee, Po-Huang; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Hu, Rey-Heng; Chen, Jin-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Abuse-related trauma remains a global health issue. However, there is paucity in nationwide reports. We aim to estimate the incidence of abuse-related trauma forward medical care and identify its characteristics and clinical course in Taiwan. Patients with trauma between 2005 and 2007 that occurred 3 months before or after a diagnosis of abuse were identified from a randomly sampled nationwide longitudinal health insurance database of 1 million beneficiaries. The patients’ demographic data, injury pattern, and medical resource utilization were measured, stratified by age and sex, and compared using chi-square test. Risk factors of next trauma event were identified using Cox regression analysis. Ninety-three patients (65 females) were identified (mean age, 20.6 ± 16.3 years), including 61.3% under 18 years of age. For the first trauma event, 68 patients (73.1%) visited the emergency room, 63 (67.7%) received intervention, and 14 (15.1%) needed hospital care. Seven (7.5%), all less than 11 years old, had intracranial hemorrhage and required intensive care. Thirty-three (35.5%) left with complications or sequelae, or required rehabilitation, but all survived. Of the 34 victims of sexual abuse, 32 were aged less than 18 years. Men received more mood stabilizers or antipsychotics (50.0% vs 10.7%, P = 0.030) and reeducative psychotherapy (25.0% vs 0, P = 0.044). Risk factors for a next trauma event were injury involving the extremities (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.27 [2.45–11.33]) and use of antibiotics (HR: 4.21 [1.45–12.24]) on the first trauma event. Abuse-related trauma has heterogeneous presentations among subgroups. Clinicians should be alert in providing timely diagnosis and individualized intervention. PMID:27787382

  2. Microwave radiation absorption: behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, J A

    1991-07-01

    The literature contains much evidence that absorption of microwave energy will lead to behavioral changes in man and laboratory animals. The changes include simple perturbations or outright stoppage of ongoing behavior. On one extreme, intense microwave absorption can result in seizures followed by death. On the other extreme, man and animals can hear microwave pulses at very low rates of absorption. Under certain conditions of exposure, animals will avoid microwaves, while under other conditions, they will actively work to obtain warmth produced by microwaves. Some research has shown behavioral effects during chronic exposure to low-level microwaves. The specific absorption rates that produce behavioral effects seem to depend on microwave frequency, but controversy exists over thresholds and mechanism of action. In all cases, however, the behavioral disruptions cease when chronic microwave exposure is terminated. Thermal changes in man and animals during microwave exposure appear to account for all reported behavioral effects.

  3. Identifying Effective Teaching Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Donald P.

    This report deals with an evaluation experiment which attempted to discover the relationship between specific types of teacher behavior and success in teaching as shown by student progress in relation to defined objectives. In 708 undergraduate classes at Kansas State University, students rated their progress in gaining factual knowledge, learning…

  4. Child abuse-related homicides in New Mexico: a 6-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol K; Lathrop, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed autopsy records at a statewide medical examiner's office in order to identify and characterize deaths due to child abuse. In a 6-year period in New Mexico, the medical examiner investigated 45 deaths determined to be child abuse-related. Decedents were predominantly male (68.9%), Hispanic White (53.3%), and all were 5 years of age or younger, with a median age of 1 year. Head injuries were the most common cause of death (44.4%), followed by battered baby syndrome (15.6%). Relatives were involved as alleged perpetrators in 80% of the cases, with the father most often implicated (36.1% of cases), and 88.9% of child abuse injuries resulting in death occurred in the family's residence. Toxicology was positive in 26.7% of cases, but only two cases had substances of abuse present. Information on risk factors such as prematurity, parental age, and history of abuse was also collected.

  5. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  6. Identification of Effective Teaching Behaviors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    dinosaurs?") questions which guide a student’s learning of a skill (e.g., "What do you think we should do next?") Intelligent tutoring systems could...The purpose of this study was to identify effective human teaching behaviors and ways of implementing them in an intelligent tutoring system (ITS...based format. This study found that much of the existing educational research literature is applicable to intelligent tutoring system development

  7. Climatic Effects on Planning Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Kostakos, Vassilis; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    What mechanism links climate change and social change? Palaeoanthropological analysis of human remains suggests that abrupt climate change is linked to societal restructuring, but it has been challenging to reliably identify the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. Here we identify one potential mechanism that can link climate to behavior change, and underpins many of the reported findings on social restructuring. Specifically, we show that daily weather is linked to human planning behavior, and this effect is moderated by climate. Our results demonstrate that as weather gets colder, humans increase their planning in cold regions and decrease planning in warm regions. Since planning has previously been linked to group efficiency, cooperation, and societal organization, our work suggests planning is one mechanism that can link climate change to societal restructuring. PMID:25993567

  8. Effective Behavior of Composite Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7AD-A158 941 EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR OF COMPOSITE MTERIRLS(A) NEW YORK i/i UNIV MY COURANT INST OF ATHEMATICAL SCIENCES 6CPAPANICOLAOU 23 APR 85 5274192... Courant ilfapphcabt e Instit.te of Math. Sciences AF0SR/NM 6c. ADDRESS Cit). State and ZIP Code, 7b. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) 251 Mercer St Bldg...Papanicolaou Courant Institute 251 Mercer Street New York, N.Y. 10012 i~istr~utlo2 During this period two thesis ipja b&have completed ’their work and have

  9. A Multisite, Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Sexual Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Deblinger, Esther; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Steer, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the differential efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) and child-centered therapy for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related emotional and behavioral problems in children who have suffered sexual abuse. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine 8- to 14-year-old children and their primary…

  10. Antagonism of metabotropic glutamate 1 receptors attenuates behavioral effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Achat-Mendes, Cindy; Platt, Donna M; Spealman, Roger D

    2012-10-01

    Within the group I family of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), substantial evidence points to a role for mGluR5 mechanisms in cocaine's abuse-related behavioral effects, but less is understood about the contribution of mGluR1, which also belongs to the group I mGluR family. The selective mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 [(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano-[2,3-b]quinolin-7-yl)-(cis-4-methoxycyclohexyl)-methanone] was used to investigate the role of mGluR1 in the behavioral effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. In drug discrimination experiments, squirrel monkeys were trained to discriminate cocaine from saline by using a two-lever, food-reinforced operant procedure. JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg) pretreatments significantly attenuated cocaine's discriminative stimulus effects and the cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine or methamphetamine under a second-order schedule of intravenous drug injection, JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg) significantly reduced drug-reinforced responding, resulting in a downward displacement of dose-response functions. In reinstatement studies, intravenous priming with cocaine accompanied by restoration of a cocaine-paired stimulus reinstated extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior, which was significantly attenuated by JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg). Finally, in experiments involving food rather than drug self-administration, cocaine and methamphetamine increased the rate of responding, and the rate-increasing effects of both psychostimulants were significantly attenuated by JNJ16259685 (0.3 mg/kg). At the doses tested, JNJ16259685 did not significantly suppress food-reinforced behavior (drug discrimination or fixed-interval schedule of food delivery), but did significantly reduce species-typical locomotor activity in observational studies. To the extent that the psychostimulant-antagonist effects of JNJ16259685 are independent of motor function suppression, further research is warranted to

  11. Vocal Emotion Expressions Effects on Cooperation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina

    2017-01-01

    Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…

  12. Chemogenomics knowledgebased polypharmacology analyses of drug abuse related G-protein coupled receptors and their ligands

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiang-Qun; Wang, Lirong; Liu, Haibin; Ouyang, Qin; Fang, Cheng; Su, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse (DA) and addiction is a complex illness, broadly viewed as a neurobiological impairment with genetic and environmental factors that influence its development and manifestation. Abused substances can disrupt the activity of neurons by interacting with many proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A few medicines that target the central nervous system (CNS) can also modulate DA related proteins, such as GPCRs, which can act in conjunction with the controlled psychoactive substance(s) and increase side effects. To fully explore the molecular interaction networks that underlie DA and to effectively modulate the GPCRs in these networks with small molecules for DA treatment, we built a drug-abuse domain specific chemogenomics knowledgebase (DA-KB) to centralize the reported chemogenomics research information related to DA and CNS disorders in an effort to benefit researchers across a broad range of disciplines. We then focus on the analysis of GPCRs as many of them are closely related with DA. Their distribution in human tissues was also analyzed for the study of side effects caused by abused drugs. We further implement our computational algorithms/tools to explore DA targets, DA mechanisms and pathways involved in polydrug addiction and to explore polypharmacological effects of the GPCR ligands. Finally, the polypharmacology effects of GPCRs-targeted medicines for DA treatment were investigated and such effects can be exploited for the development of drugs with polypharmacophore for DA intervention. The chemogenomics database and the analysis tools will help us better understand the mechanism of drugs abuse and facilitate to design new medications for system pharmacotherapy of DA. PMID:24567719

  13. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse.

  14. Child abuse and neglect in complex dissociative disorder, abuse-related chronic PTSD, and mixed psychiatric samples.

    PubMed

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories.

  15. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Beatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Bouron, Alexandre; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading to

  16. Combinatorial effects of odorants on mouse behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Kondoh, Kunio; Ye, Xiaolan; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Hernandez, Marcus; Buck, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which odors induce instinctive behaviors are largely unknown. Odor detection in the mouse nose is mediated by >1, 000 different odorant receptors (ORs) and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Odor perceptions are encoded combinatorially by ORs and can be altered by slight changes in the combination of activated receptors. However, the stereotyped nature of instinctive odor responses suggests the involvement of specific receptors and genetically programmed neural circuits relatively immune to extraneous odor stimuli and receptor inputs. Here, we report that, contrary to expectation, innate odor-induced behaviors can be context-dependent. First, different ligands for a given TAAR can vary in behavioral effect. Second, when combined, some attractive and aversive odorants neutralize one another’s behavioral effects. Both a TAAR ligand and a common odorant block aversion to a predator odor, indicating that this ability is not unique to TAARs and can extend to an aversive response of potential importance to survival. In vitro testing of single receptors with binary odorant mixtures indicates that behavioral blocking can occur without receptor antagonism in the nose. Moreover, genetic ablation of a single receptor prevents its cognate ligand from blocking predator odor aversion, indicating that the blocking requires sensory input from the receptor. Together, these findings indicate that innate odor-induced behaviors can depend on context, that signals from a single receptor can block innate odor aversion, and that instinctive behavioral responses to odors can be modulated by interactions in the brain among signals derived from different receptors. PMID:27208093

  17. Effects of methylmercury on operant behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Evans, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental observations on methylmercury's effects on the behavior of pigeons are used to illustrate how operant techniques can be used to investigate long-lasting consequences of a toxic insult. The methylmercury is shown to disturb the ability of pigeons to discriminate the amount of behavior that they have emitted: they become less accurate in pecking the specific number of times needed to earn them food.

  18. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  19. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  20. Reinforcement, Behavior Constraint, and the Overjustification Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bruce W.

    1980-01-01

    Four levels of the behavior constraint-reinforcement variable were manipulated: attractive reward, unattractive reward, request to perform, and a no-reward control. Only the unattractive reward and request groups showed the performance decrements that suggest the overjustification effect. It is concluded that reinforcement does not cause the…

  1. Evidence-based treatment for adult women with child abuse-related Complex PTSD: a quantitative review

    PubMed Central

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Effective first-line treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established, but their generalizability to child abuse (CA)-related Complex PTSD is largely unknown. Method A quantitative review of the literature was performed, identifying seven studies, with treatments specifically targeting CA-related PTSD or Complex PTSD, which were meta-analyzed, including variables such as effect size, drop-out, recovery, and improvement rates. Results Only six studies with one or more cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment conditions and one with a present centered therapy condition could be meta-analyzed. Results indicate that CA-related PTSD patients profit with large effect sizes and modest recovery and improvement rates. Treatments which include exposure showed greater effect sizes especially in completers’ analyses, although no differential results were found in recovery and improvement rates. However, results in the subgroup of CA-related Complex PTSD studies were least favorable. Within the Complex PTSD subgroup, no superior effect size was found for exposure, and affect management resulted in more favorable recovery and improvement rates and less drop-out, as compared to exposure, especially in intention-to-treat analyses. Conclusion Limited evidence suggests that predominantly CBT treatments are effective, but do not suffice to achieve satisfactory end states, especially in Complex PTSD populations. Moreover, we propose that future research should focus on direct comparisons between types of treatment for Complex PTSD patients, thereby increasing generalizability of results. PMID:25563302

  2. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    PubMed

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  3. Human chromosomes: Structure, behavior, and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Therman, E.; Susman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The book `Human Chromosomes: Structure, Behavior, and Effects` covers the most important topics regarding human chromosomes and current research in cytogenetics. Attention is given both to structure and function of autosomes and sex chromosomes, as well as definitions and causes of chromosomal aberrations. This often involves discussion about various aspects of the cell cycle (both mitosis and meiosis). Methods and techniques involved in researching and mapping human chromosomes are also discussed.

  4. Aspartame: effects on learning, behavior, and mood.

    PubMed

    Saravis, S; Schachar, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

    1990-07-01

    The effect of aspartame on the learning, behavior, and mood of children was evaluated in two experiments. After an overnight fast and a standard breakfast, 20 healthy 9- to 10-year-old children were given the treatments in a double-blind crossover design at 10:30 AM. Lunch was served at 12:00 noon. In experiment 1, the treatment consisted of an ice slurry of strawberry Kool-Aid containing 1.75 g/kg of carbohydrate (polycose) plus either aspartame (34 mg/kg) or the equivalent sweetness as sodium cyclamate and amino acids as alanine. In experiment 2, the treatment consisted of a drink of cold unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid, containing either 1.75 g/kg of sucrose or 9.7 mg/kg of aspartame. Measures of associative learning, arithmetic calculation, activity level, social interaction, and mood were unaffected by treatment in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the only significant treatment effect was that on the frequency of minor and gross motor behaviors, which were less frequent after the consumption of sucrose than after aspartame. Thus, the effect of aspartame on the short-term behavior of healthy 9- to 10-year-old children appears to be related to its absence of metabolic consequences rather than to its amino acid composition and putative neurochemical impact.

  5. Effect of Hallucinogens on Unconditioned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Geyer, Mark A

    2017-02-22

    Because of the ethical and regulatory hurdles associated with human studies, much of what is known about the psychopharmacology of hallucinogens has been derived from animal models. However, developing reliable animal models has proven to be a challenging task due to the complexity and variability of hallucinogen effects in humans. This chapter focuses on three animal models that are frequently used to test the effects of hallucinogens on unconditioned behavior: head twitch response (HTR), prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI), and exploratory behavior. The HTR has demonstrated considerable utility in the neurochemical actions of hallucinogens. However, the latter two models have clearer conceptual bridges to human phenomenology. Consistent with the known mechanism of action of hallucinogens in humans, the behavioral effects of hallucinogens in rodents are mediated primarily by activation of 5-HT2A receptors. There is evidence, however, that other receptors may play secondary roles. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) of hallucinogens are reviewed in relation to each model, with a focus on the HTR in rats and mice.

  6. Behavioral characteristics of effective crew leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginnett, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The behaviors of effective versus less effective captains as they form and lead their crews in line operations are analyzed. The research examines real work groups in an actual organization with a specific and consequential task to perform and is based on a normative model of work group effectiveness. Selection of captains is outlined, as well as data collection over the course of six months of crew and cockpit observations including over 300 hours of direct crew observations and 110 hours of actual flight time. Common characteristics of the effective leaders as well as the deviations of the less effective are described, and organizational implications are assessed. The concept of 'shells' depicted as a series of concentric circles moving outward from the group's task execution at the center is introduced and discussed.

  7. Effects of the Good Behavior Game on Challenging Behaviors in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John W.; Bunuan, Rommel L.; Muething, Colin S.; Vega, Ramon, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behavior at school remains a concern for teachers and administrators. Thus classroom management practices to prevent challenging behavior are sorely needed. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) has been found to be useful to positively change student behavior. However, previous reviews of the GBG have not quantified effects, have not focused…

  8. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4 - 120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. This study

  9. Responsible Assertive Behavior Promotes Effective Interpersonal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1983-01-01

    Assertive behavior promotes the development of mutually satisfying relationships, with none of the disadvantages of passive or aggressive behavior. Because of the interpersonal and organizational benefits, managers should encourage assertive behavior throughout their organizations. (SK)

  10. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

  11. Disorder effect on the traffic flow behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2008-08-01

    The effects of some disorders, on the traffic flow behavior, are studied numerically. Especially, the effect of mixture of vehicles of different velocities and/or lengths, the effects of different drivers reactions, the position and the extraction rate of off-ramp in the free way. Using a generalized optimal velocity model, for a mixture of fast and slow vehicles, we have investigated the effect of delay times τ f and τ s on the fundamental diagram. It is Found that the small delay times have almost no effect, while, for sufficiently large delay time τ s , the current profile displays qualitatively five different forms, depending on τ f , τ s and the fractions f f and f s of the fast and slow cars, respectively. The velocity (current) exhibits first-order transitions at low and/or high densities, from freely moving phase to the congested state, and from congested state to a jamming one, respectively. The minimal current appears in intermediate values of τ s . Furthermore there exist, a critical value of τ f above which the meta-stability and hysteresis appear. The effects of disorder due to drivers behaviors have been introduced through a random delay time τ allowing the car to reach its optimal velocity traffic flow models with open boundaries. In the absence of the variation of the delay time Δτ, it is found that the transition from unstable to meta-stable and from meta-stable to stable state occur under the effect of the injecting and the extracting rate probabilities α and β respectively. Moreover, the perturbation of the traffic flow behavior due to the off-ramp has been studied using numerical simulations in the one dimensional cellular automaton traffic flow model with open boundaries. When the off-ramp is located between two critical positions i c1 and i c2 the current remains constant (plateau) for β0 c1 < β0 < β0 c2, and the density undergoes two successive first order transitions: from high density to plateau current phase and from average

  12. The Longitudinal Effects of Behavioral Problems on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Phuong Anna

    2012-01-01

    Students' behavior and emotional well being are instrumental for their success in the school setting. The present study examined the effects of behavioral problems on the academic performance of students three years later. The behavioral problems consisted of individual externalizing, internalizing, and inattentive behaviors. Next, this study…

  13. Effective property of tooth enamel: monoclinic behavior.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cunyou; Nakamura, Toshio; Korach, Chad S

    2012-05-11

    Human tooth enamel possesses a unique morphology characterized by a repeated cell arrangement, which is composed of varying orientations of hydroxyapatite crystals. In the past, various investigators have reported diverse mechanical properties based on isotropic or orthotropic mechanical models in their experimental and numerical studies. However, these models are insufficient to capture the accurate microstructural effects on the enamel mechanical response. In this paper, a monoclinic anisotropic model, which offers correct descriptions of enamel deformation behaviors, is introduced. The model takes into account the 3D orientation changes of the hydroxyapatite crystals and their spatial elastic property variations. The proposed approach is based on a unit-cell and periodic boundary conditions, and it utilizes the collective deformation characteristics of many rods to determine 13 independent material constants required for the monoclinic model. These constants are necessary to utilize the effective property model to study various mechanical conditions such as abrasion, erosion, wear and fracture of whole tooth enamel.

  14. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  15. Behavioral effects of perinatal opioid exposure.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Anna; Tímár, Júlia; Zelena, Dóra

    2014-05-28

    Opioids are among the world's oldest known drugs used mostly for pain relief, but recreational use is also widespread. A particularly important problem is opioid exposure in females, as their offspring can also be affected. Adverse intrauterine and postnatal environments can affect offspring development and may lead to various disabilities later in life. It is clear that repetitive painful experiences, such as randomly occurring invasive procedures during neonatal intensive care, can permanently alter neuronal and synaptic organization and therefore later behavior. At the same time, analgesic drugs can also be harmful, inducing neuronal apoptosis or withdrawal symptoms in the neonate and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Hence, risk-benefit ratios should be taken into consideration when pain relief is required during pregnancy or in neonates. Recreational use of opioids can also alter many aspects of life. Intrauterine opioid exposure has many toxic effects, inducing poor pregnancy outcomes due to underdevelopment, but it is believed that later negative consequences are more related to environmental factors such as a chaotic lifestyle and inadequate prenatal care. One of the crucial components is maternal care, which changes profoundly in addicted mothers. In substance-dependent mothers, pre- and postnatal care has special importance, and controlled treatment with a synthetic opioid (e.g., methadone) could be beneficial. We aimed to summarize and compare human and rodent data, as it is important to close the gap between scientific knowledge and societal policies. Special emphasis is given to gender differences in the sensitivity of offspring to perinatal opioid exposure.

  16. The Effects of Positive Behavior Interventions and Support on Changing the Behavior of Red Zone Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fredrick

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve culture, safety, and climate, numerous schools nationwide are implementing Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS). The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS) model for reducing high-risk behaviors of students identified as red zone. The…

  17. Behavioral effects of delayed timeouts from reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Tom; Poling, Alan

    2017-02-14

    Timeouts are sometimes used in applied settings to reduce target responses, and in some circumstances delays are unavoidably imposed between the onset of a timeout and the offset of the response that produces it. The present study examined the effects of signaled and unsignaled timeouts in rats exposed to concurrent fixed-ratio 1 fixed-ratio 1 schedules of food delivery, where each response on one lever, the location of which changed across conditions, produced both food and a delayed 10-s timeout. Delays of 0 to 38 s were examined. Delayed timeouts often, but not always, substantially reduced the number of responses emitted on the lever that produced timeouts relative to the number emitted on the lever that did not produce timeouts. In general, greater sensitivity was observed to delayed timeouts when they were signaled. These results demonstrate that delayed timeouts, like other delayed consequences, can affect behavior, albeit less strongly than immediate consequences.

  18. Moving Behavioral Science from Efficacy to Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallfors, Denise; Cho, Hyunsan

    2007-01-01

    The gap between scientific knowledge and real world practice continues to be a major conundrum for the behavioral sciences. This paper briefly reviews the development of behavioral research and describes problems that have arisen in meeting the goal of improving behavioral interventions through science. Based on published literature and personal…

  19. Clinical Effects of Naltrexone on Autistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingarelli, Gene; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Eight young adults (ages 19-39) with autism were given the opiate antagonist naltrexone to control self-injurious behavior and maladaptive idiosyncratic mannerisms. Although one subject appeared to have partial decreases in maladaptive behaviors, the drug did not clearly reduce the self-injurious and other maladaptive behaviors of the subjects.…

  20. A Follow-up Study of a Multisite, Randomized, Controlled Trial for Children with Sexual Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Cohen, Judith A.; Steer, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether the differential responses that previously have been found between trauma-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), and child-centered therapy (CCT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related problems in children who had been sexually abused would persist following treatment and to examine…

  1. The effect of rules on differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    PubMed

    Watts, Amanda C; Wilder, David A; Gregory, Meagan K; Leon, Yanerys; Ditzian, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the treatment of problem behavior has shown differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to be an effective behavior-reduction procedure. However, the extent to which presession descriptions of the DRO contingency enhance intervention effects has not been examined. In the current study, we compared a condition in which a presession rule that described the DRO contingency was given to a condition in which no rule was given for 4 participants. The target behavior was toy play, which served as an analogue to problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed that DRO was more efficient for 1 participant and more effective for 2 participants when a rule was given.

  2. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, George C.

    1994-01-01

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  3. Time Dependent Behavior in the Weissenberg Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, Michael M.; Andereck, C. David

    1997-03-01

    The Weissenberg effect is the climb of a non-Newtonian fluid up a rotating rod. We have found novel transitional effects in the behavior of a particular climbing fluid, STP(STP Oil Treatment distributed by First Brands Corporation.). The first state is a time-independent axisymmetric concave climb. As the rotation rate of the rod is increased, the first transition is to an axisymmetric climb with an ``onion dome'' shape. At higher rotation rates, the flow undergoes a symmetry breaking bifurcation to a time-dependent state. This time-dependent state exhibits an oscillation with a single frequency. Upon further increase of the rod rotation rate, the oscillation becomes modulated by a second frequency. The nature of each transition will be characterized, including the measurement of oscillation amplitudes and the frequency (or frequencies) of the time dependent states. These results will be compared with previous work.(G.S. Beavers, D.D. Joseph, J. Fluid Mech. 69), 475 (1975).(D.D. Joseph, R.L. Fosdick, Arch. Rational Mech. 49), 321 (1973).

  4. Behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Riaz, Azra

    2015-04-01

    Anxiety and depression are increasing worldwide, however these disorders may be managed by making healthier changes is dietary pattern, since there are evidences that diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins help reduce anxiety and depression. Hence present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral effects of Citrus limon in rats at three different doses i.e. 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml/kg considered as low, moderate and high doses. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities were specifically assessed twice during 15 days using open field test, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test. In open field test C. limon, revealed increase in distance travelled, number of central entries and number of rearing's at moderate dose, while in the elevated plus maze, number of open arm entries were found to be increased. Whereas in forced swimming test, there was decrease in duration of immobility and increase in duration of climbing. Thus results of present study suggest that C. limon at moderate dose have anxiolytic effect.

  5. The Concept of Behavioral Effectiveness in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, George

    The concept of behavioral effectiveness and why it is important to understand and measure relative to what teachers do and the way classrooms are designed are discussed. Aspects covered include the following: (1) which classroom behaviors relate to learning and how they are organized; (2) the significance of classroom behavior as the first thing…

  6. The Pygmalion Effect: What Teacher Behaviors Mediate It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, G. Thomas

    1975-01-01

    Current literature suggests that a teacher's expectancies for a pupil may in part determine the pupil's subsequent behavior. This review asks how such expectancies affect the teacher's own behavior, with the goal of determining what teacher behaviors mediate the observed effect on the pupil. A model of this process is proposed. (Author)

  7. The Effects of Meal Schedule and Quantity on Problematic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two case examples (a toddler with severe developmental delays and a 7-year old with severe mental retardation) illustrating effects of meal schedule and food quantity on displays of problematic behavior are offered. Brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior. (DB)

  8. The Effects of Conducting Behavioral Observations on the Behavior of the Observer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvero, Alicia M.; Austin, John

    2004-01-01

    Behavior-analytic approaches to occupational safety are often effective for improving safety in organizations, and have been successful in a wide variety of settings. The effects of these safety processes are thought to arise primarily from the behavioral observation process and the delivery of feedback. Typically, supervisors or employee…

  9. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  10. The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior of children using stronger statistical controls than earlier literature in this area; to examine whether the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior is nonlinear; and to investigate whether the effects of corporal punishment on antisocial…

  11. Behavioral effects of bidirectional selection for behavior towards human in virgin and lactate Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Konoshenko, Maria Yu; Plyusnina, Irina Z

    2012-06-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated strong differences in behavioral, hormonal and neurobiological characteristics between male rats selected for elimination (tame) and enhancement (aggressive) of aggressiveness towards humans, few studies have examined changes in female behavior under this selection. The objective of the current work was to evaluate the effects of bidirectional selection for aggressiveness towards humans on behavioral profiles of virgin and lactating rats compared with the behavior in tame, aggressive and unselected (wild-type) females. The behavior of virgin females was studied using the light-dark box, the startle response test and the modified glove test. Tame females were less anxious and more tolerant towards humans than unselected and aggressive rats. Principal component analysis of all behavioral parameters produced three independent factors, explaining 66.37% of the total variability. The measures of behavior towards humans and the measures of anxiety mainly loaded on PC1 (first principal component) which separated the tame females from the unselected and aggressive ones. These data suggest the genetic correlation between the selected behavior towards humans and anxiety-related behavior in virgin rats. No significant effect of line was found for PC2 scores, associated with risk assessment behavior. Measurements of freezing behavior mainly loaded on PC3, and this component separated rats of different genetic groups from each other. The behavior of lactating rats was studied in maternal defense and pup retrieval tests. Females of selected lines did not significantly differ in behavioral measurements of these tests and were characterized by higher maternal motivation than unselected rats. It is suggested that long-term breeding of tame and aggressive rats in captivity has reduced the threshold for maternal behavior.

  12. Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Previous research has documented that playing violent video games has various negative effects on social behavior in that it causes an increase in aggressive behavior and a decrease in prosocial behavior. In contrast, there has been much less evidence on the effects of prosocial video games. In the present research, 4 experiments examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior. In fact, participants who had played a prosocial video game were more likely to help after a mishap, were more willing (and devoted more time) to assist in further experiments, and intervened more often in a harassment situation. Results further showed that exposure to prosocial video games activated the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, which in turn promoted prosocial behavior. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games not only has negative effects on social behavior but has positive effects as well.

  13. Oxytocin during Development: Possible Organizational Effects on Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Travis V.; Caldwell, Heather K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) is a neurohormone known for its physiological roles associated with lactation and parturition in mammals. Oxt can also profoundly influence mammalian social behaviors such as affiliative, parental, and aggressive behaviors. While the acute effects of Oxt signaling on adult behavior have been heavily researched in many species, including humans, the developmental effects of Oxt on the brain and behavior are just beginning to be explored. There is evidence that Oxt in early postnatal and peripubertal development, and perhaps during prenatal life, affects adult behavior by altering neural structure and function. However, the specific mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown. Thus, this review will detail what is known about how developmental Oxt impacts behavior as well as explore the specific neurochemicals and neural substrates that are important to these behaviors. PMID:26042087

  14. Behavioral effects of carbon monoxide: Meta analyses and extrapolations

    SciTech Connect

    Benignus, V.A.

    1993-03-16

    In the absence of reliable data, the present work was performed to estimate the dose effect function of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) on behavior in humans. By meta analysis, a COHb-behavior dose-effects functions was estimated for rats and corrected for effects of hypothermia (which accompanies COHb increases in rats but not in humans). Using pulmonary function models and blood-gas equations, equivalent COHb values were calculated for data in the literature on hypoxic hypoxia (HH) and behavior. Another meta analysis was performed to fit a dose-effects function to the equivalent-COHb data and to correct for the behavioral effects of hypocapnia (which usually occurs during HH but not with COHb elevation). The two extrapolations agreed closely and indicated that for healthy, sedentary persons, it would require 18-25% COHb to produce a 10% decrement in behavior. Confidence intervals were computed to characterize the uncertainty. Frequent reports of lower-level effects were discussed.

  15. Identifying Effective Behavior Management in the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Kelly Rae

    2005-01-01

    Every educator has a dream to maintain a classroom free from disruptions; one in which each child is being molded, shaped, and corrected in a loving and caring environment that inspires appropriate behavior. The purpose of this research project was to determine how to create an effective behavior management plan and effectively teach classroom…

  16. [Complex evaluation of the effect of bromantane on animal behavior].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Verovskiĭ, V E; Iezhitsa, I N; Kuzubova, E A; Spasov, A A

    2001-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation of the effect of bromantan on the behavioral activity of rats in the open-field test were treated by a combination of the discriminant and dispersion methods. The toxic effect of the drug on the neurogenic (neurologic) mechanisms conducting the behavior is evaluated.

  17. Immediate and Distal Effects of the Good Behavior Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Jeanne M.; Wiskow, Katie M.; Soto, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) has been demonstrated to reduce disruptive student behavior during implementation. The effects of playing the GBG on disruption immediately before and after the GBG are unknown. The current study evaluated the effects of the GBG on disruption in 5 kindergarten classes immediately before, during, and after GBG…

  18. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal…

  19. Using the Effective Behavior Supports Survey to Guide Development of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    As the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS) spreads nationwide, the development of assessment strategies to identify intervention priorities becomes more critical. This study addresses the validity of the Effective Behavior Supports Survey (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) by examining reliability, determining whether rating differences…

  20. The Effects of Therapeutic Storytelling and Behavioral Parent Training on Noncompliant Behavior in Young Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Laura T.; Cook, J. William; Silverman, Paul S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates effects of therapeutic storytelling and behavioral parent training in treating four clinic-referred, noncomplaint males. In condition I, one therapeutic storytelling session was followed by one behavioral parent training session. In condition II, the sequence was reversed. Results indicate that both treatments decreased frequency and…

  1. Rethinking School Discipline through Effective Behavioral Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Daniels, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Identifies three strategies for reducing challenging behaviors in students. They include teaching parents how to interact with their children in order to set limits, social skills training for students, and insuring a measure of academic success for the students. Advocates a three-tiered schoolwide prevention and intervention. (Author/JDM)

  2. Effects of Conceptual Complexity on Assertive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruch, Monroe A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared the assertive behavior of two groups differing in information-processing style. In experiment one, high conceptual-complexity (CC) subjects demonstrated greater content knowledge, direct delivery skill, and fewer negative self-statements. In experiment two, high versus low CC females were more assertive in difficult situations. (Author/RC)

  3. A quasi-experimental outcomes analysis of a psychoeducation intervention for pregnant women with abuse-related posttraumatic stress

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Heather; Sperlich, Mickey; Seng, Julia S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a trauma-specific psycho-educational intervention for pregnant women with a history of childhood maltreatment on six intrapartum and postpartum psychological outcomes. Design Quasi-experimental study comparing women from a single-group pretest-posttest pilot intervention study with women matched from a prospective observational study. Setting Rural and university-based prenatal clinics. Participants Pregnant women entered the study by responding to an advertisement or by referral from a maternity care provider. Women could take part whether or not they met posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria. Outcomes data exist for 17 pilot intervention study participants and 43 matched observational study participants. Interventions Participants in the observational study received usual care. Participants in the pilot intervention study received usual care plus the intervention, a fully manualized self-study program supported by weekly phone tutoring sessions with a health professional. Main Outcome Measures The National Women’s Study PTSD Module; The Peritraumatic Dissociation Experience Questionnaire); The Perception of Care Questionnaire; The Postpartum Depression Screening Scale; The Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire; and a semantic differential appraisal of the labor experience. Results Participants in the intervention study had better scores on all measures. Differences in means between participants in the intervention study and participants in the observational study equated to medium effect sized for dissociation during labor, rating of labor experience, and perception of care in labor, and small effect sizes for postpartum PTSD symptoms, postpartum depression symptoms, and mother-infant bonding. Conclusion This trauma-specific intervention reaches and benefits pregnant women with a history of childhood maltreatment. PMID:24754455

  4. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: Effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Natalie V.; Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Helseth, Sarah A.; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional traits (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt/lack of caring behaviors) (CU) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), however reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (condition C), compared to a standard behavioral intervention (condition A). Interventions were delivered through a Summer Treatment Program over seven weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of eleven children (7–11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the seven weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. PMID:25022772

  5. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  6. Environmental Effects on Fatigue Behavior of Metals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-09

    according to Elber’s [261 crack closure model . In this connection, in a study of fatigue of aluminum alloys, Schijve and Arkema [271 found that the...air itself is an aggressive environnment for most metals compared to vacuum. Behavior above K may be controlled by either SCC or fatigue and models ...frequen- cies. The approach has met some success with steels but it appears that the superposition model is inadequate for corrosion fatigue of aluminum

  7. Dialectical thinking and health behaviors: the effects of theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hou, Yubo; Yue, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) mediated the relationship between dialectical thinking and health behaviors. A sample of 285 undergraduates was tested with a dialectical thinking styles scale, health promoting lifestyle profiles, and TPB questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Results indicated that all the three dimensions of thinking styles (belief in the connection, acceptance of change, and acceptance of contradiction) exerted significant effects on TPB constructs. Specifically, the connection and the change dimensions had positive effects on health behaviors mediated by TPB, whereas the contradiction dimension had a negative effect. Model 2 showed a satisfactory fit, demonstrating the influential pathways between dialectical thinking and health behaviors. Implications in issues of health promotion and future research are discussed.

