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Sample records for abused trafficked girls

  1. Aggression in Sexually Abused Trafficked Girls and Efficacy of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…

  2. Sex trafficking of women and girls.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women's rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

  3. Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women’s rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

  4. Asians seek end to girls' trafficking.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Each year, approximately 1 million Asian children under 18 years old, many of them female, become prostitutes. With regard to this problem, the Summit Foundation, the United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, and the Centre for Development and Population Activities are sponsoring a conference entitled "Girls' Rights, Society's Responsibility: Taking Action Against Child Sexual Exploitation," on December 8-10, 1997, at the Nehru Centre, Worli, Bombay. Policy makers from government, the legal and police professions, corporations, the tourism industry, and grassroots organizations will attend. Representatives from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand will develop coordinated strategies to end the abuse. The experiences of community-based nongovernmental organizations will be used to develop approaches to prevent exploitation, provide surveillance, and rehabilitate girls who have been exploited. The Nehru Centre, Jet Airways, and the President Hotel of Bombay will provide support. Participants are to include the Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, UNIFEM, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development (USAID), Oxfam, CIDA, SIDA, NORAD, and many corporations (Bata, Apeejay, Pepsi, Tata, Godrej, Mahindra and Mahindra, and hotel and tourist businesses).

  5. Asians seek end to girls' trafficking.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Each year, approximately 1 million Asian children under 18 years old, many of them female, become prostitutes. With regard to this problem, the Summit Foundation, the United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, and the Centre for Development and Population Activities are sponsoring a conference entitled "Girls' Rights, Society's Responsibility: Taking Action Against Child Sexual Exploitation," on December 8-10, 1997, at the Nehru Centre, Worli, Bombay. Policy makers from government, the legal and police professions, corporations, the tourism industry, and grassroots organizations will attend. Representatives from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand will develop coordinated strategies to end the abuse. The experiences of community-based nongovernmental organizations will be used to develop approaches to prevent exploitation, provide surveillance, and rehabilitate girls who have been exploited. The Nehru Centre, Jet Airways, and the President Hotel of Bombay will provide support. Participants are to include the Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, UNIFEM, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development (USAID), Oxfam, CIDA, SIDA, NORAD, and many corporations (Bata, Apeejay, Pepsi, Tata, Godrej, Mahindra and Mahindra, and hotel and tourist businesses). PMID:12292789

  6. Girls Trafficked from Nepal into Indian Brothels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Arati

    1996-01-01

    Account of the underground culture of sexual slavery of young girls. Children from Nepal are being lured in large numbers into the sex industry in Bombay, India. Describes the process by which children are seduced and coerced into this bondage with active support from political and law enforcement leaders. (LSR)

  7. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  8. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.

    PubMed

    Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders. PMID:24151086

  9. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.

    PubMed

    Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders.

  10. Group Therapy Techniques for Sexually Abused Preteen Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Pearl

    1990-01-01

    Describes an open-ended, structured, highly intensive therapy group for sexually abused preteen girls that was the primary mode of treatment for 11 girls from low-income, rural White families with numerous problems. Unique features of the group included simultaneous group and individualized goals. (Author/BB)

  11. Life Histories and Survival Strategies amongst Sexually Trafficked Girls in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkhada, Padam

    2008-01-01

    Many girls involved in sex work in Asia do so because they are compelled by economic circumstances and social inequality. Some enter sex work voluntarily, others do so by force or deception, sometimes involving migration across international borders. Nepalese girls involved in sex work via trafficking are the focus of this article, which aims at…

  12. Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision. METHODS: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche. RESULTS: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned. CONCLUSIONS: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance. PMID:26391935

  13. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  14. Syphilis and hepatitis B Co-infection among HIV-infected, sex-trafficked women and girls, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jay G; Decke, Michele R; Gupta, Jhumka; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Seage, George R; Raj, Anita

    2008-06-01

    Sex trafficking may play a major role in spread of HIV across South Asia. We investigated co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among 246 sex-trafficked women and girls from Nepal. Those who were HIV positive were more likely than those who were HIV negative to be infected with syphilis and/or hepatitis B. PMID:18507905

  15. Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.

    PubMed

    Kapur, P

    1995-01-01

    The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

  16. Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.

    PubMed

    Kapur, P

    1995-01-01

    The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection.

  17. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  18. A multi-dimensional model of groupwork for adolescent girls who have been sexually abused.

    PubMed

    Lindon, J; Nourse, C A

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a treatment approach for sexually abused adolescent girls using a group work model. The model incorporates three treatment modalities: a skills component, a psychotherapeutic component, and an educative component. The group ran for 16 sessions over a 6-month period and each girl was assessed prior to joining the group. The girls were again assessed at the end of treatment and a 6-months follow-up; all of them showed improvement on self-statements (outcome) and on behavioral measures assessed by others (follow-up). Girls who had been sexually abused demonstrated difficulties in many areas of their lives following abuse. These problems related to their feelings of guilt and helplessness in relation to both themselves and their abuser. Sexually abused children often have poor knowledge of sexual matters and demonstrate confusion over their own body image. Using a multidimensional model the problems following abuse can be addressed. PMID:8187019

  19. Attachment Representations and Anxiety: Differential Relationships among Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to document an example of how childhood sexual abuse and attachment representation interact while contributing to the trait anxiety of nonoffending mothers following the disclosure of their daughters' sexual abuse. The study sample consisted of 57 ethnically diverse mothers of sexually abused girls aged 6 to 16 and 47…

  20. Testing the Validity and Reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among Sexually Abused Girls in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Lynn T. M.; Murray, Laura K.; Kane, Jeremy C.; Skavenski van Wyk, Stephanie; Chomba, Elwyn; Cohen, Judith; Imasiku, Mwiya; Semrau, Katherine; Unick, Jay; Bolton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study is to test the validity and reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among traumatized girls in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods The Shame Questionnaire was validated through both classical test and item response theory methods. Internal reliability, criterion validity and construct validity were examined among a sample of 325 female children living in Zambia. Sub-analyses were conducted to examine differences in construct validity among girls who reported sexual abuse and girls who did not. Results All girls in the sample were sexually abused, but only 61.5% endorsed or reported that sexual abuse had occurred. Internal consistency was very good among the sample with alpha = .87. Criterion validity was demonstrated through a significant difference of mean Shame Questionnaire scores between girls who experienced 0–1 trauma events and more than one traumatic event, with higher mean Shame Questionnaire scores among girls who had more than one traumatic event (p = .004 for 0–1 compared to 2 and 3 events and p = .016 for 0–1 compared to 4+ events). Girls who reported a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse had a significantly higher mean Shame Questionnaire score than girls who did not report a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse (p<.0001). There was no significant difference in mean Shame Questionnaire score between girls who reported a sexual abuse history and girls who did not. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model of the Shame Questionnaire, with an experience of shame dimension and an active outcomes of shame dimension. Item response theory analysis indicated adequate overall item fit. Results also indicate potential differences in construct validity between girls who did and did not endorse sexual abuse. Conclusions This study suggests the general utility of the Shame Questionnaire among Zambian girls and demonstrates the need for more psychometric studies in low and middle income

  1. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  2. Signs of resilience in sexually abused adolescent girls in the foster care system.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Tonya; Auslander, Wendy; Elze, Diane; Bowland, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 99 sexually abused adolescent girls in the foster care system (64% in congregate living situations and 36% in family/foster care homes), nearly half were psychologically functioning well despite having experienced moderate-to-severe emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. It was hypothesized that these girls with resilient trajectories would differ from the currently symptomatic girls on several protective factors: education, future orientation, family support, peer influence, and religion. The results revealed that the girls with resilient trajectories were significantly more certain of their educational plans and optimistic about their future and had more positive peer influences.

  3. Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, 1982. Prepared for the President Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…

  4. Impact Evaluation of a Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Model in Brazilian Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…

  5. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  6. Abuses of the girl child in some African societies: implications for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Doris Deedei

    2006-01-01

    The definition of a child in African societies varies. From the moment the girl child can talk and walk, she is allocated responsibilities within the family. Westernized cultures view such responsibilities as forms of abuse. Thus, various reports had been written about girl children and had been critical of African societies without acknowledging that Africa is a very large continent. This paper sets out to identify, explore, and present potential areas of abuse of the girl child, for example, female circumcision, child slaves, rape survivors, child soldiers, child prostitution, teenage pregnancy, and arranged marriages. This paper suggests strategies that healthcare professionals could initiate in situations where a girl child is being abused. PMID:16512869

  7. Factors linked to outcomes in sexually abused girls: a regression tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Martine; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Daigneault, Isabelle; Parent, Nathalie; Tremblay, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Children who report sexual abuse (SA) have been found to display a range of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. In the present study, a tree-based analysis was used to derive models predicting the variability of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems as well as dissociation symptoms in SA girls. Participants were 150 girls aged 4 to 12 years referred to a specialized pediatric clinic after disclosure of SA. The potential predictors taken into account included sociodemographic and abuse-related variables as well as maternal and family characteristics. The models obtained point to prior abuse as a salient variable in predicting outcomes of SA girls. Implications for the treatment for children disclosing SA are discussed.

  8. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  9. Preliminary Investigation of the Abuse of Girls in Zimbabwean Junior Secondary Schools. Education Research Paper. Knowledge & Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Machakanja, Pamela

    This study found that the abuse of girls in the coeducational schools where the research took place was widespread and took the form of aggressive sexual behavior, intimidation and physical assault by older boys, sexual advances by male teachers, and corporal punishment and verbal abuse by both female and male teachers (on boys as well as girls).…

  10. Trafficking in persons: a health concern?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Houssain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Human trafficking is a phenomenon that has now been documented in most regions in the world. Although trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is the most commonly recognised form of trafficking, it is widely acknowledged that human trafficking also involves men, women and children who are trafficked for various forms of labour exploitation and into other abusive circumstances. Despite the violence and harm inherent in most trafficking situations, there remains extremely little evidence on the individual and public health implications of any form of human trafficking. The Brazilian government has recently launched a national plan to combat human trafficking. However, because the health risks associated with human trafficking have not been well-recognised or documented, there is extremely limited reliable data on the health needs of trafficked persons to inform policy and practices.. Brazilian policy-makers and service providers should be encouraged to learn about the likely range of health impacts of trafficking, and incorporate this into anti-trafficking protection and response strategies. As well as prevention activities, the government, international and local organisations should work together with the public health research community to study the health needs of trafficked persons and explore opportunities to provide safe and appropriate services to victims in need of care. PMID:19721944

  11. The girl who cried wolf: pseudologia phantastica and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Matas, M; Marriott, A

    1987-05-01

    There has been an explosion of interest recently in sexual abuse and incest, with reported causal links to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The integrity of Freud's seduction theory has been challenged by Jeffrey Masson and sexual abuse activists. What is the position of a therapist who finds out that a patient's reports of incest and sexual abuse turn out to be fabrications? These issues are presented and discussed in the context of a brief, illustrative case history. There is also a review of the concept of "pseudologia fantastica", as well as a brief review of a feminist critique of Freudian theory. PMID:3607712

  12. Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenage Girls: An Illusory Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Boynes, Matthew; Hudson, James I.; Field, Alison E.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent media reports have portrayed an alarming increase in apparent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among American teenage girls; Congress even held hearings on the subject in June 2005. We questioned whether AAS use among teenage girls was as widespread as claimed. Methods We reviewed four large national surveys and many smaller surveys examining the prevalence of AAS use among teenage girls. Virtually all of these surveys used anonymous questionnaires. We asked particularly whether the language of survey questions might generate false-positive responses among girls who misinterpreted the term “steroid.” We also reviewed data from other countries, together with results from the only recent study (to our knowledge) in which investigators personally interviewed female AAS users. Results The surveys produced remarkably disparate findings, with the lifetime prevalence of AAS use estimated as high as 7.3% among ninth-grade girls in one study, but only 0.1% among teenage girls in several others. Upon examining the surveys reporting an elevated prevalence, it appeared that most used questions that failed to distinguish between anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, and over-the-counter supplements that respondents might confuse with “steroids.” Other features in the phrasing of certain questions also seemed likely to further bias results in favor of false-positive responses. Conclusions Many anonymous surveys, using imprecise questions, appear to have greatly overestimated the lifetime prevalence of AAS use among teenage girls; the true lifetime prevalence may well be as low as 0.1%. Future studies can test this impression by using a carefully phrased question regarding AAS use. PMID:17127018

  13. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  14. Hymenal Characteristics in Girls with and without a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sara T.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature on physical findings related to the hymen in pubertal and prepubertal girls with and without a history of sexual abuse. Characteristics of normal hymenal anatomy, acute traumatic findings, and characteristics of healed trauma are discussed, particularly with regard to changes in the interpretation of…

  15. Prospective Relations between Bulimic Pathology, Depression, and Substance Abuse: Unpacking Comorbidity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily M.; Shaw, Heather

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate the processes that contribute to the comorbidity between bulimic pathology, depression, and substance abuse, the authors tested the temporal relations between these disturbances with prospective data from adolescent girls (N = 496). Multivariate analyses indicated that depressive symptoms predicted onset of bulimic pathology but not…

  16. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitch, Sara M; Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7-12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history and (marginally) to postbaseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  17. Childhood abuse and aggression in girls: the contribution of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether emerging borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms mediated the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and aggression among incarcerated girls. Participants were 121 incarcerated adolescent girls (13-19 years old). Three forms of aggression (relational, overt, and violent offending behavior) and exposure to CPA by a parental figure were assessed using self-report inventories, whereas BPD symptoms were evaluated using a structured interview. Mediation models, including tests of indirect effects, were conducted in which each form of aggression was predicted from CPA with BPD symptoms entered as a mediator. A divergent pattern emerged in which BPD symptoms mediated the relationship between CPA and violent offending, but not less severe forms of overt aggression. Relational aggression, although correlated with CPA, was not associated with BPD symptoms. Implications for the conceptualization and treatment of girls' aggression within the context of interpersonal functioning are discussed. PMID:19144235

  18. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  19. Sexual Abuse in Cameroon: A Four-Year-Old Girl Victim of Rape in Buea Case Study.

    PubMed

    Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy

    2016-01-01

    A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease.

  20. Sexual Abuse in Cameroon: A Four-Year-Old Girl Victim of Rape in Buea Case Study.

    PubMed

    Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy

    2016-01-01

    A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease. PMID:27561118

  1. Variability in symptom expression among sexually abused girls: developing multivariate models.

    PubMed

    Spaccarelli, S; Fuchs, C

    1997-03-01

    Examined which of several apparent risk variables were predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems in 48 girls who were referred for therapy after disclosing sexual abuse. Specifically, the effects of abuse characteristics, support from nonoffending parents, victims' coping strategies, and victims' cognitive appraisals on symptomatology were assessed. As hypothesized, results indicated that internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with different sets of predictor variables. Victims' self-reports of depression and anxiety were related to lower perceived support from nonoffending parents, more use of cognitive avoidance coping, and more negative appraisals of the abuse. These results were partially replicated when using parent-report measures of depression, but were not replicated for parent reports of victim anxiety. Incest was the only variable that was significantly related to parent-reported anxiety. Parent-reported aggressive behaviors were predicted by level of abuse-related stress; and aggression, social problems, and sexual problems were all related to the tendency to cope by controlling others. Social problems were also related to coping by self-distraction. Regression analyses were done for each dependent variable to examine which predictors accounted for unique variance when controlling for other significant zero-order correlates. Implications of these results for understanding variability in symptom expression among sexual abuse victims are discussed.

  2. Variability in symptom expression among sexually abused girls: developing multivariate models.

    PubMed

    Spaccarelli, S; Fuchs, C

    1997-03-01

    Examined which of several apparent risk variables were predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems in 48 girls who were referred for therapy after disclosing sexual abuse. Specifically, the effects of abuse characteristics, support from nonoffending parents, victims' coping strategies, and victims' cognitive appraisals on symptomatology were assessed. As hypothesized, results indicated that internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with different sets of predictor variables. Victims' self-reports of depression and anxiety were related to lower perceived support from nonoffending parents, more use of cognitive avoidance coping, and more negative appraisals of the abuse. These results were partially replicated when using parent-report measures of depression, but were not replicated for parent reports of victim anxiety. Incest was the only variable that was significantly related to parent-reported anxiety. Parent-reported aggressive behaviors were predicted by level of abuse-related stress; and aggression, social problems, and sexual problems were all related to the tendency to cope by controlling others. Social problems were also related to coping by self-distraction. Regression analyses were done for each dependent variable to examine which predictors accounted for unique variance when controlling for other significant zero-order correlates. Implications of these results for understanding variability in symptom expression among sexual abuse victims are discussed. PMID:9118173

  3. Mental health treatment need among pregnant and postpartum women/girls entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

    2012-06-01

    Substance use during pregnancy is widely acknowledged as a major public health concern with detrimental effects on both mother and unborn child. Mental health issues often co-occur with substance use and may trigger continued use during pregnancy or relapse to use postpartum, though little is known about the extent of these issues in pregnant and postpartum women entering substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is: (a) to examine self-reported mental health in a population of women and girls who were pregnant in the past year and are entering substance abuse treatment, and (b) to determine whether disparity exists in mental health treatment received across groups by race and age if a treatment need is present. Secondary data analysis was conducted with Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) data from 502 female adolescents and adults who reported having been pregnant in the past year and who completed the GAIN upon entry into substance abuse treatment. Participants were compared on demographic, diagnostic, and problem severity variables by race and age. Results indicate that mental health treatment need is high among the whole pregnant and postpartum sample, but African American and Hispanic women and girls are receiving less mental health treatment than other groups despite having a need for it. No mental health treatment acquisition disparity was found by age.

  4. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, Sara M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7–12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history, and (marginally) to post-baseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with girls’ suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  5. [Gynecological clinical study in girls and adolescent victims of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Sam Soto, Selene; Gayón Vera, Eduardo; García Piña, Corina A

    2008-07-01

    In spite of a very important under-registration, sexual abuse represents a social and public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, estimated prevalence of sexual abuse in women is 17.3%, half of them in youngsters under 15 years old. Most of cases have a late gynecological evaluation, due to a delay in a formal complaint. Gynecologist or pediatrician are the specialists who most frequently perform the genital examination of girls suspected of sexual abuse, due to this a complete knowledge of the topic is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis, register the physical findings and give prompt medical and psychological treatment as well as follow up to the patient. Despite the low risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, it is important to evaluate the use of prophylactic treatment and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy with emergency contraception. Big efforts are being made by preventive programs on sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, all of which are serious problems in Mexican children and youths, and should constitute a fundamental part of the public politics on sexual health.

  6. [Gynecological clinical study in girls and adolescent victims of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Sam Soto, Selene; Gayón Vera, Eduardo; García Piña, Corina A

    2008-07-01

    In spite of a very important under-registration, sexual abuse represents a social and public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, estimated prevalence of sexual abuse in women is 17.3%, half of them in youngsters under 15 years old. Most of cases have a late gynecological evaluation, due to a delay in a formal complaint. Gynecologist or pediatrician are the specialists who most frequently perform the genital examination of girls suspected of sexual abuse, due to this a complete knowledge of the topic is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis, register the physical findings and give prompt medical and psychological treatment as well as follow up to the patient. Despite the low risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, it is important to evaluate the use of prophylactic treatment and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy with emergency contraception. Big efforts are being made by preventive programs on sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, all of which are serious problems in Mexican children and youths, and should constitute a fundamental part of the public politics on sexual health. PMID:18798442

  7. Ovarian Cystadenoma in a Trafficked Patient.

    PubMed

    Titchen, Kanani E; Katz, Douglas; Martinez, Kidian; White, Krishna

    2016-05-01

    The topic of child sex trafficking is receiving increased attention both in the lay press and in research articles. Recently, a number of physician organizations have issued policy statements calling for the education and involvement of physicians in combating this form of "modern-day slavery." Primary care and emergency medicine physicians have led these efforts, but a number of these victims may present to surgeons. Surgeons are in a unique position to identify trafficked patients; during the process of undraping, intubation, and surgical preparation, signs of trafficking such as tattoos, scars, dental injuries, and bruising may be evident. In addition, these patients may have specific needs in terms of anesthesia and postoperative care due to substance abuse. Here, we report the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of sexual exploitation who presents for cystadenoma excision. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a sex-trafficked pediatric patient presenting for surgery. PMID:27244785

  8. Preventing Substance Abuse among Black and Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Results from a Computer-Delivered, Mother-Daughter Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C. A.

    2010-01-01

    This 2008 study involved 546 Black- and Hispanic-American adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants provided self-report data. Analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental intervention reduced risk factors, improved protective factors, and lowered girls' alcohol use and their future intentions to use substances. The study supports the value of computer-based and gender-specific interventions that involve girls and mothers. Future work needs to replicate and strengthen study results. Research support came from the National Institute on Drug Abuse within the National Institutes of Health of the United States Public Health Service. PMID:21190404

  9. Trajectories of psychopathology and risky behaviors associated with childhood abuse and neglect in low-income urban African American girls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population.

  10. Substance Use and Abuse Trajectories across Adolescence: A Latent Trajectory Analysis of a Community-Recruited Sample of Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…

  11. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  12. Childhood Abuse, Avatar Choices, and Other Risk Factors Associated With Internet-Initiated Victimization of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Shenk, Chad E.; Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to determine the risk factors for Internet-initiated victimization of female adolescents. In particular, it was expected that girls who experienced childhood abuse would show higher vulnerability than their nonabused peers. In addition, the study examined how provocative self-presentations might be related to online sexual advances and offline encounters. Patients and Methods Adolescent girls aged 14 to 17 years who had experienced substantiated childhood abuse (N = 104) were demographically matched with nonabused girls (N = 69) and surveyed regarding Internet usage, maternal and paternal caregiver presence, substance use, high-risk sexual attitudes, and involvement with high-risk peers. To measure online self-presentation, participants each created avatars, which were quantified according to the degree of provocative physical features. Results Forty percent of the sample reported experiencing online sexual advances, and 26% reported meeting someone offline who they first met online. Abused girls were significantly more likely to have experienced online sexual advances and to have met someone offline. Having been abused and choosing a provocative avatar were significantly and independently associated with online sexual advances, which were, in turn, associated with offline encounters. Conclusions A history of childhood abuse may increase Internet-initiated victimization vulnerability. Parents should be aware of the ways in which their adolescents are presenting themselves online. Making adolescent girls and their parents aware that provocative online self-presentations may have implications for sexual solicitation might help to ward off sexual advances and might help prevent Internet-initiated victimizations. Practitioners should consider standard inquiry into Internet and media usage an aspect of comprehensive care. PMID:19482741

  13. Ethical and legal issues in the control of drug abuse and drug trafficking: the Nigerian case.

    PubMed

    Obot, I S

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents a general review of drug law and policy in Nigeria beginning with the international attempts to control the traffic in liquor during the pre-colonial and colonial periods. The paper assesses the impact of penal policy on trafficking and use of illicit drugs at different stages in the transformation of Nigeria from a colonial outpost to an independent nation. One persistent feature of drug control mechanisms in Nigeria has been the emphasis on the reduction of supply with the imposition of harsh though inconsistent punishment including, at one time, the death penalty for trafficking. Consequently, initiatives aimed at demand reduction through education, treatment and rehabilitation have been neglected. One reason for this is that, to a great extent, drug control strategy in modern Nigeria has been a response to international demands; another is that they were formulated under military regimes with an overriding concern for law and order. Other features of the Nigerian drug problem are presented and the need for the reform of current laws is stressed. It is argued that an enduring solution lies in the implementation of a comprehensive but clearly defined policy aimed both at the control of supply and reduction of demand. While the state has the duty and the right to protect its citizens from drug-related harm, it is an ethical imperative to institute control measures which do no harm to the citizens they are meant to protect.

  14. The Impact of Sex of Psychological Examiner on Sexually Abused Girls' Preference for and Anticipated Comfort with Male versus Female Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    As part of a psychological evaluation, 35 sexually abused girls were asked to indicate their preference for a male or female counselor. Girls evaluated by male examiners were less likely to have a clear preference for a female counselor. The sex of the examiner was related to participants' anticipated comfort with a counselor of a particular sex.…

  15. Differential Patterns of Disclosure of Child Abuse among Boys and Girls: Implications for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the differential incidence of male versus female reports of sexual abuse through hotlines and solicited reports. Reports occurred after the institution of a child abuse prevention program for 1,920 children K-12. (RJC)

  16. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    PubMed

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder.

  17. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    PubMed

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder. PMID:21660818

  18. "I thought . . . maybe this is my chance": sexual abuse against girls and women with disabilities in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kvam, Marit Hoem; Braathen, Stine Hellum

    2008-03-01

    This article is based on a pilot study conducted in Malawi in 2006 that intended to uncover episodes of violence and abuse against women and girls with disabilities and furthermore to explore the mechanisms behind such acts. The stories of 23 women with disabilities were obtained through in-depth semistructured interviews that covered, among other topics, aspects of sexual abuse experienced by or known to these women. None of the informants reported having been sexually abused during childhood. In adulthood, several had experienced what they themselves defined as sexual abuse: Men came and wanted to "marry" them. When the woman became pregnant, the man disappeared and left her alone. The interviewees were very opinionated regarding this theme and sought both social and political action in this matter, especially a means to enforce men to take economic responsibility for their biological children. The informants stressed that adapted education for women with disabilities would allow them to become more economically independent and be better able to refuse the advances of unserious suitors.

  19. A Review of Substance Abuse Prevention Interventions for Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Susan M.; Amaro, Hortensia; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Flinchbaugh, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews evidence of the effectiveness of traditional alcohol, tobacco, and drug use prevention approaches with girls and with boys, as well as available evidence from gender-specific or gender-informed interventions focused specifically on girls. Recommends needed research and prevention strategies that take gender into account. (Author/DLH)

  20. TAT assessment of sexually abused girls: an analysis of manifest content.

    PubMed

    Pistole, D R; Ornduff, S R

    1994-10-01

    Manifest content of Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) stories of 30 sexually abused female children and a clinical group of 30 female children with no documented history of abuse was examined using the Scoring Scheme for the TAT and Other Verbal Projective Techniques (Fine, 1955a). The two groups were similar demographically, and did not differ with regard to the overall frequency of negative feelings and outcomes. Significant group differences were found when specific negative feelings were investigated, with subjects in the abuse group having higher frequencies of stated sexual preoccupation than nonabused comparison subjects. In addition, higher frequencies of expressed guilt on the part of abuse subjects can be considered secondary to their overconcern with sexuality. Findings support the utility of the TAT in identifying victims of sexual abuse by the examination of manifest content.

  1. Human Trafficking

    MedlinePlus

    ... TRAFFICKING (English) Listen < Back to Search FACT SHEET: HUMAN TRAFFICKING (English) Published: August 2, 2012 Topics: Public Awareness , ... organizations that protect and serve trafficking victims. National Human Trafficking Resource Center at 1.888.373.7888 Last ...

  2. Developing Theory-based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Blake, Susan M.; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Flinchbaugh, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Integrates evidence on gender relevance for substance use prevention research and reviews trends in tobacco, alcohol and drug use, gender differences in risk factors, and relevant theoretical models of substance use prevention among adolescent girls. Recommends further research and prevention strategies focusing on gender, race, and ethnicity.…

  3. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  4. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  5. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  6. Societal attitudes to girl child -- leading to abuse and infanticide. Innovative interaction for change.

    PubMed

    Kumarbabu, G

    1993-01-01

    Parents in certain castes in certain regions of India prefer to bear sons and kill their infant girls in the attempt to minimize household expenditures and maximize household income over the long term. This practice was widely prevalent at least as far back as when the British came to power in India. The Indian Council for Child Welfare entered Tamil Nadu in 1987 as a welfare organization with the primary objective of preventing female infanticide. From working initially in 10 villages, the organization's effort have expanded to encompass 246 villages. Day-care centers have been established for working women; workers reach out to encourage pregnant women to accept female babies and not kill them; and the small family norm is promoted. A women's group has been formed and efforts are being made to enroll girls in school, educate the older women, and encourage alternative income generating programs. Despite some signs of success from the program's efforts, the author notes the difficulty in finding qualified and willing workers. Gradual change is being observed in attitudes toward female offspring; it is hoped that the trend continues.

  7. Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.

    PubMed

    McClain, Natalie M; Garrity, Stacy E

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking affects a surprisingly large number of adolescents around the globe. Women and girls make up the majority of sex trafficking victims. Nurses must be aware of sex trafficking as a form of sexual violence in the adolescent population. Nurses can play a role in identifying, intervening, and advocating for victims of human trafficking as they currently do for patients that are the victims of other types of violent crimes. PMID:21284727

  8. Preliminary Validation of the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale.

    PubMed

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R; Wilson, Midge

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale (STAS), assessing cognitive, behavioral, and affective attitudes toward the sex trafficking of women and girls. Across two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and confirmed six subscales: (a) Knowledge About Sex Trafficking, (b) Awareness of Sex Trafficking, (c) Attitudes Toward Ability to Leave Sex Trafficking, (d) Attitudes Toward Helping Survivors, (e) Empathic Reactions Toward Sex Trafficking, and (f) Efficacy to Reduce Sex Trafficking. Results showed support for convergent validity as the subscales were associated with related measures. The STAS holds promise to expand research and inform efforts to support trafficking survivors.

  9. Targeting the SAVA (Substance Abuse, Violence and AIDS) Syndemic among Women and Girls: A Global Review of Epidemiology and Integrated Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Louisa; Raj, Anita; Hien, Denise; Stockman, Jamila; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Wyatt, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Multiple pathways link gender-based violence (GBV) to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among women and girls who use or inject drugs. The aim of this paper is to synthesize global literature that examines associations among the synergistic epidemics of substance abuse, violence and HIV/AIDS, known as the SAVA syndemic. It also aims to identify a continuum of multi-level integrated interventions that target key SAVA syndemic mechanisms. Methods We conducted a selective search strategy, prioritizing use of meta-analytic epidemiological and intervention studies that address different aspects of the SAVA syndemic among women and girls who use drugs worldwide from 2000–2015 using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. Results Robust evidence from different countries suggests that GBV significantly increases the risk of HIV and other STIs among women and girls who use drugs. Multiple structural, biological and behavioral mechanisms link GBV and HIV among women and girls. Emerging research has identified a continuum of brief and extended multi-level GBV prevention and treatment interventions that may be integrated into a continuum of HIV prevention, testing, and treatment interventions to target key SAVA syndemic mechanisms among women and girls who use drugs. Conclusion There remain significant methodological and geographical gaps in epidemiological and intervention research on the SAVA syndemic, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This global review underscores the need to advance a continuum of multi-level integrated interventions that target salient mechanisms of the SAVA syndemic, especially for adolescent girls, young women and transgender women who use drugs. PMID:25978478

  10. The Role of Subjective Motivation in Girls' Secondary Schooling: The Case of Avoidance of Abuse in Belize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Fye, Eileen P.

    2010-01-01

    As in other Latin American and Caribbean nations, young women in Belize have made remarkable strides in enrollment in and completion of secondary schooling. In fact, adolescent girls did so well during the 1990s that the usual explanations of increased access to schooling and governmental policy aimed at increasing girls' education did not appear…

  11. Self-induced carving and scarification of the forearms as a manifestation of sexual abuse in a 14-YEAR-old adolescent girl

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh

    2000-05-01

    Background: Numerous cutaneous abnormalities have been described in adolescent girls who have been sexually abused. These include bruising, bite marks, cuts, scratches, abrasions, edema, hematomas or other evidence of struggle. Victims frequently shower or bathe excessively in an effort to cleanse their skin following such an unwanted encounter. However, there is a paucity of information in the literature regarding the association of sexual abuse and removal of the superficial layers of the skin as a more desperate attempt by teenagers to rid themselves of the perpetrator. The purpose of this paper is to heighten awareness among practitioners that self-induced cutting and carving of the forearms with scarification may occur as a manifestation of sexual abuse in young women.Methods: A 14-year-old girl was seen in an adolescent medicine consultation setting during the spring of 1999 for evaluation of an anxiety disorder. During the interview the girl related that she had been under considerable stress and that she was having difficulty sleeping. She also had worsening of facial tics that had been previously noted in association with obsessive compulsive behaviors. She had been receiving psychotherapy and was being treated with fluoxetine, but the symptoms were becoming more severe. On examination she appeared very anxious and demonstrated numerous involuntary, repetitive facial grimaces. Similar twitching movements of the neck were also noted. In addition, she had several well healed scars over both forearms. The lesions were linear with a range of one half to one inch in width and three to four inches in length. The remainder of the general physical examination was entirely unremarkable.Results: The etiology of the scars was initially unknown. Upon further questioning the patient was asked directly about what had caused these marks. At that point she broke down and cried as she related that had been sexually assaulted several months earlier. She stated that she

  12. Human Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  13. Going through the Rites of Passage: Timing and Transition of Menarche, Childhood Sexual Abuse, and Anxiety Symptoms in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Menarche is a discrete, transitional event that holds considerable personal, social, biological, and developmental significance. The present longitudinal study examined both the transition and timing of menarche on the trajectory of anxiety in girls with histories of childhood maltreatment (N = 93; 63% European American, 14% multiracial, 10%…

  14. The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

  15. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kumpfer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  16. [2 steps forward and one back?--Response of child welfare to sexual abuse experiences of girls and boys].

    PubMed

    Rohleder, C; Weber, M

    1996-10-01

    What has been changed in the system of social help since sexual abuse became a public topic? Is social work capable of providing adequate help and support for the survivors? The article presents the results of a three-year-lasting research project. In three different regions the authors have scrutinized 1. the institutions offering help, 2. the knowledge of and the attitude towards sexual violence of the professionals and 3. the conceptional assumptions leading social work. The results show that the situation for survivors of sexual abuse has definitely improved, because there are more helping institutions and the professional awareness has increased. But for a profound reorganization of help, restrictive financial politics, internalized prejudices and institutional concepts need to be changed. PMID:9011854

  17. Sex trafficking in Nepal: a review of intervention and prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Crawford, Mary

    2011-05-01

    Trafficking of girls and women for the purpose of sexual exploitation is a problem worldwide, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on Nepal-to-India sex trafficking with an examination of current anti-trafficking intervention and prevention programs. The activities of both governmental agencies and nongovernment organizations are described and critically analyzed. Suggestions for evaluating and improving interventions, and thereby reducing the trafficking of girls and women, are discussed. PMID:21502114

  18. Half of world's women are victims of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    According to a report by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), up to half of the world's female population have suffered abuse at the hands of those closest to them, at some point in their lives. This report on Domestic Violence Against Women and Girls is a first effort by the UNICEF to establish the global dimensions of domestic abuse. It is also another step deeper into an aggressive campaign to address the root causes of the problems of millions of the world's women and children. Meanwhile, an outcome of the 5-day UN special meeting is a new blueprint to improve women's lives, noting domestic violence as a primary issue with emphasis on abortion, and punishment for marital rape, domestic abuse, and trafficking. In addition, the conference acknowledged the role of men in the process of improving women's lives. Moreover, the issues of welfare for women caught in armed conflict are also discussed with focus on the war in Mindanao, Philippines.

  19. ‘We are looked down upon and rejected socially’: a qualitative study on the experiences of trafficking survivors in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dahal, Pranab; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background The successful reintegration of sexual trafficking survivors into Nepalese society is challenging. This paper aims to explore the trafficking process, abuses faced during sexual slavery,and the challenges faced by women and girl survivors for successful reintegration. Method This exploratory study used qualitative methods to identify that poverty, illiteracy, lack of opportunities, and varied social stigma initiate the victimization process, and continuity of this vicious circle increases the risk for (re)entrapment. Result The reasons for sexual trafficking have also become the reasons for restricting survivors from opportunities for growth and mainstreaming. Conclusion Non-existent support systems, detachment from familial ties, being outcast by society, and an uncertain livelihood make reintegration difficult for survivors. PMID:26584683

  20. Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a considerable public health problem. Less focus has been paid to the role of community level factors associated with CSA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighbourhood-level measures of social disorganization and CSA. Methods We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 adolescents from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2006 and 2008. Results The percentage of adolescents that had experienced CSA ranged from 1.04% to 5.84%. There was a significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, suggesting 18% of the variation in CSA could be attributed to community level factors. Respondents currently employed were more likely to have reported CSA than those who were unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48 to 2.83). Respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported CSA (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16). Conclusion We found that exposure to CSA was associated with high community level of family disruption, thus suggesting that neighbourhoods may indeed have significant important effects on exposure to CSA. Further studies are needed to explore pathways that connect the individual and neighbourhood levels, that is, means through which deleterious neighbourhood effects are transmitted to individuals. PMID:23924347

  1. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner. PMID:25497135

  2. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner.

  3. Human and animal research into sex-specific effects of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Bradley M; Weathington, Jill M

    2014-04-01

    Child abuse is the most potent experiential risk factor for developing a mood disorder later in life. The effects of child abuse are also more severe in girls and women than in men. In this review, we explore the origins of this epidemiological sex difference. We begin by offering the hypothesis that a sex-specific risk factor that influences how social cues are perceived and remembered makes girls more susceptible to the effects of child abuse. We then discuss the neural systems that mediate emotion and stress, and, how child abuse and/or mood disorders like anxiety and depression affect them. Drawing upon human and animal research, several candidates for such a risk factor are discussed. They include glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and corticotropin releasing factor receptor binding and signaling. Our own research shows that the morphometry of the prepubertal amygdala is sexually dimorphic, and could contribute to a sex difference in stimulus appraisal. We have also found that the brain of juvenile female rats is less selective than males' for threatening social stimuli. Thus, one way that women may be more vulnerable to the effects of child abuse is that they are more likely to perceive objectively benign stimuli as threatening. This bias in perception could compound with the genuinely traumatic memories caused by child abuse; the burden of traumatic memories and the increasingly reactive stress response systems could then dispose more women than men to develop depression and/or anxiety.

  4. Committee opinion no. 507: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Human trafficking is a widespread problem with estimates ranging from 14,000 to 50,000 individuals trafficked into the United States annually. This hidden population involves the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotel and restaurant businesses, domestic workers, marriage brokers, and some adoption firms. Because 80% of trafficked individuals are women and girls, women’s health care providers may better serve their diverse patient population by increasing their awareness of this problem. The exploitation of people of any race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity is unacceptable at any time, in any place. The members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should be aware of this problem and strive to recognize and assist their patients who are victims or who have been victims of human trafficking. PMID:21860320

  5. Committee opinion no. 507: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Human trafficking is a widespread problem with estimates ranging from 14,000 to 50,000 individuals trafficked into the United States annually. This hidden population involves the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotel and restaurant businesses, domestic workers, marriage brokers, and some adoption firms. Because 80% of trafficked individuals are women and girls, women’s health care providers may better serve their diverse patient population by increasing their awareness of this problem. The exploitation of people of any race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity is unacceptable at any time, in any place. The members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should be aware of this problem and strive to recognize and assist their patients who are victims or who have been victims of human trafficking.

  6. Entrapment and Enmeshment Schemes Used by Sex Traffickers.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A

    2016-09-01

    Emerging research suggests that sex traffickers/pimps control the majority of trafficked girls in the United States. The youthfulness of these victims and their lack of psychosocial maturity severely diminish their ability to detect exploitative motives or withstand manipulation of traffickers. A review of 43 cases of sexually exploited girls involving non-relative traffickers and 10 semi-structured interviews with social service providers revealed numerous scripts and schemes used by sex traffickers to entrap and entangle victims including boyfriend/lover scripts, ruses involving debt bondage, friendship or faux-family scripts, threats of forced abortion or to take away children, and coerced co-offending. These findings inform potential prevention efforts and highlight the need for multi-systemic, victim-centered approaches to intervention. PMID:25079777

  7. Entrapment and Enmeshment Schemes Used by Sex Traffickers.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A

    2016-09-01

    Emerging research suggests that sex traffickers/pimps control the majority of trafficked girls in the United States. The youthfulness of these victims and their lack of psychosocial maturity severely diminish their ability to detect exploitative motives or withstand manipulation of traffickers. A review of 43 cases of sexually exploited girls involving non-relative traffickers and 10 semi-structured interviews with social service providers revealed numerous scripts and schemes used by sex traffickers to entrap and entangle victims including boyfriend/lover scripts, ruses involving debt bondage, friendship or faux-family scripts, threats of forced abortion or to take away children, and coerced co-offending. These findings inform potential prevention efforts and highlight the need for multi-systemic, victim-centered approaches to intervention.

  8. Economics of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  9. Economics of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans. PMID:20645472

  10. Sexual violence and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Purewal, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the forms of sexual abuse of female children and the psychosocial impact on the well-being of girls in India. Child sexual abuse statistics reveal an estimated 50% of girls being sexually abused before the age of 15 years. Girl children are abused and then are made to feel personally responsible, guilty, or persecuted. Girls are threatened with violence if they tell about the sexual abuse. Pregnancies arising from sexual abuse result in shame and early marriage. Male children are also abused but they are not made to feel punished. Child sexual abuse is technically any sexual activity (rape, fondling of genitalia, masturbation, forced oral sex, sodomy, or vaginal penetration) that is committed by someone in a position of authority, power, or trust over the child or by a stranger. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 10 children worldwide is sexually abused. Rape within the family is particularly difficult for the victim. In almost 60% of rape cases, the victim was unwilling to report the name of the abuser. Families remain silent about sexual offenses in order to protect the family image. Mothers remain silent if the abuser is the father, which interferes with a child's relationship to both parents. Sexual abuse can result in bed wetting, nightmares, sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, running away from home, multiple personality disorders, precocious sexual behavior, or sexual inhibition and low self-esteem. Parental responses tend to be inappropriate discipline or ignoring it. Children may experience flashbacks or other long-term effects. Girls who experience sexual abuse once tend to be more vulnerable to abuse in adult life. Healing is slow and systematic. The first aim is to restore a girl's ability to say no and to teach her to protect herself. Healing is about removing guilt and resolution of the conflict between blame and the grossness of the violation.

  11. Sexual violence and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Purewal, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the forms of sexual abuse of female children and the psychosocial impact on the well-being of girls in India. Child sexual abuse statistics reveal an estimated 50% of girls being sexually abused before the age of 15 years. Girl children are abused and then are made to feel personally responsible, guilty, or persecuted. Girls are threatened with violence if they tell about the sexual abuse. Pregnancies arising from sexual abuse result in shame and early marriage. Male children are also abused but they are not made to feel punished. Child sexual abuse is technically any sexual activity (rape, fondling of genitalia, masturbation, forced oral sex, sodomy, or vaginal penetration) that is committed by someone in a position of authority, power, or trust over the child or by a stranger. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 10 children worldwide is sexually abused. Rape within the family is particularly difficult for the victim. In almost 60% of rape cases, the victim was unwilling to report the name of the abuser. Families remain silent about sexual offenses in order to protect the family image. Mothers remain silent if the abuser is the father, which interferes with a child's relationship to both parents. Sexual abuse can result in bed wetting, nightmares, sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, running away from home, multiple personality disorders, precocious sexual behavior, or sexual inhibition and low self-esteem. Parental responses tend to be inappropriate discipline or ignoring it. Children may experience flashbacks or other long-term effects. Girls who experience sexual abuse once tend to be more vulnerable to abuse in adult life. Healing is slow and systematic. The first aim is to restore a girl's ability to say no and to teach her to protect herself. Healing is about removing guilt and resolution of the conflict between blame and the grossness of the violation. PMID:12158003

  12. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Results Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation. PMID:22834807

  13. Drug Abuse Risk and Protective Factors among Black, Urban Adolescent Girls: A Group Randomized Trial of Computer-Delivered, Mother-Daughter Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven; Di Noia, Jennifer; Schwinn, Traci; Cole, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    A group randomized design tested a mother-daughter intervention aimed to increase protective factors in a community sample of Black, urban adolescent girls. Girls and their mothers at two community agencies were pretested and, by agency, randomized to either an intervention arm or to a control arm. Intervention arm girls and their mothers received a program for improving mother-daughter rapport. Posttest data collected 3 weeks after program delivery revealed that intervention arm mothers and daughters improved more than control arm mothers and daughters on measures of communication and closeness. At 3-month follow-up, intervention arm mothers relative to control arm mothers continued to report better communication with and closeness to their daughters. Girls and mothers in the intervention arm rated the computer program favorably on parameters of enjoyment, comfort, relevance, usefulness of information, improvements to their relationship with each other, and whether they would recommend it to friends. PMID:17176186

  14. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  15. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  16. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  17. Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman's Framework.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susie B; Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Eisenman, David P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman's theory of coercion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 adult women trafficked into Los Angeles County, from 10 countries, for domestic work and/or sex work. Participants described health problems they experienced in relation to their trafficking experience and their perceptions of conditions that caused health problems. Utilizing a framework analysis approach, we analyzed themes using Biderman's framework. Participants reported experiencing the range of nonphysical coercive tactics outlined by Biderman, including isolation, monopolization of perception, induced debility or exhaustion, threats, occasional indulgences, demonstration of omnipotence, degradation, and enforcement of trivial demands. Our analysis demonstrates how these coercion tactics reinforced the submission of trafficked persons to their traffickers even in the absence of physical force or restraints. Such psychological abuse creates extreme stress that can lead to acute and chronic, physical and mental health problems. PMID:25371382

  18. Suturing Together Girls and Education: An Investigation into the Social (Re)production of Girls' Education as a Hegemonic Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2015-01-01

    There seems to be a global consensus that girls' education is a commonsensical solution to issues as wide-ranging as poverty, fertility, human trafficking, and terrorism in the global south. In this article, I inquire into how this common sense about girls' education is produced and sustained. I examine how two radically specific happenings--the…

  19. 75 FR 11982 - Request for Information for the 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... therefore not seeking, information on prostitution, human smuggling, visa fraud, or child abuse, unless such... the victim of sex trafficking is a child incapable of giving meaningful consent, or of trafficking... measures to prevent the use of forced labor or child labor in violation of international standards....

  20. 76 FR 82028 - Request for Information for the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... smuggling, visa fraud, or child abuse, unless such conduct occurs in the context of human trafficking... is a child incapable of giving meaningful consent, or of trafficking which includes rape or... measures to prevent the use of forced labor or child labor in violation of international standards....

  1. Sexual Trafficking in the United States: A Domestic Problem with Transnational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The trafficking of young women and children for prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation is one of the most significant human rights abuses in contemporary society. In keeping with the social work profession's commitment to social justice, this article examines the issue of sexual trafficking in the United States. The transnational…

  2. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    PubMed Central

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin

    2008-01-01

    Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE) in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues. PMID:18817576

  3. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India.

    PubMed

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin

    2008-09-25

    Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE) in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues.

  4. Sex-specific differences in adrenocortical attunement in mothers with a history of childhood abuse and their 5-month-old boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Anna; Möhler, E; Resch, F; Kaess, M

    2016-09-01

    Recent evidence points to the existence of a neurobiological attunement between mother and child, e.g., associations between maternal and child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. As maternal history of abuse (HoA) has been shown to negatively affect mother-child interaction and HPA-axis functioning, we theorized those experiences to exert an influence on cortisol attunement, and we examined the role of infant gender in this context. Shortly after birth of their first child, a community sample of women was screened using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Mothers reporting moderate or severe sexual and/or physical abuse were included in the maltreatment group (n = 41; MG) and compared with a non-maltreated comparison group (n = 47; CG). At the child's age of 5 months, mother and infant baseline salivary cortisol was collected on two consecutive days between 11 and 1 o'clock. Correlation analyses confirmed an association between maternal and infant salivary cortisol levels for the complete sample. However, hierarchical regression models revealed a moderating role of maternal HoA and infant gender: in the CG, cortisol attunement was only significant in mother-daughter dyads, whereas in the MG, we found cortisol levels to be associated only in mother-son dyads. Consequently, alterations of neurobiological attunement between mother and child might compose a mechanism for the transgenerational transmission of adverse childhood experiences.

  5. Sexual Abuse of Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerstein, Norman S.; Canavan, J. William

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective review of 145 sexually abused children was undertaken to assess the importance of male children as victims and to determine if they pose problems different from those of girl victims. Journal Availability: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610. (Author/PHR)

  6. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  7. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  8. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  9. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  10. Gifted Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the theme of the education of gifted female students. This document consists of the five articles devoted to this subject. The lead article by Carolyn M. Callahan, titled "How Schools Shortchange Girls: Implications for Parents and Educators of Gifted Girls," discusses the development of gender roles, the experiences…

  11. Federal Measures Against the Abuse of Wild Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Nathaniel P.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the appalling conditions associated with many zoos and with the trafficking of exotic pets, and discusses recent federal and international measures designed to reduce the abuse of wild animals. (JR)

  12. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine

    2016-02-01

    Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803

  13. Child abuse and aggression among seriously emotionally disturbed children.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Fraleigh, Lisa A; Connor, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical abuse histories were 50% more likely to be classified as reactively aggressive than boys with no physical abuse history. Proactive aggression was unrelated to physical or sexual abuse history. The association of physical abuse and reactive aggression warrants further scientific study and attention in clinical assessment and treatment with seriously emotionally disturbed children.