  8. Relationship between discriminative stimulus effects and plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine levels of intramuscular methamphetamine in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Smith, Douglas A; Kisor, David F; Poklis, Justin L

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a globally abused drug that is metabolized to amphetamine, which also produces abuse-related behavioral effects. However, the contributing role of methamphetamine metabolism to amphetamine in methamphetamine's abuse-related subjective effects is unknown. This preclinical study was designed to determine 1) the relationship between plasma methamphetamine levels and methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects and 2) the contribution of the methamphetamine metabolite amphetamine in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys. Adult male rhesus monkeys (n=3) were trained to discriminate 0.18mg/kg intramuscular (+)-methamphetamine from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. Time course of saline, (+)-methamphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg), and (+)-amphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg) discriminative stimulus effects were determined. Parallel pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in the same monkeys to determine plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine levels after methamphetamine administration and amphetamine levels after amphetamine administration for correlation with behavior in the discrimination procedure. Both methamphetamine and amphetamine produced full, ≥90%, methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects. Amphetamine displayed a slightly, but significantly, longer duration of action than methamphetamine in the discrimination procedure. Both methamphetamine and amphetamine behavioral effects were related to methamphetamine and amphetamine plasma levels by a clockwise hysteresis loop indicating acute tolerance had developed to the discriminative stimulus effects. Furthermore, amphetamine levels after methamphetamine administration were absent when methamphetamine stimulus effects were greatest and peaked when methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects returned to saline-like levels. Overall, these results demonstrate the methamphetamine metabolite amphetamine does not contribute to

  9. Effects of Postnatal Estrogen Manipulations on Juvenile Alloparental Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Adam N.; Carter, C. Sue; Cushing, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males. PMID:26222494

  10. Better Choices: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Behavior Management Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuna, Miguel T.

    2011-01-01

    Managing student behavior is often looked upon as a sidebar in teaching. The lack of formal classroom management training in teacher education programs reveals the low importance placed on this skill. As a result, teachers are often very well prepared to instruct, but in terms of effectively understanding the behavior of students--particularly…

  11. The Effects of an Empathy Building Program on Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanbury, Stacey; Bruce, Mary Alice; Jain, Sachin; Stellern, John

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the development, implementation, and effects of a middle school empathy building program that was designed to reduce bullying behavior. Results show that participants in the intervention group reported engaging in significantly less bullying behavior as compared to the control group, and the program was particularly…

  12. Effects of the Good Behavior Game across Classroom Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Brittany; McComas, Jennifer J.

    2017-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a well-researched classroom group contingency, is typically played for brief periods of time, which raises questions about the effects on subsequent contexts. This study used a multiple baseline design and showed that when the GBG was implemented in one context, behavior improved in only that context. Behavior…

  13. Effects of Behavior and Family Structure on Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Effects of information about an adolescent's family structure and behavior on perceptions of education majors were studied for 45 male and 98 female college students. College students made subtle judgments based on this minimal information, but how strongly such judgments affect perceptions and behavior toward adolescents is not known. (SLD)

  14. Effects of postnatal estrogen manipulations on juvenile alloparental behavior.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Sue Carter, C; Cushing, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males.

  15. No effect of testosterone on behavior in aged Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Borbélyová, Veronika; Domonkos, Emese; Bábíčková, Janka; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Bosý, Martin; Hodosy, Július; Celec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In men, aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in androgen secretion. Studies suggest beneficial effects of endogenous and exogenous testosterone on affective behavior and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to describe behavioral and cognitive sex differences and to analyze the effects of long-term androgen deficiency in aged male rats. Thirty-months old rats divided into three groups (males, females and males gonadectomized as young adults) underwent a battery of behavioral tests assessing locomotor activity, anxiety, memory, anhedonia, sociability and depression-like behavior. No major effect of gonadectomy was found in any of the analyzed behavioral measures in male rats. The only consistent sex difference was confirmed in depression-like behavior with longer immobility time observed in males. In an interventional experiment, a single dose of testosterone had no effect on gonadectomized male and female rats in the forced swim test. In contrast to previous studies this comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of aged rats revealed no major role of endogenous testosterone. Based on our results long-term hypogonadism does not alter the behavior of aged male rats, neither does acute testosterone treatment. Whether these findings have any consequences on androgen replacement therapy in aged men remains to be elucidated. PMID:27852981

  16. Effect of New Antiviral Agent Camphecin on Behavior of Mice.

    PubMed

    Babina, A V; Lavrinenko, V A; Yarovaya, O I; Salakhutdinov, N F

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effect of camphecin (1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene-aminoethanol) on mouse behavior in the open-field test. Camphecin possesses antiviral activity and inhibits viral replication, but its influence on the nervous system is poorly studied. Single camphecin injection produced no significant changes in behavioral patterns. Chronic camphecin administration (5 times over 2 weeks) to mice of different strains had no significant influence on open field behavior (motor, exploratory activity, anxiety, emotional state and vegetative functions). The findings are discussed in the context of neutral influence of camphecin on animal behavior.

  17. The Unconsidered Ballot: How Design Effects Voting Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Susan King

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a preliminary study of the effect of ballot interface design on voting behavior. Finds significant problems related to human factors and the organization of information on the ballot on mechanical and electronic voting machines. (RS)

  18. Effects of cocaine on maternal behavior and neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Nephew, Benjamin C; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the mother-child bond. While it has been argued the developmental effects of maternal cocaine use on children were initially overstated, it is clear that disruptions of typical maternal behavior (i.e. postpartum depression, anxiety disorders) are detrimental to the physical and emotional health of offspring. Cocaine use in mothers is commonly associated with psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, and it is postulated that many of the negative effects of maternal cocaine use on offspring are mediated through changes in maternal behavior. This review will summarize research on cocaine and maternal behavior in animal and human studies, discuss potential mechanisms, and suggest therapeutic strategies for treating cocaine-affected maternal behavior which may improve the physical and behavioral health of both mother and child. The primary objective is to stimulate future communication, cooperation, and collaboration between researchers who use animals and humans to study cocaine and maternal behavior.

  19. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  20. Estimating Peer Effects in Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…

  1. Neighborhood Effects in a Behavioral Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5,628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient’s CRC test use. This potentially important spatially-varying covariate has not previously been considered in a RCT. Our results suggest that future RCTs of health behavior interventions should assess potential social interactions between participants, which may cause intervention arm contamination and may bias effect size estimation. PMID:25456014

  2. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  3. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ezama, David; Dunfield, Derek; Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Prelec, Drazen

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3).

  4. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  5. Peer Effects in Unethical Behavior: Standing or Reputation?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker’s self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals’ behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3). PMID:25853716

  6. Stimulating cost effective behavior in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, D

    1987-04-01

    Types of influence on the delivery of medical care are divided into monetary and other. These incentives effect care at the system, hospital, care team, physician and patient levels. Selected examples, primarily from the USA, are discussed.

  7. Surfactant effects on environmental behavior of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The potential effects of adjuvants, including surfactants used in pesticide formulation, have been extensively studied for many small organic chemicals, but similar investigation on pesticides is limited in most cases. Solubilizing effects leading to the apparently increased water solubility of a pesticide are commonly known through the preparation of formulations, but fundamental profiles, especially for a specific monodisperse surfactant, are not fully studied. Reduced volatilization of a pesticide from the formulation can be explained by analogy of a very simple organic chemical, but the actual mechanism for the pesticide is still obscure. In contrast, from the point of view of avoiding groundwater contamination with a pesticide, adsorption/desorption profiles in the presence of surfactants and adjuvants have been examined extensively as well as pesticide mobility in the soil column. The basic mechanism in micelle-catalyzed hydrolysis is well known, and theoretical approaches including the PPIE model have succeeded in explaining the observed effects of surfactants, but its application to pesticides is also limited. Photolysis, especially in an aqueous phase, is in the same situation. The dilution effect in the real environment would show these effects on hydrolysis and photolysis to be much less than expected from the laboratory basic studies, but more information is necessary to examine the practical extent of the effects in an early stage of applying a pesticide formulation to crops and soil. Many adjuvants, including surfactants, are biodegradable in the soil environment, and thus their effects on the biodegradation of a pesticide in soil and sediment may be limited, as demonstrated by field trials. Not only from the theoretical but also the practical aspect, the foliar uptake of pesticide in the presence of adjuvants has been investigated extensively and some prediction on the ease of foliar uptake can be realized in relation to the formulation technology

  8. Effects of the emotion system on adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Giske, Jarl; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Fiksen, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Per J; Aksnes, Dag L; Jørgensen, Christian; Mangel, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A central simplifying assumption in evolutionary behavioral ecology has been that optimal behavior is unaffected by genetic or proximate constraints. Observations and experiments show otherwise, so that attention to decision architecture and mechanisms is needed. In psychology, the proximate constraints on decision making and the processes from perception to behavior are collectively described as the emotion system. We specify a model of the emotion system in fish that includes sensory input, neuronal computation, developmental modulation, and a global organismic state and restricts attention during decision making for behavioral outcomes. The model further includes food competition, safety in numbers, and a fluctuating environment. We find that emergent strategies in evolved populations include common emotional appraisal of sensory input related to fear and hunger and also include frequency-dependent rules for behavioral responses. Focused attention is at times more important than spatial behavior for growth and survival. Spatial segregation of the population is driven by personality differences. By coupling proximate and immediate influences on behavior with ultimate fitness consequences through the emotion system, this approach contributes to a unified perspective on the phenotype, by integrating effects of the environment, genetics, development, physiology, behavior, life history, and evolution.

  9. A Review of Behavioral Foundations of Effective Autism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Amanda M; Andrade, Meca; Cividini-Motta, Catia; Conde, Kerry A; Donnelly, Maeve G; McConnell, Kelly; Moore, Keira; Peters, Lindsay; Roberts, Kylie; Stocco, Corey; Sveinbjornsdottir, Berglind; Vanselow, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Behavior analysts must base their practices on both the conceptual foundations and the validated technologies of our field. In recognition of these important facets of effective practice, Mayville and Mulick (2011) have produced an edited book aimed at “developing the conceptually sound and procedurally innovative behavior analysts that are so badly needed” (p. x) within the burgeoning field of autism treatment. We summarize the content of this book and evaluate its utility to practitioners working with people with autism spectrum disorders.

  10. Neighborhood Effects, Mental Illness and Criminal Behavior: A Review.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David; Woods, George W

    2013-09-01

    This paper briefly reviews the social science on "neighborhood effects" as an independent force in shaping poor outcomes, specifically mental illness and criminal behavior, before discussing the implications of that research for understanding the relationship between neighborhoods, race and class. Neighborhood effects research has proliferated in recent years with extensive attention again being focused on the social context of family and individual development and life course. Moreover, recent work has suggested the need to consider the developmental effects of neighborhoods that persist across life-span. This paper will focus specifically on mental illness and criminal behavior as outcomes for understanding neighborhood effects, but will also consider what the structural causes of individual behavior and functioning mean for clinical assessment, especially forensic assessment.

  11. Gravitational Effects on Brain and Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1991-01-01

    Visual, vestibular, tactile, proprioceptive, and perhaps auditory clues are combined with knowledge of commanded voluntary movement to produce a single, usually consistent, perception of spatial orientation. The recent Spacelab flights have provided especially valuable observations on the effects of weightlessness and space flight. The response of the otolith organs to weightlessness and readapting to Earth's gravitation is described. Reference frames for orientation are briefly discussed.

  12. Behavioral Effects of Tyrosine during Sustained Wakefulness,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Hefti, & Melamed, 1981). Tryptophan , a sleep promoter (Braverman, 1987), is a precursor of serotonin, which in turn is a precursor of melatonin...Melatonin also has known sleep-inducing effects (see Kelly et al., 1989, for a review). Tyrosine ingestion may reduce the levels of available tryptophan ...catecholamines, its possible role in decreasing brain levels of tryptophan , and its relative safety make it worthy of further study as a countermeasure to

  13. Toxicity and behavioral effects of dimethylsulfoxide in planaria.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Oné R; Rowlands, Amanda L; Urban, Kimberly R

    2006-10-30

    In this work, we describe aspects of the toxicity and behavioral effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in planaria. Planarian worms have traditionally been a favored animal model in developmental biology. More recently, this organism is being recognized as an animal model in neuropharmacology research. DMSO is often used in cell and tissue culture as a cryoprotectant agent and is also commonly used to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic drugs in aqueous solutions. This compound can elicit various physiological effects in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Many drugs and drug candidates are hydrophobic, needing solvents like DMSO to be able to reach their physiological targets. As planaria becomes increasingly popular in neuropharmacology research, a description of the DMSO effects in this organism is essential. We found that DMSO is toxic to planarians at concentrations above 5% (705 mM), with an LD(50) of 10% (1.4M) at exposure times above 5 min. At sub-toxic concentrations, DMSO decreases planarian exploratory behavior in a concentration-dependent manner. This reduction in locomotor behavior is reversible and preincubation-independent. DMSO at a concentration of 0.1% (14.1 mM), which is usually enough to solubilize hydrophobic substances in aqueous solutions, did not display any toxic or behavioral effects in planaria. Therefore, in this animal model, DMSO concentrations above 0.1% should be avoided in order to be able to reliably observe any behavioral or toxic effects of hydrophobic drugs.

  14. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  15. Visual Feedback of Intonation I: Effectiveness and Induced Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, K.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts to show that audio-visual feedback is more effective in intonation learning than auditory feedback. While practice time did not seem to be a major factor, results showed audio-visual feedback to be more effective than auditory feedback. In addition, feedback modality was shown to influence learning behavior. (SL)

  16. Differential Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent-Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Antisocial Youth: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCart, Michael R.; Priester, Paul E.; Davies, W. Hobard; Azen, Razia

    2006-01-01

    Extended the findings from previous meta-analytic work by comparing the effectiveness of behavioral parent-training (BPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Youth demographic variables were also examined as potential moderators of the effectiveness of these 2 types of interventions. Thirty BPT…

  17. The Effects of Mentors on the Classroom Behavior of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard I.; Park, Hija; Fowler, Laura T. Sanchez; Devore, Heidi; Mohan, Sarita; Bullous, Sallie

    2008-01-01

    Mentoring is frequently discussed as a viable approach for improving the educational and social outcomes of students at risk for learning or behavioral problems. However, little data-based evidence beyond case study has been presented regarding the effectiveness of mentoring for students at risk. Here, 16 students with emotional/behavioral…

  18. Effects of local information on group behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, S.; Arora, N.; Sen, S.

    1996-12-31

    Researchers in the field of Distributed Artificial Intelligence have studied the effects of local decision-making on overall system performance in both cooperative and self-interested agent groups. The performance of individual agents depends critically on the quality of information available to it about local and global goals and resources. Whereas in general it is assumed that the more accurate and up-to-date the available information, the better is the expected performance of the individual and the group, this conclusion can be challenged in a number of scenarios.

  19. Motor and cognitive integration: effect of bilateral behaviors on judgment.

    PubMed

    Cretenet, Joël; Mullet, Etienne; Dru, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Performing approach vs. avoidance behaviors (arm flexion vs. arm extension) on the one hand, and lateralized peripheral activations (left side vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach vs. avoidance, on the other hand, have been shown to impact on cognitive functioning (Cretenet, & Dru, 2009), mainly in judgment tasks. When a unilateral motor congruent behavior; that is, a behavior that activates the same motivational system (e.g., flexion of the right arm) was performed during a judgment task, participants' use of complex, interactive information integration rules was facilitated. No effect was, however, found when simpler, additive rules were involved (Mullet, Cretenet, & Dru, 2014). Three experiments are reported here that examined the effect of bilateral motor behaviors (e.g., flexion of the right arm and extension of the left arm) on the implementation of information integration rules. In Studies 1 and 2, two judgment tasks similar to the ones used by Mullet et al. (2014) were used: (a) a complex task in which participants judged a person's attractiveness from personality information, and (b) a simpler task in which they attributed blame according to bad deeds. It was found that similar motor behaviors performed by the two arms (e.g., flexion of both arms), in contrast to dissimilar ones, facilitated the use of complex, interactive information integration rules. No effect was found in the case of simpler integration rules. In Study 3, these results were replicated in a judgment task in which the complexity of the integration rule varied depending on the instructions given. Overall, when bilateral motor behaviors were performed during judgment, facilitation in the use of complex integration rules no longer depended on motivational congruence as in the case of unilateral motor behavior. It depended on symmetry/similarity of behaviors.

  20. Meta-analysis of noncontingent reinforcement effects on problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Richman, David M; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Grubb, Laura; Bosch, Amanda; Abby, Layla

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) outcomes was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling (a) to document the effect size for decreasing problem behavior, (b) to compare effect sizes for NCR using functional reinforcers and nonfunctional reinforcers, and (c) to document the influence of schedule thinning on effect size. Analyses were conducted with data from 55 studies and 91 participants. Results indicate that NCR was associated with a very strong effect size (d =-1.58) for reduction of problem behavior, functional reinforcers were slightly more effective than nonfunctional reinforcers, and schedule thinning resulted in minor degradation of effect size. Meta-analysis of single-case design data provides a method to quantitatively estimate effect sizes of interventions across participants. Therefore, it allows one to identify important variables that are not otherwise evident in single-case data, helps to disseminate findings to the broader scientific community, and contributes to the documentation of empirically supported interventions.

  1. Behavioral effects of lead: commonalities between experimental and epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D C

    1996-01-01

    Enormous effort has been focused over the last decade and a half on characterizing the behavioral effects of lead in the developing organism. While age-appropriate standardized measures of intelligence (IQ) have been the dependent variable most often used to assess lead-induced cognitive impairment in epidemiologic studies, researchers have also used a variety of other methods designed to assess specific behavioral processes sensitive to lead. Increased reaction time and poorer performance on vigilance tasks associated with increased lead body burden suggest increased distractibility and short attention span. Assessment of behavior on teachers' rating scales identified increased distractibility, impulsivity, nonpersistence, inability to follow sequences of directions, and inappropriate approach to problems as hallmarks of lead exposure. Robust deficits in learned skills such as reading, spelling, math, and word recognition have also been found. Spatial organizational perception and abilities seem particularly sensitive to lead-induced impairment. Assessment of complex tasks of learning and memory in both rats and monkeys has revealed overall deficits in function over a variety of behavioral tasks. Exploration of behavioral mechanisms responsible for these deficits identified increased distractibility perseveration, inability to inhibit inappropriate responding, and inability to change response strategy as underlying deficits. Thus, there is remarkable congruence between the epidemiologic and experimental literatures with regard to the behavioral processes identified as underlying the deficits inflicted by developmental lead exposure. However, careful behavioral analysis was required from researchers in both fields for such understanding to emerge. PMID:9182041

  2. Stress effects on the neural substrates of motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Nick G; Burgeno, Lauren M; Phillips, Paul E M

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to stress has profound, but complex, actions on motivated behavior and decision-making. These effects are central to core symptoms of a number of psychiatric disorders that are precipitated or augmented by stress, such as depressive disorders and substance use disorders. Studying the neural substrates of stress's effects on motivation has revealed that stress affects multiple targets on circuits throughout the brain using diverse molecular signaling processes. Moreover, stress does not have unitary effects on motivated behavior, but differences in the intensity, duration, intermittency, controllability and nature of the stressor produce qualitatively and quantitatively different behavioral endpoints. Unsurprisingly, the results of neuroscientific investigations into stress and motivation often open more questions than they resolve. Here we discuss contemporary results pertaining to the neural mechanisms by which stress alters motivation, identify points of contention and highlight integrative areas for continuing research into these multifaceted complexities.

  3. Network Effects of Risk Behavior Change Following Prophylactic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rajaraman, Rajmohan; Sun, Zhifeng; Sundaram, Ravi; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2013-01-01

    We formulated a network-based model to understand how risk behavior change in conjunction with failure of prophylactic interventions can lead to unintended outcomes where “less (intervention) is more (effective).” Our model captures the distinction between one- and two-sided risk behavior change. In one-sided situations (e.g. influenza/H1N1) it is sufficient for either individual in an interaction to exhibit risk behavior change whereas in two-sided situations (e.g. AIDS/HIV) it is necessary for both individuals in the interaction to exhibit risk behavior change, for a potential transmission of the disease. A central discovery is that this phenomenon occurs at differing levels of intervention coverage depending upon the “sidedness” of the interaction. We find that for one-sided interactions, sufficiently high vaccination coverage is necessary for mitigating the effects of risk behavior; for two-sided interactions, it is essential to combine prophylactic treatments with programs aimed at reducing risky behavior. Furthermore, again dependent on the “sidedness,” targeting highly connected nodes can be strictly worse than uniformly random interventions at the same level of coverage. PMID:23936290

  4. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  5. Assessing effects of serotonin precursors on newborn behavior.

    PubMed

    Yogman, M W; Zeisel, S H; Roberts, C

    While traditional studies of newborn diet have focused on the effects of malnutrition on the central nervous system, there is now interest in how qualitative differences in the composition of early newborn feeding might influence behavior. This paper reviews the available techniques for assessing newborn perception and cognition, as well as behavioral organization. The paper then focuses intensively on measures of newborn state behaviour in view of evidence in adult humans, as well as in non-human species, suggesting a relationship between sleep behavior (sleep onset, night waking) and brain serotonin levels. A study designed to examine the relationship between dietary precursors of brain serotonin (within the range of concentrations found in human milk) and newborn state behavior after feeding is described to illustrate the application of these techniques. Healthy, fullterm newborns were fed a modified formula, containing tryptophan or valine, on one day, a routine formula on another day, and observed continuously for 3 h after each feeding for the observation and recording of newborn state. Data from individual infants in the tryptophan and valine groups are presented to illustrate the findings that infants fed tryptophan entered quiet sleep and active sleep sooner than infants fed valine and spent more time in active sleep and less time alert. These results illustrate the value of newborn behavior as a sensitive dependent variable in studies of behavioral effects of diet and suggests that variations in serotonin levels in the newborn brain may modulate the newborn's sleep/wake behaviour.

  6. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior.

  7. Differential maternal treatment of infant twins: effects of infant behaviors.

    PubMed

    DiLalla, L F; Bishop, E G

    1996-11-01

    This project utilized twins to study differential mother-sibling interactions. The use of twins circumvented the traditional confounds of studying siblings of different ages or at two points in time. When the twins were 7 and 9 months of age, mothers spent 2.5 min alone with each infant in an attempt to elicit child vocalizations. The mother and infant behaviors were coded both microanalytically and globally. The infant attention behaviors were influenced primarily by unique environment, whereas the temperament behaviors were influenced by both unique environmental and genetic effects. Mothers tended to treat both children similarly, regardless of zygosity, suggesting that maternal characteristics drove the mother-infant interactions. Thus, even though identical twins were more similar on some measures than fraternal twins, mothers tended to treat both types of twins comparably regardless of infant characteristics or behaviors.

  8. Effects of cues on target search behavior.

    PubMed

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Borowsky, Avinoam; Gdalyahu, Ido; Shalom, Yoav Ben

    2015-03-01

    Cues in visual scanning task can improve decision accuracy, and they may also affect task performance strategies. We tested the effects of cues on the performance of binary classifications, on the screen scanning procedure participants employed, and on the reported effort in a simulated quality control task. Participants had to decide whether each item in a 5 × 5 matrix of items was intact or faulty. In half the experimental blocks decisions could only be based on the visual properties of the items. In the other half, participants also saw imperfect binary cues and could use them to classify the items as faulty or intact. We used eye tracking to study scan patterns and fixation durations on items. Decision performance improved with cues, and cues affected the scanning of items, with participants mainly scanning cued items and tending to scan them longer. Participants stated that cues reduced their effort when cues were highly valid. We conclude that strategic choices to focus on suspected areas determined the screen scanning procedure, the amount of effort invested in single decisions, and the accuracy of the decisions. We therefore suggest using likelihood ratio cues to help optimize the scanning procedure.

  9. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of proline.

    PubMed

    Wyse, Angela T S; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    Proline is an amino acid with an essential role for primary metabolism and physiologic functions. Hyperprolinemia results from the deficiency of specific enzymes for proline catabolism, leading to tissue accumulation of this amino acid. Hyperprolinemic patients can present neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities, whose aetiopathogenesis is poorly understood. This review addresses some of the findings obtained, mainly from animal studies, indicating that high proline levels may be associated to neuropathophysiology of some disorders. In this context, it has been suggested that energy metabolism deficit, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, kinase creatine, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, lipid content, as well as purinergic and cholinergic systems are involved in the effect of proline on brain damage and spatial memory deficit. The discussion focuses on the relatively low antioxidant defenses of the brain and the vulnerability of neural tissue to reactive species. This offers new perspectives for potential therapeutic strategies for this condition, which may include the early use of appropriate antioxidants as a novel adjuvant therapy, besides the usual treatment based on special diets poor in proline.

  10. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    PubMed

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  11. [Effects of microwave radiation on conditioned behavior of rats].

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, L P; Kolganova, O I; Dubovik, B V; Matrënina, V L; Posadskaia, V M

    2003-01-01

    Research has been carried out to investigate the effects of microwave exposure (7 GHz, surface energy density 10-50 mW/cm2, SAR 2.1-10.5 W/kg) on learned behaviors of rats in the paradigm of conditioned avoidance reflex. It was shown that transitory reductions in conditioned behavior after acute microwave exposure occurred at an SAR equal to the intensity of rat basal metabolism. It was found cumulative effects for intermittent exposures of rats at a power density of 10 mW/cm2.

  12. Effects of piracetam on behavior and memory in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Leah; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Utterback, Eli; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Frank, Kevin; Hart, Peter; Howard, Harry; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-04-25

    Piracetam, a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid, exerts memory-enhancing and mild anxiolytic effects in human and rodent studies. To examine the drug's behavioral profile further, we assessed its effects on behavioral and endocrine (cortisol) responses of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)--a novel model species rapidly gaining popularity in neurobehavioral research. Overall, acute piracetam did not affect zebrafish novel tank and light-dark box behavior at mild doses (25-400mg/L), but produced nonspecific behavioral inhibition at 700mg/L. No effects on cortisol levels or inter-/intra-session habituation in the novel tank test were observed for acute or chronic mild non-sedative dose of 200mg/L. In contrast, fish exposed to chronic piracetam at this dose performed significantly better in the cued learning plus-maze test. This observation parallels clinical and rodent literature on the behavioral profile of piracetam, supporting the utility of zebrafish paradigms for testing nootropic agents.

  13. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  14. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors' behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the "ground state." Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  15. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Szprengiel, A.; Pluhar, J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, α particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies examined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250 MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no effect of proton irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints.

  16. Effects of personal experience on self-protective behavior.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, N D

    1989-01-01

    This article seeks to further our understanding of self-protective behavior by examining the effects of a particularly powerful stimulus to action: personal experience. It reviews the effects of automobile accidents on seat belt use, criminal victimization other than rape on individual crime prevention efforts, natural hazards experience on both natural hazards preparedness and compliance with evacuation warnings, and myocardial infarction on smoking. Theories suggesting mechanisms that could link personal experience to behavior are described, and data concerning the effects of experience on some key variables in these theories are discussed. Tentative propositions are offered to resolve the many apparent discrepancies in this literature. These propositions concern the effects of experience on risk perceptions, the influence of experience on risk salience, the specificity of responses to victimization, and the duration of experience effects.

  17. The effects of glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    la Fleur, Susanne E

    2006-08-30

    Glucocorticoids have major effects on food intake, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. Next, animal data on the interaction of glucocorticoids with insulin on intake of comfort foods are addressed and the hypothesis that glucocorticoids modify feeding behavior, whereas insulin modifies the choice of food is discussed. Finally a view is presented that hormonal and vagal signals generated when (comfort) food is consumed will affect the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) brain network important for the response to stress and the regulation of feeding. With a society, where stress is experienced daily and comfort food is found at every street corner, it will be vital to understand the interactions between the systems that react to stress and regulate feeding behavior to fight the obesity epidemic.

  18. Effects of alternative responses on behavior exposed to noncontingent reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Iwata, Brian A; Fahmie, Tara A; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) may decrease the frequency of behavior by either inducing satiation or terminating the response-reinforcer contingency (extinction). Another possibility is that the target behavior is replaced by other behaviors maintained by preexisting contingencies. We conducted 2 experiments in which we allowed access to a target response and several alternatives. In Experiment 1, NCR, preceded by contingent reinforcement (CR) for the target, produced a reduction in the target and an increase in the alternatives in 2 subjects with intellectual disabilities. To separate the effects of NCR from the availability of alternative responses, we presented CR conditions to 4 subjects in Experiment 2 with and without the availability of alternatives. The availability of alternatives decreased the target in only 1 subject. Subsequent manipulations showed that reductions in the target were solely a function of NCR for the other 3 subjects. Thus, response competition may have marginal effects on response suppression during NCR.

  19. Description and effects of sequential behavior practice in teacher education.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, T; Lounsbery, M; Bahls, V

    1997-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a sequential behavior feedback protocol on the practice-teaching experiences of undergraduate teacher trainees. The performance competencies of teacher trainees were analyzed using an alternative opportunities for appropriate action measure. Data support the added utility of sequential (Sharpe, 1997a, 1997b) behavior analysis information in systematic observation approaches to teacher education. One field-based undergraduate practicum using sequential behavior (i.e., field systems analysis) principles was monitored. Summarized are the key elements of the (a) classroom instruction provided as a precursor to the practice teaching experience, (b) practice teaching experience, and (c) field systems observation tool used for evaluation and feedback, including multiple-baseline data (N = 4) to support this approach to teacher education. Results point to (a) the strong relationship between sequential behavior feedback and the positive change in four preservice teachers' day-to-day teaching practices in challenging situational contexts, and (b) the relationship between changes in teacher practices and positive changes in the behavioral practices of gymnasium pupils. Sequential behavior feedback was also socially validated by the undergraduate participants and Professional Development School teacher supervisors in the study.

  20. Effects of stress on behavioral flexibility in rodents.

    PubMed

    Hurtubise, Jessica L; Howland, John G

    2017-03-14

    Cognitive flexibility is the ability to switch between different rules or concepts and behavioral flexibility is the overt physical manifestation of these shifts. Behavioral flexibility is essential for adaptive responses and commonly measured by reversal learning and set-shifting performance in rodents. Both tasks have demonstrated vulnerability to stress with effects dependent upon stressor type and number of repetitions. This review compares the effects of stress on reversal learning and set-shifting to provide insight into the differential effect of stress on cognition. Acute and short-term repetition of stress appears to facilitate reversal learning whereas the longer term repetition of stress impairs reversal learning. Stress facilitated intradimensional set-shifting within a single, short-term stress protocol but otherwise generally impaired set-shifting performance in acute and repeated stress paradigms. Chronic unpredictable stress impairs reversal learning and set-shifting whereas repeated cold intermittent stress selectively impairs reversal learning and has no effect on set-shifting. In considering the mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on behavioral flexibility, pharmacological manipulations performed in conjunction with stress are also reviewed. Blocking corticosterone receptors does not affect the facilitation of reversal learning following acute stress but the prevention of corticosterone synthesis rescues repeated stress-induced set-shifting impairment. Enhancing post-synaptic norepinephrine function, serotonin availability, and dopamine receptor activation rescues and/or prevents behavioral flexibility performance following stress. While this review highlights a lack of a standardization of stress paradigms, some consistent effects are apparent. Future studies are necessary to specify the mechanisms underlying the stress-induced impairments of behavioral flexibility, which will aid in alleviating these symptoms in patients with some

  1. Teacher and Teaching Effects on Students' Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazar, David; Kraft, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Research has focused predominantly on how teachers affect students' achievement on standardized tests despite evidence that a broad range of attitudes and behaviors are equally important to their long-term success. We find that upper-elementary teachers have large effects on self-reported measures of students' self-efficacy in math, and happiness…

  2. Directions of Effects between Adolescent Psychopathic Traits and Parental Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salihovic, Selma; Kerr, Margaret; Ozdemir, Metin; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behaviors. The data are from a community-based cohort-sequential study. Data were collected annually over 4 years. Participants were 875 adolescents, aged 13-15 at Time 1, and we analyzed their reports of negative and positive parental…

  3. The Effectiveness of Feedback for Changing Student Teachers' Humanistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walencik, Vincent J.; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This study investigated effects of dissonance and positive reinforcement as feedback mechanisms for altering the humanistic behavior of student teachers. The subjects were undergraduate education majors who were enrolled in a student teaching program. The student teachers were observed twice by their pupils using the Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form.…

  4. The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…

  5. Effects of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatment on Smokeless Tobacco Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatsukami, Dorothy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the effects of 2 mg of nicotine polacrilex versus placebo gum and a group behavioral treatment versus minimal contact on cessation of smokeless tobacco use. Participants (n=210) were randomly assigned 1 of the 4 treatment conditions. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed throughout the treatment. Discusses findings. (KW)

  6. Cognitive Effects on the Child's Internalization of Altruistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, George W.

    Cognitive effects in children's learning of altruistic behavior were tested with an adaptation of Aronfreed's test design and machine. Children in grades 1-4 were presented with a machine with 2 levers. One lever, when pressed, released bubble gum, and the other turned on a light. For two of the three groups the experimenter exclaimed delightedly…

  7. Effects of Interviewer Behavior on Accuracy of Children's Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparling, Jessica; Wilder, David A.; Kondash, Jennifer; Boyle, Megan; Compton, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that certain interviewer behaviors can evoke inaccurate answers by children. In the current study, we examined the effects of approving and disapproving statements on the accuracy of 3 children's answers to questions in an interview (Experiment 1). We then evaluated 3 questioning techniques that may be used by…

  8. EFFECTS OF LIKED AND DISLIKED TEACHERS ON STUDENT BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARPENTER, FINLEY; HADDAN, EUGENE E.

    RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED TO CONTRAST THE EFFECTS OF TWO TYPES OF TEACHERS, LIKED AND DISLIKED, ON THE LEARNING BEHAVIOR OF THEIR STUDENTS. TEACHERS PRESENTED MESSAGES BY FILM, BY TAPE, AND IN PERSON IN EXPERIMENTAL CLASSROOMS TO STUDENTS FITTED WITH FINGER ELECTRODES. CHANGES IN ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE WERE RECORDED OF GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSES.…

  9. Fetal Alcohol Effects in Children: Cognitive, Educational, and Behavioral Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Sheldon

    The effects of alcohol on the developing fetus are examined. Noted is the existence of both structural problems (such as microcephaly and cardiac anomalies) and behavioral problems (such as mental retardation and speech and language deficits). The potential damage of alcohol at a very early stage of fetal development is discussed. It is thought…

  10. The Effects of a Brushing Procedure on Stereotypical Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of a brushing protocol on stereotyped behavior of a young boy with autism. First, a functional analysis was conducted which showed that the participant's stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Next, the Wilbarger Protocol, a brushing intervention, was implemented. An ABA design was implemented…

  11. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  12. Effects of Advance Organizer Instruction on Preschool Children's Prosocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Burk, Jill

    This study investigated the effects of advanced organizer instruction on 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers' learning of general prosocial skill concepts, rules for using prosocial skills, and spontaneous prosocial behavior. The six prosocial skills considered included cooperation, sharing, taking turns, helping, demonstration of awareness of another's…

  13. Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool: Effective Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…

  14. The Behavioral Effects of Crowding: Definitions and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Larry M.; And Others

    Crews of 18 U.S. Navy combat vessels rated their living and working conditions aboard ship, including degree of crowding. In order to better understand the behavioral effects of crowding, three different types of measures, corresponding to different definitions of crowding, were constructed. These separate crowding measures correlated uniquely…

  15. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  16. Effects of Teacher Praise on Attending Behaviors and Academic Achievement of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markelz, Andrew M.; Taylor, Jonte C.

    2016-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders exhibit high levels of inappropriate behaviors. As a consequence, engagement in class as well as academic progress suffers. A review of the literature was conducted to examine the effects of teacher praise on attending behaviors and academic achievement of students with emotional disabilities.…

  17. Manipulating the Behavior-Altering Effect of the Motivating Operation: Examination of the Influence on Challenging Behavior during Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Chan, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Langthorne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Prior functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure…

  18. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, D.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  19. Multiple receptors contribute to the behavioral effects of indoleamine hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Geyer, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Serotonergic hallucinogens produce profound changes in perception, mood, and cognition. These drugs include phenylalkylamines such as mescaline and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and indoleamines such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin. Despite their differences in chemical structure, the two classes of hallucinogens produce remarkably similar subjective effects in humans, and induce cross-tolerance. The phenylalkylamine hallucinogens are selective 5-HT(2) receptor agonists, whereas the indoleamines are relatively non-selective for serotonin (5-HT) receptors. There is extensive evidence, from both animal and human studies, that the characteristic effects of hallucinogens are mediated by interactions with the 5-HT(2A) receptor. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that interactions with other receptor sites contribute to the psychopharmacological and behavioral effects of the indoleamine hallucinogens. This article reviews the evidence demonstrating that the effects of indoleamine hallucinogens in a variety of animal behavioral paradigms are mediated by both 5-HT(2) and non-5-HT(2) receptors.

  20. The Acute and Chronic Biochemical and Behavioral Effects of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-31

    Behavioral Studies - Barbiturate slieptimes were determined using hexabar- bital according to the standard technique used in our labora- tory, in which rats...the in vitro study (Table 4 D). - These results show that CMT does not produce an acute effect on Ouptake of duration over 6 hours. Nor does chronic...results of a study of the toxic effects of cyclomethylenetrinitramine on the brain after chronic admin.istration to male rats. In 1973 the Department

  1. Behavioral effects of developmental methylmercury drinking water exposure in rodents.

    PubMed

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B; Farina, Marcelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Rocha, Joao B T; Aschner, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Early methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can have long-lasting consequences likely arising from impaired developmental processes, the outcome of which has been exposed in several longitudinal studies of affected populations. Given the large number of newborns at an increased risk of learning disabilities associated with in utero MeHg exposure, it is important to study neurobehavioral alterations using ecologically valid and physiologically relevant models. This review highlights the benefits of using the MeHg drinking water exposure paradigm and outlines behavioral outcomes arising from this procedure in rodents. Combination treatments that exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg-induced effects, and possible molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral impairment are also discussed.

  2. Effects of tub bathing procedures on preterm infants' behavior.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yang, Luke; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Yin, Ti

    2006-12-01

    Although medical advances have increased the survival rate of preterm infants, morbidity in terms of neurodevelopmental impairment has not decreased for this population. This results in caregivers having to reconsider how neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) caregiving impacts on preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different phases of a routine tub bath on preterm infants' distress and state behavior in the NICU. The study used an exploratory repeated measures design that focused on preterm infants' distress and state behavior, and evaluated the effects of three phases of a routine tub bath, which were performed according to standard unit practice in the NICU. Thirteen nurses repeatedly bathed 12 infants on different days, and 64 baths were videotaped for the purpose of assessing the variety of distress behavior. The procedures of one bath could be categorized into three phases designated to Phases I, II, and III. The variables were measured by a preterm infant behavioral coding scheme developed for this research. The inter-rater reliability of the instrument ranged from .82 to .99. Mixed effects analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences among the bath phases in the occurrences of distress and state behavior. The results showed significant statistical difference among most distress behaviors during the three phases (e.g. "startle, jerk, tremor" F ratio = 25.62, p < .001; "finger splay, grasping, fisting" F ratio = 49.99, p < .001; "grimace" F ratio = 36.55, p < .001; "fussing or crying" F ratio = 25.27, p < .001), with the exception of "extension, arching and squirming". In particular, the occurrence of distress and state behavior increased significantly in phase II. Routine tub bathing not only disrupts preterm infants' sleep but also causes an increase in distress behavior. Preterm infants' stress increases with the intrusiveness of nursing procedures. NICU caregivers should consider the effects of routine

  3. Effects of embryonic cyclosporine exposures on brain development and behavior.

    PubMed

    Clift, Danielle E; Thorn, Robert J; Passarelli, Emily A; Kapoor, Mrinal; LoPiccolo, Mary K; Richendrfer, Holly A; Colwill, Ruth M; Creton, Robbert

    2015-04-01

    Cyclosporine, a calcineurin inhibitor, is successfully used as an immunosuppressant in transplant medicine. However, the use of this pharmaceutical during pregnancy is concerning since calcineurin is thought to play a role in neural development. The risk for human brain development is difficult to evaluate because of a lack of basic information on the sensitive developmental times and the potentially pleiotropic effects on brain development and behavior. In the present study, we use zebrafish as a model system to examine the effects of embryonic cyclosporine exposures. Early embryonic exposures reduced the size of the eyes and brain. Late embryonic exposures did not affect the size of the eyes or brain, but did lead to substantial behavioral defects at the larval stages. The cyclosporine-exposed larvae displayed a reduced avoidance response to visual stimuli, low swim speeds, increased resting, an increase in thigmotaxis, and changes in the average distance between larvae. Similar results were obtained with the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, suggesting that most, but not all, effects on brain development and behavior are mediated by calcineurin inhibition. Overall, the results show that cyclosporine can induce either structural or functional brain defects, depending on the exposure window. The observed functional brain defects highlight the importance of quantitative behavioral assays when evaluating the risk of developmental exposures.

  4. The effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment for forensic inpatients.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Irma G H; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2005-10-01

    The effects of an intramural cognitive-behavioral treatment for forensic inpatients with personality disorders in a high-security hospital were examined. Treatment was aimed at modifying maladaptive coping and social skills, at enhancing social awareness, at reducing egoistic and oppositional behaviors, and at reducing psychological complaints. The patients, who all had committed serious crimes (violence, arson, sexual offences), participated voluntarily in the study. A total of 39 patients started the study, but during the course of the study, several patients dropped out because of several reasons. Patients as a group showed significant improvements over time on psychopathological symptoms, personality traits, and coping. A significant decrease of oppositional behaviors was reported by the staff. Though the patients improved well at the group level, only a minority of patients showed reliable change over time at the individual level. The meaning of the results in relation to treatment are discussed.

  5. Critical behavior and Griffiths effects in the disordered contact process.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Thomas; Dickison, Mark

    2005-09-01

    We study the nonequilibrium phase transition in the one-dimensional contact process with quenched spatial disorder by means of large-scale Monte Carlo simulations for times up to 10(9) and system sizes up to 10(7) sites. In agreement with recent predictions of an infinite-randomness fixed point, our simulations demonstrate activated (exponential) dynamical scaling at the critical point. The critical behavior turns out to be universal, even for weak disorder. However, the approach to this asymptotic behavior is extremely slow, with crossover times of the order of 10(4) or larger. In the Griffiths region between the clean and the dirty critical points, we find power-law dynamical behavior with continuously varying exponents. We discuss the generality of our findings and relate them to a broader theory of rare region effects at phase transitions with quenched disorder.

  6. Effects of tourists on behavior and demography of Olympic marmots.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Suzanne C; Valois, Tanguy; Taper, Mark L; Scott Mills, L

    2007-08-01

    If changes in animal behavior resulting from direct human disturbance negatively affect the persistence of a given species or population, then these behavioral changes must necessarily lead to reduced demographic performance. We tested for the effects of human disturbance on Olympic marmots (Marmota olympus), a large ground-dwelling squirrel that has disappeared from several areas where recreation levels are high. We assessed the degree to which antipredator and foraging behavior and demographic rates (survival and reproduction) differed between sites with high recreation levels (high use) and those with little or no recreation (low use). Compared with the marmots at low-use sites, marmots at high-use sites displayed significantly reduced responses to human approach, which could be construed as successful accommodation of disturbance or as a decrease in predator awareness. The marmots at high-use sites also looked up more often while foraging, which suggests an increased wariness. Marmots at both types of sites had comparable reproductive and survival rates and were in similar body condition. Until now, the supposition that marmots can adjust their behavior to avoid negative demographic consequences when confronted with heavy tourism has been based on potentially ambiguous behavioral data. Our results support this hypothesis in the case of Olympic marmots and demonstrate the importance of considering demographic data when evaluating the impacts of recreation on animal populations.

  7. Ferromagnetic behavior and exchange bias effect in akaganeite nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Tadic, Marin; Milosevic, Irena; Motte, Laurence; Kralj, Slavko; Saboungi, Marie-Louise

    2015-05-04

    We report ferromagnetic-like properties and exchange bias effect in akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. They exhibit a Néel temperature T{sub N} = 259 K and ferromagnetic-like hysteresis behavior both below and above T{sub N}. An exchange bias effect is observed below T{sub N} and represents an interesting behavior for akaganeite nanorods. These results are explained on the basis of a core-shell structure in which the core has bulk akaganeite magnetic properties (i.e., antiferromagnetic ordering) while the shell exhibits a disordered spin state. Thus, the nanorods show ferromagnetic properties and an exchange bias effect at the same time, increasing their potential for use in practical applications.

  8. Antiepileptic drug effects on mood and behavior: molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Perucca, Piero; Mula, Marco

    2013-03-01

    With almost 100 years of clinical experience, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) remain the mainstay of epilepsy treatment. They suppress epileptic seizures by acting on a variety of mechanisms and molecular targets involved in the regulation of neuronal excitability. These include inhibitory-GABAergic and excitatory-glutamatergic neurotransmission, as well as ion (sodium and calcium) conductance through voltage-gated channels. On the other hand, accruing evidence indicates that these mechanisms and targets are also implicated in the regulation of mood and behavior, which may explain why each AED is associated with specific psychotropic effects. These effects, however, cannot be explained solely on the basis of the known mode of action of each AED, and other mechanisms or targets are likely to be implicated. In this article, we review positive and negative effects of AEDs on mood and behavior, discuss putative underlying mechanisms, and highlight knowledge gaps which should be addressed in future studies.

  9. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Celec, Peter; Ostatníková, Daniela; Hodosy, Július

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences. PMID:25741229

  10. Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and a behavioral intervention on disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, N J; Mauk, J E; McComas, J J; Mace, F C

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the separate and combined effects of a behavioral intervention and methylphenidate (Ritalin) on disruptive behavior and task engagement in 3 children with severe to profound mental retardation. The behavioral intervention involved differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior and guided compliance. All 3 children demonstrated decreased disruptive behavior and improved task engagement in response to the response to the behavioral intervention. Two of the 3 children demonstrated similar improvement in response to methylphenidate. Although both interventions were highly effective for these 2 participants, the relative efficacy of the interventions varied between the 2 children. There was no evidence of an additive or synergistic effect of the two interventions, but the high efficacy of each intervention alone limited our ability to detect such effects. PMID:8926223

  11. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse.

  12. Behavioral effects of low level neonatal lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Hastings, L; Cooper, G P; Bornschein, R L; Michaelson, I A

    1977-07-01

    Rats exposed to lead via maternal milk were tested at various stages of development on a number of behavioral tasks. Beginning at paturition, the dams were given either tap water, 0.02%, or 0.10% lead acetate in the drinking water. Pups from all three groups were weaned to normal chow and tap water at 21 days of age. The mean lead concentration of the dam's blood and of neonatal (20 days of age) brain and blood were all below 50 microgram/100 ml. No significant differences were found between the high lead-exposed group and controls in general as measured by wheel running over a 21 day period beginning at 30 days of age. However, there was a significant difference in wheel running behavior during the first three hr of testing. Both lead-exposed groups were found to display significantly less aggressive behavior as measured by the shock-elicited aggression test. Low level lead exposure had no discernable effect on the acquisition and subsequent reversal of a successive brightness discrimination task. Lead exposure under these conditions appears to affect some aspects of emotional behavior, while having little effect on general activity or cognitive function.

  13. Behavioral effects of amphetamine in streptozotocin-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Koek, Wouter; Daws, Lynette C.; Owens, William Anthony; Galli, Aurelio; France, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Experimentally-induced diabetes can modify the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems, possibly through insulin-related regulation of dopamine transporter activity. In this study, several behavioral procedures were used to examine possible changes in sensitivity to amphetamine and other drugs in rats rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin. Conditioned place preference developed to food (Froot Loops®) in both control and diabetic rats, demonstrating that conditioned place preference with tactile stimuli can occur in streptozotocin-treated rats. Baseline locomotion was lower in streptozotocin-treated as compared to control rats, although amphetamine significantly increased locomotion in all rats. Conditioned place preference developed to amphetamine regardless of whether rats had received streptozotocin or saline. A second study compared the potency of drugs to decrease lever pressing maintained by food, before and after streptozotocin treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and amphetamine were less potent after streptozotocin while the potency of raclopride, quinpirole, ketamine, haloperidol and cocaine was not significantly changed by streptozotocin. While markedly affecting locomotion, body weight and blood glucose, streptozotocin only modestly affected sensitivity to the behavioral effects of amphetamine and other drugs; these results fail to confirm previous reports of decreased behavioral actions of stimulants in diabetic rats. PMID:18155695

  14. Behavioral effects of amphetamine in streptozotocin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Sevak, Rajkumar J; Koek, Wouter; Daws, Lynette C; Owens, William Anthony; Galli, Aurelio; France, Charles P

    2008-02-26

    Experimentally-induced diabetes can modify the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems, possibly through insulin-related regulation of dopamine transporter activity. In this study, several behavioral procedures were used to examine possible changes in sensitivity to amphetamine and other drugs in rats rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin. Conditioned place preference developed to food (Froot Loops) in both control and diabetic rats, demonstrating that conditioned place preference with tactile stimuli can occur in streptozotocin-treated rats. Baseline locomotion was lower in streptozotocin-treated as compared to control rats, although amphetamine significantly increased locomotion in all rats. Conditioned place preference developed to amphetamine regardless of whether rats had received streptozotocin or saline. A second study compared the potency of drugs to decrease lever pressing maintained by food, before and after streptozotocin treatment. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and amphetamine were less potent after streptozotocin while the potency of raclopride, quinpirole, ketamine, haloperidol and cocaine was not significantly changed by streptozotocin. While markedly affecting locomotion, body weight and blood glucose, streptozotocin only modestly affected sensitivity to the behavioral effects of amphetamine and other drugs; these results fail to confirm previous reports of decreased behavioral actions of stimulants in diabetic rats.

  15. [Reference group norm and its effects on fertility behavior].

    PubMed

    Kown, H W

    1980-11-01

    Explores the relatively untouched field of the role of reference groups in fertility behavior, and proposes further research in this important area. A reference group is a social unit which an individual perceives as holding values in common with his own, and which is a basis for self evaluation and attitude formation. The contingent consistency hypothesis proposes that social pressures reinforce the effect of attitude on behavior. The attitudes and behaviors examined here pertain to the use of family planning; contingent effects are norms of parents and other kin. The influence of the community on individual family formation is explored. The relationship between fertility transition and changes in values is also addressed. According to research findings, parents conceal cultural pressures for childbearing, either deliberately to avoid the appearance of being manipulated by others, or unintentionally because the pressures are internalized. In traditional societies, many choices are culturally proscribed, while in modern societies an individual exercises more freedom of choice. The study of reference groups is important because society shapes and directs individual behavior, and without such a mechanism an individual finds it difficult to adjust to rapid social change. Further research should focus on groups and communities rather than on individuals, through understanding the difficulties surrounding individuals in departing from unquestioning conservative attitudes. (Author's modified)

  16. Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Chronic Unpredictable Stress

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewich, Leslie; McFadden, Lisa M.; Friedman, Ross D.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress can influence behaviors associated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function, such as cognition and emotion regulation. Dopamine in the mPFC is responsive to stress and modulates its behavioral effects. The current study tested whether exposure to 10 days of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) altered the effects of acute elevation stress on dopamine release in the mPFC and on spatial recognition memory. Male rats previously exposed to CUS or non-stressed controls were tested behaviorally, and underwent microdialysis to assess mPFC dopamine or had blood sampled for corticosterone analysis. Dopamine in the mPFC significantly increased in both groups during acute elevation stress compared to baseline levels but was attenuated in CUS rats compared to controls. Control rats exposed to elevation stress immediately prior to the T-maze showed impaired performance, whereas CUS rats did not. No group differences were observed in general motor activity or plasma corticosterone following elevation stress. The present results indicate that prior exposure to this particular CUS procedure reduced dopamine release in the mPFC during acute elevation stress and prevented the impairment of performance on a spatial recognition test following an acute stressor. These findings may contribute to an understanding the complex behavioral consequences of stress. PMID:25003946

  17. The Effects of Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments on Eating Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalodner, Cynthia R.; And Others

    Self-efficacy theory proposes that beliefs about behavior are important variables to consider in the study of behavior change. The belief that an individual is capable of executing behavior and that the execution of such behavior will result in the desired outcome must be present for behavioral and psychological change to occur. This theory may…

  18. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral choice or response impulsivity, partially mediates the effect of stress on drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Ansell, Emily B; Reynolds, Brady; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control.

  19. INSTITUTIONS AND BEHAVIOR: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE ON THE EFFECTS OF DEMOCRACY

    PubMed Central

    Bó, Pedro Dal; Foster, Andrew; Putterman, Louis

    2013-01-01

    A novel experiment is used to show that the effect of a policy on the level of cooperation is greater when it is chosen democratically by the subjects than when it is exogenously imposed. In contrast to the previous literature, our experimental design allows us to control for selection effects (e.g. those who choose the policy may be affected differently by it). Our finding implies that democratic institutions may affect behavior directly in addition to having effects through the choice of policies. Our findings have implications for the generalizability of the results of randomized policy interventions. PMID:25076785

  20. Collisional redistribution effects on x-ray laser saturation behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.J.; Lee, R.W.; London, R.A.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1994-06-01

    We recently published a detailed summary of our experimental and theoretical research on Ne-like Se x-ray laser line widths, and one of our conclusions was that collisional redistribution rates are likely to have an effect on the saturation behavior of the 206.4 {angstrom} Se x-ray laser. In this paper we focus on the effects of collisional redistribution on x-ray laser gain coefficients, and discuss ways of including these effects in existing laser line- transfer models.

  1. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Szprengiel, A.; Pluhar, J.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, alpha particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies examined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250 MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no effect of proton irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  2. Smoking during teenage pregnancies: effects on behavioral problems in offspring.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; DeGenna, Natacha; Day, Nancy L

    2007-07-01

    We prospectively examined the relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and child behavior in a birth cohort of 357 offspring of teenage mothers. PTE was defined as any exposure across pregnancy and, in separate analyses, exposure within each trimester. Outcomes included measures of behavior problems, activity, and attention. On average, the children were 6.4 years of age, 48% were females, and 69% were Black. Data on maternal tobacco and other substance use were collected prenatally and postnatally: 46% of the mothers smoked in the first trimester and 58% smoked 6 years later. Child urinary cotinine measured exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Stepwise multiple regressions were run. PTE predicted significantly increased offspring activity; impulsivity; and aggression, externalizing, and total behavior problems in step 1. PTE remained a significant predictor of increased activity when maternal psychological characteristics, home environment, and ETS were added. The results were similar when PTE was examined by trimesters, although later pregnancy tobacco exposure predicted the most behavioral outcomes. In the final model, PTE (all three trimesters) and PTE (second trimester) were significant predictors of increased activity and attention problems, respectively. Other predictors of child behavior included maternal anxiety, depression, hostility, and home environment. ETS was not a significant predictor of child behavior when PTE was considered. Smoking during pregnancy among adolescents is a significant predictor of increased activity and attention problems in their offspring after controlling for covariates in the prenatal and current environments. Smoking cessation interventions are recommended for this population to avoid the effects of PTE on the offspring of pregnant adolescents. This is particularly important because these mothers will likely become pregnant again and many will increase their level of tobacco use as they mature.

  3. The protective role of prosocial behaviors on antisocial behaviors: the mediating effects of deviant peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Gustavo; Mestre, Maria Vicenta; McGinley, Meredith M; Tur-Porcar, Ana; Samper, Paula; Opal, Deanna

    2014-06-01

    Prosocial behaviors, actions intended to help others, may serve a protective function against association with deviant peers and subsequent delinquent and antisocial behaviors. The present study examined the relations among specific types of prosocial behaviors, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Six hundred and sixty-six adolescents (46% girls; M age = 15.33, SD = .47) from Valencia, Spain completed questionnaires of prosocial behaviors, affiliation with deviant peers, antisocial behaviors, and aggression. Results showed that antisocial behaviors were negatively related only to specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Further analyses showed that deviant peer affiliation mediated the relations between compliant prosocial behavior and delinquency and aggression. Although altruism was not directly related to delinquency and aggression, it was indirectly linked to the behaviors via deviant peer affiliation. Discussion focuses on the relevance of specific forms of prosocial behaviors to antisocial behaviors and the risk of deviant peers for prosocial youth.

  4. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  5. Effects of Supervisor Performance Feedback on Increasing Preservice Teachers' Positive Communication Behaviors with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathel, Jeanna Marie; Drasgow, Erik; Christle, Christine C.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of supervisor performance feedback on preservice teachers' rates of positive and negative communication behaviors with students with emotional and behavioral disorders and the effects of the intervention on the preservice teachers' perceptions of classroom management and climate. The authors…

  6. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    PubMed

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  7. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) effects on behavioral thermoregulation with microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Laconsay, K L; Agnew, A C; Henderson, M E; Quinn, J M; Holland, B E; DePace, A N

    1993-08-01

    Aspirin is a widely used over-the-counter drug in our society which has wide therapeutic value, yet not all of the behavioral side effects have been studied. Different doses of aspirin solutions were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold environment. Four Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement. Friedman's nonparametric test showed significant differences among aspirin and saline-control doses. Post hoc sign tests showed that a moderate dose of aspirin increased operant behavior reinforced by MW radiation, yet lower and higher doses decreased and then increased the rate of responding which resulted in an inverted U-shaped trend. Possible multiple effects of aspirin in terms of its thermoregulatory as well as its pain-tolerance properties, and implications for hypothalamic "set point" are discussed.

  8. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  9. Effects of background gravity stimuli on gravity-controlled behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Physiological and developmental effects of altered gravity were researched. The stimulus properties of gravity have been found to possess reinforcing and aversive properties. Experimental approaches taken, used animals placed into fields of artificial gravity, in the form of parabolic or spiral centrifuges. Gravity preferences were noted and it was concluded that the psychophysics of gravity and background factors which support these behaviors should be further explored.

  10. The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Joseph, J.; Rabin, B.

    Future space missions will involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, where astronauts will be exposed to radiation hazards such as those that arise from galactic cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays are composed of protons, alpha particles, and particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles). Research by our group has shown that exposure to HZE particles, primarily 600 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n 56Fe, can produce significant alterations in brain neurochemistry and behavior. However, given that protons can make up a significant portion of the radiation spectrum, it is important to study their effects on neural functioning and on related performance. Therefore, these studies exa mined the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, operant conditioning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a dose of 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.0 Gy of 250MeV protons at Loma Linda University and were tested in the different behavioral tests at various times following exposure. Results showed that there was no e fect of protonf irradiation at any dose on any of the endpoints measured. Therefore, there is a contrast between the insignificant effects of high dose proton exposure and the dramatic effectiveness of low dose (<0.1 Gy) exposures to 56Fe particles on both neurochemical and behavioral endpoints. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

  11. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  12. Effects of consumer motives on search behavior using internet advertising.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kenneth C C

    2004-08-01

    Past studies on uses and gratifications theory suggested that consumer motives affect how they will use media and media contents. Recent advertising research has extended the theory to study the use of Internet advertising. The current study explores the effects of consumer motives on their search behavior using Internet advertising. The study employed a 2 by 2 between-subjects factorial experiment design. A total of 120 subjects were assigned to an experiment condition that contains an Internet advertisement varying by advertising appeals (i.e., rational vs. emotional) and product involvement levels (high vs. low). Consumer search behavior (measured by the depth, breadth, total amount of search), demographics, and motives were collected by post-experiment questionnaires. Because all three dependent variables measuring search behavior were conceptually related to each other, MANCOVA procedures were employed to examine the moderating effects of consumer motives on the dependent variables in four product involvement-advertising appeal conditions. Results indicated that main effects for product involvements and advertising appeals were statistically significant. Univariate ANOVA also showed that advertising appeals and product involvement levels influenced the total amount of search. Three-way interactions among advertising appeals, product involvement levels, and information motive were also statistically significant. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  13. Memory Effects on Movement Behavior in Animal Foraging.

    PubMed

    Bracis, Chloe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Van Moorter, Bram; Goodwin, R Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An individual's choices are shaped by its experience, a fundamental property of behavior important to understanding complex processes. Learning and memory are observed across many taxa and can drive behaviors, including foraging behavior. To explore the conditions under which memory provides an advantage, we present a continuous-space, continuous-time model of animal movement that incorporates learning and memory. Using simulation models, we evaluate the benefit memory provides across several types of landscapes with variable-quality resources and compare the memory model within a nested hierarchy of simpler models (behavioral switching and random walk). We find that memory almost always leads to improved foraging success, but that this effect is most marked in landscapes containing sparse, contiguous patches of high-value resources that regenerate relatively fast and are located in an otherwise devoid landscape. In these cases, there is a large payoff for finding a resource patch, due to size, value, or locational difficulty. While memory-informed search is difficult to differentiate from other factors using solely movement data, our results suggest that disproportionate spatial use of higher value areas, higher consumption rates, and consumption variability all point to memory influencing the movement direction of animals in certain ecosystems.

  14. Memory Effects on Movement Behavior in Animal Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Bracis, Chloe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Van Moorter, Bram; Goodwin, R. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An individual’s choices are shaped by its experience, a fundamental property of behavior important to understanding complex processes. Learning and memory are observed across many taxa and can drive behaviors, including foraging behavior. To explore the conditions under which memory provides an advantage, we present a continuous-space, continuous-time model of animal movement that incorporates learning and memory. Using simulation models, we evaluate the benefit memory provides across several types of landscapes with variable-quality resources and compare the memory model within a nested hierarchy of simpler models (behavioral switching and random walk). We find that memory almost always leads to improved foraging success, but that this effect is most marked in landscapes containing sparse, contiguous patches of high-value resources that regenerate relatively fast and are located in an otherwise devoid landscape. In these cases, there is a large payoff for finding a resource patch, due to size, value, or locational difficulty. While memory-informed search is difficult to differentiate from other factors using solely movement data, our results suggest that disproportionate spatial use of higher value areas, higher consumption rates, and consumption variability all point to memory influencing the movement direction of animals in certain ecosystems. PMID:26288228

  15. The effect of an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation (OxyContin) on opioid abuse-related outcomes in the postmarketing setting.

    PubMed

    Coplan, P M; Chilcoat, H D; Butler, S F; Sellers, E M; Kadakia, A; Harikrishnan, V; Haddox, J D; Dart, R C

    2016-09-01

    An extended-release opioid analgesic (OxyContin, OC) was reformulated with abuse-deterrent properties to deter abuse. This report examines changes in abuse through oral and nonoral routes, doctor-shopping, and fatalities in 10 studies 3.5 years after reformulation. Changes in OC abuse from 1 year before to 3 years after OC reformulation were calculated, adjusted for prescription changes. Abuse of OC decreased 48% in national poison center surveillance systems, decreased 32% in a national drug treatment system, and decreased 27% among individuals prescribed OC in claims databases. Doctor-shopping for OC decreased 50%. Overdose fatalities reported to the manufacturer decreased 65%. Abuse of other opioids without abuse-deterrent properties decreased 2 years later than OC and with less magnitude, suggesting OC decreases were not due to broader opioid interventions. Consistent with the formulation, decreases were larger for nonoral than oral abuse. Abuse-deterrent opioids may mitigate abuse and overdose risks among chronic pain patients.

  16. The Effect of Behavioral Family Intervention on Knowledge of Effective Parenting Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Leanne; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of research considering the effect of behavioral family intervention (BFI) on parenting knowledge and the relative importance of both knowledge and parent confidence in reducing parenting dysfunction and problematic child behavior is unclear. In this study ninety-one parents (44 mothers, 47 fathers) of children aged 2-10 years…

  17. Critical Indicators of Effective Teaching for Preservice Teachers: Relationship between Teaching Behaviors and Ratings of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Christine A.; Yell, Mitchell L.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between behaviors of 10 preservice student teachers completing their student teaching in the area of emotional disturbed/behavior disorders and ratings of their teaching effectiveness by observers. The highest obtained correlation was between the amount of off-task student time observed in the classroom and…

  18. Adrafinil: effects on behavior and cognition in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Siwak, C T; Callahan, H; Milgram, N W

    2000-07-01

    1. Adrafmil is a novel vigilance promoting agent developed in France by Louis Lafon Laboratories. 2. Adrafinil causes increased locomotion without producing stereotypical activity in canines tested in an open field. 3. The effectiveness of a single treatment is long-lasting, and the effectiveness persists over repeated treatments. 4. Acquisition of a size discrimination problem is enhanced by adrafinil. This may be linked to performance motivation. 5. Adrafinil causes a long-lasting increase in high frequency electroencephalographic activity recorded from cortical electrodes. 6. These results indicate that adrafinil is novel behavioral stimulant with cognitive enhancing potential. The underlying mechanisms of action are still unknown.

  19. Aging effects in the nonequilibrium behavior of multilayer magnetic superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudnikov, V. V.; Prudnikov, P. V.; Purtov, A. N.; Mamonova, M. V.

    2016-12-01

    A numerical Monte Carlo study of the nonequilibrium behavior of multilayer magnetic superstructures consisting of alternating magnetic and nonmagnetic nanolayers is performed. The calculated two-time autocorrelation function and the staggered magnetization of the structure at its evolution starting from various initial states are analyzed. The analysis reveals aging effects characterized by a slowing down of the relaxation and correlation characteristics in the system with the waiting time. It is shown that, in contrast to bulk magnetic systems, the aging effects in magnetic superstructures arise not only near the ferromagnetic ordering temperature T c in the films but also within a wide temperature range at T ≤ T c.

  20. Investigating the Collateral Effects of Behavior Management on Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Prykanowski, Debra; Coyne, Michael; Scott, Terrance M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective behavior management is necessary to ensure students are engaged with instruction. Students cannot learn if they are not engaged. Although the relationship between effective behavior management and positive student behavior is well established, the relationship between behavior management and increased academic achievement, including…

  1. Long-Term Effects of a Token Economy on Target and Off-Task Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Theodore H.; Vogrin, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    Examined the effects of a token economy on off-task behavior occurring concurrently with the reinforcement of target behavior. Results indicated that while the token economy maintained effectiveness in terms of increasing the frequency of target behaviors, the frequency of off-task or inappropriate behaviors also increased as the year progressed.…

  2. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  3. The effect of color priming on infant brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Hawkins, Laura; Boas, David A

    2014-01-15

    Behavioral studies have identified select experiences that can prime infants to attend to color information as the basis for individuating objects prior to the time they do so spontaneously. For example, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts the function in which it will engage leads 9-month-olds (who typically do not attend to color differences) to demonstrate increased sensitivity to color information in a subsequent individuation task (Wilcox and Chapa, 2004). In contrast, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts distinct object motions, but the motions are not functionally relevant, does not produce color priming. The purpose of the present research was to identify the cortical underpinnings of these behavioral effects. Infants aged 8 and 9 months viewed function or motion pretest events and then their capacity to individuate-by-color was assessed in an object individuation task. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected. Two main findings emerged. First, as predicted, the infants who viewed the function but not the motion pretest events showed prolonged looking to the test event, a behavioral indicator of object individuation. In addition, they evidenced increased activation in anterior temporal cortex, thought to be a cortical signature of object individuation. A second and unexpected finding was that viewing either type of pretest events led to increased activation in the posterior temporal cortex, as compared to infants who did not see pretest events, revealing that prior exposure to the motion pretest events does influence infants' processing of the test event, even though it is not evident in the behavioral results. The cognitive processes involved, and the cortical structures that mediate these processes, are discussed.

  4. BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Oliveto, Alison; Gentry, W. Brooks; Pruzinsky, Rhonda; Gonsai, Kishorchandra; Kosten, Thomas R.; Martell, Bridget; Poling, James

    2010-01-01

    Despite the therapeutic use and abuse potential of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem), relatively few studies have examined the behavioral effects of GHB in humans under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, this eight-session study examined in 10 non substance-abusing volunteers the behavioral effects of GHB at each of the following doses: 0, 0.32, 0.56, 0.75, 1.0, 1.8, 2.4, 3.2 g/70 kg, p.o.. Order of dose testing was random, except that the first two participants received active doses in ascending order and 2.4 g/70 kg was always tested before 3.2 g/70 kg. Prior to drug administration and at several post-drug time points, self-report, observer-report, physiological, and psychomotor performance measures were obtained. Analyses based on area under the curve showed that GHB produced dose-related increases in subjective ratings of sedative-like, stimulant-like, positive mood, and dissociative effects, but no changes in psychomotor performance measures or blood pressure. Analyses based on peak effects generally showed dose-related increases in ratings indicating sedative-like, dissociative, and drug liking, although some measures showed U-shaped dose-related changes. These initial findings suggest that GHB at doses of 0.32–3.2 g/70 kg produces dissociative, sedating and some stimulant-like effects in humans without a history of sedative abuse. PMID:20526195

  5. Microstructural Effects on the Ignition Behavior of Various HMX Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welle, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The detonation physics community has embraced the idea that initiation of high explosives proceeds from an ignition event through subsequent growth to steady detonation. This construct is the basis for the well-known Lee-Tarver reactive flow model. A weakness of all the commonly used ignition and growth models is that microstructural characteristics are not explicitly incorporated in their ignition terms. This is the case in spite of a demonstrated, but not well-understood, empirical link between morphology and initiation of energetic materials. Morphological effects have been parametrically studied in many ways, with the majority of efforts focused on establishing a tie between bulk powder metrics and ignition of the consolidated material. More recently, there has been a shift toward characterizing the microstructure of consolidated materials in order to understand the underlying mechanisms governing performance. We have assessed the utility of using the James' Ignition model as a tool to quantify effects of bed microstructure on ignition behavior. We have studied the ignition behavior of four types of HMX materials ranging from fine particle fluid energy milled to course particle material. We will also report characterization of the pressed microstructure of each of the various materials and discuss how the measured ignition behavior may have been influenced. DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. (96ABW-2013-0063) R.R. Wixom, Sandia National Laboratories/Explosives Technologies Group; C. Molek, Air Force Research Laboratory/Munitions Directorate; and P. Samuels, Army Research Development and Engineering Center/Picatinny Arsenal.

  6. Intergenerational continuity in parenting behavior: mediating pathways and child effects.

    PubMed

    Neppl, Tricia K; Conger, Rand D; Scaramella, Laura V; Ontai, Lenna L

    2009-09-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across 2 generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2's adolescence, and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The results indicated a direct relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, and between G1 and G2 positive parenting. As predicted, specific mediators accounted for intergenerational continuity in particular types of parenting behavior. G2 externalizing behavior mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, whereas G2 academic attainment mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 positive parenting. In addition, the hypothesized mediating pathways remained statistically significant after taking into account possible G2 effects on G1 parenting and G3 effects on G2 parenting.

  7. Varenicline effects on cocaine self administration and reinstatement behavior.

    PubMed

    Guillem, Karine; Peoples, Laura L

    2010-03-01

    This study tested the effects of the nicotine addiction treatment varenicline on cocaine self administration (SA) and reinstatement. In one SA experiment, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion). Thereafter, daily SA sessions continued as before except that every fourth session was preceded by a presession injection of varenicline (0.0, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, SC, 50-min presession). In three reinstatement experiments, animals were exposed sequentially to SA training, extinction training, and several reinstatement test sessions. In two of the reinstatement experiments, cocaine-seeking was reinstated by presentation of cocaine-predictive cues at the onset of the test session (cue reinstatement). In a third reinstatement experiment, cocaine-seeking was reinstated by a presession injection of cocaine (drug reinstatement). Each reinstatement session was preceded by an injection of either vehicle or varenicline (dose range of 0.1-2.0 mg/kg). The SA and reinstatement experiments showed that low-dose varenicline decreases reinstatement behavior, without significantly affecting cocaine SA. In contrast, high-dose varenicline increases reinstatement of cocaine-directed behavior and decreases cocaine SA. A control study showed that sucrose-directed behavior is unaltered by varenicline. On the basis of these findings, low-varenicline doses might decrease relapse in cocaine-addicted individuals, but high doses of varenicline might have the opposite effect.