  14. Human trafficking, labor brokering, and mining in southern Africa: responding to a decentralized and hidden public health disaster.

    PubMed

    Steele, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Many southern African economies are dependent on the extractive industries. These industries rely on low-cost labor, often supplied by migrants, typically acquired through labor brokers. Very little attention has so far been paid to trafficking of men into extractive industries or its connection with trafficked women in the region's mining hubs. Recent reports suggest that labor-brokering practices foster human trafficking, both by exposing migrant men to lack of pay and exploitative conditions and by creating male migratory patterns that generate demand for sex workers and associated trafficking of women and girls. While trafficking in persons violates human rights, and thus remains a priority issue globally, there is little or no evidence of an effective political response to mine-related trafficking in southern Africa. This article concludes with recommendations for legal and policy interventions, as well as an enhanced public health response, which if implemented would help reduce human trafficking toward mining sites.

  15. A human rights approach to human trafficking for organ removal.

    PubMed

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Columb, Seán

    2013-11-01

    Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious human rights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms.

  16. Girl child and sexual victimisation.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K P

    1995-01-01

    This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry. PMID:12158001

  17. Turtle Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  19. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. PMID:24218718

  20. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. To learn more or to help with this cause, visit the Somaly Mam Foundation at www.somaly.org or the U.S. Department of State at www. state.gov. PMID:23977773

  1. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. To learn more or to help with this cause, visit the Somaly Mam Foundation at www.somaly.org or the U.S. Department of State at www. state.gov.

  2. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices.

  3. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  4. Lysosomal Trafficking Regulator (LYST).

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaojie; Chang, Bo; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of vesicle trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles (LROs) as well as regulation of the size of these organelles are critical to maintain their functions. Disruption of the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) results in Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, prolonged bleeding, severe immunodeficiency, recurrent bacterial infection, neurologic dysfunction and hemophagocytic lympohistiocytosis (HLH). The classic diagnostic feature of the syndrome is enlarged LROs in all cell types, including lysosomes, melanosomes, cytolytic granules and platelet dense bodies. The most striking CHS ocular pathology observed is an enlargement of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which leads to aberrant distribution of eye pigmentation, and results in photophobia and decreased visual acuity. Understanding the molecular function of LYST and identification of its interacting partners may provide therapeutic targets for CHS and other diseases associated with the regulation of LRO size and/or vesicle trafficking, such as asthma, urticaria and Leishmania amazonensis infections. PMID:26427484

  5. Human trafficking: Role of oral health care providers.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E

    2014-11-01

    Trafficking in human beings is a modern form of slavery and is a well-known phenomenon throughout the European Union and beyond. After drug dealing and the weapons industry, human trafficking is the second largest criminal activity in the world today and it is a growing crime. The aim of governmental and non-governmental agencies, which are either directly or indirectly involved in combating trafficking in human beings, is the identification and referral of victims of trafficking and also to encourage self-referrals. Identification is the most important step to provide protection and assistance to victims of trafficking. Victims often have a variety of physical and mental health needs, including psychological trauma, injuries from violence, head and neck trauma, sexually transmitted infections and other gynaecological problems, dental/oral problems and have poor nutrition. The author's experience in the field of community dentistry in presented within. Volunteer dental services are offered to non-European Union patients held in a centre for asylum seekers in Bari (Italy). Dental professionals can, in fact, contribute to the identification, assistance and protection of trafficked persons, as well as offering forensic services to assist the police investigation in order to identify crimes and find the criminal organizations behind them. As for domestic violence and child abuse cases, there are ethical concerns involved in the identification and protection of the trafficked persons, as well as the need for interdisciplinary work and awareness. Adequate training in behavioural science and intercultural learning is paramount in order to avoid misunderstandings and increase sensitivity. PMID:25557409

  6. Human trafficking: Role of oral health care providers.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E

    2014-11-30

    Trafficking in human beings is a modern form of slavery and is a well-known phenomenon throughout the European Union and beyond. After drug dealing and the weapons industry, human trafficking is the second largest criminal activity in the world today and it is a growing crime. The aim of governmental and non-governmental agencies, which are either directly or indirectly involved in combating trafficking in human beings, is the identification and referral of victims of trafficking and also to encourage self-referrals. Identification is the most important step to provide protection and assistance to victims of trafficking. Victims often have a variety of physical and mental health needs, including psychological trauma, injuries from violence, head and neck trauma, sexually transmitted infections and other gynaecological problems, dental/oral problems and have poor nutrition. The author's experience in the field of community dentistry in presented within. Volunteer dental services are offered to non-European Union patients held in a centre for asylum seekers in Bari (Italy). Dental professionals can, in fact, contribute to the identification, assistance and protection of trafficked persons, as well as offering forensic services to assist the police investigation in order to identify crimes and find the criminal organizations behind them. As for domestic violence and child abuse cases, there are ethical concerns involved in the identification and protection of the trafficked persons, as well as the need for interdisciplinary work and awareness. Adequate training in behavioural science and intercultural learning is paramount in order to avoid misunderstandings and increase sensitivity.

  7. Prevalence and Risk of Violence and the Physical, Mental, and Sexual Health Problems Associated with Human Trafficking: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Siân; Stöckl, Heidi; Busza, Joanna; Howard, Louise M.; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Background There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%–42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I2 = 83.7%). Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability. Conclusions Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention

  8. Health implications of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. PMID:24750655

  9. Health implications of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population.

  10. Counter-attack on cocaine trafficking: the strategy of drug law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, R J

    1984-01-01

    In the past cocaine was abused by the affluent and the famous members of society while at present it is widely abused by people in all social strata. Both abuse and availability of cocaine are increasing in the United States of America. Cocaine traffickers possess enormous assets, financial resources and means of transport that enable them to remain in operation. The incidence of violent activities, including homicides, is higher among cocaine traffickers than among traffickers in other drugs. Certain cocaine-related criminal groups are routinely engaged in wanton violence. Cocaine trafficking is closely connected with various sorts of crime, corruption and subversive activities. Suppression of cocaine traffic is among the most important priorities of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Coca plant eradication is regarded as the most effective weapon against cocaine trafficking. DEA special agents, in co-operation with their counterparts from concerned countries, are conducting intelligence exchange, international cocaine investigations and training programmes in cocaine source areas. The United States Government has focused on coordination of efforts of various concerned agencies at the federal, state and local levels to combat drug abuse and trafficking. The Department of Justice has mandated the establishment of law enforcement coordinating councils throughout the United States to ensure appropriate utilization of prosecution resources and to co-ordinate criminal investigative efforts. Task forces against organized crime are established in 12 key areas of the country. Control of precursors and essential chemicals that are used clandestine drug manufacturing is one among other measures currently being undertaken by the Government to suppress trafficking in cocaine and other drugs.

  11. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented.

  12. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. PMID:24164528

  13. Examining the Invisibility of Girl-to-Girl Bullying in Schools: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SooHoo, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Bullying is not the kind of abuse that leaves broken bones; rather, it is a dehumanizing experience that manifests itself in the form of rumor spreading, name calling, psychological manipulation, character assassination, and social exclusion. Female teachers who are former victims of girl bullies or who themselves have been complicit with…

  14. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  15. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.

  16. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework. PMID:12158009

  17. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  18. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  19. Even 6th Graders Commit Cyber Dating Abuse: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dating Abuse: Study Those with a history of bullying or who thought violence against girls was normal ... were those who had a previous history of bullying and those who thought it was normal for ...

  20. Gender in Suicide Attempt Rates and Childhood Sexual Abuse Rates: Is There an Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec; Janal, Malvin

    2006-01-01

    Two competing explanations for higher rates of attempted suicide in women than men were compared. Because childhood sexual abuse is more prevalent in girls than boys, one explanation of higher rates of suicide attempts in women is that it is a direct result of the higher incidence of sexual abuse in girls. Alternatively, higher rates of suicide…

  1. 3 CFR 8924 - Proclamation 8924 of December 31, 2012. National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rededicate ourselves to stopping one of the greatest human rights abuses of our time. Around the world... developing cutting-edge tools people can use to stay safe. We will invest in helping trafficking victims rebuild their lives. And as one of the world's largest purchasers of goods and services, the...

  2. 3 CFR 8621 - Proclamation 8621 of December 22, 2010. National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... domestic servitude, these abuses are an affront to our national conscience, and to our values as Americans and human beings. There is no one type of victim—men and women, adults and children are all vulnerable... Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 renewed America’s commitment to combating modern...

  3. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  4. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  5. Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Shane P.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518

  6. Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border.

    PubMed

    Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518

  7. Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border.

    PubMed

    Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being.

  8. The State, the family and language of 'social evils': re-stigmatising victims of trafficking in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vijeyarasa, Ramona

    2010-08-01

    The Vietnamese Government continues to take steps to address trafficking in women and girls. However, rather than perceiving trafficking as a violation of human rights, greater attention is given by the government to its effects on society and social morals, particularly where victims have engaged in sex work in destination countries. Trafficked returnees are directly implicated in the State's approach to defining sex work as a 'social evil'. This approach reproduces the socio-economic inequality involved in trafficking and further marginalises trafficked women. Simultaneously, although Vietnamese women are often drawn into trafficking due to family obligations, they frequently face dishonour upon their return or are forced to hide the truth of their experience of being trafficked. This paper argues that the language of 'social evils' and the responses of the State and family undermine the ability of trafficked returnees to reintegrate. This is heightened where returnees are deemed to be transmitters of HIV infection, hence suffering human trafficking, sex-work and HIV/AIDS-related stigma. I also reflect upon whether the approach of service providers exacerbates stigma, particularly in the context of shelter rehabilitation and present several recommendations for reform, the most pressing being the need to eliminate the language of 'social evils'. PMID:19904645

  9. The State, the family and language of 'social evils': re-stigmatising victims of trafficking in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vijeyarasa, Ramona

    2010-08-01

    The Vietnamese Government continues to take steps to address trafficking in women and girls. However, rather than perceiving trafficking as a violation of human rights, greater attention is given by the government to its effects on society and social morals, particularly where victims have engaged in sex work in destination countries. Trafficked returnees are directly implicated in the State's approach to defining sex work as a 'social evil'. This approach reproduces the socio-economic inequality involved in trafficking and further marginalises trafficked women. Simultaneously, although Vietnamese women are often drawn into trafficking due to family obligations, they frequently face dishonour upon their return or are forced to hide the truth of their experience of being trafficked. This paper argues that the language of 'social evils' and the responses of the State and family undermine the ability of trafficked returnees to reintegrate. This is heightened where returnees are deemed to be transmitters of HIV infection, hence suffering human trafficking, sex-work and HIV/AIDS-related stigma. I also reflect upon whether the approach of service providers exacerbates stigma, particularly in the context of shelter rehabilitation and present several recommendations for reform, the most pressing being the need to eliminate the language of 'social evils'.

  10. Berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse.

    PubMed

    Gruson, Lisa Moed; Chang, Mary Wu

    2002-11-01

    Berloque dermatitis is a type of photocontact dermatitis. It occurs after perfumed products containing bergamot (or a psoralen) are applied to the skin followed by exposure to sunlight. Striking linear patterns of hyperpigmentation are characteristic, corresponding to local application of the scented product. In the acute phase, erythema and even blistering can be seen. We report a case of berloque dermatitis in a 9-year-old girl that was initially reported as child abuse. To our knowledge, this is the first report of berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse. Questioning to elicit a history of perfume application coupled with sunlight exposure should help to prevent this misdiagnosis in children.

  11. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  12. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  13. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  14. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  15. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  16. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  17. A human rights approach to human trafficking for organ removal.

    PubMed

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Columb, Seán

    2013-11-01

    Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious human rights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms. PMID:23743564

  18. Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician.

    PubMed

    Shandro, Jamie; Chisolm-Straker, Makini; Duber, Herbert C; Findlay, Shannon Lynn; Munoz, Jessica; Schmitz, Gillian; Stanzer, Melanie; Stoklosa, Hanni; Wiener, Dan E; Wingkun, Neil

    2016-10-01

    Human trafficking is a significant human rights problem that is often associated with psychological and physical violence. There is no demographic that is spared from human trafficking. Traffickers maintain control of victims through physical, sexual, and emotional violence and manipulation. Because victims of trafficking seek medical attention for the medical and psychological consequences of assault and neglected health conditions, emergency clinicians are in a unique position to recognize victims and intervene. Evaluation of possible trafficking victims is challenging because patients who have been exploited rarely self-identify. This article outlines the clinical approach to the identification and treatment of a potential victim of human trafficking in the emergency department. Emergency practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating patients who appear to be at risk for abuse and violence, and assess for specific indicators of trafficking. Potential victims should be evaluated with a multidisciplinary and patient-centered technique. Furthermore, emergency practitioners should be aware of national and local resources to guide the approach to helping identified victims. Having established protocols for victim identification, care, and referrals can greatly facilitate health care providers' assisting this population.

  19. The health needs and healthcare experiences of young people trafficked into the UK.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nicky; Oram, Siân; Jakobowitz, Sharon; Westwood, Joanne; Borschmann, Rohan; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M

    2016-09-01

    Young people who have been trafficked may have experienced significant trauma and violence but little is known about their health and healthcare needs. This UK study aimed to address that gap. It included a health survey and qualitative interviews with 29 young people aged 16-21 trafficked into the UK from other countries who were recruited through voluntary organisations and children's social services. These data were supplemented by interviews with relevant professionals. Over half the young people had been trafficked for sex work but sexual violence had also been experienced by those trafficked for domestic servitude and labour exploitation. Physical violence, threats, restrictions of liberty and deprivation were also widespread, as were experiences of physical and sexual violence prior to being trafficked. Five young women had become pregnant whilst trafficked; three were parents when interviewed. Two-thirds screened positive for high levels of psychological distress, including PTSD. Twelve reported suicidal thinking. Whilst some were keen for opportunities to talk to health professionals confidentially and wanted practitioners to treat their accounts as credible, others wanted to forget abusive experiences. Complex gatekeeping systems, language barriers and practitioners who failed to take them seriously limited access to healthcare. Support and advocacy were helpful in assisting these young people to navigate healthcare systems. Health professionals need to recognise and respond appropriately to trafficked young people's often complex mental health needs and refer them to relevant services, as well as facilitating care at later times when they might need support or be more ready to receive help. PMID:27552002

  20. Spiritual abuse.

    PubMed

    Purcell, B C

    1998-01-01

    Spiritual abuse is the act of making people believe--whether by stating or merely implying--that they are going to be punished in this life and/or tormented in hell-fire forever for failure to live life good enough to please God and thus earn admission to heaven. Spiritual terrorism is the most extreme form of spiritual abuse and may cause serious mental health problems. Those people who have not been spiritually terrorized have not necessarily been spared from spiritual abuse and therefore may still be in need of competent, spiritual counseling. Spiritual abuse, which may be active or passive, can best be conceptualized on a continuum from terroristic to zero abuse. Severity is determined by intensity, age of onset, duration, and individual reaction. The underlying issue in all forms of abuse is control. PMID:9729974

  1. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  2. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  3. Assessment and Treatment of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, H. Elizabeth; And Others

    These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…

  4. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Forrest T.; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24106536

  5. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  6. Psychiatric disorders and characteristics of abuse in sexually abused children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects.

  7. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling

  8. Grace's story: prolonged incestuous abuse from childhood into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Salter, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Some sexually abused women in mental health settings are reporting prolonged incest and yet little is known about the circumstances that enable fathers to sexually abuse their daughters over a period of decades. This article draws from the life history of Grace, a woman who survived prolonged incest, in order to document and analyze the interplay of familial, social, and political factors that entrap girls and women within prolonged incestuous abuse.

  9. Girls and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ratio of ... even when their symptoms are the same as boys’, and girls are less likely than boys to receive sufficient ...

  10. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  11. Sexual Abuse of Boys: Current Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Terryann

    1983-01-01

    Reviews literature regarding the sexual abuse of boys. Although boys may be equally at risk for sexual victimization as girls, they are a unique clinical group whose needs have not been addressed significantly. Awareness and prevention components in community education and media can raise public awarness. (JAC)

  12. Trafficking: a perspective from Asia.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    2000-01-01

    The main theme of this article is market development and trafficking as a business. It touches upon most of the aspects of the phenomenon, which have been encountered elsewhere, and translates them into the relatively unfamiliar context of many of the Asian and South-East Asian economies. Equally, the literature cited is also probably unfamiliar. Themes touched upon include democratization, inter-state relations, human rights, and scale and perspectives, together with the problems of definitions, theory, and the reliability of data. The directions and characteristics of trafficking flows together with routes and border control are also considered. Coordinated official responses to criminality and criminal organizations, as well as to trafficked individuals, are beginning to emerge. There is a note of caution sounded that contextual and cultural perspectives, particularly on sex workers, must be viewed somewhat differently to those in Western societies. The article concludes that as long as countries in Asia maintain their policies of restrictive immigration, trafficking can be expected to continue and almost certainly increase. This is because accelerating development creates demand for labor at various skill levels and because even in times of recession migrants and brokers will seek to side-step attempts to expel immigrants and restrict access to labor markets. The elimination of trafficking is unlikely to be realistically achieved through legislation and declarations of intent but by improvements in the socioeconomic status of the population.

  13. Labour exploitation and health: a case series of men and women seeking post-trafficking services.

    PubMed

    Turner-Moss, Eleanor; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M; Oram, Siân

    2014-06-01

    Research on the health of trafficked men and on the health problems associated with trafficking for labor exploitation are extremely limited. This study analysed data from a case series of anonymised case records of a consecutive sample of 35 men and women who had been trafficked for labor exploitation in the UK and who were receiving support from a non-governmental service between June 2009 and July 2010. Over three-quarters of our sample was male (77 %) and two-thirds aged between 18 and 35 years (mean 32.9 years, SD 10.2). Forty percent reported experiencing physical violence while they were trafficked. Eighty-one percent (25/31) reported one or more physical health symptoms. Fifty-seven percent (17/30) reported one or more post-traumatic stress symptoms. A substantial proportion of men and women who are trafficked for labor exploitation may experience violence and abuse, and have physical and mental health symptoms. People who have been trafficked for forced labor need access to medical assessment and treatment.

  14. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  15. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  16. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States. PMID:19056686

  17. Small GTPases in vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, Arthur J; Ruperti, Benedetto; Palme, Klaus

    2004-12-01

    Plant small GTPases belonging to the Rop, Arf, and Rab families are regulators of vesicle trafficking. Rop GTPases regulate actin dynamics and modulate H(2)O(2) production in polar cell growth and pathogen defence. A candidate Rop GDP to Rop GTP exchange factor (RopGEF) SPIKE1 is involved in the morphogenesis of leaf epidermal cells. The ArfGEF GNOM regulates the endosomal recycling of the PIN proteins, which are involved in polar auxin transport. Intracellular localisation of small GTPases and functional studies using dominant mutant versions of Arf and Rab GTPases are defining novel plant-specific membrane compartments, especially those that participate in endosomal vesicle trafficking.

  18. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  19. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  20. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  1. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section 598.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  2. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section 598.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  3. Gender Differences in Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gökten, Emel Sarı; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Dönmez, Yunus Emre; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Tufan, Ali Evren

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender-based differences in abuse-related characteristics and post-abuse psychiatric disorders among sexually abused children and adolescents. The researchers retrospectively examined files, judicial reports, and social examination reports of 1,250 sexually abused youth cases. Results showed that boys were more often victimized by penetration, force, and physical violence. Incidence of sexual abuse by family members, familiar persons, and multiple persons was higher among girls. In addition, a higher rate of major depressive disorder as well as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were found in sexually abused girls. No difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, and other mental disorders. Intellectual disability was more frequent in boys. PMID:27266537

  4. [Girls of today, women of tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Torres, C

    1996-01-01

    In many countries, girls are discriminated against in nutrition, education, health care, and other areas, to the detriment of their personal development. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with promoting women's rights have come to regard the problem of girls' rights as very serious. Attention to girls in the past was focused on adolescent pregnancy or on social problems such as violence or child prostitution. But in the view of the NGOs, gender equity will be impossible to achieve as long as discrimination against girls continues. In addition, limiting the opportunities of girls will inevitably limit their potential contributions to society. The UN General Assembly in September 1989 approved the Convention on the Rights of Children, the principal goals of which were to eliminate malnutrition, preventable diseases, and illiteracy. The World Conference on Children in 1990 was attended by representatives of over 150 countries, who specified concrete goals. Measurable progress has occurred. UNICEF estimates, for example, that 2.5 million fewer children died on 1996 than in 1990, but it is probable that over half of the children in Latin America and the Caribbean live in poverty. In 1990, nearly 1 million children under age 5 in the region died of preventable diseases, and some 7 million were estimated to be malnourished, 1 million seriously. Infant mortality rates indicate that most countries of the region have improved their health status, but the rate has apparently increased in Haiti, Bolivia, and Peru. The Pan American Health Organization and the Demographic and Health Surveys have accumulated data indicating that excess mortality has occurred among girls 1-4 years old in at least 9 countries of the region. Some evidence suggests that health care is less likely to be sought for girls than boys. Domestic violence and sexual abuse are a serious problem for girls and women, but many countries continue to avoid the issue. The 1993 UN Declaration of Human

  5. Regulation of dopamine transporter trafficking by intracellular amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Kahlig, Kristopher M; Lute, Brandon J; Wei, Yuqiang; Loland, Claus J; Gether, Ulrik; Javitch, Jonathan A; Galli, Aurelio

    2006-08-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) mediates the removal of released DA. DAT is the major molecular target responsible for the rewarding properties and abuse potential of the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH). AMPH has been shown to reduce the number of DATs at the cell surface, and this AMPH-induced cell surface DAT redistribution may result in long-lasting changes in DA homeostasis. The molecular mechanism by which AMPH induces trafficking is not clear. Because AMPH is a substrate, we do not know whether extracellular AMPH stimulates trafficking through its interaction with DAT and subsequent alteration in DAT function, thereby triggering intracellular signaling or whether AMPH must be transported and then act intracellularly. In agreement with our previous studies, extracellular AMPH caused cytosolic redistribution of the wild-type human DAT (WT-hDAT). However, AMPH did not induce cytosolic redistribution in an uptake-impaired hDAT (Y335A-hDAT) that still binds AMPH. The divalent cation zinc (Zn(2+)) inhibits WT-hDAT activity, but it restores Y335A-hDAT uptake. Coadministration of Zn(2+) and AMPH consistently reduced WT-hDAT trafficking but stimulated cytosolic redistribution of Y335A-hDAT. Furthermore, direct intracellular application of AMPH, via a whole-cell patch pipette, stimulated the trafficking of Y335A-hDAT. Taken together, these data suggest that the DAT transport cycle is not required for AMPH-induced down-regulation and that an increase of intracellular AMPH is an essential component of DAT redistribution.

  6. Sexual trafficking in the United States: a domestic problem with transnational dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R

    2008-04-01

    The trafficking of young women and children for prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation is one of the most significant human rights abuses in contemporary society. In keeping with the social work profession's commitment to social justice, this article examines the issue of sexual trafficking in the United States. The transnational scope of the problem is discussed along with the means that traffickers use to recruit, transport, and initiate victims from around the world into the sex industry in the United States. Some legislative responses to the problem are discussed, and a number of suggestions are offered to help social workers advocate on behalf of some of the most vulnerable and oppressed people in the global community. PMID:18595448

  7. [Child psychiatric assessment and the debate regarding the abuse of abuse].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M

    1995-03-01

    The current discussion on false allegations in sexual abuse cases has led to a polarization in the views expressed about the credibility of children. Some authors even speak of a "child sexual accuse syndrome" or of a "sexual abuse allegation in divorce" (SAID) syndrome. A phenomenological analysis of the multiple reasons for misinterpretations is presented. Instead of stressing the importance only of false positives in child sexual abuse questions, an attempt is made to describe reasons for false negatives. Based on a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive child psychiatric experts in connection with court cases, there does not appear to be an increase in false accusations. Rather, only about one third of the cases even involved suspected sexual abuse. Sexual abuse allegations were much more frequent in girls than in boys. Of 20 abuse allegations we judge four to be false allegations. In only one of these cases, that of an adolescent girl who had been abused in childhood, was the false allegation intended.

  8. Characterizing the sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179

  9. Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Jeffrey; Finger, Reginald

    2008-05-01

    Despite the legislation passed in the 19th century outlawing human slavery, it is more widespread today than at the conclusion of the civil war. Modern human slavery, termed human trafficking, comes in several forms. The most common type of human trafficking is sex trafficking, the sale of women and children into prostitution. Labor trafficking is the sale of men, women, and children into hard labor for which they receive little or no compensation. Other forms of trafficking include child soldiering, war brides, and organ removal. Healthcare professionals play a critical role in both finding victims of human trafficking while they are still in captivity, as well as caring for their mental and physical needs upon release. Those working in the healthcare profession need to be educated regarding how a trafficking victim may present, as well as their unique healthcare needs.

  10. Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Jeffrey; Finger, Reginald

    2008-05-01

    Despite the legislation passed in the 19th century outlawing human slavery, it is more widespread today than at the conclusion of the civil war. Modern human slavery, termed human trafficking, comes in several forms. The most common type of human trafficking is sex trafficking, the sale of women and children into prostitution. Labor trafficking is the sale of men, women, and children into hard labor for which they receive little or no compensation. Other forms of trafficking include child soldiering, war brides, and organ removal. Healthcare professionals play a critical role in both finding victims of human trafficking while they are still in captivity, as well as caring for their mental and physical needs upon release. Those working in the healthcare profession need to be educated regarding how a trafficking victim may present, as well as their unique healthcare needs. PMID:18414161

  11. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  12. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  13. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  14. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  15. Trafficking of Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Hao; Grygoruk, Anna; Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Chen, Audrey; Krantz, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters are required for the storage of all classical and amino acid neurotransmitters in secretory vesicles. Transporter expression can influence neurotransmitter storage and release, and trafficking targets the transporters to different types of secretory vesicles. Vesicular transporters traffic to synaptic vesicles as well as large dense core vesicles, and are recycled to synaptic vesicles at the nerve terminal. Some of the intrinsic signals for these trafficking events have been defined and include a dileucine motif present in multiple transporter subtypes, an acidic cluster in the neural isoform of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and a polyproline motif in the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1. The sorting of VMAT2 and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) to secretory vesicles is regulated by phosphorylation. In addition, VGLUT1 uses alternative endocytic pathways for recycling back to synaptic vesicles following exocytosis. Regulation of these sorting events has the potential to influence synaptic transmission and behavior. PMID:18507811

  16. Forfeiture of the profits and proceeds derived from drug trafficking: thoughts on future action in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vohrah, K C

    1984-01-01

    While the Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 of Malaysia has been amended to take into account changing patterns of drug abuse and trafficking, it lacks provisions for the mandatory forfeiture of proceeds derived from drug trafficking. Nor do the general powers of forfeiture in the Criminal Procedure Code of the country extend to such proceeds. To meet further changing patterns of drug trafficking involving criminal syndicate leaders, who rarely incriminate themselves through overt and detectable acts, Malaysia has a bill in Parliament the purpose of which, when it becomes law, is to detain without trial, upon cogent evidence, persons who have been associated with any activity relating to or involving drug trafficking, and to prevent them from further committing drug crimes. In addition, serious thinking has been given to the possibility of adopting, within the constraints of the Malaysian Constitution, a law on forfeiture of the proceeds derived from drug trafficking. There are, in this respect, several problems to be resolved, such as the secrecy of bank accounts and taxpayers' returns, which might make it difficult to trace proceeds and to keep track of tainted money being remitted abroad, although it is believed that such problems could be overcome by domestic measures. A more serious problem is the lack of international co-operation for investigations to be carried out outside national borders to trace, seize, freeze and secure the forfeiture of the proceeds of drug crimes located abroad. PMID:6570698

  17. Forfeiture of the profits and proceeds derived from drug trafficking: thoughts on future action in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vohrah, K C

    1984-01-01

    While the Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 of Malaysia has been amended to take into account changing patterns of drug abuse and trafficking, it lacks provisions for the mandatory forfeiture of proceeds derived from drug trafficking. Nor do the general powers of forfeiture in the Criminal Procedure Code of the country extend to such proceeds. To meet further changing patterns of drug trafficking involving criminal syndicate leaders, who rarely incriminate themselves through overt and detectable acts, Malaysia has a bill in Parliament the purpose of which, when it becomes law, is to detain without trial, upon cogent evidence, persons who have been associated with any activity relating to or involving drug trafficking, and to prevent them from further committing drug crimes. In addition, serious thinking has been given to the possibility of adopting, within the constraints of the Malaysian Constitution, a law on forfeiture of the proceeds derived from drug trafficking. There are, in this respect, several problems to be resolved, such as the secrecy of bank accounts and taxpayers' returns, which might make it difficult to trace proceeds and to keep track of tainted money being remitted abroad, although it is believed that such problems could be overcome by domestic measures. A more serious problem is the lack of international co-operation for investigations to be carried out outside national borders to trace, seize, freeze and secure the forfeiture of the proceeds of drug crimes located abroad.

  18. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    PubMed

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  19. Viral subversion of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, Melanie L; Mata, Miguel A; Sakthivel, Ramanavelan; Fontoura, Beatriz M A

    2014-02-01

    Trafficking of proteins and RNA into and out of the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Because of its critical function in many cellular processes, the NPC and transport factors are common targets of several viruses that disrupt key constituents of the machinery to facilitate viral replication. Many viruses such as poliovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus inhibit protein import into the nucleus, whereas viruses such as influenza A virus target and disrupt host mRNA nuclear export. Current evidence indicates that these viruses may employ such strategies to avert the host immune response. Conversely, many viruses co-opt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to facilitate transport of viral RNAs. As viral proteins interact with key regulators of the host nuclear transport machinery, viruses have served as invaluable tools of discovery that led to the identification of novel constituents of nuclear transport pathways. This review explores the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to viral pathogenesis as these studies revealed new antiviral therapeutic strategies and exposed previously unknown cellular mechanisms. Further understanding of nuclear transport pathways will determine whether such therapeutics will be useful treatments for important human pathogens.

  20. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastid protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, C; Häusler, T; Blattner, J

    1995-01-01

    The kinetoplastid protozoa infect hosts ranging from invertebrates to plants and mammals, causing diseases of medical and economic importance. They are the earliest-branching organisms in eucaryotic evolution to have either mitochondria or peroxisome-like microbodies. Investigation of their protein trafficking enables us to identify characteristics that have been conserved throughout eucaryotic evolution and also reveals how far variations, or alternative mechanisms, are possible. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastids is in many respects similar to that in higher eucaryotes, including mammals and yeasts. Differences in signal sequence specificities exist, however, for all subcellular locations so far examined in detail--microbodies, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum--with signals being more degenerate, or shorter, than those of their higher eucaryotic counterparts. Some components of the normal array of trafficking mechanisms may be missing in most (if not all) kinetoplastids: examples are clathrin-coated vesicles, recycling receptors, and mannose 6-phosphate-mediated lysosomal targeting. Other aspects and structures are unique to the kinetoplastids or are as yet unexplained. Some of these peculiarities may eventually prove to be weak points that can be used as targets for chemotherapy; others may turn out to be much more widespread than currently suspected. PMID:7565409

  1. Viral Subversion of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, Melanie L.; Mata, Miguel A.; Sakthivel, Ramanavelan; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking of proteins and RNA into and out of the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to its critical function in many cellular processes, the NPC and transport factors are common targets of several viruses that disrupt key constituents of the machinery to facilitate viral replication. Many viruses such as poliovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus inhibit protein import into the nucleus, while viruses such as influenza A virus target and disrupt host mRNA nuclear export. Current evidence indicates that these viruses may employ such strategies to avert the host immune response. Conversely, many viruses co-opt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to facilitate transport of viral RNAs. Since viral proteins interact with key regulators of the host nuclear transport machinery, viruses have served as invaluable tools of discovery that led to the identification of novel constituents of nuclear transport pathways. In addition, this review explores the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to viral pathogenesis as these studies revealed new antiviral therapeutic strategies and exposed previously unknown cellular mechanisms. Further understanding of nuclear transport pathways will determine whether such therapeutics will be useful treatments for important human pathogens. PMID:24289861

  2. Agonist-trafficking and hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    González-Maeso, Javier; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2009-01-01

    Seven transmembrane domain receptors, also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), represent the most common molecular target for therapeutic drugs. The generally accepted pharmacological model for GPCR activation is the ternary complex model, in which GPCRs exist in a dynamic equilibrium between the active and inactive conformational states. However, the demonstration that different agonists sometimes elicit a different relative activation of two signaling pathways downstream of the same receptor has led to a revision of the ternary complex model. According to this agonist- trafficking model, agonists stabilize distinct activated receptor conformations that preferentially activate specific signaling pathways. Hallucinogenic drugs and non-hallucinogenic drugs represent an attractive experimental system with which to study agonist-trafficking of receptor signaling. Thus many of the behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin or mescaline, depend on activation of serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT2ARs). In contrast, this neuropsychological state in humans is not induced by closely related chemicals, such as lisuride or ergotamine, despite their similar in vitro activity at the 5-HT2AR. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, as well as unresolved questions, regarding agonist-trafficking and the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs.

  3. Street-weary in Bogota. Voices of girls 3: Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ross, T

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia, people displaced by rural violence have crowded Bogota's slums, where inhabitants are plagued by alcoholism, drug dependency, and violence. Violence against children is epidemic in Colombia, and education, which is supposed to be free, is in reality so expensive that over a third of children fail to complete primary school. Street culture beckons children, and one agency has identified 7454 girl prostitutes in Bogota and believes there are another 1000 who have not yet been contacted. Most of these girls are from low-income families residing in inner-city slums, and many were sexually abused at an early age by a male relative. Almost all start using drugs, and more than 80% are infected with sexually transmitted diseases, including 15% who have HIV/AIDS. Even efforts to help these children can go astray, as some learn deviant behavior from fellow residents of children's homes. The biggest danger faced by girls and boys alike on the street is rape, and some children report being raped by policemen. The Renacer Foundation is working to rehabilitate children in its residential units and has achieved success in some cases. In other cases, success is slow to achieve and hard to maintain because it is difficult, if not impossible, for the children to recover from early abuse. Colombia lacks a nationwide needs assessment or primary intervention program to prevent early abuse and to help vulnerable girls. The only programs available to help the children already in trouble use outdated methods and are severely overcrowded. PMID:12321767

  4. Street-weary in Bogota. Voices of girls 3: Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ross, T

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia, people displaced by rural violence have crowded Bogota's slums, where inhabitants are plagued by alcoholism, drug dependency, and violence. Violence against children is epidemic in Colombia, and education, which is supposed to be free, is in reality so expensive that over a third of children fail to complete primary school. Street culture beckons children, and one agency has identified 7454 girl prostitutes in Bogota and believes there are another 1000 who have not yet been contacted. Most of these girls are from low-income families residing in inner-city slums, and many were sexually abused at an early age by a male relative. Almost all start using drugs, and more than 80% are infected with sexually transmitted diseases, including 15% who have HIV/AIDS. Even efforts to help these children can go astray, as some learn deviant behavior from fellow residents of children's homes. The biggest danger faced by girls and boys alike on the street is rape, and some children report being raped by policemen. The Renacer Foundation is working to rehabilitate children in its residential units and has achieved success in some cases. In other cases, success is slow to achieve and hard to maintain because it is difficult, if not impossible, for the children to recover from early abuse. Colombia lacks a nationwide needs assessment or primary intervention program to prevent early abuse and to help vulnerable girls. The only programs available to help the children already in trouble use outdated methods and are severely overcrowded.

  5. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to the study and returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS--192 (33.8%) girls and 60 (10.9%) boys reported having experienced at least one sexually abusive event. The prevalence of abuse involving physical contact was 20.4% (116 cases) among girls and 3.3% (18) among boys. The prevalence of abuse involving some form of penetration was 5.6% (32 cases) among girls and 1.1% (six) among boys. One third of the abused adolescents had experienced more than one abusive event and 46.5% (92/198) had experienced the first event before age 12. Abuse by a family member was reported by 20.5% (36/176) of abused girls and 6.3% (3/48) of abused boys. Abusers were known to victims in two thirds of cases. Ninety per cent of abusers were male and 35.3% (71/201) came from the victim's peer group. Over 80% of participants found the questionnaire interesting, clearly formulated, and useful. CONCLUSIONS--Child sexual abuse is a universal social phenomenon. Adolescents themselves can contribute to research and so help in the search for more efficient prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:8646043

  6. Regulation of aquaporin-2 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Nedvetsky, Pavel I; Tamma, Grazia; Beulshausen, Sven; Valenti, Giovanna; Rosenthal, Walter; Klussmann, Enno

    2009-01-01

    Principal cells lining renal collecting ducts control the fine-tuning of body water homeostasis by regulating water reabsorption through the water channels aquaporin-2 (AQP2), aquaporin-3 (AQP3), and aquaporin-4 (AQP4). While the localization of AQP2 is subject to regulation by arginine-vasopressin (AVP), AQP3 and AQP4 are constitutively expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane. AVP adjusts the amount of AQP2 in the plasma membrane by triggering its redistribution from intracellular vesicles into the plasma membrane. This permits water entry into the cells and water exit through AQP3 and AQP4. The translocation of AQP2 is initiated by an increase in cAMP following V2R activation through AVP. The AVP-induced rise in cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which in turn phosphorylates AQP2, and thereby triggers the redistribution of AQP2. Several proteins participating in the control of cAMP-dependent AQP2 trafficking have been identified; for example, A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) tethering PKA to cellular compartments; phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulating the local cAMP level; cytoskeletal components such as F-actin and microtubules; small GTPases of the Rho family controlling cytoskeletal dynamics; motor proteins transporting AQP2-bearing vesicles to and from the plasma membrane for exocytic insertion and endocytic retrieval; SNAREs inducing membrane fusions, hsc70, a chaperone, important for endocytic retrieval. In addition, cAMP-independent mechanisms of translocation mainly involving the F-actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered. Defects of AQP2 trafficking cause diseases such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder characterized by a massive loss of hypoosmotic urine.This review summarizes recent data elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying the trafficking of AQP2. In particular, we focus on proteins involved in the regulation of trafficking, and physiological and pathophysiological stimuli determining the cellular localization of AQP2

  7. Psychiatric disorders, spouse abuse and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bland, R C; Orn, H

    1986-01-01

    The results of 2000 standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews of randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton showed that having had any psychiatric diagnosis increased the risk for being involved in spouse and child abuse, particularly for those with alcohol abuse/dependence plus anti-social personality or depression. Altogether 56% of spouse abusers and 69% of child abusers had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis.

  8. Exploring taboos: comparing male- and female-perpetrated child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female abusers. Results show a prevalence rate of 10.7% for female-perpetrated sexual abuse. Girls were more likely to be victimized for both male- and female-perpetrated sexual violence and females tended to abuse younger children. The majority of children came from families with lower socioeconomic status although one in five victims of female-perpetrated sexual abuse came from middle-class homes. Referrals to child welfare agencies were more likely to be made by nonprofessionals when females abused.

  9. Unexplained Facial Scar: Child Abuse or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Shapouri, Javad; Masjedi, Mohsen; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child abuse is a serious problem, and its physical manifestations can be mimicked by certain diseases and conditions. These conditions can include genetic, congenital and other disorders that may result in poor weight gain, bone fractures or skin lesions that look like bruises or burns. Case Report: This paper reports the case of a seven-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), which was misdiagnosed as child abuse. This child was referred to us for treatment of an unexplained facial scar that was alleged to be the result of child abuse. Conclusion: When unusual skin presentations are observed, dermatologists should consider the possibility of child abuse to protect the child. Furthermore, they should be aware of the cutaneous abnormalities that mimic injuries associated with abuse to avoid the unnecessary reporting of child abuse. PMID:25535610

  10. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  11. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  12. Girls' Sexual Development in the Inner City: From Compelled Childhood Sexual Contact to Sex-for-Things Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2003-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have…

  13. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  14. Human Trafficking in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak B.; Ahn, Roy; Burke, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking continues to persist, affecting up to 200 million people worldwide. As clinicians in emergency departments commonly encounter victims of intimate partner violence, some of these encounters will be with trafficking victims. These encounters provide a rare opportunity for healthcare providers to intervene and help. This case report of a human trafficking patient from a teaching hospital illustrates the complexity in identifying these victims. Clinicians can better identify potential trafficking cases by increasing their awareness of this phenomenon, using qualified interpreters, isolating potential victims by providing privacy and using simple clear reassuring statements ensuring security. A multidisciplinary approach can then be mobilized to help these patients. PMID:21293753

  15. Multiple Sexual Victimizations among Adolescent Boys and Girls: Prevalence and Associations with Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual abuse, including multiple victimizations, among adolescents and to examine associations among history of sexual abuse, disordered eating behaviors and psychological health. The sample included 81,247 students (40,946 girls and 40,301 boys) in 9th and 12th grades in Minnesota public…

  16. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  17. The Search for Sustainable Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabst, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The girls of girls' schools, the author believes, are a kind of Platonic Form of American girl, an ideal to which most of the rest of society, of the country's meritocratic system, aspires for their daughters, a reflection of one's deepest values. She believes girls all over the country, in all high schools, want The Dream. They want to achieve…

  18. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  19. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  20. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  1. Molybdenum Trafficking for Nitrogen Fixation†

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Jose A.; George, Simon J.; Rubio, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    The molybdenum nitrogenase is responsible for most biological nitrogen fixation, a prokaryotic metabolic process that determines the global biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon. Here we describe the trafficking of molybdenum for nitrogen fixation in the model diazotrophic bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. The genes and proteins involved in molybdenum uptake, homeostasis, storage, regulation, and nitrogenase cofactor biosynthesis are reviewed. Molybdenum biochemistry in A. vinelandii reveals unexpected mechanisms and a new role for iron-sulfur clusters in the sequestration and delivery of molybdenum. PMID:19772354

  2. Optical Control of Peroxisomal Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Spiltoir, Jessica I; Strickland, Devin; Glotzer, Michael; Tucker, Chandra L

    2016-07-15

    The blue-light-responsive LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin1 (AsLOV2) has been used to regulate activity and binding of diverse protein targets with light. Here, we used AsLOV2 to photocage a peroxisomal targeting sequence, allowing light regulation of peroxisomal protein import. We generated a protein tag, LOV-PTS1, that can be appended to proteins of interest to direct their import to the peroxisome with light. This method provides a means to inducibly trigger peroxisomal protein trafficking in specific cells at user-defined times. PMID:26513473

  3. Depressed Skull Fractures: A Pattern of Abusive Head Injury in Three Older Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anselm C. W.; Ou, Yvonne; Fong, Dawson

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe a pattern of abusive head injury in a series of children older than 4 years of age. Methods: A hospital chart review of abused children with skull fractures from 1999 to 2001 was carried out. The clinical features, social background, and subsequent outcome and management are described. Results: An 11-year-old girl and a pair…

  4. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  5. Connecting with Girls, Connects Them to You: Toward a "by Girls, for Girls" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Today there are 14 million girls ages 11-17 in the United States. The growing population of girls clearly represents a new opportunity for youth development organizations to reach out and engage them. In its continuing commitment to develop program options to meet the needs of girls today, in 2001 the Girl Scout Research Institute conducted one of…

  6. Intracellular trafficking of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Geiger, R Christopher; Dean, David A

    2004-11-01

    Until recently, the attention of most researchers has focused on the first and last steps of gene transfer, namely delivery to the cell and transcription, in order to optimise transfection and gene therapy. However, over the past few years, researchers have realised that the intracellular trafficking of plasmids is more than just a "black box" and is actually one of the major barriers to effective gene delivery. After entering the cytoplasm, following direct delivery or endocytosis, plasmids or other vectors must travel relatively long distances through the mesh of cytoskeletal networks before reaching the nuclear envelope. Once at the nuclear envelope, the DNA must either wait until cell division, or be specifically transported through the nuclear pore complex, in order to reach the nucleoplasm where it can be transcribed. This review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of these intracellular trafficking events as they relate to gene delivery. Hopefully, by continuing to unravel the mechanisms by which plasmids and other gene delivery vectors move throughout the cell, and by understanding the cell biology of gene transfer, superior methods of transfection and gene therapy can be developed.

  7. Estimating Local Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ards, Sheila

    1989-01-01

    Three conceptual approaches to estimating local child abuse rates using the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect data set are evaluated. All three approaches yield estimates of actual abuse cases that exceed the number of reported cases. (SLD)

  8. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  9. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds of ... a babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at home, school, childcare, or ...

  10. Examining the Risk of Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya; Severe, William R; Schoeneck, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    The need to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials around the world is undeniable and urgent. This issue is particularly evident due to the highly dangerous consequences of the risks involved, the known interest of terrorist groups in acquiring such materials and the vulnerability of theft and diversion of such materials. Yet the phenomenon of nuclear trafficking remains a subject where the unknown dominates what is known on the subject. The trafficking panel at the Institute for Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Workshop on Reducing the Risk of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials that took place in Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 10-11, 2009, dealt with some of the issues associated with nuclear trafficking. Different points of view on how to better address trafficking and thwart perpetrator efforts were discussed. This paper presents some of these views and addresses practical measures that should be considered to improve the situation.

  11. Trends in production, trafficking, and consumption of methamphetamine and cocaine in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Kimberly C; Case, Patricia; Ramos, Rebeca; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Bucardo, Jesus; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, Mexico has experienced a significant increase in trafficking of cocaine and trafficking and production of methamphetamine. An estimated 70% of United States cocaine originating in South America passes through the Central America-Mexico corridor. Mexico-based groups are now believed to control 70%-90% of methamphetamine production and distribution in the United States. Increased availability of these drugs at reduced prices has led to a parallel rise in local drug consumption. Methamphetamine abuse is now the primary reason for seeking drug abuse treatment in a number of cities, primarily in northwestern Mexico. Although cocaine and methamphetamine use have been linked with the sex trade and high-risk behaviors, such as shooting gallery attendance and unprotected sex in other settings, comparatively little is known about the risk behaviors associated with use of these drugs in Mexico, especially for methamphetamines. We review historical aspects and current trends in cocaine and methamphetamine production, trafficking, and consumption in Mexico, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. Additionally, we discuss the potential public health consequences of cocaine use and the recent increase in methamphetamine use, especially in regards to the spread of bloodborne and other infections, in an effort to inform appropriate public health interventions.

  12. Trends in production, trafficking, and consumption of methamphetamine and cocaine in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Kimberly C; Case, Patricia; Ramos, Rebeca; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Bucardo, Jesus; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, Mexico has experienced a significant increase in trafficking of cocaine and trafficking and production of methamphetamine. An estimated 70% of United States cocaine originating in South America passes through the Central America-Mexico corridor. Mexico-based groups are now believed to control 70%-90% of methamphetamine production and distribution in the United States. Increased availability of these drugs at reduced prices has led to a parallel rise in local drug consumption. Methamphetamine abuse is now the primary reason for seeking drug abuse treatment in a number of cities, primarily in northwestern Mexico. Although cocaine and methamphetamine use have been linked with the sex trade and high-risk behaviors, such as shooting gallery attendance and unprotected sex in other settings, comparatively little is known about the risk behaviors associated with use of these drugs in Mexico, especially for methamphetamines. We review historical aspects and current trends in cocaine and methamphetamine production, trafficking, and consumption in Mexico, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. Additionally, we discuss the potential public health consequences of cocaine use and the recent increase in methamphetamine use, especially in regards to the spread of bloodborne and other infections, in an effort to inform appropriate public health interventions. PMID:16603456

  13. Forced marriage, forced sex: the perils of childhood for girls.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, M; Sen, P; Thomson, M

    1998-11-01

    A recently formed interagency Forum on the Rights of Girls and Women in Marriage is investigating the widespread problem of nonconsensual marriage and forced sex and advocating for legislative and policy initiatives. This article reviews three research projects in this area: research by Anti-Slavery International on child marriage in parts of West Africa, an investigation by Save the Children of children's views of early marriage, and research conducted by CHANGE on women's resistance to domestic violence in Calcutta, India. Girls who marry before 15 years of age are more likely to be illiterate than their older counterparts, more likely to be dowry payment brides, less likely to come into contact with development projects, have higher rates of infant mortality, and are most vulnerable to sexual violence. In many cases, intercourse is initiated before the girl begins to menstruate. Although adult women also face sexual violence within marriage, this problem is all the more traumatic for girls who lack any information about sexuality. Sex with girls below a certain age is usually covered by rape legislation, but, in countries such as India, this is mitigated by the religiously defined personal laws. The absence of adequate legal and policy action frameworks to deal with the rights of girls, coupled with the lack of sanctions against these abuses, comprise state complicity and neglect of duty under international law to this vulnerable group.