  8. Effects of intracerebroventricular capsaicin on thermoregulatory behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dib, B

    1982-01-01

    To clarify the action of capsaicin on the thermoregulatory system of rat, behavioral and autonomic responses were studied following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. Rats were chronically implanted with a lateral cerebral ventricular guide cannula. After the recovery period they were placed in a climatic chamber at ambient temperature (Ta) of 20, 30 or 35 degrees C. In the first series of experiments, they had access to a lever which activated a fan that drew cool outside air into the chamber. After ICV capsaicin (23 micrograms), the rats increased bar-pressing behavior for fresh air at Ta ranging from 20 degrees C to 35 degrees C. In the second series of experiment, the rats had no access to fanning. ICV capsaicin produced a fall in rectal and hypothalamic temperature (Thy) and an increased in cutaneous temperature. These changes depended on Ta. At a Ta of 30 degrees C Thy fell slightly (mean of 0.2 +/- 0.16 degrees C). At a Ta of 20 degrees C Thy fell to a mean of 1 degree C +/- 0.17 degrees C. The conclusion drawn is ICV capsaicin activated behavioral as well as autonomic thermoregulatory heat-loss responses. The effect of capsaicin resembles the effect of local heating of the hypothalamus. However, since hypothalamic temperature decreased the drug may have lowered the thermal set point, or excited directly hypothalamic warm-sensitive neurons.

  9. Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?

    PubMed Central

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child’s first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and completed the child behavior checklist (CBCL) for their first child at some point during the child’s first 12 years (mean = 4.91 years). Results Regression analyses indicated that MDD in the sensitive period was a significant predictor of internalizing and total problems scores on the CBCL while controlling for several demographic variables (e.g., child and mother age, child gender). Maternal depression prior to pregnancy and during the prenatal period did not significantly predict later child behavior problems, suggesting the effect was not driven by the presence of previous MDD and was specific to the first year of life. Conclusions Presence of maternal MDD during a child’s first year of life represents a sensitive period and increases the risk of adverse child outcome. The findings suggest the importance of identification, prevention, and early intervention. Future studies should examine these findings in more diverse, heterogeneous samples. PMID:20610139

  10. Acute effects of a glucose energy drink on behavioral control.

    PubMed

    Howard, Meagan A; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2010-12-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of glucose energy drinks (e.g., Amp, Monster, and Red Bull) in the past decade, particularly among high school and college students. However, little laboratory research has examined the acute objective and subjective effects of energy drinks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a glucose energy drink (Red Bull) on cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: 1.8 ml/kg energy drink, 3.6 ml/kg energy drink, 5.4 ml/kg energy drink, placebo beverage, or no drink. Participants completed a well-validated behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, and mental fatigue both before and 30 minutes following beverage administration. The results indicated that compared with the placebo and no drink conditions, the energy drink doses decreased reaction times on the behavioral control task, increased subjective ratings of stimulation and decreased ratings of mental fatigue. Greatest improvements in reaction times and subjective measures were observed with the lowest dose and improvements diminished as the dose increased. The findings suggest that energy drink consumption can improve cognitive performance on a behavioral control task, potentially explaining the dramatic rise in popularity of these controversial new beverages.

  11. Intergenerational Continuity in Parenting Behavior: Mediating Pathways and Child Effects

    PubMed Central

    Neppl, Tricia K.; Conger, Rand D.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across two generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected during G2’s adolescence and G3 data were generated during the preschool years. Assessments included both observational and self-report measures. The results indicated a direct relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting and between G1 and G2 positive parenting. As predicted, specific mediators accounted for intergenerational continuity in particular types of parenting behavior. G2 externalizing behavior mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 harsh parenting, while G2 academic attainment mediated the relationship between G1 and G2 positive parenting. In addition, the hypothesized mediating pathways remained statistically significant after taking into account possible G2 effects on G1 parenting and G3 effects on G2 parenting. PMID:19702389

  12. Behavioral Effects of Developmental Methylmercury Drinking Water Exposure in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B.; Farina, Marcelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Rocha, Joao BT; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Early methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can have long-lasting consequences likely arising from impaired developmental processes, the outcome of which has been exposed in several longitudinal studies of affected populations. Given the large number of newborns at an increased risk of learning disabilities associated with in utero MeHg exposure, it is important to study neurobehavioral alterations using ecologically valid and physiologically relevant models. This review highlights the benefits of using the MeHg drinking water exposure paradigm and outlines behavioral outcomes arising from this procedure in rodents. Combination treatments that exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg-induced effects, and possible molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral impairment are also discussed. PMID:24210169

  13. The Differential Effects of Anesthetics on Bacterial Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Matthew; Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Schaefers, Matthew; Babazada, Hasan; Liu, Renyu; Yuki, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Volatile anesthetics have been in clinical use for a long period of time and are considered to be promiscuous by presumably interacting with several ion channels in the central nervous system to produce anesthesia. Because ion channels and their existing evolutionary analogues, ion transporters, are very important in various organisms, it is possible that volatile anesthetics may affect some bacteria. In this study, we hypothesized that volatile anesthetics could affect bacterial behaviors. We evaluated the impact of anesthetics on bacterial growth, motility (swimming and gliding) and biofilm formation of four common bacterial pathogens in vitro. We found that commonly used volatile anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane affected bacterial motility and biofilm formation without any effect on growth of the common bacterial pathogens studied here. Using available Escherichia coli gene deletion mutants of ion transporters and in silico molecular docking, we suggested that these altered behaviors might be at least partly via the interaction of volatile anesthetics with ion transporters. PMID:28099463

  14. Stress Ratio Effect on Ratcheting Behavior of AISI 4340 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divya Bharathi, K.; Dutta, K.

    2016-02-01

    Ratcheting is known as accumulation of plastic strain during asymmetric cyclic loading of metallic materials under non-zero mean stress. This phenomenon reduces fatigue life of engineering materials and thus limits the life prediction capacity of Coffin-Manson relationship. This study intends to investigate the ratcheting behavior in AISI 4340 steel which is mainly used for designing of railway wheel sets, axles, shafts, aircraft components and other machinery parts. The effect of stress ratio on the ratcheting behaviour in both annealed and normalised conditions were investigated for investigated steel. Ratcheting tests were done at different stress ratios of -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8. The results showed that the material responds to hardening behavior and nature of strain accumulation is dependent on the magnitude of stress ratio. The post ratcheted samples showed increase in tensile strength and hardness which increases with increasing stress ratio and these variations in tensile properties are correlated with the induced cyclic hardening.

  15. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of metal matrix composites is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in a three by three unit cell array of a SiC/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five fiber shapes that include a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of stresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis using the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes. In general, fiber dominated properties are not affected by fiber geometry and matrix dominated properties are only moderately affected.

  16. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of a SiC/Ti-15 metal matrix composite is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five different fiber shapes: a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of microstresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis for the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes and assess their potential benefits. No clear benefits result from different fiber shapes though there are some increases/decreases in isolated properties.

  17. Manipulating the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation: examination of the influence on challenging behavior during leisure activities.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Chan, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Langthorne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Prior functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure sessions, each participant played preferred games (cards, jigsaws) with two individuals without disabilities. The discriminative stimuli for challenging behavior were present during leisure sessions but challenging behavior was never reinforced. Immediately prior to leisure sessions, the participants received either access to the reinforcers that maintained challenging behavior or no access. Access versus no access to reinforcers for challenging behavior prior to leisure sessions was alternated in a multi-element design. Results demonstrated higher levels of challenging behavior during leisure sessions when the participants did not have access to the reinforcers prior to the sessions. Little challenging behavior occurred during leisure sessions when the participants had prior access to the reinforcers. Arguments for further examining the behavior-altering effects of the motivating operation in future applied research are presented.

  18. Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Effective Behavior Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nields, Allison N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student teachers' perceptions and knowledge of behavior management strategies. A questionnaire that included questions about broad behavior management techniques, behavioral learning theory, and behavior management strategies related to behavioral learning theory was given to sixty-one student teacher candidates at a large…

  19. Effects of Endocannabinoid System Modulation on Cognitive and Emotional Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zanettini, Claudio; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Aliczki, Mano; Goldberg, Steven R.; Haller, József; Yasar, Sevil

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain’s endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory) and emotion (anxiety and depression). We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than selectively affecting any specific behavior. PMID:21949506

  20. Effects of prenatal cocaine on hearing, vision, growth, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Crossland, W J; Holmes, P A; Overbeck, G W; Tilak, J P

    1998-06-21

    The illicit use of cocaine has increased dramatically over the last 10-12 years. There has been a corresponding increase in cocaine abuse among obstetric patients and in the number of "cocaine babies." According to some estimates, these children make up more than half of the drug-associated births. This problem is therefore a major public health concern. Consequently, our laboratory investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on hearing, vision, growth, and exploratory/stress behavior. This chapter summarizes the literature on animals and humans on these topics and presents new observations from our laboratory. In terms of maternal toxicity, prenatal cocaine exposure causes hypertension, placental abruption, spontaneous abortion, poor pregnancy weight gain, and undernutrition secondary to appetite suppression. Some offspring effects include in utero growth retardation, cephalic hemorrhage, fetal edema, altered body composition, congenital malformations, and even pre- and postnatal death. The offspring can also exhibit a variety of behavioral, visual, hearing, and language disorders. Differential effects of animal strain and late gestational cocaine exposure are discussed. Comparisons are made between prenatal cocaine, the fetal alcohol syndrome, and the effects of prenatal undernutrition. Recommendations for clinical assessment and intervention are made.

  1. Multiple receptors contribute to the behavioral effects of indoleamine hallucinogens

    PubMed Central

    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Serotonergic hallucinogens produce profound changes in perception, mood, and cognition. These drugs include phenylalkylamines such as mescaline and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and indoleamines such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin. Despite their differences in chemical structure, the two classes of hallucinogens produce remarkably similar subjective effects in humans, and induce cross-tolerance. The phenylalkylamine hallucinogens are selective 5-HT2 receptor agonists, whereas the indoleamines are relatively non-selective for serotonin (5-HT) receptors. There is extensive evidence, from both animal and human studies, that the characteristic effects of hallucinogens are mediated by interactions with the 5-HT2A receptor. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that interactions with other receptor sites contribute to the psychopharmacological and behavioral effects of the indoleamine hallucinogens. This article reviews the evidence demonstrating that the effects of indoleamine hallucinogens in a variety of animal behavioral paradigms are mediated by both 5-HT2 and non-5-HT2 receptors. PMID:21256140

  2. Behavioral effects of ivermectin in a freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Ding, J; Drewes, C D; Hsu, W H

    2001-07-01

    Ivermectin is a potent antiparasitic drug against nematode and arthropod parasites. In this study, we examined the lethal and sublethal effects of ivermectin in a freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus. The median lethal concentration (LC50) at 72 h after ivermectin exposure was 560 nM. Sublethal endpoints focused on several stimulus-evoked locomotor behaviors: escape reflexes controlled by giant interneuron pathways, swimming and reversal, and crawling. Swimming, reversal, and crawling are controlled by nongiant interneuron pathways. Ivermectin inhibited swimming, reversal, crawling frequency, and crawling speed in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with a mean inhibitory concentration (IC50) at 3 h of 1.1, 16, 91, and 51 nM, respectively. Ivermectin at 0.3 nM also significantly decreased the frequency of helical swimming waves. Picrotoxin, a Cl- channel blocker, antagonized the ivermectin-induced decrease in swimming frequency, crawling frequency, and crawling speed. There were no adverse effects on escape reflex 3 h after exposure to 300 nM ivermectin. Electrophysiological recordings showed that ivermectin had no effects on the conduction velocity of giant fiber systems. The results indicated that locomotor behaviors controlled by nongiant locomotor pathways were more sensitive to ivermectin than pathways controlled by giant interneurons and that Cl- channels may be involved in mediating ivermectin's inhibitory effects.

  3. The Effect of Preteaching Reading Skills on the on-Task Behavior of Children Identified with Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Michelle; Burns, Matthew K.; Lau, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that preteaching activities led to increased academic outcomes and increased academic outcomes improve behavioral variables. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a preteaching intervention on time spent on task for children identified with a behavioral disorder (BD). A single-subject…

  4. Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in an after School Program Classroom: The Effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorvey, Zamecia J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to address behavior discipline problems in special and general education setting classrooms. Disruptive behaviors are a major concern as they create excessive stress and demands for classroom teachers and school administrators to address them. Effective interventions are needed to properly address them. Moreover, classroom…

  5. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  6. Using Conjoint Behavioral Consultation To Enhance the Generalization of Behavioral Parent Training Effects to School Settings for Children with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tracey L.

    Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder among children in the United States. A frequently used and effective intervention for ADHD involves parent training for behavioral management. While parent training improves child compliance, parent-child interactions, and parenting skills, the effects…

  7. The Effects of a Token Economy on First Grade Students Inappropriate Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Suzan C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effectiveness of a token economy on specific inappropriate social behaviors of three first grade students. Suggests that token economy systems can be very effective in decreasing disruptive behaviors of primary aged students. (MG)

  8. Fabrication of biomimetic nanomaterials and their effect on cell behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porri, Teresa Jane

    Cells in vivo respond to an intricate combination of chemical and mechanical signals. The corneal epithelium, a structure which prevents the admission of bacteria and undesirable molecules into the eye, grows on a basement membrane which presents both nanoscale topographic and adhesive chemical signals. An effective approach to biomaterials design takes advantage of the synergistic effects of the multiple cellular inputs which are available to engineer cell-substrate interactions. We have previously demonstrated the effects of nanoscale topography on a variety of corneal epithelial cell behaviors. To gain a better understanding of cell-level control in vivo, we employ a systems-level approach which looks at the effect of nanoscale topography in conjunction with a biomimetic surface chemistry. First, we discuss a novel method of fabricating nanoscale topography through templated electroless deposition of gold into PVP-coated polycarbonate membranes. This technique creates nanowires of gold with an uniform outer diameter that is dependent upon the size of the pores in the membrane used, and a nanowire length that is dependent upon the extent of etching into the polymer membrane. The gold nanowires can be modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols. Using these substrates, we study the effect of topographic length scale and surface chemistry on cells attached to a discontinuous nanoscale topography, and find a transition in cellular behavior at a length scale (between 600 and 2000 nm inter-wire spacing) that is commensurate with the transition length scale seen on surfaces presenting continuous grooves and ridges. Secondly, we study the effect of non-fouling peptide-modified SAMs on cellular behavior. We examine the effect of co-presented RGD and AG73 peptides and show that cell spreading is a function of the relative ratios of RGD and AG73 present on the surface. Finally, we explore the combinatorial effects of biologically relevant chemistry with

  9. Effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior of hyperactive boys.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M; Milich, R; Stumbo, P; Schultz, F

    1985-04-01

    A challenge design was used in two separate studies to investigate the effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior and learning of hyperactive boys. In both studies, 16 boys were admitted to a clinical research center for 3 successive days, on each of which they were given a sucrose-free diet. On day 1, baseline levels on the learning tasks were established; on days 2 and 3 a challenge drink of either sucrose 1.75 gm/kg or a placebo (aspartame in equivalent sweetness) was presented, in a counterbalanced order. In the first study the challenge drink was administered 1 hour after lunch; in the second study it was given in the morning after an overnight fast. On days 2 and 3 of both studies, 37 behavioral (playroom observation and examiner ratings) and cognitive (learning and memory tasks) measures were collected, starting 1/2 hour after ingestion of the drink. The results of both studies revealed no differences between the boys' performance on the two challenge days. These findings undermine the hypothesis that sucrose plays a major role in accounting for the inappropriate behavior of hyperactive boys.

  10. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    PubMed

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-11-25

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  11. The effect of mindfulness on extinction and behavioral resurgence.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Louise; Procter, Jonathan; Herzog, Michaela; Schock, Anne-Kathrin; Reed, Phil

    2012-12-01

    In the present experiments, we investigated the effects of mindfulness on behavioral extinction and resurgence. Participants received instrumental training; either they received FI training (Experiment 1), or they were trained to emit high rates and low rates of response via exposure to a multiple VR yoked-VI schedule prior to exposure to a multiple FI FI schedule in order to alter their rates of responding learned during Experiment 2. Participants were then exposed to either a focused- (mindfulness) or an unfocused-attention induction task. All participants were finally exposed to an extinction schedule in order to determine whether a mindfulness induction task presented immediately prior to extinction training affected extinction (Experiment 1) and behavioral resurgence (Experiment 2). During the extinction phase, the rates of responding were higher in the control group than in the mindfulness group, indicating that the mindfulness group was more sensitive to the contingencies and, thus, their prior performance extinguished more readily (Experiment 1). Moreover, rates of response in the extinction components less precisely reflected previous training in the mindfulness group, suggesting less resurgence of past behaviors after the mindfulness induction (Experiment 2).

  12. [In vitro transdermal behavior of effective constituents in Chonghe gel].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Ya-Jing; Zhang, De-Qin; Du, Shou-Ying; Sun, Shi-Zhen

    2013-08-01

    Chonghe gel originated from the Chinese ancient prescription, can be used for the treatment of diabetic foot. This experiment was to study the transdermal absorbability of paeoniflorin and osthole in Chonghe gel . Franz diffusing cells method was adopted for the in vitro model of rat belly skins. Paeoniflorin and osthole in the receiving liquid, skins and gel were determined by HPLC. The receiving liquid were screened, and Chonghe gel and Chonghe ointment were compared by transdermal absorbability. Result showed that ethanol-normal saline (2: 8) solution was the appropriate receiving liquid. The penetration rates of paeoniflorin and osthole were 78.07, 7.08 microg x cm(-2) x h(-1). respectively. In 24 h, the accumulated penetration rates were (31.51 +/- 1.33)%, (12.38 +/- 1.28)%, respectively. The retention rates of paeoniflorin and osthole in skin were (0.92 +/- 0.45)%, (4.81 +/- 1.03) %, respectively. The retention of osthole in skins was a drug reservoir. Transdermal behavior of effective constituents in Chonghe gel was more efficient than that in ointment. In vitro, the transdermal behavior of paeoniflorin in Chonghe gel was close to a Weibull process, while the behavior of osthole was close to Higuchi process.

  13. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  14. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of nocturnally occurring jet aircraft sounds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Bartus, R. T.; Hart, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present research presents data relative to the objective evaluation of the effects of a specific complex auditory stimulus presented during sleep. The auditory stimulus was a jet aircraft flyover of approximately 20-sec duration and a peak intensity level of approximately 80 dB (A). Our specific interests were in terms of how this stimulus would interact with the frequency pattern of the sleeping EEG and whether there would be any carry-over effects of the nocturnally presented stimuli to the waking state. The results indicated that the physiological effects (changes in electroencephalographic activity) produced by the jet aircraft stimuli outlasted the physical presence of the auditory stimuli by a considerable degree. Further, it was possible to note both behavioral and electroencephalographic changes during waking performances subsequent to nights disturbed by the jet aircraft flyovers which were not apparent during performances subsequent to undisturbed nights.

  15. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men

    PubMed Central

    van Anders, Sari M.; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to “sex differences” in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology. PMID:26504229

  16. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  17. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  18. Understanding and Promoting Effective Engagement With Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Lucy; Spring, Bonnie J; Riper, Heleen; Morrison, Leanne G; Crane, David H; Curtis, Kristina; Merchant, Gina C; Naughton, Felix; Blandford, Ann

    2016-11-01

    This paper is one in a series developed through a process of expert consensus to provide an overview of questions of current importance in research into engagement with digital behavior change interventions, identifying guidance based on research to date and priority topics for future research. The first part of this paper critically reflects on current approaches to conceptualizing and measuring engagement. Next, issues relevant to promoting effective engagement are discussed, including how best to tailor to individual needs and combine digital and human support. A key conclusion with regard to conceptualizing engagement is that it is important to understand the relationship between engagement with the digital intervention and the desired behavior change. This paper argues that it may be more valuable to establish and promote "effective engagement," rather than simply more engagement, with "effective engagement" defined empirically as sufficient engagement with the intervention to achieve intended outcomes. Appraisal of the value and limitations of methods of assessing different aspects of engagement highlights the need to identify valid and efficient combinations of measures to develop and test multidimensional models of engagement. The final section of the paper reflects on how interventions can be designed to fit the user and their specific needs and context. Despite many unresolved questions posed by novel and rapidly changing technologies, there is widespread consensus that successful intervention design demands a user-centered and iterative approach to development, using mixed methods and in-depth qualitative research to progressively refine the intervention to meet user requirements.

  19. Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

  20. The effect of proinflammatory cytokines in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David

    2015-08-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder and its pathophysiology is associated with deregulation of the immune system. We investigated the changes in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines (specifically IL-6 and TNF-α) measured by the ELISA kit in two psychotherapeutic interventions for MDD: Narrative Cognitive Therapy (NCT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This is a randomized clinical trial including 97 individuals (18 to 29years-old) with MDD. In CBT there was a significant difference in serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, therefore indicating that CBT was more effective than NCT on serum levels proinflammatory cytokines.

  1. Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Leukotriene C4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    locomotor behavior was Hammarstrom S. Lindgren J A, Samuelsson B. reduced by 88% within 1 h and 50% by 2 h post- Leukotrienes promote plasma leakage and...the Sciences (USA) 78: 3887-3891. 1981. radioprotective action of LTC4 (22) does not follow 2. Lippton H L. Armstead W M. Hyman A L. Kadowitz P J ...the whole-animal survival of mice exposed 7. Bisgaard H . Kristensen J . Sondergaard 1. The to ionizing radiation. Annals of the New York effect of

  2. Behavioral and histological effects of acrylamide in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, D.W.; Cooper, K.R.; Friedman, M.A.; Lech, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    A histological and behavioral study was used to assess whether acrylamide produced neurotoxic effects in rainbow trout. Swimming performance of trout exposed to 0, 12.5, or 25 mg/liter acrylamide for 15 days was unaffected. Swimming performance of animals exposed to 50 mg/liter acrylamide for a similar time period was compromised by morbidity and mortality of the animals in this treatment group. The absence of dose-related histological lesions in central neurons, peripheral neurons or muscle suggested that the observed deficit in swimming performance was due to a generalized toxic response. Acrylamide treatment produced dose-related lesions in the gill and liver of rainbow trout.

  3. Counteractive effects of cannabinoid and nicotine-addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia

    2011-03-09

    Our recent results suggest that cannabinoid exposure induces conditioned place preference (CPP) through facilitated induction of synaptic long-term depression at dopamine circuitry of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we show that chronic nicotine exposure also induces CPP, but facilitates the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation in the VTA. Coadministration of cannabinoid and nicotine leads to a blockade of facilitated long-term depression and long-term potentiation induction in these neurons and elimination of CPP. These findings point to counteractive effects of cannabinoid and nicotine-addictive behavior through opposite changes in synaptic plasticity of dopamine circuitry of the VTA.

  4. On their best behavior: how animal behavior can help determine the combined effects of species interactions and climate change.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jason P; Barton, Brandon T

    2013-09-01

    The increasingly appreciated link between climate change and species interactions has the potential to help us understand and predict how organisms respond to a changing environment. As this connection grows, it becomes even more important to appreciate the mechanisms that create and control the combined effect of these factors. However, we believe one such important set of mechanisms comes from species' behavior and the subsequent trait-mediated interactions, as opposed to the more often studied density-mediated effects. Behavioral mechanisms are already well appreciated for mitigating the separate effects of the environment and species interactions. Thus, they could be at the forefront for understanding the combined effects. In this review, we (1) show some of the known behaviors that influence the individual and combined effects of climate change and species interactions; (2) conceptualize general ways behavior may mediate these combined effects; and (3) illustrate the potential importance of including behavior in our current tools for predicting climate change effects. In doing so, we hope to promote more research on behavior and other mechanistic factors that may increase our ability to accurately predict climate change effects.

  5. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  6. Direct Behavioral Consultation: Effects on Teachers' Praise and Student Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Lestremau, Lauren; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral consultation is an extension of traditional behavioral consultation and focuses on assessment and training in the classroom during ongoing classroom activities. This study evaluated direct behavioral consultation services in two elementary alternative classrooms referred following a program evaluation in which data suggested…

  7. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  8. Learning Behaviors Mediating the Effects of Behavior Problems on Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalon, Ximena Dominguez; Greenfield, Daryl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between behavior problems, learning behaviors, and educational outcomes for at-risk preschool children. A sample of Head Start children (N = 196) was selected in the southeast United States. Behavior problems were assessed using the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (LeBuffe & Naglieri, 1999) and…

  9. The Sensorial Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Pro-Environmental Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipolito, Joana

    2011-01-01

    In this article, sensorial effects are introduced as emotional stimuli for shaping environmentally significant behaviors. This research provides a link between sensorial effect as ubiquitous environmental behavior feedback and the effect of sensorial stimuli on emotions that trigger individuals' pro-environment behavior. A case study of using…

  10. Establishing a Common Vocabulary of Key Concepts for the Effective Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihon, Traci M.; Cihon, Joseph H.; Bedient, Guy M.

    2016-01-01

    The technical language of behavior analysis is arguably necessary to share ideas and research with precision among each other. However, it can hinder effective implementation of behavior analytic techniques when it prevents clear communication between the supervising behavior analyst and behavior technicians. The present paper provides a case…

  11. Toward Proper Specification of the Effects of Leader Punitive Behavior: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Thomas S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested the impact of leader punitive behavior on employee satisfaction in 457 hospital employees. Controlling for leader reward behavior, there was no direct positive effect of leader punitive behavior, and no moderating impact of role ambiguity. Discusses the importance of considering spuriousness in leader punitive behavior research. (WAS)

  12. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  13. Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement for Problem Behavior during Functional Communication Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsdell, April S.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Kahng, Sung Woo

    2000-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing problem behavior of 5 individuals with severe mental retardation and in strengthening alternative behavior. Four participants shifted response allocation from problem to alternative behavior as the schedule of reinforcement of problem behavior became more…

  14. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  15. Gateway Health Behaviors in College Students: Investigating Transfer and Compensation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E.; Min-Sun, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether health behavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other health behaviors. Participants and Methods: The authors looked at transfer and…

  16. Sublethal landrin toxicity: Behavioral and physiological effects on captive vultures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forthman-Quick, D.L.; Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been proposed to reduce consumption of California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) eggs by ravens (Corvus corax). Although landrin has induced aversions in ravens and other birds, no data were available on behavioral and physiological effects of landrin on condors, non-target birds that might consume treated eggs. Because condors are endangered, we selected taxonomically related surrogates to approximate the effects on condors of acute oral doses of landrin. Seven black vultures (Coragyps atratus), 2 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 2 king vultures (Sarcoramphus papa) received landrin and placebo treatments 1 week apart. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored at zero, 3, and 24 hours posttreatment, and behavioral observations were made for 2 hours posttreatment. The doses tested were nonlethal, and ChE levels approached normal within 24 hours after treatment. Only the frequency of vomiting differed statistically between the placebo and landrin treatment. We conclude that with appropriate precautions, landrin can be used in applications of CTA to discourage consumption of condor eggs by ravens, while posing no apparent risk to reintroduced condors.

  17. The Effect of Impingement on Transitional Behavior in Underexpanded Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Nowak, Robert J.; Alderfer, David W.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation into the development of flow unsteadiness in impinging axisymmetric underexpanded jets has been conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The study has examined the effect of an impingement target placed at various distances and angles on transitional behavior of such jets. Two nozzles, with exit Mach numbers of 1.0 and 2.6, were used in this investigation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence of nitric oxide (NO PLIF) has been used to identify flow unsteadiness and to image transitional and turbulent flow features. Measurements of the location of the onset of various degrees of unsteady flow behavior have been made using these PLIF images. Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons are presented to demonstrate the observed effects of impingement and flow parameters on the process of the transition to turbulence. The presence of the impingement target was found to significantly shorten the distance to transition to turbulence by up to a factor of approximately three, with closer targets resulting in slightly shorter distance to transition and turbulence. The location at which the flow first exhibits unsteadiness was found to have a strong dependence on the presence and location of key flow structures. This paper presents quantitative results on transition criteria for free and impinging jets.

  18. Breath Alcohol Estimation Training: Behavioral Effects and Predictors of Success

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth R.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Liguori, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) estimation training has been effective in increasing estimation accuracy in social drinkers. Predictors of estimation accuracy may identify populations to target for training, yet potential predictors typically are not evaluated. In addition, the therapeutic efficacy of estimation training as a preventive strategy for problematic drinking is unknown. Methods: Forty-six social drinkers with a recent binge history were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group (n = 23 per group). In each of three sessions (pretraining, training, testing), participants consumed alcohol (0.32, 0.24, 0.16 and 0.08 g/kg, in random order) every 30 min (total dose: 0.8 g/kg). Participants provided five BrAC estimates within 3 h of alcohol administration. The intervention group, but not control group, received internal and external training. During testing, participants provided BrAC estimates, but received no feedback. Participants returned for two follow-up visits to complete self-report measures. Results: BrAC estimation training improved intervention group estimation accuracy within the laboratory. Together, training, low trait anxiety and low risk expectancy predicted high testing accuracy. There were no significant group differences in subsequent alcohol consumption, behavior under the influence or risk expectancy regarding potentially hazardous behaviors. Conclusion: BrAC estimation training is effective in the laboratory but may not translate into naturalistic settings. PMID:23695976

  19. Behavioral activating effects of adrafinil in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Woehrlé, F; Schneider, M; Muggenburg, B A; Murphey, H L; Callahan, H; Milgram, N W

    2000-06-01

    Adrafinil, a vigilance enhancing pharmaceutical, was administered to aged dogs for 14 consecutive days at doses of 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg using a crossover design. The effects on spontaneous behavior in a 10-min canine open-field test were systematically recorded every fourth day, starting with day 1 of treatment. The open field tests were given 2 or 10 h following oral administration of capsules containing either adrafinil or lactose, the placebo control. Adrafinil caused an increase in locomotor activity at the three highest doses at both the 2- and 10-h intervals and during both the first (days 1 and 5) and second treatment week (days 9 and 13). Adrafinil also caused a transient increase in directed sniffing. At the highest dose level, adrafinil caused a decrease in urination frequency. The increased locomotion was generally unaccompanied by stereotypical behavior in the test session. There was some variability; a subpopulation of animals showed either no effect, or decreased locomotion. The individual differences were correlated with changes in serum levels of adrafinil 10 h following treatment.

  20. Effects of edge restraint on slab behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guice, L.K.

    1986-02-01

    This study was performed in conjunction with a Federal Emergency Management Agency program to plan, design, and construct keyworker blast shelters which would be used in high-risk areas of the country during and after a nuclear attack. The shelters considered in this study were box-type structures in which damage is much more likely to occur in the roof slab than in the walls or floor. In this part of the program, the effect of edge restraint on slab behavior was investigated. The primary objective was to determine the effects of partial rotational restraint on slab strength, ductility, and mechanism of failure. Sixteen one-way, reinforced concrete plate elements were tested in a reaction structure under uniform static water pressure.

  1. Effect of solvent on crystallization behavior of xylitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hongxun; Hou, Baohong; Wang, Jing-Kang; Lin, Guangyu

    2006-04-01

    Effect of organic solvents content on crystallization behavior of xylitol was studied. Solubility and crystallization kinetics of xylitol in methanol-water system were experimentally determined. It was found that the solubility of xylitol at various methanol content all increases with increase of temperature. But it decreases when increasing methanol content at constant temperature. Based on the theory of population balance, the nucleation and growth rates of xylitol in methanol-water mixed solvents were calculated by moments method. From a series of experimental population density data of xylitol gotten from a batch-operated crystallizer, parameters of crystal nucleation and growth rate equations at different methanol content were got by the method of nonlinear least-squares. By analyzing, it was found that the content of methanol had an apparent effect on nucleation and growth rate of xylitol. At constant temperature, the nucleation and growth rate of xylitol all decrease with increase of methanol content.

  2. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  3. The effect of child negative affect on maternal discipline behavior.

    PubMed

    Arnold, E H; O'Leary, S G

    1995-10-01

    The effect of children's negative affect on maternal discipline behavior was evaluated in a sample of 39 children (19 to 41 months old) and their mothers. Mothers were randomly assigned to view a videotape that contained either a high level of child negative affect (NA) or no negative affect (NNA). After viewing the videotape, mothers were observed interacting with their own children in three tasks designed to elicit child misbehavior. Mothers in the NA condition displayed significantly greater overreactivity to child misbehavior; no significant difference in laxness was observed between the two groups of mothers. Children of mothers in the NA condition tended to display more misbehavior during the last two tasks of the interaction. Maternal negative affect received mixed support as one possible mediator of this effect.

  4. Effects of carbaryl on some dopaminergic behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Rigon, A R; Reis, M; Takahashi, R N

    1994-10-01

    1. The effects of acute oral administration of carbaryl (10-80 mg/kg), a carbamate insecticide, on some experimental models for detecting dopaminergic activity were examined in rats. Also, serum biochemical variables following carbaryl treatments were determined. 2. Carbaryl (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly increased the number of apomorphine-induced yawns and at dose of 80 mg/kg it prolonged the duration time of haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Pretreatment with carbaryl failed to affect apomorphine-induced stereotypes. 3. Carbaryl significantly reduced blood cholinesterase activity and elevated blood glucose levels and SGOT and SGPT activities. 4. These results indicate that low oral doses of carbaryl can cause behavioral and toxicological effects in rats.

  5. Effects of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviors: mediating effects of institutional trust and affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Guh, Wei-Yuan; Lin, Shang-Ping; Fan, Chwei-Jen; Yang, Chin-Fang

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study participants were 315 faculty members at 67 public/private universities of technology and vocational colleges in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships between the variables and assess the goodness of fit of the overall model. Organizational justice was positively related to institutional trust and there was an indirect effect of organizational justice on affective commitment through institutional trust. In addition, the relation between institutional trust and affective commitment was positive and affective commitment was shown to have a positive relation to organizational citizenship behaviors. Institutional trust was found to indirectly affect organizational citizenship behaviors through affective commitment. Most importantly, this study suggested a mediating effect of institutional trust and affective commitment on the relation between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications, limitations, and future research were also discussed.

  6. Behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of injected leptin.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Haque, Zeba; Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin is viewed as an important target for developing novel therapeutics for obesity, depression/anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study therefore concerns behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of systemically injected leptin. Pharmacological doses (100 and 500 μg/kg) of leptin injected systemically decreased 24h cumulative food intake and body weight in freely feeding rats and improved acquisition and retention of memory in Morris water maze test. Potential anxiety reducing, hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of the peptide hormone were determined in a separate experiment. Animals injected with 100 or 500 μg/kg leptin were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test 1h later. A significant increase in the number of entries and time passed in open arm of the elevated plus maze in leptin injected animals suggested pronounced anxiety reducing effect. Moreover, circulating levels of leptin correlated significantly with anxiety reducing effects of the peptide hormone. Serum serotonin increased and ghrelin decreased in leptin injected animals and correlated, positively and negatively respectively, with circulating leptin. Corticosterone increased at low dose and levels were normal at higher dose. Serotonin metabolism in the hypothalamus and hippocampus decreased only at higher dose of leptin. The results support a role of leptin in the treatment of obesity, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. It is suggested that hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of leptin can alter treatment efficacy in particularly comorbid conditions.