  14. Forced marriage, forced sex: the perils of childhood for girls.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, M; Sen, P; Thomson, M

    1998-11-01

    A recently formed interagency Forum on the Rights of Girls and Women in Marriage is investigating the widespread problem of nonconsensual marriage and forced sex and advocating for legislative and policy initiatives. This article reviews three research projects in this area: research by Anti-Slavery International on child marriage in parts of West Africa, an investigation by Save the Children of children's views of early marriage, and research conducted by CHANGE on women's resistance to domestic violence in Calcutta, India. Girls who marry before 15 years of age are more likely to be illiterate than their older counterparts, more likely to be dowry payment brides, less likely to come into contact with development projects, have higher rates of infant mortality, and are most vulnerable to sexual violence. In many cases, intercourse is initiated before the girl begins to menstruate. Although adult women also face sexual violence within marriage, this problem is all the more traumatic for girls who lack any information about sexuality. Sex with girls below a certain age is usually covered by rape legislation, but, in countries such as India, this is mitigated by the religiously defined personal laws. The absence of adequate legal and policy action frameworks to deal with the rights of girls, coupled with the lack of sanctions against these abuses, comprise state complicity and neglect of duty under international law to this vulnerable group. PMID:12294409

  15. [Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus as a cause of genital lesions in a girl].

    PubMed

    Swarte, R M; Hack, W W; van den Hoogenband, H M

    1997-12-01

    In a 10-year old girl with irritated vulva lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) was diagnosed. She was successfully treated with local application of equal amounts of a cortisol ointment and zinc oil. LSA is a disease of the skin infrequently seen in children, and then mostly in girls. Diagnosis is based on typical lesions in the anogenital region (sharply delineated ivory discoloration, moderate sclerosis and atrophy, haemorrhagic erosions). Knowledge of this disease is important in order to distinguish it from sexual abuse.

  16. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  17. Kenya studies its schools to identify obstacles for girls. Education and gender.

    PubMed

    Harel, K

    1997-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with almost 800 adolescents and their parents in 3 districts representing the range of school experience in Kenya. Researchers also visited 36 primary schools attended by more than 80% of the adolescents sampled, holding interviews with teachers and students, documenting facilities, observing interactions, and compiling measures of performance. Boys were seen bullying girls outside of classrooms, teasing them and blocking their movements. In focus group discussions, boys and girls reported that boys routinely grab girls' breasts, while teachers ignore the abuse. Teachers described girls as stupid and lazy, with both male and female teachers who expressed a preference for teaching one sex or the other preferring boys. The teachers more often allocated menial chores to girls and teaching tasks to boys. Even in schools in which girls performed almost as well as boys on exams, teachers awarded twice as many prizes to boys. The teachers created a context in which girls perform poorly. When the girls do in fact fail to achieve, teachers' prejudices are simply reinforced. On the other hand, schools at which girls performed better on exams had more female teachers who presumably served as role models. Also, girls in schools with more female students scored higher on the final, nationwide exam.

  18. Gender Differences in Extrafamilial Sexual Abuse Experiences among Young Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Extrafamilial sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents (ages 10-14), particularly young teen boys, are not well studied. This retrospective chart review study compared psychosocial correlates and victimization experiences between young adolescent girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 64) referred to a hospital child advocacy center. Several…

  19. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  20. Child sexual abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Patrick N; Oates, R Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than one complaint made against them. Three-quarters of all complainants were male. The most likely explanation for the large proportion of abused males is that the church gives many more opportunities for abusers to be alone with boys than with girls. Prevention strategies need to focus on reducing the opportunities for abuse to occur as well strategies concerning the recruitment of professional staff and volunteers.

  1. Child sexual abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Patrick N; Oates, R Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than one complaint made against them. Three-quarters of all complainants were male. The most likely explanation for the large proportion of abused males is that the church gives many more opportunities for abusers to be alone with boys than with girls. Prevention strategies need to focus on reducing the opportunities for abuse to occur as well strategies concerning the recruitment of professional staff and volunteers. PMID:22994693

  2. Child-abusers face mob justice.

    PubMed

    Sebunya, C

    1996-06-01

    In Uganda, before the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, rape or sexual abuse of children was not considered a serious offense by the public, although the maximum criminal offense for rape was death. Because so many young girls are testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and due to the efforts of women's groups, public opinion is changing. According to the United Nations International Children's Fund (UNICEF), girls aged 9-15 years are five times more likely to be infected with HIV than boys of the same age. Adults, who fear their peers may be infected with HIV, turn to children; some AIDS patients believe sleeping with a virgin girl will cure their illness. Uganda is targeting a $15 million project to protect children 5-15 years of age. A study commissioned by the Uganda National Council for Women and Children in 1994 found that in Kabale district 31% of girls and 15% of boys had been abused, many by teachers. In Masaka district, the Council found that 30% of women had been coerced into sex; bosses abuse their maids, and customers abuse alcohol sellers. According to police, rape is the second most common crime in Uganda. Victims are reluctant to come forward to testify; rape victims can be shunned in their communities and may be considered ineligible for marriage. Cases which make it to court rarely get a fair hearing, according to the Council of Women, because the men handling the cases often favor the culprits. FIDA, an association of women lawyers, Action for Development (ACFODE), and the National Association of Women's Organisations in Uganda (NAWOU) are lobbying for tougher laws on rape and closed courts. They are pressuring newspapers to not disclose the names of victims. Although many expect the Ministry of Women to take the lead in this area, it has been unable to do so, because of a lack of funds; it received two-thirds of its budget for 1994-95, an indication, perhaps, of the Ugandan government's intentions. Two figures

  3. Child-abusers face mob justice.

    PubMed

    Sebunya, C

    1996-06-01

    In Uganda, before the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, rape or sexual abuse of children was not considered a serious offense by the public, although the maximum criminal offense for rape was death. Because so many young girls are testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and due to the efforts of women's groups, public opinion is changing. According to the United Nations International Children's Fund (UNICEF), girls aged 9-15 years are five times more likely to be infected with HIV than boys of the same age. Adults, who fear their peers may be infected with HIV, turn to children; some AIDS patients believe sleeping with a virgin girl will cure their illness. Uganda is targeting a $15 million project to protect children 5-15 years of age. A study commissioned by the Uganda National Council for Women and Children in 1994 found that in Kabale district 31% of girls and 15% of boys had been abused, many by teachers. In Masaka district, the Council found that 30% of women had been coerced into sex; bosses abuse their maids, and customers abuse alcohol sellers. According to police, rape is the second most common crime in Uganda. Victims are reluctant to come forward to testify; rape victims can be shunned in their communities and may be considered ineligible for marriage. Cases which make it to court rarely get a fair hearing, according to the Council of Women, because the men handling the cases often favor the culprits. FIDA, an association of women lawyers, Action for Development (ACFODE), and the National Association of Women's Organisations in Uganda (NAWOU) are lobbying for tougher laws on rape and closed courts. They are pressuring newspapers to not disclose the names of victims. Although many expect the Ministry of Women to take the lead in this area, it has been unable to do so, because of a lack of funds; it received two-thirds of its budget for 1994-95, an indication, perhaps, of the Ugandan government's intentions. Two figures

  4. Trafficking to the Ciliary Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Nachury, Maxence V.; Seeley, E. Scott; Jin, Hua

    2010-01-01

    The primary cilium organizes numerous signal transduction cascades and an understanding of signaling receptors trafficking to cilia is now emerging. A defining feature of cilia is the periciliary diffusion barrier that separates the ciliary and plasma membranes despite the topological continuity between these two membranes. Although lateral transport through this barrier may take place, polarized exocytosis to the base of the cilium has been the prevailing model for delivering membrane proteins to cilia. Key players for this polarized exocytosis model include the GTPases Rab8 and Rab11, the exocyst and possibly the intraflagellar tranport machinery. Sorting membrane proteins to cilia critically relies on the recognition of ciliary targeting signals by sorting machines such as the BBSome coat complex or the GTPase Arf4. Finally, signaling at the cilium entails the bidirectional movement of proteins between cytoplasm and cilia and ubiquitination may promote exit from cilia. PMID:19575670

  5. The Girl Game Company: Engaging Latina Girls in Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…

  6. The Nature of Co-Occurring Exposure to Violence and of Court Responses to Girls in the Juvenile Justice System.

    PubMed

    Morash, Merry

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the co-occurrence of different types of victimization and violence exposure, and the effects of court interventions for girls in juvenile court. A life history interview methodology was used to collect qualitative data from 27 girls who had penetrated deeply into a treatment-oriented county court system. The study revealed that early abuse and violence in the home made girls vulnerable to later intimate partner violence and sexual assault when they left to avoid continued victimization. Whereas some court interventions helped girls, others revictimized them. Implications for helpful court practices and future research are presented and discussed.

  7. Parent Abuse: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

  8. Counseling Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…

  9. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration. PMID:25897567

  10. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  11. Breaking the Cycle of Drug Abuse. 1993 Interim National Drug Control Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This Interim Drug Strategy is intended to give a new sense of direction and to reinvigorate the nation's efforts against drug trafficking and abuse. The preface to the report lists eight new strategies that the Administration will implement: (1) make drug policy a cornerstone of domestic and social policy; (2) target pregnant women, children, and…

  12. Boys and Girls Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This paper reports on a study to see whether girls in middle school who took tests separately from boys did better than when they were tested together. A mathematics attitude and anxiety instrument was administered as part of the study to determine if either had any effect on test performance. Results indicate that boys were more anxious than…

  13. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  14. Stage Costumes for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhowe, Jean

    This book contains full instructions for making 14 costumes for girls to fit any sizes up to about 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches) in height. All the garments can be made to fit any child's individual measurements without the need of complicated pattern pieces. Simple basic shapes such as rectangles and circles are used for the patterns and the only…

  15. Girls + Technology = Turnoff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman

    1997-01-01

    Examines gender differences in computer use, citing male- oriented software as a possible reason girls are turned off, and highlights traditionally feminine and gender-neutral games. Describes ways of encouraging females: all-female computer and math classes, pairing students, mentoring, integrating technology into content areas, early…

  16. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  17. Girls in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…

  18. Academe's New Girl Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Angela

    1978-01-01

    A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)

  19. The Goose Girl Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Janice H.

    1989-01-01

    Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)

  20. What about the Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Rebecca Priegert

    2012-01-01

    Aggregated test results that identify the literacy problems of boys as the most salient gender issue in schools distort the reality that girls experience significant gender-based challenges as well, though their problems may not present as clearly on standardized tests. This emphasis on boys' difficulties has moved educational resources in that…

  1. Girl scouts face complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    A claim filed by the Legal Action Center alleges that the Girl Scouts USA and the Adirondack Girl Scout Council discriminated against 8-year-old [name removed] [name removed] by refusing to admit her because she has HIV. One complaint, filed in the New York State's Division of Human Rights, alleged that the Adirondack Council denied the girl equal access based on New York's human rights law. A second complaint alleged that the Girl Scouts USA aided and abetted in the discrimination by not requiring the Adirondack unit to comply with national organization policy barring discrimination based on disability. The girl has been successfully placed in another troop.

  2. Girl scouts face complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    A claim filed by the Legal Action Center alleges that the Girl Scouts USA and the Adirondack Girl Scout Council discriminated against 8-year-old [name removed] [name removed] by refusing to admit her because she has HIV. One complaint, filed in the New York State's Division of Human Rights, alleged that the Adirondack Council denied the girl equal access based on New York's human rights law. A second complaint alleged that the Girl Scouts USA aided and abetted in the discrimination by not requiring the Adirondack unit to comply with national organization policy barring discrimination based on disability. The girl has been successfully placed in another troop. PMID:11366636

  3. Human trafficking law and social structures.

    PubMed

    Wooditch, Alese

    2012-08-01

    Human trafficking has only recently emerged at the forefront of policy reform, even in developed nations. Yet, heightened awareness of the issue has not translated into effective policy as the majority of nations have ineffective antitrafficking practices; many countries have failed to criminalize human trafficking, whereas others do not actively enforce statutes in place. By applying Black's theory of law, this study offers a preliminary understanding into the variation of global prosecutorial efforts in human trafficking and adequacy of antitrafficking law. To isolate this relationship, the effects of trafficking markets are controlled. As with prior research, the study finds limited support for the theory. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of the quantity of antitrafficking law and morphology association for policy development.

  4. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Chariot, P; Rey, C; Werson, P

    1999-03-01

    Case 1: nurses in charge of a 6-year-old girl in a holiday camp noticed some blood spots on the girl's underwear. The possibility of sexual abuse was considered and the girl alleged that her father was responsible. The father was arrested. A surgeon was asked to examine the girl and planned to do it under general anesthaesia. Meanwhile, the girl was brought to the Forensic Medicine Unit. We found a normal hymen and no detectable anal lesions. The girl complained of dysuria and pollakiuria. Urinalysis revealed the presence of blood, leukocytes, and nitrite. Antibiotic treatment for lower urinary tract infection was initiated and all symptoms improved rapidly. The father was released. Case 2: a 7-year-old boy complained of having been sexually assaulted 24 h before. The boy did not report any pain or bleeding during or after the assault. Examination of the perianal region and of the anal sphineter were normal. Proctoscopy did not show any evidence of trauma to the anal canal. Tests to detect spermatozoa in the rectum were positive. The assailant was arrested. The present cases illustrate that: (i) psychological and social consequences of the biased interpretation of common symptoms may be dramatic in the case of child sexual abuse; (ii) both questioning and examining a child may be difficult for non-specialized practitioners; and (iii) tests to detect spermatozoa should be systematically performed in the case of a suspected or alleged recent assault, even in the absence of any clinical lesions. PMID:15335508

  5. Depression and anxiety in young children of substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Drucker, P M; Greco-Vigorito, C; Coil, G; Moore-Russell, M; Avaltroni, J

    1997-06-01

    144 5- to 13-yr.-old children of substance abusers, enrolled in an expressive arts therapy program, were tested for depression on the Children's Depression Inventory and for anxiety on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale prior to treatment. Total scores for anxiety were significantly higher for girls than for boys; however, total depression scores did not differ between boys and girls. Analysis of subscale scores on each of the tests indicated several sex differences. Age was positively correlated with certain symptoms of depression for boys but not for girls. Conversely, age was negatively correlated with certain symptoms of anxiety for boys but not for girls. When compared to known norms for these assessments, girls scored significantly higher on total Depression but not differently than normals on total Anxiety. Boys, however, scored significantly lower on total Anxiety but did not score differently than normals on total Depression. We interpreted these findings as indicating that young children of substance abusers may be at risk for certain symptoms of anxiety and depression following their parents' addiction. Also, these symptoms may be manifest differently by boys and girls of various ages.

  6. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  7. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  8. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, V Jordan

    2014-10-01

    Child commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking are global health problems requiring a multidisciplinary approach by individuals, organizations, communities, and national governments. The adverse emotional, physical, and social consequences for victims are legion and in many areas of the United States and the rest of the world, victim resources are scarce. Since violence, deprivation, abuse, and infection are so integral to the exploitation experience, victims may present for care to community and academic pediatric and adolescent health care providers. It is essential that medical professionals have the knowledge, skills, and resources to recognize victims, assess their needs, and treat them appropriately, including making key referrals for community services. However, to date medical information and resources regarding commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking has been sparse. There are no clinically validated screening tools specifically designed to identify victims in the health care setting and since victims seldom self-identify, it is likely that the majority of victims are unrecognized. The opportunity for comprehensive assessment and intervention is lost. Further, professionals receive little training on appropriate interview techniques for this special population, and many are ill equipped to ensure safety and optimal medical evaluation during the visit. This article provides a general overview of child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSEC), describing the epidemiology of international and domestic exploitation, and reviewing the challenges of conducting research on this population. The five stages of trafficking are explained, as are typical physical and emotional consequences of exploitation. The medical evaluation is described, including potential indicators of CSEC and sex trafficking, common medical presentations by victims, approaches to the comprehensive medical interview, and the appropriate medical exam with

  9. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, V Jordan

    2014-10-01

    Child commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking are global health problems requiring a multidisciplinary approach by individuals, organizations, communities, and national governments. The adverse emotional, physical, and social consequences for victims are legion and in many areas of the United States and the rest of the world, victim resources are scarce. Since violence, deprivation, abuse, and infection are so integral to the exploitation experience, victims may present for care to community and academic pediatric and adolescent health care providers. It is essential that medical professionals have the knowledge, skills, and resources to recognize victims, assess their needs, and treat them appropriately, including making key referrals for community services. However, to date medical information and resources regarding commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking has been sparse. There are no clinically validated screening tools specifically designed to identify victims in the health care setting and since victims seldom self-identify, it is likely that the majority of victims are unrecognized. The opportunity for comprehensive assessment and intervention is lost. Further, professionals receive little training on appropriate interview techniques for this special population, and many are ill equipped to ensure safety and optimal medical evaluation during the visit. This article provides a general overview of child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSEC), describing the epidemiology of international and domestic exploitation, and reviewing the challenges of conducting research on this population. The five stages of trafficking are explained, as are typical physical and emotional consequences of exploitation. The medical evaluation is described, including potential indicators of CSEC and sex trafficking, common medical presentations by victims, approaches to the comprehensive medical interview, and the appropriate medical exam with

  10. Lymphatic Regulation of Cellular Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels play vital roles in immune surveillance and immune regulation by conveying antigen loaded dendritic cells, memory T cells, macrophages and neutrophils from the peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes where they initiate as well as modify immune responses. Until relatively recently however, there was little understanding of how entry and migration through lymphatic vessels is organized or the specific molecular mechanisms that might be involved. Within the last decade, the situation has been transformed by an explosion of knowledge generated largely through the application of microscopic imaging, transgenic animals, specific markers and function blocking mAbs that is beginning to provide a rational conceptual framework. This article provides a critical review of the recent literature, highlighting seminal discoveries that have revealed the fascinating ultrastructure of leucocyte entry sites in lymphatic vessels, as well as generating controversies over the involvement of integrin adhesion, chemotactic and haptotactic mechanisms in DC entry under normal and inflamed conditions. It also discusses the major changes in lymphatic architecture that occur during inflammation and the different modes of leucocyte entry and trafficking within inflamed lymphatic vessels, as well as presenting a timely update on the likely role of hyaluronan and the major lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 in leucocyte transit.

  11. The Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Exposure to Violence on Self-Report of Antisocial Behavior among Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N. Dickon

    2009-01-01

    The current study extended previous research with adults and boys to girls in the juvenile justice system (N = 122; M = 16.7; SD = 1.3). Using a longitudinal research design, neighborhood disadvantage and exposure to violence (i.e., physical abuse by parents, physical abuse by peers, and witnessing violence) were assessed during incarceration.…

  12. Intrafamilial Sexual Abuse: Brother-Sister Incest Does Not Differ from Father-Daughter and Stepfather-Stepdaughter Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; Wright, John; McDuff, Pierre; Perron, Alain

    2002-01-01

    A study compared 72 girls (ages 5-16) sexually abused by brothers, fathers, or stepfathers. Results suggested few differences in characteristics of sexual abuse. However, penetration was much more frequent in the sibling incest group. More victims of fathers and brothers manifested clinically significant distress (90%), than stepfather victims…

  13. Shrouds of Silence: A Case Study of Sexual Abuse in Schools in the Limpopo Province in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masehela, Boledi; Pillay, Venitha

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the reasons that allow a parent, a principal and a teacher to maintain silence when young girls under their care are sexually abused. Put another way, it attempts to explain what it is about sexual abuse that makes these parties relinquish their role as protectors of innocent children. This paper, based on a larger…

  14. A Girl Like You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…

  15. Days of Their Lives: Reflections on Adolescent Girls and Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on issues of sexuality for adolescent girls, interweaving quotes from adolescent mothers. Information comes from the author's work educating teenage parents. The article focuses on the relationship of social pressures to sexuality, femininity, the body, silence and rebellion, adolescent motherhood, and sexual abuse. (SM)

  16. Case Report: Homicide by a 10-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Topcu, Zerrin

    2006-01-01

    This case study presents a 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, who killed her 6-month-old sister by throwing her out of a window. Her aggressive-impulsive behavior had a persistent pattern. She had a history of epilepsy, and was frequently exposed to physical abuse. She never attended a structured treatment program. Here, we…

  17. Media Impact on Girls in the US, China and India through a Gendered Filter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kristie

    2012-01-01

    While infanticide or sex selective abortion in rural areas of the world may seem to have little to do with a famous musician who is a domestic abuser from the first world who avoids criminal punishment while being applauded and glamourized, the message going out to girls is consistent: they are not valued in the same way that boys are. In order to…

  18. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms…

  19. Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…

  20. Are girls really becoming more delinquent? Testing the gender convergence hypothesis by race and ethnicity, 1976-2005.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, John M; Shook, Jeffrey J; Bachman, Jerald; O'Malley, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    Historically, girls have been less delinquent than boys. However, increased justice system involvement among girls and current portrayals of girls in the popular media and press suggest that girls' delinquency, particularly their violence and drug use, is becoming more similar to that of boys. Are girls really becoming more delinquent? To date, this question remains unresolved. Girls' increased system involvement might reflect actual changes in their behavior or changes in justice system policies and practices. Given that girls of color are overrepresented in the justice system, efforts to rigorously examine the gender convergence hypothesis must consider the role of race/ethnicity in girls' delinquency. This study uses self-report data from a large, nationally representative sample of youth to investigate the extent to which the magnitude of gender differences in violence and substance use varies across racial/ethnic groups and explore whether these differences have decreased over time. We find little support for the gender convergence hypothesis, because, with a few exceptions, the data do not show increases in girls' violence or drug use. Furthermore, even when girls' violent behavior or drug use has increased, the magnitude of the increase is not substantial enough to account for the dramatic increases in girls' arrests for violence and drug abuse violations.

  1. [Drug trafficking and international law].

    PubMed

    Marini, Luca

    2002-01-01

    The production, the commerce and the use of drugs and other substances are ruled by several conventions of international law, that, at first, have had as object the production and the commerce of drugs for lawful purposes, and the measures required to prevent and to repress, at certain conditions, abuses and unlawful traffics. Just more recently, following some solicitations noticed by the International Community, and according to the concept of "well-balanced approach" described in the text, the measures introduced in this way were supported by a more incisive international movement, fit for the repression of unlawful traffics of drugs and to the adoption of suitable measures of prevention, also to avoid, at national level, sanitary, social and economical implications of the criminal phenomenon.

  2. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  3. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Lanctôt, Nadine; de Ruiter, Corine; van Vugt, Eveline

    2015-08-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n=231), physically abused (n=1,568), neglected (n=1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n=1,767), and non-victims (n=8,492). In addition, the moderating effect of gender in the association between type of maltreatment and offending behavior/psychosocial problems was examined. Results showed that violent offenses were more common in victims of physical abuse and victims of multiple forms of abuse than in non-victims, both in boys and girls. In boys, sexual offenses were far more common in victims of sexual abuse than in victims of other or multiple forms of maltreatment or in non-victims. In girls, no group differences were found in sexual offending behavior. For both boys and girls, externalizing problems were relatively common in victims of physical abuse and neglect whereas internalizing problems were relatively common in victims of sexual abuse. In victims of multiple forms of maltreatment, both internalizing and externalizing problems were relatively common. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  4. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Lanctôt, Nadine; de Ruiter, Corine; van Vugt, Eveline

    2015-08-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n=231), physically abused (n=1,568), neglected (n=1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n=1,767), and non-victims (n=8,492). In addition, the moderating effect of gender in the association between type of maltreatment and offending behavior/psychosocial problems was examined. Results showed that violent offenses were more common in victims of physical abuse and victims of multiple forms of abuse than in non-victims, both in boys and girls. In boys, sexual offenses were far more common in victims of sexual abuse than in victims of other or multiple forms of maltreatment or in non-victims. In girls, no group differences were found in sexual offending behavior. For both boys and girls, externalizing problems were relatively common in victims of physical abuse and neglect whereas internalizing problems were relatively common in victims of sexual abuse. In victims of multiple forms of maltreatment, both internalizing and externalizing problems were relatively common. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:26072283

  5. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on multiple partners in the context of the sexual double standard and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S; Jemmott, John B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the influence of abusive and nonabusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had two or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard, as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction.

  6. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  7. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  8. Abuse during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressed, eat unhealthy foods, or pick up bad habits such as smoking or drinking . An abusive partner may try to ... depressed, eat unhealthy foods, or pick up bad habits such as smoking or drinking . An abusive partner may try to ...

  9. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  10. Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established.

  11. Suspected child abuse: cost in medical time and finance.

    PubMed

    Summers, C L; Molyneux, E M

    1992-07-01

    In a prospective study the number of children attending the Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital (RLCH) for examination after allegations of child abuse, and the type of abuse involved, was recorded from July to December 1990. The cost to the hospital of these examinations and initial investigations was assessed. The study was carried out in the major and minor accident and emergency departments and the Rainbow Centre of the RLCH. In six months 181 children were examined. Cases of sexual abuse and non-accidental injury were seen in equal numbers. Girls outnumbered boys and 60% were referred by social services. The costs over the six month period were 31,739 pounds. The minimum projected annual cost is 63,500 pounds. We conclude that the cost of running an effective service for the initial assessment of children who are possible victims of child abuse is considerable in practical terms and in medical time. PMID:1519956

  12. Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376

  13. Recent trends of drug abuse and drug-associated deaths in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heesun; Park, Meejung; Hahn, Eunyoung; Choi, Haeyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lim, Miae

    2004-10-01

    Methamphetamine is the most abused drug in Korea followed by cannabis and opiates. Recent characteristics of the drug problem in Korea include increased drug smuggling from abroad, drug trafficking by organized gangs, varieties of drug smuggling, foreigners engaged in drug smuggling, and spread among drug abusers and areas. New drugs such as MDMA, Yaba, and LSD are found in greater proportion in the seizure records, indicating diversification of smuggled drugs in Korea. In addition, there is a growing tendency for the abuse of common medicines among young people in Korea because they are easily available. Methamphetamine is so seriously abused that fatalities from its overdose have occurred; since 1985, 20 such fatalities have been reported. Many deaths from the abuse of noncontrolled substances, especially dextromethorphan, zipeprol, and carisoprodol, which are taken for their hallucinogenic effects, were also reported. Recently, there was even a fatality related to smuggling of cocaine by body-packing.

  14. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  15. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms predicted future decreases in perceived parental support and control. There was less support for the assertion that parenting deficits foster adolescent problem behaviors; initially low parental control predicted future increases in substance abuse, but not externalizing symptoms, and low parental support did not predict future increases in externalizing or substance abuse symptoms. Results suggest that problem behavior is a more consistent predictor of parenting than parenting is of problem behavior, at least for girls during middle adolescence. PMID:16528407

  16. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms predicted future decreases in perceived parental support and control. There was less support for the assertion that parenting deficits foster adolescent problem behaviors; initially low parental control predicted future increases in substance abuse, but not externalizing symptoms, and low parental support did not predict future increases in externalizing or substance abuse symptoms. Results suggest that problem behavior is a more consistent predictor of parenting than parenting is of problem behavior, at least for girls during middle adolescence. PMID:16528407

  17. Evaluation of orofacial lesions relating child abuse, Esfahan, Iran: A quantitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Nilchian, Firoozeh; Sadri, Leyli; Jabbarifar, Seyed Ebrahim; Saeidi, Alireza; Arbab, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Family violence, including child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence, is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to provide data on prevalence and factors of Orofacial lesions relating child abuse in Iran to lend evidence to support preventing child abuse. Materials and Methods: The overall approach was a case-note review of children having child abuse note, recording by personnel of social services. Research ethical approval was sought from the Central social service organization. This study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran (2011). Result: The mean age of children, when abuse had been occurred was 8 years (SD = 1.68), and there were approximately an equal number of boys and girls. Children had a high physical experience (66.1%).Of these children, at least 60% sustained trauma to the face and mouth. Emotional abuse was 77.1%, neglect was 64.1%, and lower experience of sexual abuse which was 4.1%. There was a strong relationship between gender and abuser which shows girls have been affected by stepfathers (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Preliminary data suggest that there are strong evidence regarding the incidence of child abuse relating orofacial lesions which dentists should be aware of them. Future trials may draw on these useful baseline data to help their study design. PMID:23559953

  18. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Amy Jane

    2014-05-01

    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed.

  19. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Amy Jane

    2014-05-01

    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed. PMID:24397926

  20. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  1. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    A series of four documents address the definition and identification of child abuse and neglect. In the first, which is designed for professionals, a historical review is followed by discussion of clinical and social evidence of abuse. Resources for managing child abuse are described, and personnel functions are outlined. The second document,…

  3. Dynamics of Parental Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Eugene; Schlater, Theodore L.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of the various categories of parental abuse are examined with special emphasis on abuse by adult offspring living in the same household or adults acting as caretakers or legal guardians for their elderly parents. Society's role in the dynamics of parental abuse is examined.

  4. Trafficking vesicles: pro or contra pathogens?

    PubMed

    Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; Robatzek, Silke

    2009-08-01

    Membrane compartmentalization and trafficking are pivotal for eukaryotic life and demand a higher order of coordination. Even in their resting state, most plant cells exhibit a polarized localization of membrane compartments, which is redirected when plant cells are attacked by microbes. Repositioning of organelles at pathogen penetration sites has been reported since more than a decade; however, only recently has targeted vesicle trafficking upon biotic stress emerged. It has become evident that vesicle secretion and endocytic pathways are engaged in the plant's immune system to actively defend against potential pathogens. By contrast, invasive pathogens have evolved means to utilize these trafficking pathways for the suppression of plant defenses and to the benefit of microbial proliferation. This review summarizes recent findings of host intracellular endomembrane adaptations in response to pathogens and how pathogens exploit them. PMID:19608452

  5. Vesicle trafficking and cell surface membrane patchiness.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Edidin, M

    2001-07-01

    Membrane proteins and lipids often appear to be distributed in patches on the cell surface. These patches are often assumed to be membrane domains, arising from specific molecular associations. However, a computer simulation (Gheber and Edidin, 1999) shows that membrane patchiness may result from a combination of vesicle trafficking and dynamic barriers to lateral mobility. The simulation predicts that the steady-state patches of proteins and lipids seen on the cell surface will decay if vesicle trafficking is inhibited. To test this prediction, we compared the apparent sizes and intensities of patches of class I HLA molecules, integral membrane proteins, before and after inhibiting endocytic vesicle traffic from the cell surface, either by incubation in hypertonic medium or by expression of a dominant-negative mutant dynamin. As predicted by the simulation, the apparent sizes of HLA patches increased, whereas their intensities decreased after endocytosis and vesicle trafficking were inhibited. PMID:11423406

  6. Purinergic Signaling During Immune Cell Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Davide; McNamee, Eóin N; Idzko, Marco; Gambari, Roberto; Eltzschig, Holger K

    2016-06-01

    Migration and positioning of immune cells is fundamental for their differentiation and recruitment at sites of infection. Besides the fundamental role played by chemokines and their receptors, recent studies demonstrate that a complex network of purinergic signaling events plays a key role in these trafficking events. This process includes the release of nucleotides (such as ATP and ADP) and subsequent autocrine and paracrine signaling events through nucleotide receptors. At the same time, surface-expressed ectoapyrases and nucleotidases convert extracellular nucleotides to adenosine, and adenosine signaling events play additional functional roles in leucocyte trafficking. In this review we revisit classical paradigms of inflammatory cell trafficking in the context of recent studies implicating purinergic signaling events in this process. PMID:27142306

  7. The girl child: a girls' empowerment initiative in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, B; Sheikh, M

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Girl Child Project became a reality in Pakistan. This pilot project aimed to 1) set a base line for activities for a sample of 1000 girls and their families, 2) organize orientation meetings and workshops to raise the awareness of 500 young girls and women, 3) develop a core of young girls to create local awareness of the problems of girls through various activities, and 4) develop motivational messages and advocacy/training materials. The first phase of the project included a national workshop for leaders in June 1992; 10 evaluation workshops on the topics of status, literacy, nutrition, health, and the environment as they relate to the girl child; the formation of 105 groups of five to eight girls each who were directly influenced by the project; and the indirect influence of 2.7 million people. The second phase, begun in 1994, expands on the first phase and sponsors project activities in 200 locations. Girls who participated in the project have learned to increase their confidence and to voice their opinions in their homes as they have become aware of their rights. Thus mothers who feed sons better than daughters, for example, are being challenged and are changing their practices. Some girls are also providing education to other children. The girls face a great deal of resistance when they try to change their traditional roles, and they must convince their families that their increased knowledge and skills will ultimately benefit their family and community. The girls who have participated in the workshops have become aware of new worlds and ways of life which they did not know existed, and they have developed the confidence to gain the education they need to improve their society.

  8. Alcohol abuse and suicide attempts among youth.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Pinka; Dave, Dhaval; Dave, Daval; Kaestner, Robert; Markowitz, Sara

    2004-06-01

    This study uses the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) to explore the causal relationship between alcohol abuse (binge drinking and clinically defined alcohol use disorders) and suicide attempts among youth. We use an empirical approach that allows one to assess the possible existence and strength of a causal relationship without relying on identifying assumptions. Our results suggest that a causal relationship between binge drinking and suicide attempts is very unlikely. The findings, however, support a causal relationship between clinically defined alcohol use disorders and suicide attempts among girls.

  9. Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

  10. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... international narcotics trafficking centered in Colombia; or (2) Materially to assist in, or provide...

  11. Morphine-induced mu opioid receptor trafficking enhances reward yet prevents compulsive drug use.

    PubMed

    Berger, Amy Chang; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    Morphine, heroin and other commonly abused opioids induce little mu opioid receptor (MOR) trafficking compared to endogenous opioids. We utilized knock-in mice expressing a mutant recycling MOR (RMOR) that desensitizes and is internalized in response to morphine to show that facilitating MOR trafficking not only enhances morphine reward but, despite this, reduces the development of addiction-like behaviours. To demonstrate this, we developed a novel model of the transition from controlled to compulsive drug use that recapitulates many features of human addiction, including persistent drug seeking despite adverse consequences and a decreased preference for alternative rewards. These behaviours emerged spontaneously in wild-type but not RMOR mice, and their intensity predicted the reinstatement of morphine seeking after extended abstinence, while prior morphine intake did not. These results confirm previous findings in the rat that addiction can be dissociated from both reward and consumption. Most importantly, these results demonstrate that one can simultaneously reduce the 'addictiveness' of morphine and enhance its desirable effects by promoting agonist-induced MOR trafficking.

  12. Trends in Production, Trafficking and Consumption of Methamphetamine and Cocaine in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Case, Patricia; Ramos, Rebeca; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Bucardo, Jesus; Patterson, Thomas L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, Mexico has experienced a significant increase in trafficking of cocaine and trafficking and production of methamphetamine. An estimated 70% of U.S. cocaine originating in South America passes through the Central America-Mexico corridor. Mexico-based groups are now believed to control 70%–90% of methamphetamine production and distribution in the U.S. Increased availability of these drugs at reduced prices has led to a parallel rise in local drug consumption. Methamphetamine abuse is now the primary reason for seeking drug user treatment in a number of cities, primarily in northwestern Mexico. While cocaine and methamphetamine use have been linked with the sex trade and high risk behaviors such as shooting gallery attendance and unprotected sex in other settings, comparatively little is known about the risk behaviors associated with use of these drugs in Mexico, especially for methamphetamines. We review historical aspects and current trends in cocaine and methamphetamine production, trafficking and consumption in Mexico, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. Additionally, we discuss the potential public health consequences of cocaine use and the recent increase in methamphetamine use, especially in regards to the spread of bloodborne and other infections, in an effort to inform appropriate public health interventions. PMID:16603456

  13. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens C; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-06-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species.

  14. Homeostatic plasticity and NMDA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Otaño, Isabel; Ehlers, Michael D

    2005-05-01

    Learning, memory and brain development are associated with long-lasting modifications of synapses that are guided by specific patterns of neuronal activity. Such modifications include classical Hebbian plasticities (such as long-term potentiation and long-term depression), which are rapid and synapse-specific, and others, such as synaptic scaling and metaplasticity, that work over longer timescales and are crucial for maintaining and orchestrating neuronal network function. The cellular mechanisms underlying Hebbian plasticity have been well studied and involve rapid changes in the trafficking of highly mobile AMPA receptors. An emerging concept is that activity-dependent alterations in NMDA receptor trafficking contribute to homeostatic plasticity at central glutamatergic synapses.

  15. Gonorrhoea in a toddler: sexual abuse or accidental infection?

    PubMed

    Higgs, R; Harris, J; Hodgkin, P; Lobjoit, M

    1984-06-01

    A British case history is presented of a two-year-old girl who contracted gonorrhea either from incestuous sexual abuse or by indirect means. A police investigation consented to by the child's mother was inconclusive. After the girl had been treated and returned to her family, an informal case conference including physicians, a social worker, and a philosopher examined the issues of police involvement, the ramifications for the family, the possibility of psychological damage to the child from the investigation versus the harm of the suspected assault, and the need for a more structured follow-up. PMID:6737445

  16. Imaging Girls: Visual Methodologies and Messages for Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…

  17. Handicapped Girls and Girl Scouting: A Guide for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Marian Weller

    Designed as a handbook for girl scount leaders involved with the handicapped girl scout, the manual first makes general statements about handicaps, leader qualifications, and troop placement and organization. Information and guidelines for leaders are provided for the following exceptionalities: visual impairment, hearing impairment, orthopedic…

  18. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  19. Girl Scouts settle complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    The Girl Scouts have settled a claim of discrimination made against New York's Adirondack Girl Scout Council and the national Girl Scouts organization for refusing admittance of a third-grader into the Brownies because of her HIV infection. The settlement occurred without adjudication on the key point of whether volunteer-based organizations such as the Girl Scouts are places of public accommodation under the New York Human Rights Act. The parties agreed that the Adirondack council will revise its HIV policy so that volunteers know they cannot deny admission to HIV-positive candidates; that the council will educate its troop leaders and staff on HIV transmission, universal precautions, and the organization's policy of nondiscrimination; and that the national Girl Scouts' organization will continue to investigate any allegations of HIV discrimination against applicants.

  20. Girl Scouts settle complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    The Girl Scouts have settled a claim of discrimination made against New York's Adirondack Girl Scout Council and the national Girl Scouts organization for refusing admittance of a third-grader into the Brownies because of her HIV infection. The settlement occurred without adjudication on the key point of whether volunteer-based organizations such as the Girl Scouts are places of public accommodation under the New York Human Rights Act. The parties agreed that the Adirondack council will revise its HIV policy so that volunteers know they cannot deny admission to HIV-positive candidates; that the council will educate its troop leaders and staff on HIV transmission, universal precautions, and the organization's policy of nondiscrimination; and that the national Girl Scouts' organization will continue to investigate any allegations of HIV discrimination against applicants. PMID:11366649

  1. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims. PMID:26612382

  2. 78 FR 70571 - Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking; Rescheduled Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking; Rescheduled Meeting AGENCY: Fish... Service (Service), announce a public meeting of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council... announce that the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council) will hold a meeting to...

  3. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combating Trafficking in....222-50 Combating Trafficking in Persons. As prescribed in 22.1705(a), insert the following clause: Combating Trafficking in Persons (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Coercion means—...

  4. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims.

  5. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  6. Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P.; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Many children in Albania and other countries of Eastern Europe are being trafficked as part of the global business of human trafficking. Objectives: The study sought to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking…

  7. Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Incarcerated African American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Gray, Simone C; Holmes, Kristin; Bradford, Denise R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social and behavioral factors associated with pregnancy history among a sample of African American adolescent girls recruited from a short-term juvenile detention center in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data were collected from a sample of 188 detained African American, 13-17-year-old girls in Atlanta, Georgia, who participated in a larger HIV prevention study. An audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey was completed by participants to obtain information on socioecological factors to include individual, parental/familial, sexual risk, psychosocial, and substance use factors. Among the 188 participants, 25.5 % reported a history of pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that girls with a history of pregnancy were more likely to live in a household receiving government aid, use hormonal contraceptives at last sex, participate in sex trading, have casual sex partners, have condomless sex in the past 90 days, and have a history of physical abuse. Girls with no history of pregnancy were more likely to have been incarcerated at least twice and to have previously used alcohol. Detention-based interventions and pregnancy prevention programs for this vulnerable population may benefit by addressing factors related to sexual behavior and development, substance use, individual background, and psychosocial health. PMID:27271026

  8. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  9. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. PMID:26712421

  10. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts.

  11. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  12. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  13. Are Girls Behaving like Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…

  14. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  15. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  16. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime. PMID:27149330

  17. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    PubMed

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  18. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    PubMed

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime. PMID:27149330

  19. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758

  20. Cortical development of AMPA receptor trafficking proteins

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kathryn M.; Tcharnaia, Lilia; Beshara, Simon P.; Jones, David G.

    2012-01-01

    AMPA-receptor trafficking plays a central role in excitatory plasticity, especially during development. Changes in the number of AMPA receptors and time spent at the synaptic surface are important factors of plasticity that directly affect long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), synaptic scaling, and the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance in the developing cortex. Experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength in visual cortex (V1) use a molecularly distinct AMPA trafficking pathway that includes the GluA2 subunit. We studied developmental changes in AMPA receptor trafficking proteins by quantifying expression of GluA2, pGluA2 (GluA2serine880), GRIP1, and PICK1 in rat visual and frontal cortex. We used Western Blot analysis of synaptoneurosome preparations of rat visual and frontal cortex from animals ranging in age from P0 to P105. GluA2 and pGluA2 followed different developmental trajectories in visual and frontal cortex, with a brief period of over expression in frontal cortex. The over expression of GluA2 and pGluA2 in immature frontal cortex raises the possibility that there may be a period of GluA2-dependent vulnerability in frontal cortex that is not found in V1. In contrast, GRIP1 and PICK1 had the same developmental trajectories and were expressed very early in development of both cortical areas. This suggests that the AMPA-interacting proteins are available to begin trafficking receptors as soon as GluA2-containing receptors are expressed. Finally, we used all four proteins to analyze the surface-to-internalization balance and found that this balance was roughly equal across both cortical regions, and throughout development. Our finding of an exquisite surface-to-internalization balance highlights that these AMPA receptor trafficking proteins function as a tightly controlled system in the developing cortex. PMID:22623912

  1. India's "nowhere" girls. Voices of girls 1: India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S

    1998-01-01

    In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed.

  2. Preventing child marriages: first international day of the girl child "my life, my right, end child marriage".

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Christiansen, Charlotte Sigurdson; Mbizvo, Michael

    2012-11-20

    On 17 November 2011, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution (A/RES/66/170) designating 11 October as the first International Day of the Girl Child choosing ending child marriages as the theme of the day. Child marriage is a fundamental human rights violation and impacts all aspects of a girl's life. These marriages deny a girl of her childhood, disrupts her education, limits her opportunities, increases her risk of violence and abuse, and jeopardizes her health. The article presents data about the prevalence and effects, contributing factors and recommends action for prevention.

  3. Recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Kotarski, Jan; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Radowicki, Stanislaw

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation defines child sexual abuse as the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. Child sexual abuse is evidenced by this activity between a child and an adult or another child who by age or development is in a relationship of responsibility, trust or power, the activity being intended to gratify or satisfy the needs of the other person. It is estimated that in the world on average one in 3-4 women and one in 6-10 men were victims of sexual abuse in childhood. In Poland, according to the estimates of the Child's Rights Protection Committee, approximately 20% of girls and 5-6% of boys under the age of 15 years has suffered sexual abuse. In 2007 there was an increase in violence victims in all age categories, but the most alarming data concerned minors under 13 years. Girls fall victim to sexual abuse three times more frequently than boys. Sexual abuse of boys frequently involves violence. Data show that there are fewer women than men who execute such actions against a minor. Most victims (49-84%) know the perpetrator, and approximately 14-20% of acts of violence take place within the family. This article presents recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning procedures in cases of suspected sexual abuse of children. PMID:21061918

  4. Trafficking and contract migrant workers in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Jureidini, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses a number of issues regarding the extent to which trafficking may be applied to migrant domestic workers who enter under the kafala system of sponsorship in the Middle East. Migrant domestic workers are the most numerous of those mentioned in reports on trafficking for labour exploitation in the region. The discussion seeks to determine whether "trafficking" can be ex post facto, rather than ex ante? In other words, can the label of trafficking be attributed only after the worker has arrived in the receiving country and is victimized according to the principles of trafficking protocols? In addition, must there be a proven intent to traffic by agents, or can employers who harm and/or exploit them be considered as traffickers alone? Should the harm done to workers on arrival at their place of work be classified (and assisted) as victims of trafficking, or as exploited workers?

  5. The Prevalence and Comorbidity between Delinquency, Drug Abuse, Suicide Attempts, Physical and Sexual Abuse, and Self-Mutilation among Delinquent Hispanic Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Jeanette; Curry, Theodore R.

    2007-01-01

    Representative data show that drug abuse, delinquency, and suicide attempts are major concerns among adolescent Hispanic females. Although comorbidity research indicates that such problems tend to be related to each other, this research largely neglects Hispanic females. Using data from presentence investigations on 141 Hispanic girls sentenced to…

  6. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  7. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  8. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life. PMID:12158010

  9. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life.

  10. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  11. [Sexual abuse of minors].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y

    1991-01-01

    The author gives a definition of sexual abuse on minors, emphasizing its more frequent occurrence inside the family (incest) than outside. He describes the countertransference reactions induced by this type of abuse, especially in professional teams who tend to put each other in a position of rivalry. Next, he sketches the pathogeny of sexual abuse, the clinical signs and the long term effects. The author deduces what should be the first signs of sexual abuse and proposes a pattern of diagnosis. Finally, he explains a management model, of the crisis and the follow-up of this difficult situation. PMID:1670411

  12. Elder physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Young, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse.

  13. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  14. Girls Online Feeling Out of Bounds: Girl Scout Research Institute Study on Teenage Girls and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…

  15. Cognitive Distortions about Sex and Sexual Offending: A Comparison of Sex Offending Girls, Delinquent Girls, and Girls from the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…

  16. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  17. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Making Prevention Effective for Adolescent Boys and Girls: Gender Differences in Substance Use and Prevention. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Results indicate that overall, boys and girls respond to prevention differently. Boys…

  18. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls. PMID:18551822

  19. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls.

  20. Sex Trafficking: Policies, Programs, and Services.

    PubMed

    Orme, Julie; Ross-Sheriff, Fariyal

    2015-10-01

    Sex trafficking (ST), a contemporary form of female slavery, is a human rights issue of critical concern to social work. The global response to ST has been substantial, and 166 countries have adopted anti-ST legislation. Despite considerable efforts to combat ST, the magnitude is increasing. To date, the majority of anti-ST efforts have focused on criminalization policies that target traffickers or purchasers of sexual services, who are predominantly male; prevention programming and services for predominantly female victims have received less support. Therapeutic services to assist pornography addicts and purchasers of sexual services are also necessary. In this article, authors examine current anti-ST policies, programs, and services, both domestically and globally, and present an innovative paradigm that addresses social inequities and emphasizes prevention programming. They conclude with a discussion of the paradigm's implications for social work policies, practices, and services. PMID:26489349

  1. Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Butner, R. Scott; Cowell, Andrew J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Riensche, Roderick M.; White, Amanda M.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-03-29

    Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation, as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components, and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy the function of the networks and their processes. The complexities inherent to the characterization and anticipation of illicit nuclear trafficking networks requires that a variety of modeling and knowledge technologies be jointly harnessed to construct an effective analytical and decision making workflow in which specific case studies can be built in reasonable time and with realistic effort. In this paper, we explore a solution to this challenge that integrates evidentiary and dynamic modeling with knowledge management and analytical gaming, and demonstrate its application to a geopolitical region at risk.

  2. Maritime drug trafficking: an underrated problem.

    PubMed

    Aune, B R

    1990-01-01

    Seizure data indicate that a substantial proportion of the total quantity of drugs seized is confiscated from maritime modes of conveyance or has been transported by sea. The trafficking of narcotic drugs by sea has virtually become an industry comprised of many individual enterprises of varying size and organization. The maritime medium is one of the main ways by which drugs may enter some countries. In response to the problem, various sophisticated anti-trafficking offensives and strategies have been established or contemplated in certain geographical areas. The shipment of drugs to the primary consuming countries has not been curbed, however, and there is every indication that the overall movement of drugs is still unimpeded.