  7. Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…

  8. Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 Modulates Behavioral Effects of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Laurie J.; Sullivan, Katherine A.; Vallender, Eric J.; Rowlett, James K.; Platt, Donna M.; Miller, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few treatment options for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) exist and more are critically needed. Here, we assessed whether trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a modulator of brain monoamine systems, is involved in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of ethanol and whether it could potentially serve as a therapeutic target. Methods Wild-type (WT) and TAAR1 knockout (KO) mice (75% C57J/BL6 and 25% 129S1/Sv background) were compared in tests of ethanol consumption (two-bottle choice [TBC]), motor impairment (loss of righting reflex, [LORR], locomotor activity) and ethanol clearance (blood ethanol level [BEL]). Results As compared with WT mice, KO mice displayed (1) significantly greater preference for and consumption of ethanol in a TBC paradigm (3%–11% vol/vol escalating over 10 weeks), with no significant difference observed in TBC with sucrose (1%–3%); (2) significantly greater sedative-like effects of acute ethanol (2.0 or 2.5 g/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) manifested as LORR observed at a lower dose and for longer time, with similar BELs and rates of ethanol clearance; and (3) lower cumulative locomotor activity over 60 minutes in response to an acute ethanol challenge (1.0–2.5 g/kg, i.p.). Conclusions The present findings are the first to implicate TAAR1 in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of ethanol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target TAAR1 could potentially reduce alcohol consumption in humans with AUDs. PMID:23861588

  9. The effects of presession attention on problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers.

    PubMed

    McComas, Jennifer J; Thompson, Andrea; Johnson, LeAnne

    2003-01-01

    The effect of presession attention on the later occurrence of problem behavior was examined with elementary-school children with a range of disabilities. Results of analogue functional analyses suggested an escape function, an attention function, or both. Following the analogue functional analyses, the effects of two antecedent conditions (10-min ignore vs. 10-min attention) were compared on problem behavior in subsequent test conditions. For participants who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior, the test condition involved contingent attention for problem behavior. For participants who displayed escape-maintained problem behavior, the test condition involved contingent escape for problem behavior. Results indicated that participants who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior displayed less problem behavior following presession exposure to attention than when ignored. No such effect was found for presession attention on escape-maintained problem behavior. We discuss matching antecedent-based interventions to the results of functional analysis.

  10. The effects of presession attention on problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers.

    PubMed Central

    McComas, Jennifer J; Thompson, Andrea; Johnson, LeAnne

    2003-01-01

    The effect of presession attention on the later occurrence of problem behavior was examined with elementary-school children with a range of disabilities. Results of analogue functional analyses suggested an escape function, an attention function, or both. Following the analogue functional analyses, the effects of two antecedent conditions (10-min ignore vs. 10-min attention) were compared on problem behavior in subsequent test conditions. For participants who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior, the test condition involved contingent attention for problem behavior. For participants who displayed escape-maintained problem behavior, the test condition involved contingent escape for problem behavior. Results indicated that participants who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior displayed less problem behavior following presession exposure to attention than when ignored. No such effect was found for presession attention on escape-maintained problem behavior. We discuss matching antecedent-based interventions to the results of functional analysis. PMID:14596571

  11. Systemic and behavioral effects of intranasal administration of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Laurie L; Hsieh, Heidi; Eppert, Bryan L; Carreira, Vinicius S; Krishan, Mansi; Ingle, Taylor; Howard, Paul C; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Genter, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial properties is widespread. Much of the previous work on the toxicity of AgNPs has been conducted in vitro or following oral or intravenous administration in vivo. Intranasal (IN) instillation of AgNPs mimics inhalation exposure and allows further exploration of the toxicity of these particles via respiratory tract exposure. The present study involved 1) single-dose exposures to assess tissue distribution and toxicity and 2) repeated exposures to assess behavioral effects of IN AgNP exposure (nominally uncoated 25 nm AgNP). AgNP deposition was localized in the liver, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and brain. Decrease cellularity in spleen follicles was observed in treated mice, along with changes in cell number and populations in the spleen. The splenic GSH:GSSG ratio was also reduced following AgNP exposure. Expression of the oxidative stress-responsive gene Hmox1 was elevated in the hippocampus, but not cortex of treated mice, as was the level of HMOX1 protein. Mice receiving 7 days of IN exposure to 50 mg/kg AgNPs exhibited similar learning- and memory-related behaviors to control mice, except that treated mice spent significantly less time in the target quadrant of the Morris Water Maze during the acquisition phase probe trial. These findings indicate systemic distribution and toxicity following IN administration of AgNPs.

  12. Effect of Metal Surface on Molecular Behavior of Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Seiji; Saito, Akio; Hosoya, Kazuhiro

    Study on surface effect of heterogeneous nucleation was investigated using molecular dynamics method with NPT ensemble. Around 1000 water molecules were used and set in a periodic cell. Platinum was selected as material for top and bottom surfaces, since its lattice constant fits closely with ice Ih. Temperature and pressure were set at 250 K and 0. 1 MPa, respectively, for each calculation. Behavior of ice Ih on fcc(111) surface was examined. It was found that the structure of ice remained stable in a case of platinum surface and the structure was destroyed in a case of having a slightly different lattice constant. Behavior of water on Pt surface was also investigated by varying the shape of the surface. Three types of surface were selected, namely, a flat surface, a surface with one projection and a surface with three projections. It was found that, in a case of a flat plate, water next to Pt surface was strongly influenced by the surface and was prevented from forming ice structure. In a case of having one projection, there was a tendency to form an ice structure near the surface. In a case of having three projections, however, the tendency was weakened. Hence, it was concluded that heterogeneous nucleation of water is affected by a lattice constant of the substance as well as the shape of the surface.

  13. Systemic and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Administration of Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Laurie L.; Hsieh, Heidi; Eppert, Bryan L.; Carreira, Vinicius S.; Krishan, Mansi; Ingle, Taylor; Howard, Paul C.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Genter, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial properties is widespread. Much of the previous work on the toxicity of AgNPs has been conducted in vitro or following oral or intravenous administration in vivo. Intranasal (IN) instillation of AgNPs mimics inhalation exposure and allows further exploration of the toxicity of these particles via respiratory tract exposure. The present study involved 1) single-dose exposures to assess tissue distribution and toxicity and 2) repeated exposures to assess behavioral effects of IN AgNP exposure (nominally uncoated 25 nm AgNP). AgNP deposition was localized in the liver, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and brain. Decrease cellularity in spleen follicles was observed in treated mice, along with changes in cell number and populations in the spleen. The splenic GSH:GSSG ratio was also reduced following AgNP exposure. Expression of the oxidative stress-responsive gene Hmox1 was elevated in the hippocampus, but not cortex of treated mice, as was the level of HMOX1 protein. Mice receiving 7 days of IN exposure to 50 mg/kg AgNPs exhibited similar learning- and memory-related behaviors to control mice, except that treated mice spent significantly less time in the target quadrant of the Morris Water Maze during the acquisition phase probe trial. These findings indicate systemic distribution and toxicity following IN administration of AgNPs. PMID:26340819

  14. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction.

  15. Molecular mechanism: ERK signaling, drug addiction and behavioral effects

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M.; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that results in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. PMID:26809997

  16. Effects of Habitual Anger on Employees’ Behavior during Organizational Change

    PubMed Central

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees’ habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior—mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident’s negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed. PMID:24287849

  17. Effectiveness of Challenging Behavior IHP Objectives in Residential Settings: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Hayden, Mary F.; Lakin, K. Charlie

    1999-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effectiveness of intervention for behavioral objectives in Individualized Habilitation Plans of 130 adults with mental retardation in residential settings. Little evidence of effective intervention was found using three indicators: discontinuation of the behavior objective, change in challenging behavior, and…

  18. Intranasal administration of oxytocin: behavioral and clinical effects, a review.

    PubMed

    Veening, Jan G; Olivier, Berend

    2013-09-01

    The intranasal (IN-) administration of substances is attracting attention from scientists as well as pharmaceutical companies. The effects are surprisingly fast and specific. The present review explores our current knowledge about the routes of access to the cranial cavity. 'Direct-access-pathways' from the nasal cavity have been described but many additional experiments are needed to answer a variety of open questions regarding anatomy and physiology. Among the IN-applied substances oxytocin (OT) has an extensive history. Originally applied in women for its physiological effects related to lactation and parturition, over the last decade most studies focused on their behavioral 'prosocial' effects: from social relations and 'trust' to treatment of 'autism'. Only very recently in a microdialysis study in rats and mice, the 'direct-nose-brain-pathways' of IN-OT have been investigated directly, implying that we are strongly dependent on results obtained from other IN-applied substances. Especially the possibility that IN-OT activates the 'intrinsic' OT-system in the hypothalamus as well needs further clarification. We conclude that IN-OT administration may be a promising approach to influence human communication but that the existing lack of information about the neural and physiological mechanisms involved is a serious problem for the proper understanding and interpretation of the observed effects.

  19. Effect of size on the chaotic behavior of nano resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemansour, Hamed; Miandoab, Ehsan Maani; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat

    2017-03-01

    Present study is devoted to investigate the size effect on chaotic behavior of a micro-electro-mechanical resonator under external electrostatic excitation. Using Galerkin's decomposition method, approximating the actuation force with a new effective lumped model, and neglecting higher order terms in the Taylor-series expansion, a simplified model of the main system is developed. By utilizing the Melnikov's method and based on the new form of the electrostatic force, an expression in terms of the system parameters is developed which can be used to rapidly estimate the chaotic region of the simplified system. Based on the analysis of the simple proposed model, it is shown that the effect of size on chaotic region varies significantly depending on bias voltage. By considering the size effect, it is demonstrated that chaotic vibration initiates at much higher constant voltages than predicted by classical theories; and, in high constant voltages, it is shown that strain gradient theory predicts occurrence of chaos at much lower amplitudes.

  20. Directly Observable Behavioral Effects of Lorcaserin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Serafine, Katherine M.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2015-01-01

    (1R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (lorcaserin) is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treating obesity, and its therapeutic effects are thought to result from agonist activity at serotonin (5-HT)2C receptors. Lorcaserin has affinity for other 5-HT receptor subtypes, although its activity at those subtypes is not fully described. The current study compared the behavioral effects of lorcaserin (0.0032–32.0 mg/kg) to the effects of other 5-HT receptor selective agonists in rats (n = 8). The 5-HT2C receptor selective agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP, 0.032–1.0 mg/kg) and lorcaserin induced yawning which was attenuated by the 5-HT2C receptor selective antagonist 6-chloro-5-methyl-N-(6-[(2-methylpyridin-3-yl)oxy]pydidin-3-yl)indoline-1-carboxamide (1.0 mg/kg). The 5-HT2A receptor selective agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (0.1–3.2 mg/kg) induced head twitching, which was attenuated by the 5-HT2A receptor selective antagonist R-(+)-2,3-dimethoxyphenyl-1-[2-(4-piperidine)-methanol] (MDL 100907, 0.01 mg/kg), lorcaserin (3.2 mg/kg), and mCPP (3.2 mg/kg). In rats pretreated with MDL 100907 (1.0 mg/kg), lorcaserin also induced head twitching. At larger doses, lorcaserin produced forepaw treading, which was attenuated by the 5-HT1A receptor selective antagonist N-(2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (0.178 mg/kg). While the behavioral effects of lorcaserin in rats are consistent with it having agonist activity at 5-HT2C receptors, these data suggest that at larger doses it also has agonist activity at 5-HT2A and possibly 5-HT1A receptors. Mounting evidence suggests that 5-HT2C receptor agonists might be effective for treating drug abuse. A more complete description of the activity of lorcaserin at 5-HT receptor subtypes will facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate its therapeutic effects. PMID:26384326

  1. Chronic caffeine produces sexually dimorphic effects on amphetamine-induced behavior, anxiety and depressive-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Sarah M; Townsend, Shannon E; Dixon, Rushell S; Hickman, Emma T; Lee, Sabrina M

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine consumption has been increasing rapidly in adolescents; however, most research on the behavioral effects of caffeine has been conducted in adults. Two experiments were conducted in which adolescent male and female rats were treated with a moderate dose of caffeine (0.25 g/l) in their drinking water beginning on P26-28. In the first experiment, animals were maintained on caffeinated drinking water or normal tap water for 14 days and were then tested for behavioral and striatal c-Fos response to amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg). In the second experiment, rats were maintained on caffeinated drinking water or normal tap water beginning on P28 and were tested for novel object recognition, anxiety in the light/dark test (L/D) and elevated plus maze (EPM), and depressive like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) beginning on the 14th day of caffeine exposure. Caffeine decreased amphetamine-induced rearing in males, but had no effect in females; however, this behavioral effect was not accompanied by changes in striatal c-Fos, which was increased by amphetamine but not altered by caffeine. No effects of caffeine were observed on novel object recognition or elevated plus maze behavior. However, in the L/D test, there was a sex by caffeine interaction on time spent in the light driven by a caffeine-induced increase in light time in the males but not the females. On the pretest day of the FST, sex by caffeine interactions were observed for swimming and struggling; caffeine decreased struggling behavior and increased swimming behavior in males and caffeine-treated females demonstrated significantly more struggling and significantly less swimming than caffeine-treated males. A similar pattern was observed on the test day in which caffeine decreased immobility overall and increased swimming. These data reveal sex dependent effects of caffeine on behavior in adolescent rats.

  2. Effect of different management systems on rutting behavior and behavioral repertoire of housed Maghrebi male camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, Davide; Aubé, Lydiane; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Mohamed, Hammadi

    2014-06-01

    Camel management has been changing in recent years from an extensive to a semi-intensive or intensive system, particularly for breeding bulls and dairy dromedary camels. Captivity may affect animal welfare, and low libido is the major complaint for housed breeding bulls. Since welfare status could also affect reproductive performance, the aim of this study was to evaluate different management practices on behavior, particularly on sexual behavior, and to identify some behavioral needs of male dromedary camels reared for semen collection. The effects of the following management systems on their behavior were compared: (i) traditional: housing in a single stall for 24 h (H24), (ii) housing in a single stall for 23 h with 1 h free in the paddock (H23), and (iii) housing in a single stall for 22 h and 30 min with 1 h paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). During the trial, blood cortisol concentrations were assessed and camels were filmed daily for 30 min in the mornings and during a female passage in the evenings. Videos were analyzed in order to fill out a focal sampling ethogram and to score sexual behavior. As a result, there were no differences between the H24 and H23 systems, whereas ExF had a significant positive impact on their sexual behavior score and behavioral repertoire, further reducing cortisol levels. Overall, it seems that male dromedary camel welfare status improves when their behavioral needs for social interaction and movement are satisfied.

  3. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement.

  4. The Effect of Damaged Vehicles Evacuation on Traffic Flow Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Ismaili, Assia Alaoui

    The effect of the damaged car evacuation on the traffic flow behavior is investigated, in the one-dimensional deterministic Nagel-Schreckenberg model, using parallel dynamics. A realistic model applied to the cars involved in collisions is considered. Indeed, in this model we suppose that the damaged cars must be removed from the ring with a probability Pexit. This investigation enables us to understand how the combination of the two probabilities, namely Pcol and Pexit, acts on density and current. It is found that the current and density at the steady state, depend strongly on the initial density of cars in the ring. However, for the intermediate initial density ρi, the current J decreases when increasing either Pexit and/or Pcol. While, for high initial density, J increases passes through a maximum and decreases for large values of Pexit. Furthermore, the current can decrease or increase with the collision probability depending on the initial density.

  5. EFFECTS OF INTERVIEWER BEHAVIOR ON ACCURACY OF CHILDREN'S RESPONSES

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, Jessica; Wilder, David A; Kondash, Jennifer; Boyle, Megan; Compton, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that certain interviewer behaviors can evoke inaccurate answers by children. In the current study, we examined the effects of approving and disapproving statements on the accuracy of 3 children's answers to questions in an interview (Experiment 1). We then evaluated 3 questioning techniques that may be used by interviewers during a forensic interview in which a child provides eyewitness testimony (Experiment 2). All participants responded with more inaccurate answers when approving statements followed inaccurate information and disapproving statements followed accurate information in Experiment 1. During Experiment 2, 1 participant responded most inaccurately when she was requestioned after providing an initial answer, whereas the remaining 2 participants responded most inaccurately when the interviewer provided cowitness information and suggestive questions. PMID:21941387

  6. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  7. Positive Behavior Interventions: The Issue of Sustainability of Positive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Mooney, Mary; Tracey, Danielle; Barker, Katrina; Power, Anne; Dobia, Brenda; Chen, Zhu; Schofield, Jill; Whitefield, Phillip; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, positive behavior interventions have resulted in improvement of school behavior and academic gains in a range of school settings worldwide. Recent studies identify sustainability of current positive behavior intervention programs as a major concern. The purpose of this article is to identify future direction for effective…

  8. Autism and Externalizing Behaviors: Buffering Effects of Parental Emotion Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Berg, Jessica L.; Zurawski, Megan E.; King, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental emotion coaching and externalizing behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD often exhibit externalizing behaviors, particularly emotionally driven externalizing behaviors, at a higher rate than their typically developing peers. An…

  9. The Effects of Television Violence on Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Haejung; Comstock, George

    1994-01-01

    Presents discussion of various studies of the effect of television on aggressive behavior. Argues for a positive and significant correlation between television violence and aggressive behavior. Performs additional tests to solidify conclusions. Provides substantive interpretation. (HB)

  10. The Good Behavior Game: A Classroom-Behavior Intervention Effective across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Julene D.; Houlihan, Daniel; Wanzek, Megan; Jenson, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Few classroom behavioral interventions have been thoroughly studied using culturally and linguistically diverse populations, international student populations, or those from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Yet, having such tools for school psychologists and teachers is critical for behavior management in the classroom. One important exception…

  11. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  12. The Effects of a Peer-Mediated Positive Behavior Support Program on Socially Appropriate Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Lynnette; Young, K. Richard; Marchant, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the results of aligning functional behavioral assessment (FBA) information with positive behavior support plans (PBS plans) designed with consideration for teacher acceptability. The independent variable had the three major components of a package, including assessment and planning (FBA), training (teachers, students, and…

  13. The effects of fixed electrical charge on chondrocyte behavior.

    PubMed

    Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Pumberger, Matthias; Casper, Michelle E; Shogren, Kristin; Giuliani, Melissa; Ruesink, Terry; Hefferan, Theresa E; Currier, Bradford L; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    In this study we have compared the effects of negative and positive fixed charges on chondrocyte behavior in vitro. Electrical charges have been incorporated into oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) using small charged monomers such as sodium methacrylate (SMA) and (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl)-trimethyl ammonium chloride (MAETAC) to produce negatively and positively charged hydrogels, respectively. The physical and electrical properties of the hydrogels were characterized by measuring and calculating the swelling ratio and zeta potential, respectively. Our results revealed that the properties of these OPF modified hydrogels varied according to the concentration of charged monomers. Zeta potential measurements demonstrated that the electrical properties of the OPF hydrogel surfaces changed on incorporation of SMA and MAETAC and that these changes in electrical properties were dose-dependent. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the hydrogel surface composition. To assess the effects of surface properties on chondrocyte behavior primary chondrocytes isolated from rabbit ears were seeded as a monolayer on top of the hydrogels. We demonstrated that the cells remained viable over 7 days and began to proliferate while seeded on top of the hydrogels. Collagen type II staining was positive in all samples, however, the staining intensity was higher on negatively charged hydrogels. Similarly, glycosaminoglycan production was significantly higher on negatively charged hydrogels compared with a neutral hydrogel. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed up-regulation of collagen type II and down-regulation of collagen type I on the negatively charged hydrogels. These findings indicate that charge plays an important role in establishing an appropriate environment for chondrocytes and, hence, in the engineering of cartilage. Thus, further investigations into charged hydrogels for cartilage tissue

  14. Effects of an Interdependent Group Contingency on the Transition Behavior of Middle School Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Renee O; Haydon, Todd; McCoy, Dacia; Howard, Andrea

    2017-04-06

    An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three classes of students, and the dependent variable was the percentage of students ready to begin class at the appropriate time. Data revealed significant improvements in student behavior, providing support for implementation of group contingencies for students with EBDs in alternative educational settings and an example of feasible procedures and data collection methods. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Treatment effectiveness of a brief behavioral intervention for preschool disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Marni E; Butler, Ashley M; Dempsey, Jack; Chapman, Stephanie G

    2013-09-01

    Parent management training is an evidence-based treatment for disruptive behavior. However, the number of treatment sessions can be high, contributing to high attrition rates. The purpose of this study was to examine post-treatment, 6-month, and 1-year treatment outcomes of the Brief Behavioral Intervention. One hundred twenty children aged 2-6.5 years demonstrating clinically significant disruptive behavior were referred to an outpatient clinic for treatment and participated in the study. Attrition was below reported rates in the literature. Significant decreases in child disruptive behavior and parent stress were found from pre-to-post intervention, and improvements were maintained at follow-ups. Significant pre-to-post intervention teacher reported decreases in behavior were reported.

  16. Effects of dronabinol on morphine-induced dopamine-related behavioral effects in animals.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Abe, Minako; Udagawa, Yuya; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2012-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of dronabinol, a United States FDA-approved synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, on morphine (a prototypic μ-opioid receptor agonist)-induced dopamine-related behaviors in animals. Dronabinol suppressed the rewarding effects of morphine in rats and its emetic effects in ferrets. Furthermore, the morphine-induced increase in dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens was significantly attenuated by dronabinol, which indicated that the suppressive effects of dronabinol on morphine-induced behaviors are at least in part mediated by regulation of the dopaminergic system. Since cannabinoid receptor agonists have been shown to enhance the antinociceptive effects of morphine, the use of dronabinol as an adjuvant could be useful for preventing the adverse effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists when used to control pain.

  17. A meta-analysis of single-case research on behavior contracts: effects on behavioral and academic outcomes among children and youth.

    PubMed

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D; de Marin, Sharon; Zhang, Nan; Davis, Heather

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize the single-case research (SCR) literature on the use of behavior contracts with children and youth. This study examined the efficacy of behavior contracts on problem behaviors and academic behaviors across 18 SCR studies. Academic and behavioral outcomes were examined for 58 children and youth ages 5 to 21 using the TauU effect size index. Results indicated the overall moderate effect of the use of behavior contracts was ES = .57 (95% confidence interval [CI95] = [0.55, 0.58]) with a range of effects across studies (ES = .27 to ES = 1.00). Moderator analyses indicated that behavior contracts are beneficial for students regardless of grade level, gender, or disability status. Findings suggest that the intervention is more effective in reducing inappropriate behaviors than increasing appropriate behaviors, and that academic outcomes are positively affected by behavior contracting.

  18. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied.

  19. Effects of caregiver-implemented aggression reduction procedure on problem behavior of dogs.

    PubMed

    Echterling-Savage, Kristyn; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D; Miller, L Keith; Savage, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Problem behavior of companion animals poses a threat to caregivers, other targets of problem behavior (e.g., strangers, other nonhuman animals), and those animals engaging in problem behavior. This study examined the effects of an aggression reduction procedure (ARP) on dog problem behavior. After a baseline condition showing caregivers were unsuccessful in reducing dog aggression and the behaviors preceding aggression, caregivers were trained to implement a procedure to address dog problem behavior in relatively simple contexts. Generalization programming then was used to target caregiver plan implementation and dog problem behavior in more complex contexts. The ARP effectively reduced dog aggression for all dogs. A slight reduction and increased variability in dog precursor behavior was observed when the ARP was implemented. In addition, caregivers and experts rated the goals, procedures, and effects as acceptable. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Effect of Metasomatic Alteration on Frictional Behavior of Subduction Megathrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirauchi, K. I.; Yamamoto, Y.; Den Hartog, S. A. M.; Spiers, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Along-strike variations in seismicity of subduction megathrusts can be attributed to the frictional properties of the fault-zone material, which is affected by the distribution of weak clays (smectite and illite) within sediments on the incoming plate. In addition, metasomatic alteration of the subducting sediments may result in significant changes in fault strength and slip stability of the megathrust. We examined an exhumed subduction thrust that separates serpentinite from tectonic mélange (argillite) of the Franciscan Complex, central California. The serpentinite represents a cataclastic shear zone, consisting of angular fragments in a fine-grained talc matrix. Talc schist also developed near the fault in beds up to 2 m thick. The argillite away from the fault displays a scaly fabric, composed of illite/muscovite and chlorite, while it is altered near the fault, characterized by the overgrowth of tremolite and minor chlorite along the previous foliation. We determined the frictional characteristics of these samples by performing rotary shear experiments at pore fluid pressures of 40-120 MPa, effective normal stresses (σneff) of 60-180 MPa, temperatures (T) of 20-400°C, and sliding velocities of 0.3-100 μm/s. The serpentinite was frictionally strong (friction coefficient, μ, 0.6) and exhibited velocity strengthening only at 150°C. The talc schist showed a low μ of 0.1-0.2, characterized by velocity-strengthening behavior at all experimental conditions tested. Argillite showed μ ranging from 0.4 to 0.6 with increasing T and σneff and a transition from velocity strengthening to velocity weakening behavior as T increased above 300°C. The tremolite schist had a weaker normal-stress dependence of μ than argillite, with μ of 0.4-0.5 and a velocity strengthening to velocity weakening transition occurring at 400°C. We propose that intense fluid-rock interactions took place during movement of the investigated fault. The serpentinite-argillite contact is

  1. Effect of Reduced Brace Section on Behavior of SCBF Bracings

    SciTech Connect

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Ahlehagh, Sanaz

    2008-07-08

    Energy dissipation in concentrically braced frames is achieved by successive cycles of inelastic buckling in compression and yielding in tension and force controlled elements, such as beams, columns and connections should remain elastic to ensure the gravity load resistance of the frame. Braces are usually designed for compression which results section areas that are more than required by tension, while due to tension action of brace the connections and other members should be designed for tensile strength of brace element. In chevron braced frames, the beams in bracing frame should possess adequate strength to resist the unbalanced vertical forces due to unequal axial capacity of braces in tension and compression. This result in very big size beams, much stronger than would be required for other brace configurations. In this paper effect of Reduced Brace Section on behavior of displacement control braces, which intend to decrease the difference between tensile and post-buckling strength of braces, is described. Decreasing area of the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will result in a reduction in tensile yielding capacity of the brace while it's buckling load and post buckling behavior is not affected significantly. Tensile yielding force is related to the reduced area of the brace while its post yielding tensile capacity is also related to the length of the reduced section. Minimum change in buckling and post buckling response was derived from the proposed arrangements of reduced sections. Linear and nonlinear response of the reduced section braces in tension and compression is studied by analytical methods under monotonic and cyclic loading. Braces with reduced section are considered as a type of balanced bracing which results smaller design forces for gusset plates and beams in chevron bracings.

  2. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy*

    PubMed Central

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). CONCLUSIONS: Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients. PMID:22279481

  3. Effect of Reduced Brace Section on Behavior of SCBF Bracings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Ahlehagh, Sanaz

    2008-07-01

    Energy dissipation in concentrically braced frames is achieved by successive cycles of inelastic buckling in compression and yielding in tension and force controlled elements, such as beams, columns and connections should remain elastic to ensure the gravity load resistance of the frame. Braces are usually designed for compression which results section areas that are more than required by tension, while due to tension action of brace the connections and other members should be designed for tensile strength of brace element. In chevron braced frames, the beams in bracing frame should possess adequate strength to resist the unbalanced vertical forces due to unequal axial capacity of braces in tension and compression. This result in very big size beams, much stronger than would be required for other brace configurations. In this paper effect of Reduced Brace Section on behavior of displacement control braces, which intend to decrease the difference between tensile and post-buckling strength of braces, is described. Decreasing area of the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will result in a reduction in tensile yielding capacity of the brace while it's buckling load and post buckling behavior is not affected significantly. Tensile yielding force is related to the reduced area of the brace while its post yielding tensile capacity is also related to the length of the reduced section. Minimum change in buckling and post buckling response was derived from the proposed arrangements of reduced sections. Linear and nonlinear response of the reduced section braces in tension and compression is studied by analytical methods under monotonic and cyclic loading. Braces with reduced section are considered as a type of balanced bracing which results smaller design forces for gusset plates and beams in chevron bracings.

  4. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  5. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (^56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (^60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to ^56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  6. Testing Causal Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolan, C V; Geels, L; Vink, J M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Neale, M C; Bartels, M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to parents and offspring which increase smoking as well as problem behaviors. Here, we examined the associations between parental SDP and mother rated offspring externalizing and internalizing behaviors (rated by the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3) at age three in a population-based sample of Dutch twins (N = 15,228 pairs). First, as a greater effect of maternal than of paternal SDP is consistent with a causal effect of maternal SDP, we compared the effects of maternal and paternal SDP. Second, as a beneficial effect of quitting smoking before pregnancy is consistent with the causal effect, we compared the effects of SDP in mothers who quit smoking before pregnancy, and mothers who continued to smoke during pregnancy. All mothers were established smokers before their pregnancy. The results indicated a greater effect of maternal SDP, compared to paternal SDP, for externalizing, aggression, overactive and withdrawn behavior. Quitting smoking was associated with less externalizing, overactive behavior, aggression, and oppositional behavior, but had no effect on internalizing, anxious depression, or withdrawn behavior. We conclude that these results are consistent with a causal, but small, effect of smoking on externalizing problems at age 3. The results do not support a causal effect of maternal SDP on internalizing behaviors.

  7. Effects of a group rational-emotive behavior therapy program on the Type A behavior pattern.

    PubMed

    Möller, A T; Botha, H C

    1996-06-01

    A sample of 44 male Type A insurance representatives, selected by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 22) and a delayed treatment control group (n = 22). The treatment group participated in 9 weekly sessions of group Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and were followed up after 10 weeks. After the control period, the delayed treatment control group received the same treatment program. Repeated measurements were obtained by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, Jenkins Activity Survey, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and Type A Cognitive Questionnaire. Self and spouse/friend ratings of Type A behavior were obtained by means of the Bortner Rating Scale. Analysis indicated that, compared to the control condition, the therapy significantly reduced the intensity of Type A behavior and its time urgency component. These improvements were maintained at follow-up and were accompanied by self-reports of significant positive changes in Type A behavior and irrational beliefs.

  8. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes.

  9. Infrared photometric behavior and opposition effect of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erard, S.; Bibring, J-P.; Drossart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Although the instrument wasn't designed for this purpose, data from the imaging spectrometer ISM may be used for studying photometric variations of Mars reflectance, that are related to the surface materials and aerosols physical properties. ISM flew aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft which orbited Mars from January to March, 1989. About 40,000 spectra were acquired in 128 channels ranging from 0.76 to 3.16 micro-m, with a spatial resolution of 25 km and a signal-to-noise ratio ranging up to 1000. Analysis of the results leads to the following conclusions: width variations of the opposition surge can be related to differences in porosity or grain size distribution on the various domains, with little or no effect from suspended dust. As the biggest effects are observed on dark and bright materials, intermediate behaviors on average-bright regions cannot result from a mixing process, but are more likely to come from either cementation processes or modification of the grain size distribution under the influence of wind, which under Martian conditions preferentially removes the biggest particles. Thus, a surface dust consisting in big bright and small dark grains could explain the observations.

  10. Effects of embryonic methylmercury exposure on larval behavior of mummichogs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, T.; Weis, J.S.; Weis, P.

    1995-12-31

    Fundulus heteroclitus embryos were exposed to 5 and 10 ug/l meHg throughout development. Larvae were maintained in clean seawater and tested regularly for prey capture and predator avoidance. Experimentals captured significantly fewer prey (Artemia nauplii) than controls, although differences disappeared after about one week. However, 2-wk posthatch larvae showed significantly more miscues than controls. Differences were seen between controls from different populations. Fish from Hg-polluted Piles Creek (Linden NJ) which have impaired predation as adults, showed higher prey capture rate as larvae, although they exhibited more miscues than the reference population (from East Hampton, NY). Differences were also seen in the response to meHg: Piles Creek fish, which were previously found to be more resistant to teratogenic effects of higher concentrations of meHg, appeared to be more resistant than the reference population to these behavioral effects as well. In other studies, meHg-exposed larvae (from the reference population) swam greater distances than controls in a test of swimming performance. This difference also disappeared over time. Despite their increased swimming performance, exposed larvae were more vulnerable to predation by the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, due perhaps to their higher overall level of activity.

  11. Aging and the Effects of Exploratory Behavior on Spatial Memory.

    PubMed

    Varner, Kaitlin M; Dopkins, Stephen; Philbeck, John W

    2016-03-01

    The present research examined the effect of encoding from multiple viewpoints on scene recall in a group of younger (18-22 years) and older (65-80 years) adults. Participants completed a visual search task, during which they were given the opportunity to examine a room using two sets of windows that partitioned the room differently. Their choice of window set was recorded, to determine whether an association between these choices and spatial memory performance existed. Subsequently, participants were tested for spatial memory of the domain in which the search task was completed. Relative to younger adults, older adults demonstrated an increased tendency to use a single set of windows as well as decreased spatial memory for the domain. Window-set usage was associated with spatial memory, such that older adults who relied more heavily on a single set of windows also had better performance on the spatial memory task. These findings suggest that, in older adults, moderation in exploratory behavior may have a positive effect on memory for the domain of exploration.

  12. Behavioral effects of congenital ventromedial prefrontal cortex malformation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurological and psychiatric sequelae stemming from focal cortical malformation of the left vmPFC. Case Presentation B.W.'s behavior has been characterized through extensive review Patience of clinical and personal records along with behavioral and neuropsychological testing. A central feature of the behavioral profile is severe antisocial behavior. He is aggressive, manipulative, and callous; features consistent with psychopathy. Other problems include: egocentricity, impulsivity, hyperactivity, lack of empathy, lack of respect for authority, impaired moral judgment, an inability to plan ahead, and poor frustration tolerance. Conclusions The vmPFC has a profound contribution to the development of human prosocial behavior. B.W. demonstrates how a congenital lesion to this cortical region severely disrupts this process. PMID:22136635

  13. Effects of Check & Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of Check & Connect (C&C) in a randomly assigned sample of students who were all receiving Communities in Schools (CIS) services. The research questions for the study include: Are there differences in attendance, academics, and behavior for CIS students who also receive C&C compared to…

  14. Effects of the Good Behavior Game on classwide off-task behavior in a high school basic algebra resource classroom.

    PubMed

    Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John; Muething, Colin S; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on classwide off-task behavior in two ninth-grade basic algebra resource classes. Ten students with a variety of disabilities, in two classrooms, and their special education resource teacher participated in this study. A reversal design was employed, in which the special education teacher implemented GBG compared to typical practice-algebra readiness instruction. Results showed that classwide off-task behavior decreased in the GBG conditions compared to the baseline and reversal conditions. Fidelity measures indicated that the teacher implemented GBG with fidelity. Students and the teacher rated GBG favorably. Overall findings support the use of GBG for reducing classwide off-task behavior. Implications for practice and future research directions are presented.

  15. The effects of behavioral modification based on client center program to health behaviors among obese university students.

    PubMed

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Malarat, Anan

    2013-10-08

    The objectives of this research were to examine the effectiveness of Health Behavioral Modification based on the Client Center Program (HBMCCP) and to study behavioral change in relation to self - efficacy, self- regulation, self-care behaviors and body weight. The sample was 59 undergraduate students, who were selected by cluster random sampling. 29 participated in the HBMCCP for 8 weeks, and were followed up 4 weeks after the program, and 30 students in the control group. Data was collected 3 times, before, immediately after and 4 weeks after the program, by 6 scale - questionnaires which had high reliability of Cronbach's alpha-coefficient between .81 to.94. The stratified variables were psycho-social variables, being a positive attitude towards health behavior and social support. Data were analyzed by MANOVA and ANCOVA. Results showed that 1) Obese students in the experimental group with HBMCCP had self - efficacy, self- regulation and self-care behavior at immediately after and 4 weeks later program significantly higher scores than before the program (p<0.000). For body weights at immediately after program were significantly lower scores than before the program (p=0.02), 2) Obese students in the program had self - efficacy, self- regulation and self-care behavior scores at immediately after and 4 weeks after the program significantly higher than obese students in the control group (p=0.009) and significantly lower body weights than obese students in the control group (p=0.026), and 3) No three - way interaction among positive attitude towards health behavior, social support and the program was found, although there was a two- way interaction between positive attitude towards health behavior and the program (p=0.001) and effect size=0.272.

  16. The Effects of Behavioral Modification Based on Client Center Program to Health Behaviors among Obese University Students

    PubMed Central

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Malarat, Anan

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to examine the effectiveness of Health Behavioral Modification based on the Client Center Program (HBMCCP) and to study behavioral change in relation to self – efficacy, self- regulation, self-care behaviors and body weight. The sample was 59 undergraduate students, who were selected by cluster random sampling. 29 participated in the HBMCCP for 8 weeks, and were followed up 4 weeks after the program, and 30 students in the control group. Data was collected 3 times, before, immediately after and 4 weeks after the program, by 6 scale – questionnaires which had high reliability of Cronbach’s alpha-coefficient between .81 to .94. The stratified variables were psycho-social variables, being a positive attitude towards health behavior and social support. Data were analyzed by MANOVA and ANCOVA. Results showed that 1) Obese students in the experimental group with HBMCCP had self – efficacy, self- regulation and self-care behavior at immediately after and 4 weeks later program significantly higher scores than before the program (p<0.000). For body weights at immediately after program were significantly lower scores than before the program (p=0.02), 2) Obese students in the program had self – efficacy, self- regulation and self-care behavior scores at immediately after and 4 weeks after the program significantly higher than obese students in the control group (p=0.009) and significantly lower body weights than obese students in the control group (p=0.026), and 3) No three - way interaction among positive attitude towards health behavior, social support and the program was found, although there was a two-way interaction between positive attitude towards health behavior and the program (p=0.001) and effect size=0.272. PMID:24373262

  17. Effects of Dark Brooders on Behavior and Fearfulness in Layers

    PubMed Central

    Riber, Anja B.; Guzman, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. Heat is normally provided by use of heating lamps or whole-house heating, but an alternative is dark brooders, i.e. horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The effects of providing layer chicks with dark brooders during the brooding period on behavior and fearfulness were investigated. Brooders resulted in chicks showing less locomotive activity, feather pecking and fleeing. Also, a long-term reduction of fearfulness in brooder birds was found. Results support the suggestion that rearing with dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing some of the major welfare problems in layers. Abstract Chicks require heat to maintain body temperature during the first weeks after hatch. This may be provided by dark brooders; i.e., horizontal heating elements equipped with curtains. The objective was to test effects of rearing layer chicks with dark brooders on time budget and fearfulness. Behavioral observations were performed during the first six weeks of age. Three different fear tests were conducted when the birds were age 3–6, 14–15 and 26–28 weeks. During the first four days, brooder chicks rested more than control chicks whereas they spent less time drinking, feather pecking and on locomotion (p ≤ 0.009). On days 16, 23, 30 and 42, brooder chicks spent less time on feather pecking, locomotion and fleeing (p ≤ 0.01) whereas foraging and dust bathing occurred more often on day 42 (p ≤ 0.032). Brooder birds had shorter durations of tonic immobility at all ages (p = 0.0032), moved closer to the novel object at age 15 weeks (p < 0.0001), and had shorter latencies to initiate locomotion in the open-field test at age 28 weeks (p < 0.0001). Results support the suggestion that dark brooders can be a successful method of reducing or preventing fear and feather pecking in layers. PMID:26751482

  18. Thermal Effects on the Bearing Behavior of Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Sandra Polesky

    2001-01-01

    Thermal effects on the pin-bearing behavior of an IM7/PET15 composite laminate are studied comprehensively. A hypothesis presents factors influencing a change in pin-bearing strength with a change in temperature for a given joint design. The factors include the change in the state of residual cure stress, the material properties, and the fastener fit with a change in temperature. Experiments are conducted to determine necessary lamina and laminate material property data for the IM7/PET15 being utilized in this study. Lamina material properties are determined between the assumed stress free temperature of 460 F down to -200 F. Laminate strength properties are determined for several lay-ups at the operating temperatures of 350 F, 70 F, and -200 F. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of a composite laminate subject to compressive loading is developed. Both the resin rich layer located between lamina and the thermal residual stresses present in the laminate due to curing are determined to influence the state of stress significantly. Pin-bearing tests of several lay-ups were conducted to develop an understanding on the effect of temperature changes on the pin-bearing behavior of the material. A computational study investigating the factors influencing pin-bearing strength was performed. A finite element model was developed and used to determine the residual thermal cure stresses in the laminate containing a hole. Very high interlaminar stress concentrations were observed two elements away from the hole boundary at all three operating temperatures. The pin-bearing problem was modeled assuming a rigid frictionless pin and restraining only radial displacements at the hole boundary. A uniform negative pressure load was then applied to the straight end of the model. A solution, where thermal residual stresses were combined with the state of stress due to pin-bearing loads was evaluated. The presence of thermal residual stresses intensified the interlaminar

  19. The Effects of Safety Discrimination Training and Frequent Safety Observations on Safety-Related Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of the present study was to assess the effects of discrimination training only and in combination with frequent safety observations on five participants' safety-related behavior in a simulated office setting. The study used a multiple-baseline design across safety-related behaviors. Across all participants and behavior, safety improved…

  20. Improving Classroom Behavior through Effective Instruction: An Illustrative Program Example Using "SRA FLEX Literacy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, Ronald C.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a strong positive correlation between behavior problems and low academic achievement. Student success and/or failures are in large part determined by how well teachers provide effective instruction to their students. This article overviews key behavior-management approaches related to academic and behavioral success that…

  1. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  2. Behavior Therapy and the Transdermal Nicotine Patch: Effects on Cessation Outcome, Affect, and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinciripini, Paul M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Process and outcome of a smoking cessation program using behavior therapy along (BT) or behavior therapy plus the nicotine patch (BTP) was studied in 64 participants. Abstinence was significantly higher for the BTP group from the end of behavioral treatment (79% vs. 63%) through the three-month follow-up, with the effects weakening at the six- and…

  3. Effective Use of Behavior-Specific Praise: A Middle School Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Todd; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2011-01-01

    One simple and naturalistic strategy shown to have positive effects on both academic and behavioral outcomes is teachers' use of praise statements. Praise statements can be broadly categorized as general praise and behavior-specific praise (BSP). In a general praise statement, a teacher delivers verbal praise without describing the behavior for…

  4. The effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior and noncontingent escape on compliance.

    PubMed

    Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Romaniuk, Cathryn

    2003-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of noncontingent escape and differential negative reinforcement of other behavior in reducing problem behaviors and increasing compliance in 2 children with disabilities. Results showed that both methods reduced problem behavior and increased compliance for both children.

  5. Effects of the "Behavior Education Program" (BEP) on Office Discipline Referrals of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Sandra MacLeod, K.; Rawlings, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The "Behavior Education Program" (BEP; Crone et al., 2004) is a modified check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at risk for more severe problem behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the BEP on problem behavior with 12 elementary school students. Results indicated that the BEP was…

  6. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  7. Documenting the Implementation and Effects of Positive Behavior Support in an Alternative Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolphson, S. Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) is a preventative and proactive system of managing behavior that is being used in the United States and other countries. Positive behavior support has been successfully implemented in typical school settings for students with and without disabilities. However, research documenting the implementation and effects of…

  8. Brief Report: Relative Effectiveness of Different Home-Based Behavioral Approaches to Early Teaching Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.; Corness, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of home-based early behavioral interventions for children (2:6-4:0 years old) with autistic spectrum disorders was studied over 9-10 months. Measures of autistic severity, intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavioral functioning were taken. There was no evidence of recovery from autism. High-intensity behavioral approaches…

  9. The Relationship between Neighborhood Characteristics and Effective Parenting Behaviors: The Role of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly…

  10. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  11. Informant Effects on Behavioral and Academic Associations: A Latent Variable Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konold, Timothy R.; Shukla, Kathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies among informants' ratings of a given child's behavior complicate the study of linkages between child behavior and academic achievement. In the current study, we examined the potential moderating effect of informant type on associations between behavior and two types of achievement in a longitudinal growth model that…

  12. Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Component Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated effects of group behavioral therapy including aerobic exercise, behavioral therapy alone, and aerobic exercise alone on pain and physical and psychological disability among mildly disabled chronic low-back-pain patients (n=96). The combined behavioral therapy and exercise group improved significantly more pretreatment to posttreatment…

  13. The effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior and noncontingent escape on compliance.

    PubMed Central

    Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Romaniuk, Cathryn

    2003-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of noncontingent escape and differential negative reinforcement of other behavior in reducing problem behaviors and increasing compliance in 2 children with disabilities. Results showed that both methods reduced problem behavior and increased compliance for both children. PMID:14596581

  14. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools.

    PubMed

    Flannery, K B; Fenning, P; Kato, M McGrath; McIntosh, K

    2014-06-01

    High school is an important time in the educational career of students. It is also a time when adolescents face many behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges. Current statistics about the behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges faced by adolescents, and the impact on society through incarceration and dropout, have prompted high schools to direct their attention toward keeping students engaged and reducing high-risk behavioral challenges. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS) on the levels of individual student problem behaviors during a 3-year effectiveness trial without random assignment to condition. Participants were 36,653 students in 12 high schools. Eight schools implemented SW-PBIS, and four schools served as comparison schools. Results of a multilevel latent growth model showed statistically significant decreases in student office discipline referrals in SW-PBIS schools, with increases in comparison schools, when controlling for enrollment and percent of students receiving free or reduced price meals. In addition, as fidelity of implementation increased, office discipline referrals significantly decreased. Results are discussed in terms of effectiveness of a SW-PBIS approach in high schools and considerations to enhance fidelity of implementation.

  15. Risky behaviors: effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti.

  16. The effect of altering self-descriptive behavior on self-concept and classroom behavior.

    PubMed

    Lane, J; Muller, D

    1977-09-01

    This research examined the impact of operant reinforcement of positive self-descriptive behavior on the self-concepts and classroom behavior of 60 fifth-grade students. Three groups of 10 male and 10 female low self-concept students wrote a series of eight essays describing their school performance. The first group (P) received written reinforcement for positive self-descriptions of their school performance. The second group (G) received an equal number of reinforcements for general statements. The third group (C) received no reinforcement for written statements. Three areas of self-concept were measured with the Primary Self-Concept Inventory: personal-self, social-self, and intellectual-self. A frequency count was also made of nine classroom behaviors thought to be influenced by self-concept. The P group displayed increases in the frequency of positive self-descriptive statement and in intellectual self-concept but no changes in personal self-concept, social self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors. The G and C groups showed no change in self-description, self-concept, or the nine classroom behaviors.

  17. Effects of Classroom Management Training on Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2013-01-01

    Documentation of classroom disruptions caused by student behavior has steadily increased over the past 70 years. Researchers have theorized that professional development training for teachers slows the disruptions caused by student behavior, allowing all students to learn; however, there is a paucity of research on whether teachers implement the…

  18. Effects of Positive Unified Behavior Support on Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John S.; White, Richard; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2009-01-01

    "Positive Unified Behavior Support" (PUBS) is a school-wide intervention designed to establish uniform attitudes, expectations, correction procedures, and roles among faculty, staff, and administration. PUBS is grounded in the general principles of positive behavior support and represents a straightforward, practical implementation model. When…

  19. Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Romantic Relationships in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…

  20. Some Effects on Human Behavior of Aversive Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Steven D.; And Others

    Two studies were done to examine aggressive behavior in humans. In Experiment One, adults working on a plunger pulling task could receive a 3.5 ma shock at 75% probability every two minutes. The shock was unrelated to their plunger pulling behavior. Subjects could press a toggle switch to deliver electric shock to the experimenter, who was in the…

  1. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  2. Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

  3. Advance Organizers in Secondary Special Education Resource Classrooms: Effects on Student Engagement Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement and appropriate behaviors are essential for effective instruction in secondary special education classrooms. Research suggests that proactive engagement strategies and interventions can have a greater effect on overall classroom behaviors than negative consequences. A single case experiment measured the effects of…

  4. The effects of juvenile capsaicin desensitization in rats: behavioral impairments.

    PubMed

    Petrovszki, Zita; Adam, Gábor; Kekesi, Gabriella; Tuboly, Gábor; Morvay, Zita; Nagy, Endre; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2014-02-10

    Capsaicin desensitization leads to behavioral changes, some of which are related to schizophrenia, but investigations into these effects have been scarce. The goal of this study was to characterize the consequences of juvenile capsaicin desensitization on different functions: acute and inflammation-induced thermal and mechanical sensitivity, urinary bladder capacity and thermoregulation, and also on the potentially schizophrenia-related impairments in sensory-motor gating, motor activity and cognitive functioning. Male Wistar rats desensitized with increasing doses of subcutaneous capsaicin after weaning were investigated. Heat and mechanical pain sensitivity did not change significantly; however, morphine produced a prolonged decrease in the nociceptive response to inflammation in desensitized animals. Ultrasound examination of the bladder revealed enhanced bladder volume in treated animals. Capsaicin-treated animals had higher body temperature at 22 °C in both dark and light periods, and they also showed prolonged hyperthermia in new environmental circumstances. Warm environment induced a profound impairment of thermoregulation in desensitized animals. The treated animals also showed higher levels of activity during the active phase and at both cool and warm temperatures. The amplitude of the responses to auditory stimuli and prepulse inhibition did not differ between the two groups, but the desensitized animals showed learning impairments in the novel object recognition test. These results suggest that juvenile capsaicin desensitization leads to sustained changes in several functions that may be related to schizophrenia. We propose that capsaicin desensitization, together with other interventions, may lead to an improved chronic animal model of schizophrenia.

  5. Photoperiod effects on ethanol hypothermia in behaviorally thermoregulating mice

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, C.S.; Crawshaw, L.I. )

    1989-02-09

    Male mice, maintained on a 12:12 L:D photoperiod (lights on at 7:00, off at 19:00) were injected with 2.6g 7.5% E+OH (in 0.9% NaCl) per kg, or with an equivalent volume of 0.9% NaCl at 24:00, 4:00, 8:00, 12:00, 16:00, and 20:00 hours. Nine mice at each condition were run in tubular temperature gradients (9-40C). Temperature preferences were monitored with an imaging system, and internal temperatures were monitored with implanted telemetry devices. Mean internal temperatures at all 6 times of day for the 40 min period after injection of E+OH (36.0 {plus minus} .1C, range 35.8-36.1C) or NaCl (37.2 {plus minus} .1C, range 37.0-37.4C), an well as mean preferred temperatures for the same 6 times after E+OH (30.6 {plus minus} .2C, range 29.8-31.0C) or NaCl (31.3 {plus minus} .3C, range 30.7-32.1C) showed little difference. This indicates that, in our system, photoperiod exerts but a small effect on the response of behaviorally thermoregulating mice to moderate doses of E+OH.

  6. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  7. Aspartame's effects on behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; McAleer, J E; Rockwell, A C; Granade, C R; Parman, D L; Benoit, C; Quinn, J M

    1996-08-01

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) was administered intraperitoneally to 9 Sprague-Dawley rats partitioned into 2 studies (4 in Study 1 and 5 for a replication in Study 2) over a two-year period using a within-subjects, repeated-measures reversal design. Behavioral thermoregulation was assessed in a cold Skinner Box using 5-sec. exposures of microwave radiation [Specific Absorption Rate = 0.34 Watts/kg/(mW/cm2)] as reinforcing stimuli under a fixed-interval 2-min. schedule of positive reinforcement. Two factorial analyses of variance [5 (doses) x 8 (hours)] indicated that the main effect for the doses of aspartame (2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg, and saline control) was not significant; yet, the interaction (dose x hours) was significant (p < .05). Tentatively, aspartame should not cause an uncomfortable rise in body temperature (as sugar can do) when consumed in common substances such as soft drinks, yogurt, tea, coffee, etc., in doses commensurate with "hedonic" sweetness.

  8. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%–18% O2 at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  9. The lack of behavioral effects of fenbendazole: a medication for pinworm infection.

    PubMed

    Keen, Richard; Macinnis, Mika; Guilhardi, Paulo; Chamberland, Karen; Church, Russell

    2005-03-01

    Pinworm infection in rodent laboratories is common and often treated with fenbendazole, which is effective and has a low toxicity level. However, very little is known about the behavioral effects of the drug. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral effects of fenbendazole on rats tested by using various conditioning and timing procedures. These behavioral effects were examined both between animals (i.e., control versus medicated treatments) and within animals (baseline-treatment-baseline design). Fenbendazole reduced the detection of pinworm eggs, and it had no significant behavioral effects across multiple levels of analysis (e.g., from overall response rates to response patterns to interresponse intervals). All behavioral differences (e.g., discrimination ratios) were a result of task variables. These results suggest that behavioral studies are unlikely to be influenced by fenbendazole treatment given before or during a study.

  10. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  11. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentry, Michael B.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U ˜P1/2˜ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers—and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ—where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U ˜P˜ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  12. An evaluation of persistence of treatment effects during long-term treatment of destructive behavior.

    PubMed

    Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay W; Berg, Wendy K; Lee, John F; Schieltz, Kelly M; Padilla, Yaniz C; Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-09-01

    Eight young children who displayed destructive behavior maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement received long-term functional communication training (FCT). During FCT, the children completed a portion of a task and then touched a communication card attached to a microswitch to obtain brief breaks. Prior to and intermittently throughout FCT, extinction probes were conducted within a withdrawal design in which task completion, manding, and destructive behavior were placed on extinction to evaluate the relative persistence of appropriate and destructive behavior over the course of treatment. FCT continued until appropriate behavior persisted and destructive behavior failed to recur at baseline levels during extinction probes. The completion of FCT was followed by four challenges to the persistence of treatment effects conducted within mixed- or multiple-schedule designs: (a) extended extinction sessions (from 5 to 15 min), (b) introduction of a novel task, (c) removal of the microswitch and communication card, and (d) a mixed schedule of reinforcement in which both appropriate and destructive behavior produced reinforcement. The results showed that although FCT often resulted in quick reductions in destructive behavior and increases in appropriate behavior, destructive behavior often recurred during the extinction probes conducted during the initial treatment. When the effects of treatment persisted during the extinction probes, the remaining challenges to treatment effects resulted in only mild to moderate disruptions in behavior. These results are consistent with the quantitative predictions of behavioral momentum theory and may provide an alternative definition of maintenance as constituting behavioral persistence.

  13. An Evaluation of Persistence of Treatment Effects During Long-Term Treatment of Destructive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay W; Berg, Wendy K; Lee, John F; Schieltz, Kelly M; Padilla, Yaniz C; Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    Eight young children who displayed destructive behavior maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement received long-term functional communication training (FCT). During FCT, the children completed a portion of a task and then touched a communication card attached to a microswitch to obtain brief breaks. Prior to and intermittently throughout FCT, extinction probes were conducted within a withdrawal design in which task completion, manding, and destructive behavior were placed on extinction to evaluate the relative persistence of appropriate and destructive behavior over the course of treatment. FCT continued until appropriate behavior persisted and destructive behavior failed to recur at baseline levels during extinction probes. The completion of FCT was followed by four challenges to the persistence of treatment effects conducted within mixed- or multiple-schedule designs: (a) extended extinction sessions (from 5 to 15 min), (b) introduction of a novel task, (c) removal of the microswitch and communication card, and (d) a mixed schedule of reinforcement in which both appropriate and destructive behavior produced reinforcement. The results showed that although FCT often resulted in quick reductions in destructive behavior and increases in appropriate behavior, destructive behavior often recurred during the extinction probes conducted during the initial treatment. When the effects of treatment persisted during the extinction probes, the remaining challenges to treatment effects resulted in only mild to moderate disruptions in behavior. These results are consistent with the quantitative predictions of behavioral momentum theory and may provide an alternative definition of maintenance as constituting behavioral persistence. PMID:21909168

  14. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  15. Organizational Behavior Change: The Effectiveness of Behavior Modification Techniques with and without Participatory Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Goldstein, Marc B.

    This study examines a naturally occurring experiment in a large urban hospital faced with budget cuts, in which departments were ordered to reduce employees' overtime without jeopardizing service quality. The study focuses on two departments that chose to use behavior modification techniques. In one department (Radiology) the intervention combined…

  16. The effects of chronic treadmill and wheel running on behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Paul R; Fulk, Laura J; Hand, Gregory A; Wilson, Marlene A

    2004-09-03

    In order to better understand the behavioral adaptations induced by physical activity, this set of experiments assessed the effects of two modes of running exercise on a battery of behavioral tests. The effects of 8 weeks of forced treadmill running and voluntary wheel running on behavior measures in the elevated plus maze, open field, social interaction and conditioned freezing paradigms were investigated. Eight weeks of treadmill running did not alter behavior in any test paradigm. Rats given unrestricted access to running wheels (WR) had a lower percent open arm time (6.0+/-2.3%) compared to locked wheel controls (LC) (20.7+/-5.7%) in the elevated plus maze. WR also showed decreased entries into center (0.2+/-0.2) and crossed fewer lines (61.0+/-14.9) in the open field compared to control groups. Both WR and LC groups showed increased social interaction; however, these differences are attributed to housing conditions. The effects of 4 weeks of wheel running on elevated plus maze and open field behavior were also investigated to address the possibility of a temporal effect of exercise on behavior. Four weeks of wheel running produced behavioral changes in the open field similar to those found at 8 weeks, but not in the elevated plus maze suggesting a temporal effect of wheel running on plus maze behavior. The behavioral adaptations found after 4 and 8 weeks of wheel running were not due solely to enriched environment and appear to be indicative of enhanced defensive behavior.

  17. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  18. Rodent Habitat On ISS: Spaceflight Effects On Mouse Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Padmanabhan, S.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011), Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, emphasized the importance of expanding NASA life sciences research to long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The first flight experiment carrying mice, Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1), was launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4, exposing the mice to a total of 37 days in space. Ground control groups were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Mouse health and behavior were monitored for the duration of the experiment via video streaming. Here we present behavioral analysis of two groups of five C57BL/6 female adult mice viewed via fixed camera views compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight (Flt) and Ground Control (GC) mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another, and they quickly learned to anchor themselves using tails and/or paws. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior including the development of organized ‘circling’ or ‘race-tracking’ behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. We quantified the bout frequency, duration and rate of circling with respect to characteristic behaviors observed in the varying stages of the progressive development of circling: flipping utilizing two sides of the

  19. Effects of implementing a token economy on teacher attending behavior.

    PubMed

    Breyer, N L; Allen, G J

    1975-01-01

    After systematic attempts to increase a teacher's positive responding to her first-grade students, a token-economy system was implemented as a "last resort". On-task student behavior and relative frequency of positive and negative teacher comments were systematically observed. Data indicated that institution of the token system was associated with a relatively higher percentage of positive than negative comments. Termination and re-implementation of the token system caused reversals of the teacher's behavior.

  20. Effects of continuous and intermittent reinforcement for problem behavior during functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Worsdell, A S; Iwata, B A; Hanley, G P; Thompson, R H; Kahng, S W

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing problem behavior and in strengthening alternative behavior when FCT was implemented without extinction. Following the completion of functional analyses in which social-positive reinforcement was identified as the maintaining variable for 5 participants' self-injurious behavior (SIB) and aggression, the participants were first exposed to FCT in which both problem behavior and alternative behavior were reinforced continuously (i.e., on fixed-ratio [FR] 1 schedules). During subsequent FCT conditions, the schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior was made more intermittent (e.g., FR 2, FR 3, FR 5, etc.), whereas alternative behavior was always reinforced according to an FR 1 schedule. Results showed that 1 participant's problem behavior decreased and alternative behavior increased during FCT when both behaviors were reinforced on FR 1 schedules. The remaining 4 participants shifted response allocation from problem to alternative behavior as the schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior became more intermittent. These results suggest that individuals might acquire alternative responses during FCT in spite of inconsistencies in the application of extinction, although even small errors in reinforcement may compromise treatment effects.

  1. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapy for PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Candice M.; Fredman, Steffany J.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Resick, Patricia A.; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2015-01-01

    Context Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent condition associated with intimate relationship problems, and intimate relationship factors have been shown to affect individual PTSD treatment outcomes. Objective To compare cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (a manualized couple therapy delivered to patients with PTSD and their significant others to simultaneously treat PTSD symptoms and enhance relationship satisfaction) with a wait-list condition. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled trial of heterosexual and same-sex couples (n=40 couples; n=80 individuals) in which one partner met criteria for PTSD according to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, conducted from 2008 to 2012 in a Department of Veterans Affairs outpatient hospital setting in Boston, Massachusetts, and a university-based research center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Symptoms of PTSD, comorbid conditions, and relationship satisfaction were collected by blinded assessors at baseline, at mid treatment (median, 8.00 weeks [range, 1.71–20.43 weeks] after baseline), and at posttreatment (median, 15.86 weeks [range, 7.14–38.57 weeks] after baseline). An uncontrolled 3-month follow-up (median, 38.21 weeks [range, 28.43–50.57 weeks] after baseline) was also completed. Intervention Couples were randomly assigned to take part in the 15-session cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD protocol immediately (n=20) or were placed on a wait list for the therapy (n=20). Main Outcome Measures Clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity was the primary outcome and was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Intimate relationship satisfaction, assessed with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, patient- and partner-rated PTSD symptoms, and comorbid symptoms were secondary outcomes. Results PTSD symptom severity (score range, 0–136) was significantly more improved in the couple therapy condition than in the wait-list condition (mean change difference, −23

  2. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  3. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. PMID:22114543

  4. The effects of fixed-time escape on inappropriate and appropriate classroom behavior.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rachael D; Higbee, Thomas S

    2010-03-01

    Few studies have explored the effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement on escape-maintained behavior of students in a classroom setting. We measured the effects of an FT schedule on the disruptive and appropriate academic behaviors of 2 junior high students in a public school setting. Results demonstrated that FT escape from tasks resulted in a substantial decrease in disruptive behavior and an increase in time engaged in tasks for both participants.

  5. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Cheatham, Rachel A; Das, Sai Krupa; Hyatt, Raymond R; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lieberman, Harris R; Lerner, Debra; Roberts, Susan B; Saltzman, Edward

    2014-09-01

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the effects of dietary glycemic load (GL) on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss, body weight and eating behavior self-efficacy were measured every six months in overweight adults participating in a 12-mo randomized trial testing energy-restricted diets differing in GL. All food was provided during the first six months and self-selected thereafter. Total mean weight loss did not differ between groups, and GL-level had no significant effect on eating behavior self-efficacy. In the combined cohort, individuals losing the most weight reported improvements in eating behavior self-efficacy, whereas those achieving less weight loss reported decrements in eating behavior self-efficacy. Decrements in eating behavior self-efficacy were associated with subsequent weight regain when diets were self-selected. While GL does not appear to influence eating behavior self-efficacy, lesser amounts of weight loss on provided-food energy restricted diets may deter successful maintenance of weight loss by attenuating improvements in eating behavior self-efficacy.

  6. Reward Sensitivity (Behavioral Activation System), Cognitive, and Metacognitive Control in Gambling Behavior: Evidences From Behavioral, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P300 Effect.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    The present research explored the main factors able to influence the subjects' choices in the case of decisions and distinguish between high- and low-risk decisions. Behavioral responses (Iowa Gambling Task [IGT]), meta-cognitive strategy, and event-related potential (feedback-related negativity [FRN] and P300) effects were used as predictive markers of gambling behavior. Behavioral activation system (BAS)-reward measure was applied to distinguish between high-BAS and low-BAS. It was found that higher-BAS opted in favor of the immediate reward, with a concomitant dysfunctional metacognition of their strategy. Finally, a consistent "reward bias" affected the high-BAS performance reducing the P300 and FRN in response to unexpected (loss) events. The cortical localization (sLORETA) of ERPs showed the contribution by distinct anterior and posterior areas.

  7. Opposite effects of nonapeptide antagonists on paternal behavior in the teleost fish Amphiprion ocellaris.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Ross; Gogola, Joseph; Dodd, Logan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2017-03-17

    The nonapeptides isotocin (IT) and arginine vasotocin (AVT), along with their mammalian homologs oxytocin and arginine vasopressin, are well known regulators of social behaviors across vertebrate taxa. However, little is known about their involvement in paternal care. Here, we measured the effect of an IT and an AVT V1a receptor antagonist on paternal behaviors in the primarily paternal teleost Amphiprion ocellaris. We also measured the effect of the IT receptor antagonist on aggression in dyadic contests between two non-reproductive fish to assess specificity of the effect on paternal behaviors. Individual differences in levels of paternal behaviors (nips, fanning the eggs, and proportion of the time in the nest) were consistent across spawning cycles when no treatments were administered. The IT receptor antagonist severely reduced paternal behaviors but had no effect on aggression, whereas the AVT V1a receptor antagonist increased paternal behaviors. These results support the idea that IT signaling is crucial for the expression of paternal behavior in A. ocellaris. Based on a previous study showing that the AVT V1a antagonist decreases aggression in dyadic contests, we hypothesize that the antagonist enhances paternal behavior indirectly by reducing vigilance and aggression, thereby alleviating effort directed towards other competing behaviors and allowing for the increased expression of paternal behaviors.

  8. Behavioral studies of contaminant effects on aquatic invertebrates: A review of Russian investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nepomnyashchikh, V. A.; DeLonay, V. A.; Little, E.E.; Henshel, D. S.; Bengston, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Studies by Russian scientists have documented significant alterations and impairment of critical behavioral functions in aquatic organisms following exposure to environmental contaminants. Behavioral responses disrupted by sublethal exposure to toxicants are intimately involved in habitat selection, foraging, competition, predator-prey relationships, and reproduction, and are essential to survival. Behavioral responses of benthic invertebrates have received considerable study in Russia. A range of invertebrate taxa have been studied, including leeches, insects, molluscs, plankton, and crustaceans. In addition, aquatic invertebrates exhibit a large number of behavioral responses which are sensitive to contaminant exposure and are easily quantified. Standardized behavioral methodologies for measuring contaminant effects are being developed.

  9. Behavioral and neurobiological effects of deep brain stimulation in a mouse model of high anxiety- and depression-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Schmuckermair, Claudia; Gaburro, Stefano; Sah, Anupam; Landgraf, Rainer; Sartori, Simone B; Singewald, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that high-frequency deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAcb-DBS) may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for individuals suffering from treatment-resistant depression, although the underlying mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. In this study, using a unique mouse model of enhanced depression- and anxiety-like behavior (HAB), we investigated behavioral and neurobiological effects of NAcb-DBS. HAB mice either underwent chronic treatment with one of three different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or received NAcb-DBS for 1 h per day for 7 consecutive days. Animals were tested in established paradigms revealing depression- and anxiety-related behaviors. The enhanced depression-like behavior of HAB mice was not influenced by chronic SSRI treatment. In contrast, repeated, but not single, NAcb-DBS induced robust antidepressant and anxiolytic responses in HAB animals, while these behaviors remained unaffected in normal depression/anxiety animals (NAB), suggesting a preferential effect of NAcb-DBS on pathophysiologically deranged systems. NAcb-DBS caused a modulation of challenge-induced activity in various stress- and depression-related brain regions, including an increase in c-Fos expression in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis in HABs. Taken together, these findings show that the normalization of the pathophysiologically enhanced, SSRI-insensitive depression-like behavior by repeated NAcb-DBS was associated with the reversal of reported aberrant brain activity and impaired adult neurogenesis in HAB mice, indicating that NAcb-DBS affects neuronal activity as well as plasticity in a defined, mood-associated network. Thus, HAB mice may represent a clinically relevant model for elucidating the neurobiological correlates of NAcb-DBS.

  10. Effects of Vibroacoustic Music on Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Andersson, Gunilla; Viding, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Vibroacoustic music has been proposed to be an effective treatment for individuals with developmental disorders and challenging behaviors. The present study experimentally tested the effects of vibroacoustic music on self-injurious, stereotypical, and aggressive destructive behaviors in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorders and…

  11. The Effects of Fixed-Time Escape on Inappropriate and Appropriate Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Rachael D.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have explored the effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement on escape-maintained behavior of students in a classroom setting. We measured the effects of an FT schedule on the disruptive and appropriate academic behaviors of 2 junior high students in a public school setting. Results demonstrated that FT escape from tasks resulted in a…

  12. Forward-Thinking Teens: The Effects of College Costs on Adolescent Risky Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Benjamin W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in…

  13. Effects of Decision-Making Styles of School Administrators on General Procrastination Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugurlu, Celai Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Lack of habits such as effective time management, determination of priorities, and effective and productive use of time is one of several reasons for procrastination behaviors. Personality traits along with incorrect cognitive loads about the self and the environment are other reasons for procrastination behaviors. At this…

  14. Teacher Behavior and Pupil Performance: Reconsideration of the Mediation of Pygmalion Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Judith Landon

    1975-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that an increase in "good" behaviors by the teacher does not alter bottom reading group pupil performance. The results also suggest that investigators of the mediation of Pygmalion effect are considering behaviors which may have little effect on pupil performance. (RC)

  15. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  16. Web-Based Instruction, Learning Effectiveness and Learning Behavior: The Impact of Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Liao, Ying; Hu, Ridong

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of Web-based Instruction and Learning Behavior on Learning Effectiveness. Web-based Instruction contains the dimensions of Active Learning, Simulation-based Learning, Interactive Learning, and Accumulative Learning; and, Learning Behavior covers Learning Approach, Learning Habit, and Learning Attitude. The…

  17. The Collateral Effects of Behavioral Interventions: Applied Implications from JEAB, January 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.; Fuqua, R. Wayne

    1993-01-01

    A review of the January 1993 issue of the "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" concludes that behavioral interventions produce collateral effects, but predicting those effects in applied work is complicated because of verbal and instructional influences and because of interactions among reinforcer types. (JDD)

  18. Comparing Main and Collateral Effects of Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be…

  19. Effects of Caffeine on Classroom Behavior, Sustained Attention, and a Memory Task in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Ruth A.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the effect of normative amounts of caffeine on the behavior of six normal kindergarten children found that caffeine exerted only small and inconsistent effects on such classroom behaviors as time off-task and gross motor activity. (Author/DB)

  20. The Effects of Video Self-Modeling on High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Szu-Yin; Baker, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Video self-modeling has been proven to be effective with other populations with challenging behaviors, but only a few studies of video self-modeling have been conducted with high school students with emotional and behavioral disorders. This study aimed to focus on analyzing the effects of video self-modeling on four high school students with…

  1. Teenage Pregnancy and Neonatal Behavior: Effects in Puerto Rico and Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A multiple regression analysis studied additive effects of maternal age and prenatal and perinatal factors in relation to neonatal behavior. Analysis indicated that the combination of biomedical variables significantly predicted neonatal behavior, in both cultures (Florida and Puerto Rico), suggesting that age effects increased in the presence of…

  2. Another Test of the Effect of Group Composition on Member Behavior Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixenstine, V. Edwin; Abascal, Juan

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effects of personal warmth and success modeling on behavior change among females experiencing assertion deficits. Results indicated both confederate warmth and success modeling influenced the level of assertion change behavior reported by group members. Attributions for influence to effect change and change performance are discussed.…

  3. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children's Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…

  4. Effects of Treatment Integrity Failures during Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior: A Translational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.