  3. Regulatory T-cell compartmentalization and trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuang; Kryczek, Ilona; Zou, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (CD4+ Treg cells) are thought to differentiate in the thymus and immigrate from the thymus to the periphery. Treg cells can regulate both acquired and innate immunity through multiple modes of suppression. The cross-talk between Treg cells and targeted cells, such as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells, is crucial for ensuring suppression by Treg cells in the appropriate microenvironment. Emerging evidence suggests that Treg compartmentalization and trafficking may be tissue or/and organ specific and that distinct chemokine receptor and integrin expression may contribute to selective retention and trafficking of Treg cells at sites where regulation is required. In this review, the cellular and molecular signals that control specialized migration and retention of Treg cells are discussed. PMID:16537800

  4. Endocytic membrane trafficking and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Schreij, Andrea M A; Fon, Edward A; McPherson, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are amongst the most devastating of human disorders. New technologies have led to a rapid increase in the identification of disease-related genes with an enhanced appreciation of the key roles played by genetics in the etiology of these disorders. Importantly, pinpointing the normal function of disease gene proteins leads to new understanding of the cellular machineries and pathways that are altered in the disease process. One such emerging pathway is membrane trafficking in the endosomal system. This key cellular process controls the localization and levels of a myriad of proteins and is thus critical for normal cell function. In this review we will focus on three neurodegenerative diseases; Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and hereditary spastic paraplegias, for which a large number of newly discovered disease genes encode proteins that function in endosomal membrane trafficking. We will describe how alterations in these proteins affect endosomal function and speculate on the contributions of these disruptions to disease pathophysiology. PMID:26721251

  5. Sex Trafficking: Policies, Programs, and Services.

    PubMed

    Orme, Julie; Ross-Sheriff, Fariyal

    2015-10-01

    Sex trafficking (ST), a contemporary form of female slavery, is a human rights issue of critical concern to social work. The global response to ST has been substantial, and 166 countries have adopted anti-ST legislation. Despite considerable efforts to combat ST, the magnitude is increasing. To date, the majority of anti-ST efforts have focused on criminalization policies that target traffickers or purchasers of sexual services, who are predominantly male; prevention programming and services for predominantly female victims have received less support. Therapeutic services to assist pornography addicts and purchasers of sexual services are also necessary. In this article, authors examine current anti-ST policies, programs, and services, both domestically and globally, and present an innovative paradigm that addresses social inequities and emphasizes prevention programming. They conclude with a discussion of the paradigm's implications for social work policies, practices, and services.

  6. Writing Like a Good Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitler, Helen Collins

    2008-01-01

    In a montage of genres, Helen Collins Sitler illuminates the subtle yet powerful, often detrimental messages we send to girls that silence their public and private voices and diminish their opportunities to question and learn.

  7. Urogenital tract disorders in children suspected of being sexually abused

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337

  8. Body Talk for Girls Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to girls, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for girls on…

  9. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  10. Burn injuries caused by a hair-dryer--an unusual case of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Darok, M; Reischle, S

    2001-01-01

    About 1.4-26% burn injuries in children appear to be abusive in origin. A 2.5-year-old girl was referred to our institute because of suspected child abuse. Clinical examination and later interrogation of the mother revealed non-recent deep second degree burn injuries on both gluteal regions, caused by the partner of the mother by pressing a hand-held hair-dryer against the skin. The authors present the findings of this unusual method of child abuse.

  11. Personal and interpersonal characteristics related to resilient developmental pathways of sexually abused adolescents.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc

    2007-04-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent and important social problem. In this article the authors' main objective is the exploration of resilience among sexually abused adolescents under child protection services care in Quebec, Canada. The introduction provides an overview of the impact of childhood sexual abuse and conceptualizations of trauma, resilience, recovery, and factors linked to resilience profiles. The remainder of the article discusses a study of resilience and factors predicting resilience over a 5-month period for a sample of 86 teenage girls under child protection services care. PMID:17349516

  12. Genital examination and exposure experienced as nosocomial sexual abuse in childhood.

    PubMed

    Money, J; Lamacz, M

    1987-12-01

    Three pediatric cases of girls, one with idiopathic precocious puberty and two with a birth defect of the sex organs, exemplify the proposition that genital exposure and the physical examination of the genitals may be experienced subjectively as nosocomial sexual abuse. Negative sequelae persisted into adulthood. The dogma of the new victimology industry is that children never lie about sexual abuse. Consequently providers of pediatric and ephebiatric (pubertal and adolescent) sexual health care already are progressively at risk of being falsely accused of nosocomial (from the Greek nosokomeion, from nosos, disease, + komeion, to take care of: pertaining to or originating in a hospital, as nosocomial disease) sexual abuse.

  13. Listening to girls and boys talk about girls' physical activity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vu, Maihan B; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B

    2006-02-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus groups (N = 77), and 80 semistructured interviews with girls are examined to identify perceptions of girls' physical activity behaviors to help develop TAAG interventions. Both girls and boys talk about physically active girls as being "tomboys" or "too aggressive." Girls are more likely to characterize active girls as "in shape," whereas boys say they are "too athletic." Girls report boys to be influential barriers and motivators in shaping their beliefs about physical activity. Given the strong influence of peers, developing successful interventions for girls should include verbal persuasion, modeling, and social support from both girls and boys.

  14. Young and Poor: The Well-Being of Adolescent Girls Living in Families Receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothroyd, Roger A.; Gomez, Angela; Armstrong, Mary I.; Haynes, Diane; Ort, Rhonda

    2005-01-01

    We present our findings on the current well-being of 125 adolescent girls living in families receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) in terms of their health, mental health, and substance abuse status, academic performance, and teenage behaviors. This mixed-method study included separate structured face-to-face interviews…

  15. A Survey of the Self-Concept and Intellect of Girls Who Have Been Victims of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Sharon K.; Demos, George

    Research is attempting to examine the causes and effects of incestual child abuse and has discovered more complicated temporary and long-term repercussions than previously suspected. Fifteen subjects in a residential facility participated in a study to examine the self-concept and intellect of girls who had been victims of incest. Their scores on…

  16. Breaking the silence about sexual abuse of deaf youth.

    PubMed

    Mertens, D M

    1996-12-01

    Sexual abuse of deaf youth is a serious problem that needs to have attention given to it in a way that will lead to real changes in the lives of the boys and girls affected. Through the use of an emancipatory approach to research, this study investigated the various theories that people hold as to why sexual abuse occurs in this population and what can be done to prevent it. Data were collected at one residential school through document review, observation, interviews, and a survey of staff. The results revealed that some participants held theories that blame the victim or the culture and that such theories would not lead to positive, meaningful change. Other theories that recognize the power inequities inherent in a sexual abuse situation are discussed as leading to potentially fruitful political and social actions.

  17. Protein trafficking during plant innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Peng-Qiang; Xu, Yong-Ju; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2016-04-01

    Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system to fight against pathogenic microbes. Upon detection of pathogen invasion by immune receptors, the immune system is turned on, resulting in production of antimicrobial molecules including pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Conceivably, an efficient immune response depends on the capacity of the plant cell's protein/membrane trafficking network to deploy the right defense-associated molecules in the right place at the right time. Recent research in this area shows that while the abundance of cell surface immune receptors is regulated by endocytosis, many intracellular immune receptors, when activated, are partitioned between the cytoplasm and the nucleus for induction of defense genes and activation of programmed cell death, respectively. Vesicle transport is an essential process for secretion of PR proteins to the apoplastic space and targeting of defense-related proteins to the plasma membrane or other endomembrane compartments. In this review, we discuss the various aspects of protein trafficking during plant immunity, with a focus on the immunity proteins on the move and the major components of the trafficking machineries engaged. PMID:26345282

  18. Premature thelarche in Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Ting; Tung, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Wen-Yu

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to understand the clinical features and natural course of Taiwanese girls with premature thelarche (PT). The medical records of 91 Taiwanese girls with PT who were diagnosed younger than six and have been regularly followed up for more than two years were reviewed. For comparison, GnRH test was also done in 25 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 10 normal prepubertal girls. The age of onset of these patients was 1.5 +/- 1.6 years and 79% of them developed PT before the age of two. Girls with PT had intermediate degree of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian activity between prepuberty and CPP with FSH-predominant response to GnRH stimulation. 87% of patients have complete regression of breast development during 3.8 +/- 2.5 years' follow-up but 19% of them have progressed to CPP during follow-up. We conclude that Taiwanese girls with PT more often developed within the first two years of life. Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with predominant FSH activity during infancy may contribute to its development. In addition, PT is not always a benign self-limited condition, and clinicians should be cautious about pubertal development of these patients.

  19. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse - children ... are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser ... or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such as: ...

  20. Antitussives and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  1. Defining Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannoni, Jeanne M.; Becerra, Rosina M.

    In seeking to clarify the meaning of the terms "child abuse" and "child neglect" it has been assumed that, like other forms of social deviance, they are socially defined phenomena. Interviews were conducted with those professionals (lawyers, pediatricians, police officers, and social workers) who daily handle the problems of abuse and neglect for…

  2. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  3. Antitussives and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  4. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  5. Sexual abuse of minors: emerging medical and social problem in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lema, V M

    1997-11-01

    Sexual abuse is one of the most dehumanising human offenses. There has been an increasing public concern and outcry regarding the escalating wave of sexual abuse of young girls in Malawi, in the recent past. Four young girls, aged between two and seven years who were sexually abused by adult males aged between 20 and 70 years seen and managed in the department within the past two years, are presented to illustrate the problem. Their physical injuries, varied reactions and those of their immediate families to the abuse; possible predisposing factors to the abuses; the related medical, psychosocial as well as legal management of such incidents, in the light of limited public awareness, and lack of adequately and appropriately trained personnel and facilities in Malawi are discussed. With the scare of AIDS and an increasing disintegration of the traditional family fabric, there is a high potential for an increase, not only of the prevalence of sexual abuse of minors in Malawi, but also the variety and severity of sequelae. It is therefore recommended that there is need to create public awareness about sexual abuse, train and equip the relevant personnel to appropriately manage such cases, as well as enact and enforce the relevant legal provisions, so as to curb the menace, for the well-being of the society. PMID:9557452

  6. Forensic medical examination of victims of trafficking in human beings.

    PubMed

    Alempijevic, Djordie; Jecmenica, Dragan; Pavlekic, Snezana; Savic, Slobodan; Aleksandric, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    Trafficking in human beigns (THB) is recognized as a global public health issue as well as a violation of human rights. Trafficking has been identified to be associated with several health risks including psychological trauma, injuries from violence, and substance misuse. Public and media reports suggest that the morbidity and mortality associated with trafficking are substantial. The need of medico-legal healthcare for THB victims is being neglected. Forensic medical examination, as specific intervention, is a highly desirable element of ermegency health care provided for victims of tracking. Acting in such a way, the investigation should establish the facts related to the allegatation of trafficking, thereby assisting in identifying those responsible, but also contributing to the procedures designed to obtain redress for the victims. Local anti-trafficking policies and interventions, however, have not acknowledged these needs. Therefore, the agenda of anti-trafficking policies needs to be redrawn to include forensic medical assessment of victims for legal purposes.

  7. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  8. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Leslie, Bruce; Mironova, Polina; Bethell, Jennifer; Manion, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and suicide-related behaviors are associated, but it remains unclear if the strength of this association differs in boys and girls. In a systematic review of this association in children and youth, we identified 16 relevant studies, all cross-sectional surveys of students. The association is stronger in boys specific to suicide…

  9. Incidence, Type and Intensity of Abuse in Street Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Meena; Rathore, Prachi; Mathur, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey were to examine the prevalence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in Jaipur city, India. Method: Based on purposive random sampling, 200 street children, inclusive of equal number of boys and girls, were selected from the streets of Jaipur city, India, and administered an in-depth…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse Is Largely Hidden from the Adult Society: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents' Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…

  11. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  12. Verbal Abuse by the Teacher during Childhood and Academic, Behavioral, and Emotional Adjustment in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Using a prospective design spanning 17 years, the authors studied in a sample of 231 boys and girls the predictive links of verbal abuse by the teacher during childhood to high-school graduation and behavioral and emotional problems in young adulthood, as well as the putative mediating role of individuals' generalized and domain-specific…

  13. Does Having Children Moderate the Effect of Child Sexual Abuse on Depression?

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Robert J; DeRaedt, Mary R; Lanthier, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 1 in 5 girls and 1 in 20 boys under the age of 18 will be the victim of child sexual abuse. As adults, these individuals are more likely to report myriad mental illnesses including depression. Testing the hypothesis that having children would moderate the depressive effects of child sexual abuse, the authors used public-use data of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave IV (n = 5,114; mean age = 29.00 years; SD = 1.78). Results indicate that having children significantly moderates the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression for females. Though the risk of depression is increased for all females with a child sexual abuse history, this increase is less dramatic for mothers. Two potential explanations of this effect are presented: biological and psychosocial. The possible implications for mental health professionals working with mothers with a child sexual abuse history include highlighting the role of their children as possible support. PMID:26340070

  14. Girl child and gender bias.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned.

  15. Physical abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, D E; Cecutti, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of physical abuse during late pregnancy and to investigate how abused and nonabused pregnant women differ in demographic characteristics, health habits, psychologic distress and attitudes about fetal health. DESIGN: Survey of women attending for prenatal health care or admitted to hospital for delivery. The information was obtained on one occasion from self-report questionnaires, completed with the option of anonymity. SETTINGS: Community-based prenatal clinic, private obstetricians' offices in a large city, private family physicians' offices in a large city, family physicians' offices in a small town, and a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: English-speaking women at 20 weeks' or more gestation attending or admitted consecutively. INTERVENTIONS: Three self-report questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) and the study questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirteen women (2.4%) refused to participate in the survey. Of the 548 women who completed the questionnaires 36 (6.6%) reported physical abuse during the current pregnancy and 60 (10.9%) before it. There were no significant differences in rates of abuse between settings. Of the women abused during the pregnancy 23 (63.9%) reported increased abuse during the pregnancy, and 28 (77.8%) remained with the abuser. Twenty-four pregnant women (66.7%) received medical treatment for abuse, but only 1 (2.8%) told her prenatal care provider of the abuse. Factor analysis revealed three factors associated with physical abuse in pregnancy: "social instability" (comprising low age, unmarried status, lower level of education, unemployment and unplanned pregnancy), "unhealthy lifestyle" (comprising poor diet, alcohol use, illicit drug use and emotional problems) and "physical health problems" (comprising health problems and prescription drug use). The GHQ scores showed that the abused women were significantly more emotionally distressed than the

  16. Domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-04-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to the sex trafficking of U.S. children and youths as "domestic minor sex trafficking," or DMST. This article seeks to acquaint readers with what is currently known regarding the extent of DMST, who is at risk for becoming a victim, and implications for the social work profession in addressing this tragedy.

  17. Domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-04-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to the sex trafficking of U.S. children and youths as "domestic minor sex trafficking," or DMST. This article seeks to acquaint readers with what is currently known regarding the extent of DMST, who is at risk for becoming a victim, and implications for the social work profession in addressing this tragedy. PMID:20408359

  18. Aspects of abuse: abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Tanya; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Jackson, Allison M; Khademian, Zarir

    2015-03-01

    Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is a form of child physical abuse that involves inflicted injury to the brain and its associated structures. Abusive Head Trauma, colloquially called Shaken Baby Syndrome, is the most common cause of serious or fatal brain injuries in children aged 2 years and younger. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the term Abusive Head Trauma, as opposed to Shaken Baby Syndrome, as the former term encompasses multiple forms of inflicted head injury (inertial, contact, and hypoxic-ischemic) and a range of clinical presentations and radiologic findings and their sequelae. Children diagnosed with AHT are 5 times more likely to die compared with accidentally head-injured children, yet signs and symptoms are not always obvious, and therefore the diagnosis can be overlooked. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics has tasked pediatricians with knowing how and when to begin an evaluation of children with signs and symptoms that could possibly be due to AHT. Overall, a detailed history of present illness and medical history, recognition of physical and radiological findings, and careful interpretation of retinal pathology are important aspects of formulating the differential diagnoses and increasing or decreasing the index of suspicion for AHT.

  19. Understanding emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Rees, C A

    2010-01-01

    Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits of intervention. This article considers factors contributing to professional difficulty. It is suggested that understanding emotional abuse from the first principles of the causes and implications of the dysfunctional parent-child relationships it represents can help prevention, recognition and timely intervention. It may facilitate the professional communication needed to build up a picture of emotional abuse and of the emotional context of physical and sexual abuse. Doing so may contribute to the safety of child protection practice. The long-term cost of emotional abuse for individuals and society should be a powerful incentive for ensuring that development of services and clinical research are priorities, and that the false economy of short-term saving is avoided.

  20. Substance use behavior among early-adolescent Asian American girls: the impact of psychological and family factors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P

    2011-11-01

    Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs among early-adolescent Asian American girls. Between August 2007 and March 2008, 135 pairs of Asian American girls (mean age 13.21 years, SD=0.90) and their mothers (mean age 39.86 years, SD=6.99) were recruited from 19 states that had significant Asian populations. Girls and mothers each completed an online survey. Relative to girls who did not use substances, girls who did had higher levels of depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, and maternal substance use. Multiple logistic regression modeling revealed that they also had significantly lower levels of body satisfaction, problem-solving ability, parental monitoring, mother-daughter communication, family involvement, and family rules about substance use. Household composition, acculturation, and academic achievement were not associated with girls' substance use. These findings point to directions for substance abuse prevention programming among Asian American girls. PMID:22082244

  1. Parental Psychological Abuse toward children and Mental Health Problems in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Method: Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Results: Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Conclusion: Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals’ towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents PMID:24772122

  2. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  3. When Caregivers Sexually Abuse Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Fred

    1998-01-01

    A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…

  4. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  5. Girls, pecking order and smoking.

    PubMed

    Michell, L; Amos, A

    1997-06-01

    Against a background of growing concern about the failure to reduce cigarette smoking amongst young people, particularly girls, this paper attempts to unravel the complex interrelationships between smoking, peer group structure and gender. We were particularly intrigued to explore a recent hypothesis in the literature that suggests that girls who smoke, far from lacking self-esteem, are more self-confident and socially skilled than their non-smoking peers. Sociometric and qualitative analyses revealed that smoking behaviour was indeed shaped by gender, and that the psychosocial processes involved in smoking uptake may be different for boys and than for girls. Peer group structure, consistently described by young people as hierarchical, was closely related to smoking behaviour. Girls at the top of the social pecking order who projected an image of high self-esteem were identified as most likely to smoke, while only a small minority of girls fitted the stereotype of the young female smoker who has poor social skills and low self-esteem. Boys of high social status were less vulnerable, since sport and a desire to be fit to some extent protected them. Our findings raise fundamental questions about the meaning of self-esteem in relation to smoking uptake, arguing instead for an exploration of the term "self-worth". They suggest the need for health education programmes which are sensitive both to gender and to peer group structures.

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency with respect to significant narcotics traffickers centered in...

  9. Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices.

  10. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  11. Assisting victims of human trafficking: strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    Human trafficking is a pressing social justice concern. Social work is uniquely situated to address this problem. However, despite the profession's commitment to social justice, the scholarship to equip social workers to address this issue has been largely absent from professional discourse. To address this gap, this article helps social work practitioners to assist victims of human trafficking. After orienting readers to the scope and process of human trafficking, the topics of victim identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of psychological wellness are discussed. By equipping themselves in these three areas, practitioners can advance social justice on behalf of some of the most exploited people in the world. PMID:24855860

  12. Assisting victims of human trafficking: strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    Human trafficking is a pressing social justice concern. Social work is uniquely situated to address this problem. However, despite the profession's commitment to social justice, the scholarship to equip social workers to address this issue has been largely absent from professional discourse. To address this gap, this article helps social work practitioners to assist victims of human trafficking. After orienting readers to the scope and process of human trafficking, the topics of victim identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of psychological wellness are discussed. By equipping themselves in these three areas, practitioners can advance social justice on behalf of some of the most exploited people in the world.

  13. Girl child and family in Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Pandey, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of the girl child at the family level in India. Analysis is based on a field study in Maharashtra state and other studies included in a government report on the "Girl Child and the Family." The family context strongly impacts child growth and development. Evidence indicates that a girl child faces discrimination and inequality. Every sixth female death is attributed to gender discrimination. Household tasks prevent girls' school enrollment. Children learn role expectations at home. Daughters are taught their duties and obligations as if they were a piece of property. 25% of the parents in the sample considered a girl's birth with indifference and unhappiness. In 11% of cases, girls were not immunized at all. Breast feeding was short. 31.8% of mothers and 25% of in-laws expected the girl's birth to be a boy. 98.2% of mothers did not rely on sex determination of the fetus. Almost 60% of households did not restrict smiling or crying among boys or girls. 70% restricted laughing loudly. 42.4% restricted only girls' laughing out loud. 17% restricted girls' smiling or crying. 46.5% restricted girls' movement to the house. 42% did not allow daughters to speak to the opposite sex. 17% restricted access to the market for daughters. Girls were encouraged to cook, stitch, and dance. 60% of girls preferred to spend time with girl friends. Boys had better access to movies. 57% of girls spent time on housework. 47% became gender aware from mass media. Most felt frightened at menstruation. 88% of girls thought that all should equally attain the same level of education. Girls received an equal share of food and health care. 87% of girls did not work for wages. Those who worked did not control their income.

  14. Ganglioside Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Jillian; Umanah, George K.E.; Yoo, Seung-Wan; Lagerlöf, Olof; Motari, Mary G.; Cole, Robert N.; Huganir, Richard L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2014-01-01

    Gangliosides are major cell-surface determinants on all vertebrate neurons. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis invariably result in intellectual disability and are often associated with intractable seizures. To probe the mechanisms of ganglioside functions, affinity-captured ganglioside-binding proteins from rat cerebellar granule neurons were identified by quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry. Of the six proteins that bound selectively to the major brain ganglioside GT1b (GT1b:GM1 > 4; p < 10−4), three regulate neurotransmitter receptor trafficking: Thorase (ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 1), soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (γ-SNAP), and the transmembrane protein Nicalin. Thorase facilitates endocytosis of GluR2 subunit-containing AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in an ATPase-dependent manner; its deletion in mice results in learning and memory deficits (J. Zhang et al., 2011b). GluR2-containing AMPARs did not bind GT1b, but bound specifically to another ganglioside, GM1. Addition of noncleavable ATP (ATPγS) significantly disrupted ganglioside binding, whereas it enhanced AMPAR association with Thorase, NSF, and Nicalin. Mutant mice lacking GT1b expressed markedly higher brain Thorase, whereas Thorase-null mice expressed higher GT1b. Treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with sialidase, which cleaves GT1b (and other sialoglycans), resulted in a significant reduction in the size of surface GluR2 puncta. These data support a model in which GM1-bound GluR2-containing AMPARs are functionally segregated from GT1b-bound AMPAR-trafficking complexes. Release of ganglioside binding may enhance GluR2-containing AMPAR association with its trafficking complexes, increasing endocytosis. Disrupting ganglioside biosynthesis may result in reduced synaptic expression of GluR2-contianing AMPARs resulting in intellectual deficits and seizure susceptibility in mice and humans. PMID:25253868

  15. Autophagy and proteins involved in vesicular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Celina; Fader, Claudio Marcelo; Colombo, María Isabel

    2015-11-14

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that, as a basic mechanism it delivers cytoplasmic components to the lysosomes in order to maintain adequate energy levels and cellular homeostasis. This complex cellular process is activated by low cellular nutrient levels and other stress situations such as low ATP levels, the accumulation of damaged proteins or organelles, or pathogen invasion. Autophagy as a multistep process involves vesicular transport events leading to tethering and fusion of autophagic vesicles with several intracellular compartments. This review summarizes our current understanding of the autophagic pathway with emphasis in the trafficking machinery (i.e. Rabs GTPases and SNAP receptors (SNAREs)) involved in specific steps of the pathway.

  16. Plant vacuole morphology and vacuolar trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunhua; Hicks, Glenn R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2014-01-01

    Plant vacuoles are essential organelles for plant growth and development, and have multiple functions. Vacuoles are highly dynamic and pleiomorphic, and their size varies depending on the cell type and growth conditions. Vacuoles compartmentalize different cellular components such as proteins, sugars, ions and other secondary metabolites and play critical roles in plants response to different biotic/abiotic signaling pathways. In this review, we will summarize the patterns of changes in vacuole morphology in certain cell types, our understanding of the mechanisms of plant vacuole biogenesis, and the role of SNAREs and Rab GTPases in vacuolar trafficking. PMID:25309565

  17. Drug use in the high intensity drug trafficking area of the US Southwest border.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L D; Kennedy, N J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use in the Southwest border region of the United States. Based on the seriousness of drug trafficking in the area, the Southwest border has been designated a "High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area." Yet there is little quantitative data on the nature and magnitude of drug use in the Southwest border region. This paper examines the prevalence of drug use in the area by extracting data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. The data show that drug use rates in the Southwest border area are very similar to those found throughout the remainder of the United States. Hispanics, who constitute about 41% of the Southwest border population, have lower prevalence rates for most classes of drugs than non-Hispanics. The border Hispanics exhibit even lower prevalence rates than Hispanics in the remainder of the United States. However, many of these differences are attributable to the lower levels of drug use among women, and youth and older adults. As these demographic subgroups become increasingly acculturated, their drug use could come to more closely resemble that of their peers in the remainder of the United States.