    2010-01-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is used frequently as a treatment for problem behavior. Previous studies on treatment integrity failures during DRA suggest that the intervention is robust, but research has not yet investigated the effects of different types of integrity failures. We examined the effects of two types of…

  5. An Examination of Behavioral History Effects on Preference for Choice in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberlin, Alayna T.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the effects of behavioral history on elementary students' preference for making a choice in two studies. Previous research on choice has focused on the arrangement of current contingencies and has not accounted for the effects of behavioral history. Study 1 examined participants' preference for two options (i.e.,…

  6. Changes in behavior as side effects in methylphenidate treatment: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Konrad-Bindl, Doris Susanne; Gresser, Ursula; Richartz, Barbara Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Our review of the scientific literature focused on an analysis of studies describing instances of methylphenidate treatment leading (or not) to behavioral changes in the pediatric, adolescent, and adult populations. Materials and methods We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Medline, and Google using the keywords “methylphenidate”, “behavioral changes”, “adverse effects”, and “side effects”. A total of 44 studies were identified as reporting on the effects and adverse effects of methylphenidate administration, and were included in the analysis. Results Five studies specifically set out to study, record, and discuss changes in behavior. Eight studies did not set out to study behavioral effects, but record and discuss them. A total of 28 studies recorded behavioral effects, but failed to discuss these further. Three studies did not include behavioral effects. Conclusion This review records what data have been published in respect of changes in behavior in association with the use of methylphenidate. While there is some evidence to suggest that methylphenidate causes changes in behavior, the majority of the studies reviewed paid little or no attention to this issue. Based on the available data, it is impossible to determine the point at which such behavioral effects occur. The frequency of occurrence of behavioral effects is also impossible to determine with certainty. Based on the available data, it is not possible to rule out whether behavioral effects may persist or not persist once treatment is discontinued. In conclusion, despite countless publications and extensive administration, especially to children, we have insufficient data to judge the long-term effects and risks of methylphenidate taking. PMID:27789952

  7. Effectiveness of Group Dialectical Behavior Therapy (Based on Core Distress Tolerance and Emotion Regulation Components) on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, H. R.; Malekirad, A. A.; Farhadi, M.; Habibi, M.; Zamani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to measure Effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy (basedon core distress tolerance and emotion regulation components) on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Materials & Methods: Research method is a semi experimental socio-statistic approach consisting of experimental group (dialectical behavior therapy) and control group. Participants were patients referred to Amir Kabir Hospital in Arak who suffered from Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Based on stratified random sampling, 16 patients (women) were placed in each group. Research tools included the structured diagnosis interview according to DSM-IV-TR (2000), Barrat impulsivity scale (1994) Distress Tolerance Scale (2005) Difficulties of Emotion Regulation Scale (2004) and dialectical behavior therapy were done for two months,8 group-sessions). Findings: Dialectical behavior therapy was effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Discussion & Conclusion: Distress tolerance and emotion regulation components were effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. PMID:25363188

  8. Comparing Versions of the Good Behavior Game: Can a Positive Spin Enhance Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Wahl, Elaine; Hawkins, Renee O; Haydon, Todd; Marsicano, Richard; Morrison, Julie Q

    2016-07-01

    Disruptions can prevent the classroom from being an effective learning environment. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency that has been proven to effectively prevent disruptions and increase engagement. However, the traditional methods of the GBG include teacher scanning for negative student behaviors, and may not align with Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), which is becoming widely adopted in many schools. Extending the findings of Wright and McCurdy, the current study compared the effects of the GBG and a positive version of the GBG, called the Caught Being Good Game (CBGG), on student behavior, including engagement and off-task behaviors, as well as teachers' use of positive and negative statements. Results showed both the GBG and the CBGG improved student behavior, with data not clearly indicating one was superior. Neither intervention led to an increase in positive teacher statements. Implications for teachers and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  9. The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Asci, Halil; Kulac, Esin; Sezik, Mekin; Cankara, F. Nihan; Cicek, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students’ pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha–Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Results: Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Conclusions: Preclinical medical students’ study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success. PMID:26997716

  10. Rapid effects of estrogens on behavior: environmental modulation and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Laredo, Sarah A.; Landeros, Rosalina Villalon; Trainor, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol can modulate neural activity and behavior via both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Environmental cues have a major impact on the relative importance of these signaling pathways with significant consequences for behavior. First we consider how photoperiod modulates nongenomic estrogen signaling on behavior. Intriguingly, short days permit rapid effects of estrogens on aggression in both rodents and song sparrows. This highlights the importance of considering photoperiod as a variable in laboratory research. Next we review evidence for rapid effects of estradiol on ecologically-relevant behaviors including aggression, copulation, communication, and learning. We also address the impact of endocrine disruptors on estrogen signaling, such as those found in corncob bedding used in rodent research. Finally, we examine the biochemical mechanisms that may mediate rapid estrogen action on behavior in males and females. A common theme across these topics is that the effects of estrogens on social behaviors vary across different environmental conditions. PMID:24685383

  11. Rapid effects of estrogens on behavior: environmental modulation and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Laredo, Sarah A; Villalon Landeros, Rosalina; Trainor, Brian C

    2014-10-01

    Estradiol can modulate neural activity and behavior via both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Environmental cues have a major impact on the relative importance of these signaling pathways with significant consequences for behavior. First we consider how photoperiod modulates nongenomic estrogen signaling on behavior. Intriguingly, short days permit rapid effects of estrogens on aggression in both rodents and song sparrows. This highlights the importance of considering photoperiod as a variable in laboratory research. Next we review evidence for rapid effects of estradiol on ecologically-relevant behaviors including aggression, copulation, communication, and learning. We also address the impact of endocrine disruptors on estrogen signaling, such as those found in corncob bedding used in rodent research. Finally, we examine the biochemical mechanisms that may mediate rapid estrogen action on behavior in males and females. A common theme across these topics is that the effects of estrogens on social behaviors vary across different environmental conditions.

  12. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families.

  13. Behavioral effects of environmental enrichment on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, S.A.; Bay, M.S.; Martin, M.L.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums have been incorporating environmental enrichment into their animal care programs for the past 30 years to increase mental stimulation and promote natural behaviors. However, most attempts to document the effects of enrichment on animal behavior have focused on terrestrial mammals. Staff at the National Aquarium in Baltimore conducted an investigation of the behavioral effects of enrichment on the seven harbor seals and two gray seals housed in the aquarium's outdoor seal exhibit. We expected that enrichment would change the amount of time the animals spent engaged in specific behaviors. The behaviors recorded were: resting in water, resting hauled out, maintenance, breeding display, breeding behavior, aggression, pattern swimming, random swimming, exploration, and out of sight. Activity levels (random swimming and exploration) were expected to increase, while stereotypic behaviors (pattern swimming) were expected to decrease. The frequency and duration of behaviors were documented for 90 hr in both the control phase (without enrichment) and the experimental phase (with enrichment). Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in the time spent in pattern swimming, random swimming, exploration, and out of sight were observed between the two phases. With enrichment, pattern swimming and out of sight decreased, while random swimming and exploration behavior increased. These findings demonstrate that enrichment can promote behaviors (random swimming and exploration) that are likely to be normal for phocids in the wild, and that may contribute to the behavioral complexity of these seals in captivity. ?? 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Behavioral effects of environmental enrichment on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) and gray seals (Hafichoerus grypus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, S.A.; Bay, M.S.; Martin, M.L.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums have been incorporating environmental enrichment into their animal care programs for the past 30 years to increase mental stimulation and promote natural behaviors. However, most attempts to document the effects of enrichment on animal behavior have focused on terrestrial mammals. Staff at the National Aquarium in Baltimore conducted an investigation of the behavioral effects of enrichment on the seven harbor seals and two gray seals housed in the aquarium's outdoor seal exhibit. We expected that enrichment would change the amount of time the animals spent engaged in specific behaviors. The behaviors recorded were: resting in water, resting hauled out, maintenance, breeding display, breeding behavior, aggression, pattern swimming, random swimming, exploration, and out of sight. Activity levels (random swimming and exploration) were expected to increase, while stereotypic behaviors (pattern swimming) were expected to decrease. The frequency and duration of behaviors were documented for 90 hr in both the control phase (without enrichment) and the experimental phase (with enrichment). Statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in the time spent in pattern swimming, random swimming, exploration, and out of sight were observed between the two phases. With enrichment, pattern swimming and out of sight decreased, while random swimming and exploration behavior increased. These findings demonstrate that enrichment can promote behaviors (random swimming and exploration) that are likely to be normal for phocids in the wild, and that may contribute to the behavioral complexity of these seals in captivity.

  15. The use of behavioral test batteries: effects of training history.

    PubMed

    McIlwain, K L; Merriweather, M Y; Yuva-Paylor, L A; Paylor, R

    2001-08-01

    Our laboratory uses a specific test battery for the initial assessment of phenotypic behavioral differences of transgenic, knockout, and inbred strains of mice. Our standard battery includes: open field activity, light-dark exploration, rotarod, prepulse inhibition (PPI), acoustic startle habituation, conditioned fear, Morris water maze, and hot plate. Tests are run in the order listed, from least invasive to most invasive, to decrease the chance that behavioral responses are altered by prior test history. The studies presented here were designed around two questions. The first study asks if differences exist between mice that have undergone testing on different tasks and mice that are naïve to the test experience. The second study asks if the test order affects how an animal performs on subsequent tests. In the first experiment, C57BL/6J male mice were evaluated on all of the tests described above. The behavior of these 'test battery' mice was compared to aged matched naïve mice that were only tested on one test from the battery. Results indicate that on some tests, the behavior of 'test battery' mice was significantly different from the behavior of naïve mice, while on other tests there were no differences. For example, test battery mice responded differently in the open-field, rotarod, and hot-plate test, but behaved similar on the PPI and conditioned fear. Experiments in the second study were performed on male 129/SvEvTac (129S6) and C57BL/6J male mice. An abbreviated battery of tasks was used and the results suggest that certain test variables are sensitive to test order, whereas others are resistant. These two studies demonstrate that some behavioral tests appear to be sensitive to previous testing experience, while other tests are immune.

  16. Alcohol effects on behavioral thermoregulation with microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Rust, M L; Mortellaro, P M; Quinn, J M; Barbin, J M; DePace, A N

    1992-06-01

    Ethanol may play an active role in modifying "set point" levels in conjunction with behavioral thermoregulation. A geometric series of doses of ethanol solutions was administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold environment. Four Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement. Friedman's nonparametric test showed significant differences between ethanol doses, and Sign tests showed that moderate and high doses of ethanol suppressed operant behavior reinforced by MW radiation. Interactions between changes in "set-point" and discriminative properties of ethanol are discussed.

  17. Gender-Specific Effects of Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Prosocial Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cáceda, Ricardo; Moskovciak, Tori; Prendes-Alvarez, Stefania; Wojas, Justyna; Engel, Anzhelika; Wilker, Samantha H.; Gamboa, Jorge L.; Stowe, Zachary N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prosocial behaviors are essential to the ability to relate to others. Women typically display greater prosocial behavior than men. The impact of depression on prosocial behaviors and how gender interacts with those effects are not fully understood. We explored the role of gender in the potential effects of depression on prosocial behavior. Methods We examined prosocial behaviors using a modified version of the Trust Game in a clinical population and community controls. Study participants were characterized on the severity of depression and anxiety, presence of suicidal ideation, history of childhood trauma, recent stressful life events, and impulsivity. We correlated behavioral outcomes with gender and clinical variables using analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. Results The 89 participants comprised four study groups: depressed women, depressed men, healthy women and healthy men (n = 16–36). Depressed men exhibited reciprocity more frequently than healthy men. Depression induced an inversion of the gender-specific pattern of self-centered behavior. Suicidal ideation was associated with increased reciprocity behavior in both genders, and enhancement of the effect of depression on gender-specific self-centered behavior. Conclusions Depression, particularly suicidal ideation, is associated with reversal of gender-specific patterns of prosocial behavior, suggesting abnormalities in sexual hormones regulation. This explanation is supported by known abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes found in depression. PMID:25259712

  18. The effect of safety climate on seafarers' safety behaviors in container shipping.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Tsai, Chaur-Luh

    2010-11-01

    This study empirically examined safety climate and its effects on safety behaviors from seafarers' perceptions in the container shipping context. Research hypotheses were formulated and tested using survey data collected from 608 seafarers working on 124 vessels belonging to 13 of the top 20 global container carriers. A structural equation model was used to examine the effect of safety climate dimensions, namely, safety policy, perceived supervisor safety behavior, and safety management, on safety behavior. The results revealed a positive association between safety climate and seafarers' safety behavior. The contribution of the study findings to the development of safety climate theory and their managerial implications for vessel safety in shipping operations are discussed.

  19. Moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception between organizational citizenship behaviors and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching Sheng; Chang, Hae Ching

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates whether organizational citizenship behaviors enhance job satisfaction among nursing personnel, while exploring whether customer-oriented perception has a moderating effect between nursing personnel's organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction.The authors used a cross-sectional survey sent to 500 nurses with 232 valid responses. According to the research findings, nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. Results also indicated that the moderating effect of nurses' customer-oriented perception on the relationship between their organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction was stronger for high customer-oriented perception than it was low customer-oriented perception.

  20. Effect of Groove Pattern of Chemical Mechanical Polishing Pad on Slurry Flow Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Doi, Toshiro K.; Uneda, Michio; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Ohnishi, Osamu; Seshimo, Kiyoshi; Aida, Hideo

    2012-05-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), the slurry flow behavior on the polishing pad is very important both for improving polishing effectiveness and for reducing the slurry consumption. In this study, we aim to evaluate two types of CMP pad that have unique special groove patterns, slurry outflow and inflow pads, for controlling the slurry flow behavior. We describe the effect of the groove patterns on the slurry flow behavior observed using images recorded using a high-speed digital camera. The results of the study indicate several advantages of the proposed pads over the conventional pads from the viewpoint of slurry flow behavior.

  1. Monetary reward magnitude effects on behavior and brain function during goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Negre, P; Bustamante, J C; Fuentes-Claramonte, P; Costumero, V; Benabarre, S; Barrós-Loscertales, A

    2016-07-29

    Reward may modulate the cognitive processes required for goal achievement, while individual differences in personality may affect reward modulation. Our aim was to test how different monetary reward magnitudes modulate brain activation and performance during goal-directed behavior, and whether individual differences in reward sensitivity affect this modulation. For this purpose, we scanned 37 subjects with a parametric design in which we varied the magnitude of monetary rewards (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5) in a blocked fashion while participants performed an interference counting-Stroop condition. The results showed that the brain activity of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the striatum were modulated by increasing and decreasing reward magnitudes, respectively. Behavioral performance improved as the magnitude of monetary reward increased while comparing the non reward (€0) condition to any other reward condition, or the lower €0.01 to any other reward condition, and this improvement was related with individual differences in reward sensitivity. In conclusion, the locus of influence of monetary incentives overlaps the activity of the regions commonly involved in cognitive control.

  2. Effects of reprimands and praise on appropriate behavior in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Acker, M M; O'Leary, S G

    1987-12-01

    The effects of positive consequences on appropriate behavior at the beginning of a classroom experience were examined during an academic program for students with behavioral and academic difficulties. The results showed that the use of reprimands alone was associated with high levels of on-task behaviors during the initial days of the class. The addition of praise produced no change in the rate of on-task behaviors or the level of academic performance. The withdrawal of all consequences caused significant decreases in on-task behavior and academic productivity. The subsequent use of praise alone led to an initial increase followed by a dramatic decline in on-task performance, resulting in no change in the average rate of on-task behavior relative to the use of no consequences. These results are consistent with previous findings indicating the importance of reprimands for maintaining appropriate classroom behavior. Speculations regarding potential roles of praise are briefly discussed.

  3. Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Ewoldsen, David R; Eno, Cassie A; Okdie, Bradley M; Velez, John A; Guadagno, Rosanna E; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-05-01

    Research on video games has yielded consistent findings that violent video games increase aggression and decrease prosocial behavior. However, these studies typically examined single-player games. Of interest is the effect of cooperative play in a violent video game on subsequent cooperative or competitive behavior. Participants played Halo II (a first-person shooter game) cooperatively or competitively and then completed a modified prisoner's dilemma task to assess competitive and cooperative behavior. Compared with the competitive play conditions, players in the cooperative condition engaged in more tit-for-tat behaviors-a pattern of behavior that typically precedes cooperative behavior. The social context of game play influenced subsequent behavior more than the content of the game that was played.

  4. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  5. The Effects of Noise Reduction on Social Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Vincent J.; Duncan, Phillip K.

    1986-01-01

    The study found no relationship between improved social behavior in a group of juveniles residing at a county shelter care facility and decreased frequency and duration of disruptions above 85 decibels. Subjects did reduce noise levels when stereo listening was made contingent on reduced noise. (Author/DB)

  6. Effects of sex chromosome aneuploidy on male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Burns-Cusato, M; Dominguez-Salazar, E; Riggan, A; Shetty, S; Arnold, A P; Rissman, E F

    2008-08-01

    Incidence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in men is as high as 1:500. The predominant conditions are an additional Y chromosome (47,XYY) or an additional X chromosome (47,XXY). Behavioral studies using animal models of these conditions are rare. To assess the role of sex chromosome aneuploidy on sexual behavior, we used mice with a spontaneous mutation on the Y chromosome in which the testis-determining gene Sry is deleted (referred to as Y(-)) and insertion of a Sry transgene on an autosome. Dams were aneuploid (XXY(-)) and the sires had an inserted Sry transgene (XYSry). Litters contained six male genotypes, XY, XYY(-), XXSry, XXY(-)Sry, XYSry and XYY(-)Sry. In order to eliminate possible differences in levels of testosterone, all of the subjects were castrated and received testosterone implants prior to tests for male sex behavior. Mice with an additional copy of the Y(-) chromosome (XYY(-)) had shorter latencies to intromit and achieve ejaculations than XY males. In a comparison of the four genotypes bearing the Sry transgene, males with two copies of the X chromosome (XXSry and XXY(-)Sry) had longer latencies to mount and thrust than males with only one copy of the X chromosome (XYSry and XYY(-)Sry) and decreased frequencies of mounts and intromissions as compared with XYSry males. The results implicate novel roles for sex chromosome genes in sexual behaviors.

  7. Effectiveness of Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Behavioral Weight Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolocofsky, David N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Subjects (N=109) completed a behavioral weight-management program either with or without the addition of hypnosis. Both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. At the eight-month and two-year follow-ups, the hypnosis clients showed significant additional weight loss and were more likely to have achieved and maintained their…

  8. Genetic variation and effects on human eating behavior.

    PubMed

    de Krom, Mariken; Bauer, Florianne; Collier, David; Adan, R A H; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2009-01-01

    Feeding is a physiological process, influenced by genetic factors and the environment. In recent years, many studies have been performed to unravel the involvement of genetics in both eating behavior and its pathological forms: eating disorders and obesity. In this review, we provide a condensed introduction on the neurological aspects of eating and we describe the current status of research into the genetics of eating behavior, primarily focused on specific traits such as taste, satiation, and hunger. This is followed by an overview on the genetic studies done to unravel the heritable background of obesity and eating disorders. We examine the discussion currently taking place in the field of genetics of complex disorders and phenotypes on how to perform good and powerful studies, with the use of large-scale whole-genome association studies as one of the possible solutions. In the final part of this review, we give our view on the latest developments, including endophenotype approaches and animal studies. Studies of endophenotypes of eating behavior may help to identify core traits that are genetically influenced. Such studies would yield important knowledge on the underlying biological scaffold on which diagnostic criteria for eating disorders could be based and would provide information to influence eating behavior toward healthier living.

  9. The effectiveness of mass communication to change public behavior.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Maibach, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which mass communication has been used -- or can be used -- to promote beneficial changes in behavior among members of populations. We use an ecological perspective to examine the ways in which mass media interventions can be used to influence public behavior both directly and indirectly. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people directly -- by directly targeting the people burdened by the public health problem of concern and/or the people who influence them -- have a long basis in public health history, and recent reviews have clarified our expectations about what can be expected from such approaches. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people indirectly -- by creating beneficial changes in the places (or environments) in which people live and work -- have equal if not greater potential to promote beneficial changes in population health behaviors, but these are currently less explored options. To have the greatest possible beneficial influence on public behavior with the public health resources available, we recommend that public health program planners assess their opportunities to use media to target both people and places in a manner that complements and extends other investments being made in population health enhancement.

  10. The Effects of Television Viewing on Reading Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.

    A study examined the relationship between television viewing and reading behavior within a sample of 198 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students: specifically, whether the amount and specific content of television being viewed affected reading achievement and leisure reading patterns. Intelligence and reading achievement scores of each participant…

  11. Learning and Behavior (I): Effects of Pituitary Hormones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes research which indicates that a number of peptide hormones act directly on the brain to affect learning and behavior. Investigations are currently being conducted to determine if these substances can be used to treat learning disorders or to improve the memories of normal people. (MLH)

  12. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  13. The Effect of Empathy in Proenvironmental Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenguer, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have pointed out the importance of empathy in improving attitudes toward stigmatized groups and toward the environment. In the present article, it is argued that environmental behaviors and attitudes can be improved using empathic perspective-taking for inducing empathy. Based on Batson's Model of Altruism, it was predicted that…

  14. The Effect of Brand Identification on Alumni Supportive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Amber L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of brand identification and supportive behaviors for alumni of a medium-sized state-run public institution of higher education in the mid-Atlantic region of the US. The research examined the perceptions of donor and non-donor alumni of a state-run public institution of higher education to…

  15. Effects of sex chromosome aneuploidy on male sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Burns-Cusato, M.; Dominguez-Salazar, E.; Riggan, A.; Shetty, S.; Arnold, A. P.; Rissman, E. F.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in men is as high as 1:500. The predominant conditions are an additional Y chromosome (47,XYY) or an additional X chromosome (47,XXY). Behavioral studies using animal models of these conditions are rare. To assess the role of sex chromosome aneuploidy on sexual behavior, we used mice with a spontaneous mutation on the Y chromosome in which the testis-determining gene Sry is deleted (referred to as Y−) and insertion of a Sry transgene on an autosome. Dams were aneuploid (XXY−) and the sires had an inserted Sry transgene (XYSry). Litters contained six male genotypes, XY, XYY−, XXSry, XXY−Sry, XYSry and XYY−Sry. In order to eliminate possible differences in levels of testosterone, all of the subjects were castrated and received testosterone implants prior to tests for male sex behavior. Mice with an additional copy of the Y− chromosome (XYY−) had shorter latencies to intromit and achieve ejaculations than XY males. In a comparison of the four genotypes bearing the Sry transgene, males with two copies of the X chromosome (XXSry and XXY−Sry) had longer latencies to mount and thrust than males with only one copy of the X chromosome (XYSry and XYY−Sry) and decreased frequencies of mounts and intromissions as compared with XYSry males. The results implicate novel roles for sex chromosome genes in sexual behaviors. PMID:18363850

  16. Documenting the Effects of Transformational Leadership Behavior on Teacher Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Kristine A.

    Principals play a unique role in school and student outcomes. This paper presents findings of a study that explored how principals' leadership behaviors influenced teachers' sense of efficacy. Specifically, the paper describes how principals in three middle schools influenced teachers' sense of efficacy and affected instructional and school…

  17. The Effect of Urbanization on the Behavior of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Beatrice B.

    Settings influence children's behavior. There are three relevant aspects of a setting, the space and contents of the space, as in the set of a play, the cast of characters who are present on the set, and the activities which occur on the set involving the cast of characters. The author and her associates have studied children in Okinawa, the…

  18. Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

  19. Inequality as an Effect of Rule-Setting Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Kley, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A Dutch study compared two first grade classes with regard to teacher treatment of students and student behavior (dependent variables). One class participated in a national initiative to reduce or eliminate educational inequities. The independent variables included socioeconomic background, sex, scholastic identity attributed by the teacher, and…

  20. Intergenerational Continuity in Parenting Behavior: Mediating Pathways and Child Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neppl, Tricia K.; Conger, Rand D.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across 2 generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected…

  1. Effects of Barnum Personality Assessments on Cognitive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Richard E.; Brock, Timothy C.

    1979-01-01

    Undergraduates were given either Barnum characterizations or straightforward instructions regarding open- or closed-mindedness. Barnum inductions influenced subsequent cognitive behavior: Subjects led to believe that they were open-minded were more balanced in the thoughts they produced on two campus issues than were subjects led to believe they…

  2. The Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Schedules on Problem Behavior of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in a Day-Treatment Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Karina; O'Neill, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the effects of fixed-time reinforcement schedules on problem behavior of students with emotional-behavioral disorders in a clinical day-treatment classroom setting. Three elementary-aged students with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems participated in the study. Initial functional assessments indicated that…

  3. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H.

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary. PMID:26998366

  4. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Archana; Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary.

  5. Prosocial Behavior Mitigates the Negative Effects of Stress in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Laws, Holly B; Ansell, Emily B

    2016-07-01

    Recent theories of stress reactivity posit that, when stressed, individuals tend to seek out opportunities to affiliate with and nurture others in order to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of stress. However, few studies have tested empirically the role of prosocial behavior in reducing negative emotional responses to stress. The current analyses used daily diary data to investigate whether engaging in prosocial behavior buffered the negative effects of naturally-occurring stressors on emotional well-being. Results showed that on a given day, prosocial behavior moderated the effects of stress on positive affect, negative affect, and overall mental health. Findings suggest that affiliative behavior may be an important component of coping with stress, and indicate that engaging in prosocial behavior might be an effective strategy for reducing the impact of stress on emotional functioning.

  6. Effects of Prosocial, Neutral, and Violent Video Games on Children's Helpful and Hurtful Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muniba; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9-14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects.

  7. Behavioral effects of infection with interferon-gamma adenovector.

    PubMed

    Kwant, Amanda; Sakic, Boris

    2004-05-05

    Anxiety and depression of unknown etiology are frequent complications of the systemic autoimmune disease lupus erythematosus (SLE). To elucidate key pathogenic factors we study the "autoimmunity-associated behavioral syndrome" (AABS) in lupus-prone MRL-lpr mice. Based on the evidence that serum levels of the neuroactive cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) are increased both in human and murine forms of SLE, the present study examines whether sustained IFN-gamma production in non-autoimmune mice induces deficits comparable to AABS, particularly in tasks reflective of emotional reactivity and motivated behavior. For this purpose, wild-type and IFN-gamma knockout C57BL/6J mice were infected with adenovirus carrying the cDNA for murine IFN-gamma (i.p. 2 x 10(8) pfu of virus per mouse) and shortly thereafter tested in the behavioral battery used in the detection of AABS. Serum levels of IFN-gamma were found to peak 24 h after the infection, normalized within 5 days. Although all infected animals showed reduced food/water intake and body weight, the recovery rate was slower in groups injected with IFN-gamma virus. No deficits were observed in the models of anxiety, but blunted responsiveness in the sucrose preference test (a putative model of anhedonia) lasted well beyond the IFN-gamma clearance period. These results suggest that a relatively brief elevation in systemic IFN-gamma levels impairs ingestive behavior and leads to prolonged changes in motivated behavior. As such, they are consistent with the hypothesis that upregulation in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines contributes to induction of AABS and more specifically, to limbic system dysfunction during lupus-like disease.

  8. Actors conform, observers react: the effects of behavioral synchrony on conformity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ping; Dai, Xianchi; Wyer, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in synchronous behavior can induce a more general disposition to copy others, which increases the tendency to conform to others' preferences in an unrelated choice situation. In contrast, observing others perform synchronous behavior can induce psychological reactance and decrease conformity to others' preferences. Five experiments confirmed these different effects and circumscribed the conditions in which they occurred. Actors typically focus their attention on the goal to which their synchronous behavior is directed, inducing a copying-others mindset that generalizes to later situations. In contrast, observers focus on the actors' behavior independently of the goal to which it pertains. Consequently, they become sensitive to the restrictions on freedom that synchronous behavior requires and experience reactance. However, changing the relative attention that actors and observers pay to these factors can reverse the effects of the actors' synchronous behavior on conformity.

  9. Temporal effects of antecedent exercise on students' disruptive behaviors: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Folino, Anthony; Ducharme, Joseph M; Greenwald, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    Although a growing body of literature indicates that antecedent exercise is effective at reducing disruptive behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining the temporal effects of antecedent exercise. The present investigation involved 4 students (age range 11 to 14years) enrolled in a self-contained special education behavior classroom due to severe aggressive, disruptive, and oppositional behaviors. In an alternating treatment design with baseline, students were first exposed to baseline conditions and then to 2 experimental conditions (i.e., an antecedent exercise condition and a control condition) in a randomized fashion. Results indicated that 30min of moderate to intense aerobic exercise resulted in approximately 90min of behavioral improvements. In addition, there appeared to be an inverse relation between arousal levels and behavioral difficulties. The potential utility of antecedent exercise as a treatment alternative in schools for students with severe disruptive behavior is discussed.

  10. Effects of a Family-Implemented Treatment on the Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Stephen G.; Rupp, Betty; Khan, Faraaz; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children’s engagement in repetitive behaviors. We developed Family-Implemented Treatment for Behavioral Inflexibility (FITBI) to target the full variety of repetitive behaviors found in autism. For the current study, a therapist and parents of five children with autism (mean age = 48 months) co-implemented FITBI in a clinic setting over a 12-week treatment period. Using single case design methodology, significant reductions in repetitive behaviors were found for all participants and maintenance of treatment effects for 4 of 5 participants. PMID:21161576

  11. The effects of a good behavior game on the disruptive behavior of Sundanese elementary school students.

    PubMed Central

    Saigh, P A; Umar, A M

    1983-01-01

    An endemic version of the Good Behavior Game was applied in a rural Sudanese second-grade classroom. Official letters of commendation, extra time for recess, victory tags, and a winner's chart were used as backup reinforcers. The class was divided into two teams, and the teacher indicated she would place a check on the board after every rule violation. The students were also told that the team with the fewest marks would win the game and receive the aforementioned prizes. After an initial adaptation period, the rate of disruption was charted across four treatment phases: viz., baseline I, introduction of the game, baseline II, and reintroduction of the game. It was observed that the game phases were associated with marked decreases in the rate of seat leaving, talking without permission, and aggression. The teacher, principal, parents, and students were consequently individually interviewed, and their comments spoke strongly for the social validity of the game. PMID:6643325

  12. The effects of a good behavior game on the disruptive behavior of Sundanese elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Saigh, P A; Umar, A M

    1983-01-01

    An endemic version of the Good Behavior Game was applied in a rural Sudanese second-grade classroom. Official letters of commendation, extra time for recess, victory tags, and a winner's chart were used as backup reinforcers. The class was divided into two teams, and the teacher indicated she would place a check on the board after every rule violation. The students were also told that the team with the fewest marks would win the game and receive the aforementioned prizes. After an initial adaptation period, the rate of disruption was charted across four treatment phases: viz., baseline I, introduction of the game, baseline II, and reintroduction of the game. It was observed that the game phases were associated with marked decreases in the rate of seat leaving, talking without permission, and aggression. The teacher, principal, parents, and students were consequently individually interviewed, and their comments spoke strongly for the social validity of the game.

  13. Effects of combination birth control on estrous behavior in captive western lowland gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    PubMed

    Sarfaty, Anna; Margulis, Susan W; Atsalis, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Combination birth control pills (CBC) are one of the most common birth control methods used for western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) housed in zoos. Since zoos are interested in maintaining as many natural behaviors as possible, it is important to know how contraception may affect social and sexual interactions among group members. Although some data are available regarding the influence of the pill on sexual behavior in human females, no data are available on its effects on gorilla estrous behavior. We examined temporal trends of estrous, aggressive, affiliative, and activity budget data in four females on CBC at the Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago, IL. Behavioral data were collected using point sampling, all-occurrence records, and one-zero sampling. Estrous behavior occurred in less than 1% of observations. Using all-occurrence and one-zero sampling, estrous behavior occurred more frequently in week one of the cycle than any other week. The focal females exhibited affiliative, aggressive, and activity budget data evenly across their cycles. There were also no temporal trends in proximity to the silverback. Females varied by the types of estrous behavior they exhibited. We give a hormonal explanation for the prevalence of estrous behaviors in week one, and recommendations for effective behavioral sampling of gorilla estrous behavior.

  14. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  15. Effects of combat deployment on risky and self-destructive behavior among active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Cynthia J; Stander, Valerie A; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S

    2011-10-01

    Although research has documented negative effects of combat deployment on mental health, few studies have examined whether deployment increases risky or self-destructive behavior. The present study addressed this issue. In addition, we examined whether deployment effects on risky behavior varied depending on history of pre-deployment risky behavior, and assessed whether psychiatric conditions mediated effects of deployment on risky behavior. In an anonymous survey, active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy (N = 2116) described their deployment experiences and their participation in risky recreational activities, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, self-injurious behavior, and suicide attempts during three time frames (civilian, military pre-deployment, and military post-deployment). Respondents also reported whether they had problems with depression, anxiety, or PTSD during the same three time frames. Results revealed that risky behavior was much more common in civilian than in military life, with personnel who had not deployed, compared to those who had deployed, reporting more risky behavior and more psychiatric problems as civilians. For the current time period, in contrast, personnel who had deployed (versus never deployed) were significantly more likely to report both risky behavior and psychiatric problems. Importantly, deployment was associated with increases in risky behavior only for personnel with a pre-deployment history of engaging in risky behavior. Although psychiatric conditions were associated with higher levels of risky behavior, psychiatric problems did not mediate associations between deployment and risky behavior. Implications for understanding effects of combat deployment on active duty personnel and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Influence of feed type and its effect on repressing wool-biting behavior in housed sheep.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Sheep sometimes develop an abnormal behavior termed as wool-biting when kept in an indoor system; however, little is known about this behavior. As the provided feed type may affect the foraging behavior and repress abnormal behavior in animals, we tested the effect of feed type on repressing wool-biting behavior in this study. We used hay prepared in three forms, that is hay bales, rolls and cubes. The wool-biting frequency associated with hay bales was significantly higher than that associated with rolls (P < 0.05) and cubes (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference between rolls and cubes. For hay rolls, wool-biting significantly decreased after feeding (P < 0.05), suggesting that rolls may provide sheep with appropriate oral stimulation; thus, decreasing the post-feeding oral abnormal behavior. An individual difference of wool-biting behavior between sheep was also detected, and an unexpected bed-eating behavior was found in the hay cube treatment. We suggest that sheep performing movements that are similar to their natural foraging behavior while grazing would repress wool-biting behavior, which happened in hay roll and hay cube treatments. Considering sanitation and animal welfare, providing sheep with hay rolls may provide an easier method to control wool-biting behavior in housed sheep.

  17. Minimizing deviant behavior in healthcare organizations: the effects of supportive leadership and job design.

    PubMed

    Chullen, C Logan; Dunford, Benjamin B; Angermeier, Ingo; Boss, R Wayne; Boss, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    In an era when healthcare organizations are beset by intense competition, lawsuits, and increased administrative costs, it is essential that employees perform their jobs efficiently and without distraction. Deviant workplace behavior among healthcare employees is especially threatening to organizational effectiveness, and healthcare managers must understand the antecedents of such behavior to minimize its prevalence. Deviant employee behavior has been categorized into two major types, individual and organizational, according to the intended target of the behavior. Behavior directed at the individual includes such acts as harassment and aggression, whereas behavior directed at the organization includes such acts as theft, sabotage, and voluntary absenteeism, to name a few (Robinson and Bennett 1995). Drawing on theory from organizational behavior, we examined two important features of supportive leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS), and two important features of job design, intrinsic motivation and depersonalization, as predictors of subsequent deviant behavior in a sample of over 1,900 employees within a large US healthcare organization. Employees who reported weaker perceptions of LMX and greater perceptions of depersonalization were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the individual, whereas employees who reported weaker perceptions of POS and intrinsic motivation were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the organization. These findings give rise to specific prescriptions for healthcare managers to prevent or minimize the frequency of deviant behavior in the workplace.

  18. Nanomaterials in the environment: behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects.

    PubMed

    Klaine, Stephen J; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Batley, Graeme E; Fernandes, Teresa F; Handy, Richard D; Lyon, Delina Y; Mahendra, Shaily; McLaughlin, Michael J; Lead, Jamie R

    2008-09-01

    The recent advances in nanotechnology and the corresponding increase in the use of nanomaterials in products in every sector of society have resulted in uncertainties regarding environmental impacts. The objectives of this review are to introduce the key aspects pertaining to nanomaterials in the environment and to discuss what is known concerning their fate, behavior, disposition, and toxicity, with a particular focus on those that make up manufactured nanomaterials. This review critiques existing nanomaterial research in freshwater, marine, and soil environments. It illustrates the paucity of existing research and demonstrates the need for additional research. Environmental scientists are encouraged to base this research on existing studies on colloidal behavior and toxicology. The need for standard reference and testing materials as well as methodology for suspension preparation and testing is also discussed.

  19. Effects of baclofen on dopamine-dependent behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Balsara, J J; Muley, M P; Vaidya, A S; Chandorkar, A G

    1981-01-01

    Baclofen, the parachlorophenyl analog of GABA, was found to induce catalepsy and to inhibit the traction response in mice. However, baclofen pretreatment, instead of antagonizing methamphetamine stereotypy and apomorphine-induced cage climbing behavior, was found to potentiate these behaviors, thereby ruling out the possibility of its possessing postsynaptic dopamine (DA) receptor blocking activity. The possible mechanism involved in the induction of catalepsy and in the inhibition of the traction response by baclofen is discussed on the basis that baclofen, by inhibiting the firing of the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic DA neurons, reduces the release of DA and thereby produces a functional lack of DA at postsynaptic DA receptor sites with resultant induction of catalepsy and inhibition of the traction response. Further, the hyper-responsiveness to methamphetamine and apomorphine is explained on the basis that, as the postsynaptic DA receptors are acutely deprived of their transmitter, following baclofen pretreatment, they become supersensitive to the DA agonists.

  20. Anthropogenic effects on winter behavior of ferruginous hawks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumpton, D.L.; Andersen, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Little information is known about the ecology of ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) in winter versus the breeding season and less about how the species adapts to fragmented grassland habitats. Accordingly, we studied the behavior of 38 radiotagged ferruginous hawks during 3 winters from 1992 to 1995. We used 2 adjacent sites in Colorado that were characterized by low and high levels of anthropogenic influence and habitat fragmentation: the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMANWR; low-level influence), and several adjacent Denver suburbs (high-level influence). Relative abundance of ferruginous hawks differed by treatment area and year (P 0.05) at RMANWR and suburban sites. Ferruginous hawks appear to modify their behavior in fragmented, largely human-altered habitats, provided some foraging habitats with adequate populations of suitable prey species are present.

  1. Effect of prenatal haloperidol exposure on behavioral alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Singh, Mandavi

    2002-01-01

    Pregnant Charles-Foster rats were exposed to haloperidol (HAL), a neuroleptic drug that binds to and blocks dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (intraperitoneally) from Gestation Day (GD) 12 to 20. The animals from both treated as well as vehicle control groups were allowed to deliver on GD 21. The offspring culled at birth on the basis of sex and weight were subjected to behavioral tests at the age of 8 weeks. The HAL-treated rat offspring showed a significant increase in anxiogenic behavior on the open field, elevated plus-maze and elevated zero-maze tests when compared with the vehicle-treated (control) rat offspring of the same age group. These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to HAL during a critical period of brain development leaves a lasting imprint on the brain, resulting in abnormal anxiety states, possibly through dopaminergic neurotransmission mechanisms.

  2. The effect of parole on methadone patient behavior.

    PubMed

    Anglin, M D; McGlothlin, W H; Speckart, G

    1981-01-01

    A 7-year followup of three male samples of 1971-1973 methadone maintenance admissions was conducted: a random sample of 100; a sample of 136 who had a minimum of 30 months remaining on civil addict parole status at the time of methadone entry; and a matched sample of 136 not on parole. Ninety percent of those not decreased were interviewed. The overall sample spent 58% of the nonincarcerated follow-up interval on methadone. This resulted in a large decline in daily heroin use and associated criminal behavior measures. The addition of parole supervision with urine testing resulted in only marginal improvements in behavior over that attributable to maintenance alone; however, the parole status did significantly reduce the length of intervals of daily heroin use both prior and subsequent to methadone entry.

  3. Effects of eszopiclone and zolpidem on sleep-wake behavior, anxiety-like behavior and contextual memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Max P; Radadia, Kushan; Macone, Brian W; Auerbach, Sanford H; Datta, Subimal

    2010-06-26

    At present, eszopiclone and zolpidem are the most commonly prescribed drugs for treating insomnia. Despite the established relationship between sleep disturbance and anxiety, it remains unknown whether targeted treatment for insomnia may affect acute anxiety. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of three different doses (1, 3, and 10mg/kg) of eszopiclone and zolpidem on the states of sleep and wakefulness, levels of anxiety-like behavior, and long-term contextual memory in footshock-induced anxious rats. The results of this study demonstrated that the administration of eszopiclone and zolpidem both were equally effective in attenuating footshock stressor-induced suppression of slow-wave sleep (SWS). The administration of eszopiclone at 1mg/kg or zolpidem at 1 and 3mg/kg doses showed a tendency for attenuating stressor-induced suppression of REM sleep. However, the REM sleep attenuating effects of these drugs disappeared when they were administered at higher doses. The administration of eszopiclone at 3 and 10mg/kg doses and zolpidem at all three doses reduced the power of electroencephalographic theta band frequencies during wakefulness. In addition, the administration of eszopiclone at 1 and 3mg/kg doses suppressed stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior. The administration of zolpidem at 1, 3, or 10mg/kg doses was not effective in attenuating stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior. Contextual memory after administration of eszopiclone at 1mg/kg dose had no effects, but was reduced significantly with increased dosage. Contextual memory after administration of zolpidem, at all three doses, was severely disrupted. The results of this study suggest that eszopiclone at a low dose could be used effectively to control anxiety and anxiety-induced insomnia.

  4. Effects of eszopiclone and zolpidem on sleep-wake behavior, anxiety-like behavior and contextual memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Max P.; Radadia, Kushan; Macone, Brian W.; Auerbach, Sanford H.; Datta, Subimal

    2010-01-01

    At present, eszopiclone and zolpidem are the most commonly prescribed drugs for treating insomnia. Despite the established relationship between sleep disturbance and anxiety, it remains unknown whether targeted treatment for insomnia may affect acute anxiety. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of three different doses (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) of eszopiclone and zolpidem on the states of sleep and wakefulness, levels of anxiety-like behavior, and long-term contextual memory in footshock-induced anxious rats. The results of this study demonstrated that the administration of eszopiclone and zolpidem both were equally effective in attenuating footshock stressor-induced suppression of slow-wave sleep (SWS). The administration of eszopiclone at 1 mg/kg or zolpidem at 1 and 3 mg/kg doses showed a tendency for attenuating stressor-induced suppression of REM sleep. However, the REM sleep attenuating effects of these drugs disappeared when they were administered at higher doses. The administration of eszopiclone at 3 and 10 mg/kg doses and zolpidem at all three doses reduced the power of electroencephalographic theta band frequencies during wakefulness. In addition, the administration of eszopiclone at 1 and 3 mg/kg doses suppressed stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior. The administration of zolpidem at 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg doses was not effective in attenuating stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior. Contextual memory after administration of eszopiclone at 1 mg/kg dose had no effects, but was reduced significantly with increased dosage. Contextual memory after administration of zolpidem, at all three doses, was severely disrupted. The results of this study suggest that eszopiclone at a low dose could be used effectively to control anxiety and anxiety-induced insomnia. PMID:20153782

  5. Effect of phase behavior on bypassing in enriched gas floods

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.E.; Bhogeswara, R.; Mohanty, K.K. )

    1994-05-01

    Enriched gas floods incorporate a complex interaction of heterogeneity, fingering, multiphase flow, and phase behavior. Experiments and simulations indicate that the optimum solvent enrichment in high-viscosity-ratio secondary gas floods can be below minimum miscibility enrichment (MME). The compositional path and resulting mobility profile in multidimensional multiple-contact miscible (MCM) or immiscible floods are different from their 1D counterparts for high-viscosity-ratio floods in heterogeneous media.

  6. Effects of Sarin on the Operant Behavior of Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-19

    concentration time profile of an OP compound in located beneath the house light. Reinforcement contingen- guinea pig resembles that of the marmoset monkey...resembles that of the marmoset monkey more cies and data collection were accomplished with 0.01 s closely than that of the rat [2]. resolution using a Pentium...serum AChE activity was inhibited by exposures may be due to behavioral tolerance, since this 80-90% [4,5,8,33]. In marmosets , the acute

  7. Measuring Performance and Effectiveness in Irregular Warfare: Preventing Dysfunctional Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    behavior, it will also support operational commanders in diagnosing problems, making critical decisions, fostering learning, adjusting strategies , and...the area where Netflix continues to dominate…Blockbuster is doomed.” 11 While bottom line figures such as monthly earnings are important, unless...how to adapt and manage its metrics to better support its strategy . The reality of a measurement failure has grave consequences for the military

  8. Effect of a perfume on prosocial behavior of pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, N

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have shown that perfumes encourage prosocial behavior of people from whom help is requested in the street. Implicit requests for help were studied. On a pedestrian walk, a woman confederate, with or without a heavy perfume, walked by the subject while dropping a packet of paper handkerchiefs or a glove apparently without noticing. Results show that the confederate was warned more often when wearing a perfume.

  9. Behavioral-Physiological Effects of Red Phosphorus Smoke Inhalation on Two Wildlife Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    characterize the effects of RP/BR-aerosol exposure on the visual startle responses of rock doves. Based upon previous drug studies (e.g., Davis, 1980; Ison...Inspection Denver Federal Center Service Denver, CO 80225-0266 ID BEHAVIORAL-PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RED PHOSPHORUS (0 SMOKE INHALATION ON TWO WILDLIFE...TITLE (Include Securnty Clawf icatson) (U) Behavioral-Physiological Effects of Red Phosphorus Smoke Inhalation on Two Wildlife Species 12. PERSONAL

  10. Behavioral Effects of Enrichment and Nicotine in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    i APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: “Behavioral effects of enrichment and nicotine in male Sprague Dawley rats” Name of Candidate...certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: “Behavioral effects of enrichment and nicotine in male...effects of enrichment and nicotine in male Sprague Dawley rats” Author: Stephanie M. Long, Master of Science, 2008 Thesis directed by: Neil E

  11. Contextual Influences on Distress Intolerance: Priming Effects on Behavioral Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Szuhany, Kristin L.; Otto, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Distress intolerance (DI), the inability to tolerate stressful experiences, has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions and maladaptive coping patterns. Although DI is often considered a trait-like variable, evidence indicates that self-report and behavioral indices of DI can be manipulated by contextual factors. Understanding such contextual influences is important given evidence of unexpected variability in these presumed trait-like measures over brief intervals. The current study examined the influence of context (manipulated by priming concepts of “Interminability” and “Brevity”) in predicting behavioral persistence, in relation to self-reported DI. Results indicated that priming Brevity was associated with terminating a cold-pressor task more quickly. Self-reported DI was linked to earlier termination, but there was no interaction between self-reported DI and priming condition. Results indicate that contextual cues modulate performance on behavioral measures of DI. Hence, models of DI should consider both trait-like and contextual factors in understanding variability in DI measures. PMID:26366022

  12. Eat or heat? The effects of poverty on children's behavior.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, there were 46.2 million people in the US in poverty (15 percent of the population). The rate for children under 18 years of age was 22 percent, the highest of all age groups. Poverty is strongly linked to adverse socio-emotional outcomes and poor health in children, which influence adult socioeconomic advancement. It affects specific neurocognitive processes disproportionately such as working memory, cognitive control, and especially language and memory. Poor children are frequently exposed to household chaos, maternal depression, neighborhood violence, food insecurity and housing instability. They also experience little social support and have parents who are less responsive, more authoritarian and less involved in school activities than those of higher socioeconomic levels. Their diet is rich in sugar, which may contribute to behavioral disturbances. Children from a disadvantaged background have a poor ability to cope with stress and tend to show aggressive, withdrawn and anxious/depressive behaviors as well as poor academic outcomes. Dental professionals who care for poor children must understand they live under stressful physical and emotional conditions, which will impact their behavior in the dental office.

  13. Lateral cascade of indirect effects in food webs with different types of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Kamran-Disfani, Ahmad R; Golubski, Antonio J

    2013-12-21

    It is widely recognized that indirect effects due to adaptive behaviors can have important effects on food webs. One consequence may be to change how readily perturbations propagate through the web, because species' behaviors as well as densities may respond to perturbations. It is not well understood which types of behavior are more likely to facilitate versus inhibit propagation of disturbances through a food web, or how this might be affected by the shape of a food web or the patterns of interaction strengths within it. We model two simple, laterally expanded food webs (one with three trophic levels and one with four), and compare how various adaptive behaviors affect the potential for a newly introduced predator to change the equilibrium densities of distant species. Patterns of changes in response to the introduction were qualitatively similar across most models, as were the ways in which patterns of direct interaction strengths affected those responses. Depending on both the web structure and the specific adaptive behavior, the potential for density changes to propagate through the web could be either increased or diminished relative to the no-behavior model. Two behaviors allowed density changes to propagate through a four-level web that precluded such propagation in the no-behavior model, and each of these two behaviors led to qualitatively different patterns of density changes. In the one model (diet choice) in which density changes were able to propagate in both web structures, patterns of density changes differed qualitatively between webs. Some of our results flowed from the fact that behaviors did not interact directly in the systems we considered, so that indirect effects on distant species had to be at least partly density-mediated. Our models highlight this as an inherent limitation of considering in isolation behaviors that are strictly foraging-related or strictly defense-related, making a case for the value of simultaneously considering multiple

  14. Gender Effects on Challenging Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.; Rieske, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Challenging behaviors are extremely prevalent within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population. To date, numerous factors affecting the rates of challenging behaviors within the ASD population have been examined including age, gender, ethnicity, and intellectual functioning. Controversy has arisen in regard to the effect of gender on…

  15. Effects of White Noise on Off-Task Behavior and Academic Responding for Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and…

  16. Teachers as Bystanders: The Effect of Teachers' Perceptions on Reporting Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uale, Beth P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of educators as it relates to the reporting process of bullying incidents. Since bullying behaviors have negative effects on student health and educators have regular contact with students, this study looks at teacher perceptions of bullying behaviors and how these perceptions influence the reporting process. Using the…

  17. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  18. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  19. Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on Selection Decisions in Employment Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podsakoff, Nathan P.; Whiting, Steven W.; Podsakoff, Philip M.; Mishra, Paresh

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment examining the effects of job candidates' propensity to exhibit organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) on selection decisions made in the context of a job interview. We developed videos that manipulated candidate responses to interview questions tapping task performance and citizenship behavior content in…

  20. Relative Effects of Daily Feedback and Weekly Feedback on Customer Service Behavior at a Gas Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Yongjoon; Lee, Kyehoon; Oah, Shezeen

    2013-01-01

    The relative effects of daily and weekly feedback on customer service behavior at a gas station were assessed using an ABC within-subjects design. Four critical service behaviors were identified and measured daily. After baseline (A), weekly feedback (B) was introduced, and daily feedback (C) was introduced in the next phase. The results indicated…

  1. The Effect of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Study Behavior of Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake-Jones, Felicia

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of verbal reinforcement on the study behavior of eighth grade students. Twelve middle school students participated. The target students were observed fifteen minutes a day, three days per week. Study behavior was noted with a check or a zero. If the subject was participating in class the…

  2. Direct Behavioral Consultation in Head Start to Increase Teacher Use of Praise and Effective Instruction Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Parker, Kizzy; Menousek, Kathryn; Zhou, Qi; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Olmi, D. Joe

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disruptive behaviors during early childhood are associated with many poor developmental outcomes including, but not limited to, school dropout and conduct disorder during adolescence. Much is known regarding effective intervention procedures for disruptive classroom behaviors by preschool children. Unfortunately, evidence-based…

  3. Getting Acquainted: Actor and Partner Effects of Attachment and Temperament on Young Children's Peer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwain, Nancy L.; Holland, Ashley S.; Engle, Jennifer M.; Ogolsky, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament…

  4. Effects of a Family-Implemented Treatment on the Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Rupp, Betty; Khan, Faraaz; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children's engagement in repetitive…

  5. Adventure Camp Programs, Self-Concept, and Their Effects on Behavioral Problem Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an adventure camp program on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems. Subjects in the study included 61 randomly selected male and female adolescents ranging in age from 9 to 17 years with behavioral problems. The treatment group of 31 adolescents was randomly selected from a…

  6. The effect of simulated ostracism on physical activity behavior in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Assess the effects of simulated ostracism on children’s physical activity behavior, time allocated to sedentary behavior, and liking of physical activity. Methods: Nineteen (N=11 males, 8 females) children (11.7±1.3 years) completed two experimental sessions. During each session childre...

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Hyperactive Boys: Comparative and Combined Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of two interventions on hyperactive children's (N=24) social behavior. Results indicated that both methylphenidate (Ritalin) and reinforced self-evaluation were superior to the contrast treatments. Medication plus cognitive-behavioral self-evaluation proved optimal, and placebo plus reinforcement alone was significantly worse…

  8. Environmental Factors Involved in the Development of Tolerance to Behavior Effects of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    Squirrel monkeys were trained under a variety of behavioral procedures, and then Delta- 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol was administered daily until tolerance...effects of Delta- 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol . Three classes of experiments were performed. The first group of experiments examined the roles of behavioral

  9. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  10. Effects of Weighted Vests on Classroom Behavior for Children with Autism and Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Sandra; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Misiaszek, John

    2011-01-01

    This randomized controlled single-case study investigated the effects of weighted vests for 10 children with autism in a classroom setting. Blinded observers rated targeted behaviors through video taken during structured table-top activities typically part of the classroom routine. Blinded teachers rated each child's behavior with the Conners'…

  11. The Effectiveness of Social Stories on Decreasing Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism: Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of social stories on decreasing the disruptive behaviors of children with autism. Social stories were created for three participants, ages 7 and 9, to decrease three target disruptive behaviors, using a loud voice in class, chair tipping, and cutting in lunch line. Using a…

  12. Behavioral Self-Management of Social-Effectiveness Skills: Assertion, and Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, A. Robert; And Others

    A program of behavioral procedures for the self-management of social-effectiveness skills was evaluated within the context of a university course on principles of behavior self-modification. Sixteen students received training and direction in conducting seven-week self-modification projects focusing either on improving skills of interpersonal…

  13. Effects of Matching Instruction Difficulty to Reading Level for Students with Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Amanda K.; Horner, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a literacy intervention matching student skill level with academic performance demands were examined through a multiple baseline across participants design. The dual dependent variables were problem behavior and academic engagement. Four students in Grades 2 or 3 who exhibited low academic performance and problem behavior during…

  14. Effectiveness of Noncontingent Attention to Decrease Attention-Maintained Disruptive Behaviors in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Sokolosky, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of noncontingent attention (NCA) on disruptive talking-out behavior in a student diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in the general education classroom. Functional analysis indicated that the talking-out behavior was maintained by teacher attention. We used an ABAB…

  15. The Territorial Prior-Residence Effect and Children's Behavior in Social Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Ru; Li, Shu; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Research on territorial behavior has focused on animal populations, and relatively little has dealt with territoriality in humans, except in the area of human sports. This study was an investigation of the prior-residence effect on children's behavior in social dilemmas. The analysis was carried out by means of research designed for preschool…

  16. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  17. The Effects of a School-Based Functional Analysis on Subsequent Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Fuentes, Lisa; Dacus, Sharon; Blenden, Kara

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of conducting a school-based functional analysis on subsequent classroom behavior. Each participant was observed in the classroom during activities that were reported by teachers to result in high levels of challenging behavior. Participants were observed during (a) baseline, prior to the administration of a…

  18. Effects of Contraceptive Education on Adolescent Male Contraceptive Behavior and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between contraceptive education and teenage male contraceptive behavior was investigated. Findings indicated that brief or moderately in-depth contraceptive education had little effect on contraceptive behavior. The teenage pregnancy and other sex-related problems may make parents and schools more amenable to comprehensive…

  19. Comparisons of Leader Style, Behaviors and Effectiveness of Male and Female Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Judith C.

    Leadership characteristics and effectiveness of male and female coaches of high school basketball teams were examined. Eighty-nine varsity basketball coaches were measured by means of established instruments to determine leadership style and behaviors. Five to 12 players from each team also completed a questionnaire concerning coaching behaviors.…

  20. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Fibromyalgia-Related Pain Anxiety Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Effects of Behavioral Activation Treatment (BAT) on pain anxiety, depression, and pain interference on a 43-year-old female with an 11-year history of chronic fibromyalgia pain are described. Analgesic, anxyiolytic, and antidepressant medications were stabilized prior to participation. Dependent measures were the Behavioral Relaxation Scale, a…

  1. Systematic Review of School-based Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior: Does Intervention Intensity Impact Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…

  2. Behavior Change and Perceptions of Change: Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Token Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitman, David, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    Token economies often reduce problematic classroom behavior in preschool settings. In the present study, direct observation and teacher ratings of child behavior and treatment acceptability were utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of a token economy in a Head Start classroom. Because many teachers express concerns about the effort required to…

  3. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  4. Effective Reinforcement Techniques in Elementary Physical Education: The Key to Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John; Keating, Tedd; Bennett, Carl

    2005-01-01

    The ability to shape appropriate behavior while extinguishing misbehavior is critical to teaching and learning in physical education. The scientific principles that affect student learning in the gymnasium also apply to the methods teachers use to influence social behaviors. Research indicates that reinforcement strategies are more effective than…

  5. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale as a biomarker of the effects of environmental agents on the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Tronick, E.Z.

    1987-10-01

    The organization of the newborn's brain and the nature of the effects of toxins and pollutants conspire to produce complex and difficult problems for the assessment of the behavioral effects of environmental agents. The newborn's brain can be characterized as relatively undifferentiated, and more vulnerable to, but potentially more capable of recovery from, the effects of environmental agents specific to this time period than it will be later in development. Environmental agents tend to have nonspecific, possibly subtle, effects that invade many areas of newborn functioning. These characteristics of the newborn and the behavioral effects of teratogens make assessment at this point in development difficult. Further exacerbating this difficulty is the nature of development. Development is critically dependent on the care the newborn receives. Distortions of a newborn's behavior can produce disturbances in the caretaking environment, and these caretaking disturbances can amplify the original behavioral distortion and produce other distortions. Attention to these types of effects must be built into an assessment. These considerations lead to the conclusion that an apical assessment of newborn behavior is required. The most standardized, valid, and reliable instrument currently available is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale developed by Brazelton. It assesses the integrated actions of the infant that function to regulate simultaneously the infant's internal state and exchanges with the animate (caretaking) and inanimate environment. The scale uses a set of reflex and behavioral items to assess the critical domains of infant functioning (e.g., the infant's ability to control his states of consciousness). 52 references.

  6. Confirmation of QTL effects and evidence of genetic dominance of honeybee defensive behavior: results of colony and individual behavioral assays.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; Hunt, Greg J; Uribe, José L; Smith, Christine; Arechavaleta-Velasco, Miguel E

    2002-03-01

    The stinging and guarding components of the defensive behavior of European, Africanized, hybrid, and backcross honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) were compared and analyzed at both colony and individual levels. Hybrid and Africanized backcross colonies stung as many times as Africanized ones. European backcross colonies stung more than European bees but not as many times as Africanized or Africanized backcross colonies. The degree of dominance for the number of times that worker bees stung a leather patch was estimated to be 84.3%, 200.8%, and 145.8% for hybrid, backcross European, and backcross Africanized colonies, respectively. Additionally, both guards at the colony entrance and fast-stinging workers of one European backcross colony had a significantly higher frequency of an Africanized DNA marker allele, located near "sting1," a QTL previously implicated in stinging behavior at the colony level. However, guards and fast-stinging bees from a backcross to the Africanized parental colony did not differ from control bees in their frequency for the Africanized and European markers, as would be expected if large genetic dominance effects for sting1 exist. These results support the hypothesis that genetic dominance influences the defensive behavior of honeybees and confirm the effect of sting1 on the defensiveness of individual worker bees.

  7. Comparing main and collateral effects of extinction and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior.

    PubMed

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be outweighed by the reported negative side effects that result. However, these collateral effects have rarely been measured or reported. DRA produced the most rapid reductions in behavior for 4 of the 5 participants. Other behaviors were measured for changes and showed that the desirable collateral effect of academic engagement tended to be higher during EXT than DRA. No evidence of EXT bursts was present with any participant, although EXT-induced aggression occurred with 1 participant.

  8. A Systematic Review of Effective Interventions for Reducing Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Viner, Russell Mark

    2014-01-01

    We systematically searched 9 biomedical and social science databases (1980–2012) for primary and secondary interventions that prevented or reduced 2 or more adolescent health risk behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol use, illicit drug use, risky sexual behavior, aggressive acts). We identified 44 randomized controlled trials of universal or selective interventions and were effective for multiple health risk behaviors. Most were school based, conducted in the United States, and effective for multiple forms of substance use. Effects were small, in line with findings for other universal prevention programs. In some studies, effects for more than 1 health risk behavior only emerged at long-term follow-up. Integrated prevention programs are feasible and effective and may be more efficient than discrete prevention strategies. PMID:24625172

  9. Response Persistence: The Effects of Stimulus Control on Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior in a Concurrent Operant

    PubMed Central

    McComas, Jennifer J

    2009-01-01

    In the context of instructional demands, compliance and problem behavior can be considered concurrent operants. Of applied interest is increasing one response (i.e., compliance) while decreasing the other (i.e., problem behavior). Strategic arrangement of reinforcement can alter response allocation accordingly. Such schedules can also influence response persistence and generalization. A case study is used to illustrate the effects of stimulus–reinforcer relations in a concurrent-operants arrangement involving an adult with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. Results are discussed in the context of basic operant research findings in the areas of stimulus control and behavioral persistence. PMID:22478529

  10. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. Objective It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). Methods In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). Results The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and

  11. Effects of LSD on grooming behavior in serotonin transporter heterozygous (Sert⁺/⁻) mice.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD. Genetic ablation of mouse Sert causes various behavioral deficits, including increased anxiety and grooming behavior. The hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic agonist known to modulate human and animal behavior. Here, we examined heterozygous Sert(+/-) mouse behavior following acute administration of LSD (0.32 mg/kg). Overall, Sert(+/-) mice displayed a longer duration of self-grooming behavior regardless of LSD treatment. In contrast, LSD increased serotonin-sensitive behaviors, such as head twitching, tremors and backwards gait behaviors in both Sert(+/+) and Sert(+/-) mice. There were no significant interactions between LSD treatment and Sert gene dosage in any of the behavioral domains measured. These results suggest that Sert(+/-) mice may respond to the behavioral effects of LSD in a similar manner to wild-type mice.

  12. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Dalmau, Yaniz C. Padilla; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimović, Muška

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping, spinning in circles, shrill laughter, screaming, crying) behaviors. Only destructive behavior was targeted for the functional analyses and FCT, but data were also collected on disruptive behaviors. All procedures were conducted in the participants’ homes by their mothers with investigator coaching. Phase 1 consisted of conducting a functional analysis within a multielement design. Phase 2 consisted of conducting FCT with demand fading and repeated extinction baselines within a reversal design. Single-case data are provided for 3 participants, and summary data are provided for all 10 participants. Results of phase 1 showed that all participants’ destructive and disruptive behavior was maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement. Results of phase 2 showed that both destructive behavior and non-targeted disruptive behavior occurred at lower levels during FCT when compared to the functional analysis demand condition and baseline conditions, suggesting that FCT was effective in decreasing both target destructive behavior and non-targeted disruptive behaviors. PMID:23487563

  13. The effect of academic self-concept on ADHD and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pisecco, S; Wristers, K; Swank, P; Silva, P A; Baker, D B

    2001-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling techniques, we evaluated the effect of academic self-concept (ASC) on the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence. Participants (n = 445) were recruited from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research study. Eligibility was determined by the presence of complete data for the following variables at the specified time periods: reading at age 7, teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 7, self-ratings of ASC at ages 9 and 11, and teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 13. The results indicated that ASC is an important construct that directly contributes to the development of antisocial behaviors rather than to symptoms of ADHD. The results also indicated that children's early history of behavioral problems and academic performance contribute to the development of a more robust understanding of the impact of ASC on the development of disruptive behaviors in early adolescence.

  14. Effects of lighting on human physiology and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated and published in the biomedical literature that light in the environment can regulate human biology and behavior. In addition, light is now routinely utilized as a therapeutic tool for various clinical disorders. Studies also suggest that light can be used to improve the health and productivity of shift workers. Finally, the data are beginning to look very promising for the fact that light may be used to improve the health and performance of day workers in addition to shift workers.

  15. Effects of tail docking on behavior of confined feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Daigle, C L; Metz, K; Ladoni, M

    2014-10-01

    Tail tip injuries occur in some feedlot cattle housed in slatted-floor facilities typically found in the midwestern United States. The practice of tail docking cattle on entry into these feedlot facilities was initiated to prevent tail injuries. Tail docking is a welfare concern from the standpoint that an important method of fly avoidance is removed and the tail docking procedure is painful and often excludes local anesthesia or extended analgesia. The primary objective of this study was to describe the behavioral responses of feedlot cattle following tail docking. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All calves received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. A portion of the tail of DK calves was removed using pruning shears. An elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis and tail tips were sprayed with fly spray. IceQube accelerometers collected step counts, motion index, lying time, lying bouts, and lying bout duration during d -4 through 13. Direct observations of cattle behavior were performed on d 0, 1, and 2. Step counts of DK calves were increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and motion index of DK calves was also increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Docked cattle performed rear foot stomp behavior more (P < 0.001) than CN on d 0, 1, and 2. Forty-eight hours after tail docking, DK calves had increased lying bouts per hour (1.7 vs. 0.9 on d 0; P < 0.001; 1.1 vs. 0.8 on d 1; P < 0.01) but reduced lying bout durations (12.6 vs. 47.1 min on d 0; P < 0.001; 22.6 vs. 44.7 min on d 1; P < 0.001). On d 0, DK calves twitched tails more (P < 0.05) and ruminated less (P < 0.001). Despite provision of perioperative and postoperative analgesia, we identified altered behavior in DK cattle that may reflect a compromised welfare state for tail-docked feedlot cattle. We recommend

  16. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Effect on Behavior of Zebrafish During Chronic Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ana Claudia Reis; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; de Oliveira, Diogo Losch; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Guizzo, Ranieli; Meurer, Fábio; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely consumed drug, which acts on the central nervous system to induce behavioral alterations ranging from disinhibition to sedation. Recent studies have produced accumulating evidence for the therapeutic role of probiotic bacteria in behavior. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on the behavior of adult zebrafish chronically exposed to ethanol. Adult wild-type zebrafish were randomly divided into four groups, each containing 15 fish. The following groups were formed: Control (C), received unsupplemented feed during the trial period; Probiotic (P), fed with feed supplemented with LGG; Ethanol (E), received unsupplemented feed and 0.5% of ethanol directly added to the tank water; and Probiotic+Ethanol (P+E), group under ethanol exposure (0.5%) and fed with LGG supplemented feed. After 2 weeks of exposure, the novel tank test was used to evaluate fish behavior, which was analyzed using computer-aided video tracking. LGG alone did not alter swimming behavior of the fish. Ethanol exposure led to robust behavioral effects in the form of reduced anxiety levels, as indicated by increased vertical exploration and more time spent in the upper region of the novel tank. The group exposed to ethanol and treated with LGG behaved similarly to animals exposed to ethanol alone. Taken together, these results show that zebrafish behavior was not altered by LGG per se, as seen in murine models. This was the first study to investigate the effects of a probiotic diet on behavior after a chronic ethanol exposure.

  17. Behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents: Implications for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Lister, Josh; Fletcher, Paul J; Nobrega, José N; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Dohan proposed that an overload of dietary peptides, such as those derived from wheat gluten and milk casein, could be a factor relevant to the development or maintenance of schizophrenia (SZ) symptoms in at least a subset of vulnerable individuals. Rodent behavioral models may offer insight into the plausibility of Dohan's exorphin hypothesis by providing a means to directly study the effects of such peptides. Accordingly, a review of the literature on the behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents was undertaken. Studies using a variety of behavioral tests to examine the effects of several classes of food-derived opioid-like peptides were identified and reviewed. Peptides derived from casein (β-casomorphins; BCMs, n=19), spinach (rubiscolins; RCs, n=4), and soy (soymorphins; SMs, n=1) were behaviorally active in various paradigms assessing nociception, spontaneous behavior, and memory. Surprisingly, only a single study evaluating a gluten-derived peptide (gliadorphin-7; GD-7, n=1) was identified and included in this review. In conclusion, food-derived peptides can affect rodent behavior, but more studies of GDs using diverse behavioral batteries are warranted. Assuming they occur in sufficient quantities during protein digestion and can access central opioid receptors (which entails crossing both the gastrointestinal and blood-brain barriers intact), these peptides may affect human behavior. Although BCMs and GDs may not be directly pathogenic in SZ, documented associations of casein and gluten sensitivity with SZ justify increased patient screening and dietary intervention where necessary.

  18. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p < .0001) as compared with children in the control group with adequate nutritional status. These associations even persisted after controlling for social adversity and parental education. Findings were not moderated by gender or ethnicity, and there was no interaction effect with parental education. A dose-response relationship was observed between degree of malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition-social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood.

  19. Effects of Static Flexion-relaxation on Paraspinal Reflex Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Kevin P.; Rogers, Ellen; Moorhouse, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background. Static trunk flexion working postures and disturbed trunk muscle reflexes are related to increased risk of low-back pain. Animal studies conclude that these factors may be related; passive tissue strain in spinal ligaments causes subsequent short-term changes in reflex. Although studies have documented changes in the myoelectric onset angle of flexion-relaxation following prolonged static flexion and cyclic flexion we could find no published evidence related to the human reflex response of the trunk extensor muscles following a period of static flexion-relaxation loading. Methods. Eighteen subjects maintained static lumbar flexion for 15 min. Paraspinal muscle reflexes were elicited both before and after the flexion-relaxation protocol using pseudorandom stochastic force disturbances while recording EMG. Reflex gain was computed from the peak value of the impulse response function relating input force perturbation to EMG response using time-domain deconvolution analyses. Findings. Reflexes showed a trend toward increased gain after the period of flexion-relaxation (P < 0.055) and were increased with trunk extension exertion (P < 0.021). Significant gender differences in reflex gain were observed (P < 0.01). Interpretations. Occupational activities requiring extended periods of trunk flexion contribute to changes in reflex behavior of the paraspinal muscles. Results suggest potential mechanisms by which flexed posture work may contribute to low-back pain. Significant gender differences indicate risk analyses should consider personal factors when considering neuromuscular behavior. PMID:15567532

  20. Effect of strong thermalization on shock dynamical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Nobue; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2005-02-01

    The dynamics of the perpendicular shock front is examined under various plasma parameters by using particle-in-cell numerical simulation. As widely accepted, above the critical Mach number (˜3) the front of (quasi-)perpendicular shocks show nonstationary behavior due to the shock self-reformation. In much higher Mach number regime (MA > 20), we find that dynamics of the shock front self-reformation can be modified. Nonlinear evolution of microinstabilities in the shock transition region results turbulent profiles in a microscopic view (≤c/ωpe), while, from a macroscopic view (>several c/ωpe) because of rapid, strong thermalization in the shock transition region, the localized accumulation of the plasma due to ion dynamics is smeared out in both of the velocity phase space and real space. As a result, the shock self-reformation is realized within a reduced time and space. We can say there is a possibility that rapid, strong dissipation helps to stabilize the macroscopic shock front dynamics; the shock self-reformation still persists, though. The strong thermalization is caused by the nonlinear evolution of two-stream instability between the electron and the reflected/incident ion components and following ion-acoustic instability. We think that the modification of the shock self-reformation process observed in high Mach number regime indicates an important role of electron kinetics and heating in the macroscopic shock front behavior.