  18. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Koutek, Jiri; Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. PMID:27114709

  19. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Koutek, Jiri; Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children's Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. PMID:27114709

  20. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  1. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a child of any race, religion, or economic status. HELP AN ABUSED CHILD Learn about the ... as cigarette burns Choke marks around the neck Circular marks around the wrists or ankles from twisting ...

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  3. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  4. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  5. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  6. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  7. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    PubMed Central

    Capriola, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. PMID:23869180

  8. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  9. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  10. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  11. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  12. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  13. 78 FR 59317 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Ending Trafficking in Persons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background The United States has long had a zero-tolerance policy regarding Government... subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery, and sex trafficking. As the largest... (77 FR 60029, October 2, 2012), and Title XVII, entitled ``Ending Trafficking in...

  14. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  15. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to…

  16. Teaching about Trafficking: Opportunities and Challenges for Critical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragiewicz, Molly

    2008-01-01

    The author came to know about trafficking by accident, when she was hired as a research assistant at The Protection Project (TPP) in 1999. As a feminist teacher, the author was very aware of the divisions among feminists on the subject of trafficking, and was interested in communicating these differences to students who were not well versed in the…

  17. Vesicle trafficking in plant immune responses.

    PubMed

    Robatzek, Silke

    2007-01-01

    In plants, perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns at the surface is the first line of defence in cellular immunity. This review summarizes recent evidence of the involvement of vesicle trafficking in the plant's immune response against pathogens. I first discuss aspects of ligand-stimulated receptor endocytosis. The best-characterized pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), FLS2, is a transmembrane leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase that recognizes bacterial flagellin. FLS2 was recently shown to undergo internalization upon activation with its cognate ligand. An animal PRR, TLR4 that mediates perception of bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharides, similarly exhibits ligand-stimulated endocytosis. The second focus is N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated immunity involving syntaxins and their cognate partners. One of the genes involved in basal immunity in Arabidopsis, PEN1, encodes a syntaxin that focally accumulates at fungal penetration sites, raising the possibility that induced exocytosis is important for active defence. Pathogen-triggered endocytic and exocytic processes have to be balanced to ensure host cell homeostasis. Thus, understanding how phytopathogens have evolved strategies to exploit host cell vesicle trafficking to manipulate immune responses is currently an area of intense study. PMID:17081192

  18. Trafficking of Estrella lausannensis in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Brigida; Kebbi-Beghdadi, Carole; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-07-01

    Estrella lausannensis is a new member of the Chlamydiales order. Like other Chlamydia-related bacteria, it is able to replicate in amoebae and in fish cell lines. A preliminary study investigating the pathogenic potential of Chlamydia-related bacteria found a correlation between antibody response to E. lausannensis and pneumonia in children. To further investigate the pathogenic potential of E. lausannensis, we determined its ability to grow in human macrophages and its intracellular trafficking. The replication in macrophages resulted in viable E. lausannensis; however, it caused a significant cytopathic effect. The intracellular trafficking of E. lausannensis was analyzed by determining the interaction of the Estrella-containing inclusions with various endocytic markers as well as host organelles. The E. lausannensis inclusion escaped the endocytic pathway rapidly avoiding maturation into phagolysosomes by preventing both EEA-1 and LAMP-1 accumulation. Compared to Waddlia chondrophila, another Chlamydia-related bacteria, the recruitment of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum was minimal for E. lausannensis inclusions. Estrella lausannensis appears to use a distinct source of nutrients and energy compared to other members of the Chlamydiales order. In conclusion, we hypothesize that E. lausannensis has a restricted growth in human macrophages, due to its reduced capacity to control programmed cell death. PMID:25857735

  19. Secretory protein trafficking in Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Hehl, Adrian B; Marti, Matthias

    2004-07-01

    Early diverged extant organisms, which may serve as convenient laboratory models to look for and study evolutionary ancient features of eukaryotic cell biology, are rare. The diplomonad Giardia intestinalis, a protozoan parasite known to cause diarrhoeal disease, has become an increasingly popular object of basic research in cell biology, not least because of a genome sequencing project nearing completion. Commensurate with its phylogenetic status, the Giardia trophozoite has a very basic secretory system and even lacks hallmark structures such as a morphologically identifiable Golgi apparatus. The cell's capacity for protein sorting is nevertheless unimpeded, exemplified by its ability to cope with massive amounts of newly synthesized cyst wall proteins and glycans, which are sorted to dedicated Golgi-like compartments termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs) generated from endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived transport intermediates. This soluble bulk cargo is kept strictly separate from constitutively transported variant surface proteins during export, a function that is dependent on the stage-specific recognition of trafficking signals. Encysting Giardia therefore provide a unique system for the study of unconventional, Golgi-independent protein trafficking mechanisms in the broader context of eukaryotic endomembrane organization and evolution. PMID:15225300

  20. The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sabella, Donna

    2011-02-01

    Human trafficking, also called modern slavery, happens worldwide--and the United States is no exception. Within our borders, thousands of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens, many of them children, are forced or coerced into sex work or various forms of labor every year. Nurses and other health care providers who encounter victims of trafficking often don't realize it, and opportunities to intervene are lost. Although no one sign can demonstrate with certainty when someone is being trafficked, there are several indicators that clinicians should know. This article provides an overview of human trafficking, describes how to recognize signs that a person is being trafficked and how to safely intervene, and offers an extensive resource list.

  1. The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sabella, Donna

    2011-02-01

    Human trafficking, also called modern slavery, happens worldwide--and the United States is no exception. Within our borders, thousands of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens, many of them children, are forced or coerced into sex work or various forms of labor every year. Nurses and other health care providers who encounter victims of trafficking often don't realize it, and opportunities to intervene are lost. Although no one sign can demonstrate with certainty when someone is being trafficked, there are several indicators that clinicians should know. This article provides an overview of human trafficking, describes how to recognize signs that a person is being trafficked and how to safely intervene, and offers an extensive resource list. PMID:21270581

  2. Human trafficking: the role of the health care provider.

    PubMed

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed. PMID:20732668

  3. Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider

    PubMed Central

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed. PMID:20732668

  4. New Insights into How Trafficking Regulates T Cell Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jieqiong; Rossy, Jérémie; Deng, Qiji; Pageon, Sophie V.; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that exocytosis plays an important role in regulating T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. The trafficking molecules involved in lytic granule (LG) secretion in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been well-studied due to the immune disorder known as familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH). However, the knowledge of trafficking machineries regulating the exocytosis of receptors and signaling molecules remains quite limited. In this review, we summarize the reported trafficking molecules involved in the transport of the TCR and downstream signaling molecules to the cell surface. By combining this information with the known knowledge of LG exocytosis and general exocytic trafficking machinery, we attempt to draw a more complete picture of how the TCR signaling network and exocytic trafficking matrix are interconnected to facilitate T cell activation. This also highlights how membrane compartmentalization facilitates the spatiotemporal organization of cellular responses that are essential for immune functions. PMID:27508206

  5. HIV-seroconversion following sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2005-10-01

    Transkei is a poverty stricken former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province. Unemployment and the incidental violence are very high. Women are mainly responsible for bringing up their children. Single parenting is also common in this community. Sexual abuse of children is selected to be under-reported. This reports the case of a 13-year-old girl who was raped twice within three months and brought to the Sinawe Centre of the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. Failure to adhere to post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has undermined the implementation of antiretroviral roll out programme by the government. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. Preventive steps are suggested. PMID:16198970

  6. The mixture of "ecstasy" and its metabolites impairs mitochondrial fusion/fission equilibrium and trafficking in hippocampal neurons, at in vivo relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Daniel José; Serrat, Romàn; Mirra, Serena; Quevedo, Martí; de Barreda, Elena Goméz; Àvila, Jesús; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lourdes Bastos, Maria de; Capela, João Paulo; Soriano, Eduardo; Carvalho, Félix

    2014-06-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a potentially neurotoxic recreational drug of abuse. Though the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood, formation of reactive metabolites and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to MDMA-related neurotoxicity. Neuronal mitochondrial trafficking, and their targeting to synapses, is essential for proper neuronal function and survival, rendering neurons particularly vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction. Indeed, MDMA-associated disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis and ATP depletion have been described in neurons, thus suggesting possible MDMA interference on mitochondrial dynamics. In this study, we performed real-time functional experiments of mitochondrial trafficking to explore the role of in situ mitochondrial dysfunction in MDMA's neurotoxic actions. We show that the mixture of MDMA and six of its major in vivo metabolites, each compound at 10μM, impaired mitochondrial trafficking and increased the fragmentation of axonal mitochondria in cultured hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, the overexpression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) or dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) K38A constructs almost completely rescued the trafficking deficits caused by this mixture. Finally, in hippocampal neurons overexpressing a Mfn2 mutant, Mfn2 R94Q, with impaired fusion and transport properties, it was confirmed that a dysregulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion events greatly contributed to the reported trafficking phenotype. In conclusion, our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the mixture of MDMA and its metabolites, at concentrations relevant to the in vivo scenario, impaired mitochondrial trafficking and increased mitochondrial fragmentation in hippocampal neurons, thus providing a new insight in the context of "ecstasy"-induced neuronal injury.

  7. A YOUNG GIRL WITH FITS.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imran; Ahmed, Ejaz; Zaidi, Badshah Hussain; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Nisar, Shazia

    2015-01-01

    A young girl presented with fits vomiting and epigastric pain. Investigations including CT-Scan brain, MRI brain, MRV brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination were normal. Her urine was screened for porphobilinogen which was positive. She responded to intravenous dextrose and hypercaloric diet

  8. Girls' Bodies, Drama and Unruliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of the performance outcomes from a practised-based research project that took place with adolescent girls attending an after-school drama club. Participants experimented with slapstick humour in a series of workshops, before presenting their own devised physical comedy performance for a live audience. Comic performances…

  9. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Silicon Valley youth awarded $145,000 in college scholarships, organization’s highest honor representing four million kids and teens MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the University of Wisconsin-Madison to Provide Full Tuition Scholarships for Multicultural Arts Program Two full-tuition ...

  10. Making Science Appeal to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that many girls seem disinterested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but strategies for building their interest are sometimes elusive. Because STEM career paths are not always perceived as "natural" for women, educators do no't always push their female students to explore these educational areas. As a…

  11. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  12. Illicit trafficking of radiological & nuclear materials : modeling and analysis of trafficking trends and risks.

    SciTech Connect

    York, David L.; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over the illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials were focused originally on the lack of security and accountability of such material throughout the former Soviet states. This is primarily attributed to the frequency of events that have occurred involving the theft and trafficking of critical material components that could be used to construct a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or even a rudimentary nuclear device. However, with the continued expansion of nuclear technology and the deployment of a global nuclear fuel cycle these materials have become increasingly prevalent, affording a more diverse inventory of dangerous materials and dual-use items. To further complicate the matter, the list of nuclear consumers has grown to include: (1) Nation-states that have gone beyond the IAEA agreed framework and additional protocols concerning multiple nuclear fuel cycles and processes that reuse the fuel through reprocessing to exploit technologies previously confined to the more industrialized world; (2) Terrorist organizations seeking to acquire nuclear and radiological material due to the potential devastation and psychological effect of their use; (3) Organized crime, which has discovered a lucrative market in trafficking of illicit material to international actors and/or countries; and (4) Amateur smugglers trying to feed their families in a post-Soviet era. An initial look at trafficking trends of this type seems scattered and erratic, localized primarily to a select group of countries. This is not necessarily the case. The success with which other contraband has been smuggled throughout the world suggests that nuclear trafficking may be carried out with relative ease along the same routes by the same criminals or criminal organizations. Because of the inordinately high threat posed by terrorist or extremist groups acquiring the ingredients for unconventional weapons, it is necessary that illicit trafficking of these materials be better

  13. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  14. Listening to Girls and Boys Talk about Girls' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Maihan B.; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus…

  15. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  16. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  17. Phenomenology of Depression in Young Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…

  18. Gifted Girls: What Challenges Do They Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Vickie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses challenges facing gifted girls at all levels of education, including social pressures not to appear gifted. Identifies school factors that negatively impact their education, and provides school strategies for helping gifted girls succeed, including support groups, counseling, and calling on girls in class. (CR)

  19. Working with Challenging Groups of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditter, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Discusses conflicts among girls in a camp setting and how camp counselors can promote positive changes. Examines conflicting female roles in today's society and girls' reactions. Suggests addressing social dysphoria among girls through outdoor-challenge activities led by credible adult female role models. Includes counseling tips. (SV)

  20. The Young Gifted Girl: A Contemporary View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    In this reprint of an article published in 1978, the role of women in society and its impact on gifted girls is discussed. It is argued that gender stereotypes work against gifted girls and that the women's movement has helped gifted girls develop a new image and concept of womanhood. (CR)

  1. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  2. Improving Girls' Education in Guatemala. Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC. Center for Development Information and Evaluation.

    In Guatemala, many girls attend no school. A project by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Basic Education Strengthening (BEST), demonstrated that improving educational quality is the best approach to enhancing girls' participation. BEST included a Girls Education Program (GEP) activity. Under the BEST/GEP umbrella,…

  3. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide for Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Mentoring is about building trust over a long period of time. If a mentor cares about the girls and follows through with the promises that he or she makes to them, a mentor will be successful in helping them to improve their lives. This "Guide" serves as…

  4. Exploring Work: Fun Activities for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This document contains learning activities to help middle school girls begin the career planning process and resist gender-role stereotyping. The activities are designed for individuals and/or groups of girls either in classroom settings or in organizations such as Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs. A total of 30 activities are organized into 4 sections…

  5. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  6. Perceived abuse and neglect as risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, D S; Winegar, R K; Nicolaou, A L; Hartnick, E; Wolfson, M; Southwick, S M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relative risk of histories of different types of abuse (sexual, physical, and emotional) and neglect (physical and emotional) for suicidal behavior (attempts, ideation, and self-mutilation) in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Seventy-one adolescent inpatients (34 boys, 37 girls) completed self-report measures of abuse and neglect, current suicidal ideation, and lifetime suicide and self-mutilation attempts. The prevalence of sexual and physical abuse was 37.5% and 43.7%, respectively, with 31.3% and 61% of youngsters reporting emotional and physical neglect. Fifty-one percent of youngsters had made suicide attempts, and 39% had self-mutilated. Suicide attempters were significantly more likely to be female, Latino, to report sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and to endorse emotional neglect. In multivariate analyses, female gender, sexual abuse, and emotional neglect remained significant predictors of self-mutilation and suicidal ideation. Female gender and sexual abuse remained significant predictors of suicide attempts. These findings suggest that emotional neglect is an important and deleterious component of maltreatment experiences and may be a more powerful predictor of suicidal behavior in hospitalized adolescents than physical abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. PMID:9952251

  7. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2013-08-15

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-¹³C]palmitate (0400-0900 h) and [U-¹³C]oleate (0800-1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass⁻¹·min⁻¹) clamp (0800-1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-¹³C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ~1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P < 0.001). At the time of the second biopsy, the enrichment in oleoylcarnitine was <25% of that in imTG-oleate and was not correlated with imTG-oleate enrichment. The intramyocellular nonesterified fatty acid-palmitate-to-imTG-palmitate enrichment ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

  8. Abuse of medications that theoretically are without abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E; Perry, Candace L; Burke, Randy S; Laizer, Janet T

    2015-03-01

    The potential for abuse of medications that are controlled substances is well known. Abuse of certain noncontrolled prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications also may occur. To some degree, any medication that exerts psychoactive effects may be abused if taken in high enough doses or by means that result in high serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels. Many clinicians may be unaware of the potential for abuse of these medications. This review examines evidence of the possibility of abuse of several common medications that theoretically do not have abuse potential, including cough and cold preparations, antihistamines, anticholinergics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiemetics. Means by which such medications may be abused and biochemical and physiological mechanisms fostering their abuse also are discussed.

  9. Demographic, Personality and Psychopathology Characteristics of the Runaway Girls in Social Emergency and Rehabilitation Centre of Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Toubaei, Shahin; Nateghi, GholamReza; Dehbozorgi, Gholam Reza; Sadr Esfahani, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The problem of runaway girls is one of the social problems which has become more prevalent and is considered a serious challenge for families, welfare centers and governmental organizations in Iran. This study aimed at determining the demographic, personality and psychopathology characteristic of a sample of runaway girls in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: Fifty girls who had escaped from their home and were referred to the Women’s Social Emergency and Rehabilitant Centre of Shiraz were compared with fifty girls who lived with their parents (control group). They were assessed by semi-structured interview based on the DSMIV-TR criteria, demographic questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-R-106 (EPQ-R-106). Results: Mean (±SD) age of the runaway girls was 19.9 (±3.81) years. Twenty (40%) were the first child of the family. Forty-three subjects (86%) were resident of cities. Physical abuse and neglect were more prevalent in the runaway girls (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between two groups in history of major psychiatric disorders. Regarding GHQ-28, only in social function subscale, the runaway girls showed more disturbances in their social function compared to control group (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in extroversion, lying tendency, addiction tendency and crime seeking (P < 0.05) between the two groups and escaped girls showed more disturbances in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The social burden of runaway girls in Shiraz is of significance and this subject warrants more attention from non-governmental and governmental organizations in order to provide more psychological and social support for these girls. PMID:24644467

  10. Sex differences in childhood sexual abuse characteristics and victims’ emotional and behavioral problems: Findings from a national sample of youth

    PubMed Central

    Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics---penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment---in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with victims’ emotional and behavioral problems. Methods The sample was drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a sample of children investigated by United States child welfare services. Youth in the current study (n = 573, including 234 adolescents) were investigated for alleged sexual abuse. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test for sex differences in abuse characteristics, and to determine whether sex moderated associations between abuse characteristics and emotional and behavioral problems. Results Girls were more likely than boys to have their abuse substantiated and to experience penetrative abuse (although differences in penetration status did not emerge among adolescents). Substantiation status and child age were positively associated with caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Sex did not moderate the relationship between abuse characteristics and youth emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions Sexual abuse characteristics might not be highly predictive factors when making decisions about services needs. Furthermore, there may not be a strong empirical basis for operating on the assumption that one sex is more vulnerable to negative consequences of abuse than the other, or that abuse affects girls and boys differently. The processes explaining why some victims exhibit more impairment than others are likely complex. PMID:20400178

  11. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies.

  12. Substance Use Behavior among Early-Adolescent Asian American Girls: The Impact of Psychological and Family Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs among early-adolescent Asian American girls. Between August 2007 and March 2008, 135 pairs of Asian American girls (mean age 13.21 years, SD = 0.90) and their mothers (mean age 39.86 years, SD = 6.99) were recruited from 19 states that had significant Asian populations. Girls and mothers each completed an online survey. Relative to girls who did not use substances, girls who did had higher levels of depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, and maternal substance use. Multiple logistic regression modeling revealed that they also had significantly lower levels of body satisfaction, problem-solving ability, parental monitoring, mother-daughter communication, family involvement, and family rules about substance use. Household composition, acculturation, and academic achievement were not associated with girls’ substance use. These findings point to directions for substance abuse prevention programming among Asian American girls. PMID:22082244

  13. The complexities of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Middle school girls' envisioned future in computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open to computing career were compared to the two thirds were not. Girls open to a computing career had higher interest and confidence in computing, had more social support for computing, and saw themselves as more like a computer scientist than girls who did not want a computing career.

  15. Plant Vascular Biology 2013: vascular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ursache, Robertas; Heo, Jung-Ok; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-04-01

    About 200 researchers from around the world attended the Third International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2013) held in July 2013 at the Rantapuisto Conference Center, in Helsinki, Finland (http://www.pvb2013.org). The plant vascular system, which connects every organ in the mature plant, continues to attract the interest of researchers representing a wide range of disciplines, including development, physiology, systems biology, and computational biology. At the meeting, participants discussed the latest research advances in vascular development, long- and short-distance vascular transport and long-distance signalling in plant defence, in addition to providing a context for how these studies intersect with each other. The meeting provided an opportunity for researchers working across a broad range of fields to share ideas and to discuss future directions in the expanding field of vascular biology. In this report, the latest advances in understanding the mechanism of vascular trafficking presented at the meeting have been summarized.

  16. Glycobiology of leukocyte trafficking in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachael D; Cooper, Dianne

    2014-12-01

    To fulfill their potential, leukocytes must be able to exit the vasculature and reach the site of inflammation within the tissue. This process of leukocyte extravasation is a tightly regulated sequence of events that is governed by a host of cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines and lipid mediators. Of major importance to this process and the function of many of the proteins and lipids involved is the posttranslational modification of these moieties by glycosylation. The glycosylation process is coordinated by multiple enzymes that add and remove saccharides to/from glycan structures on proteins and lipids, resulting in a unique molecular signature that affords specificity to the molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment. This review will discuss how glycosylation impacts the function of these key molecules involved in the recruitment of leukocytes during inflammation and the function of specific lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) that have a role in leukocyte trafficking.

  17. Transnational criminal organizations and drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Williams, P; Florez, C

    1994-01-01

    Transnational criminal organizations, particularly drug-trafficking organizations, operate unrestricted across international borders. They are very similar in kind to legitimate transnational corporations in structure, strength, size, geographical range and scope of their operations. Above all other features they engage in unregulated forms of capitalist enterprise. To fully understand transnational criminal organizations it is necessary to examine them as organizations responding to economic opportunities and focus on the factors that influence their emergence. Those factors can be understood as a result of the confluence of opportunities, pressures, incentives and resources at the global and national level. The present article identifies the key environmental factors relevant to the emergence of transnational criminal organizations, and explores the intrinsic relationship between those organizations, their home States and host States. It is those conditions which not only give rise to transnational criminal organizations, but also help to sustain them.

  18. Endocytic pathways and endosomal trafficking: a primer.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Sarah R; Lakoduk, Ashley M; Schmid, Sandra L

    2016-05-01

    This brief overview of endocytic trafficking is written in honor of Renate Fuchs, who retires this year. In the mid-1980s, Renate pioneered studies on the ion-conducting properties of the recently discovered early and late endosomes and the mechanisms governing endosomal acidification. As described in this review, after uptake through one of many mechanistically distinct endocytic pathways, internalized proteins merge into a common early/sorting endosome. From there they again diverge along distinct sorting pathways, back to the cell surface, on to the trans-Golgi network or across polarized cells. Other transmembrane receptors are packaged into intraluminal vesicles of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies that eventually fuse with and deliver their content to lysosomes for degradation. Endosomal acidification, in part, determines sorting along this pathway. We describe other sorting machinery and mechanisms, as well as the rab proteins and phosphatidylinositol lipids that serve to dynamically define membrane compartments along the endocytic pathway. PMID:26861668

  19. Chinese narcotics trafficking: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaicheng; Liu, Jianhong; Zhao, Ruohui; Zhao, Guoling; Friday, Paul C

    2012-02-01

    Questions of existence of the "China Route" for drug smuggling and trafficking have been important in the literature. The profile of the offenders, particularly whether they are primarily members of traditional criminal organization, is a hotly debated issue. Much qualitative evidence has been collected and it provides important insights into these questions. However, little quantitative data has ever been collected and analyzed to provide a broader picture of these issues. The present study involves the systematical collection of data from court sentencing files from seven high courts whose jurisdictions cover the China Route. The findings provide valuable information that sheds light on the debated questions. Some evidence consistent with the China Route arguments is found. No evidence supports the idea that traditional organized criminal syndicates are behind most offenses. Logistic regression results reveal interesting associations between offender characteristics and types of offenses.

  20. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  1. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  2. The role of dissociation in self-injurious behavior among female adolescents who were sexually abused.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Zohar, Gali

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the role of dissociation (persistent versus peritraumatic) in self-injurious behavior among at-risk Israeli female adolescents. In addition, the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, depression, dissociation, and potency was investigated. A convenience sample of 93 female adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were recruited from institutions for at-risk adolescent girls in Israel. Participants were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire that included six measures: Demographics, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire, the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, and the Potency Scale. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increases the risk for self-injurious behavior more than threefold. Higher levels of persistent dissociation were found among girls who reported child sexual abuse compared to those who did not. Self-injurious behavior was predicted by persistent dissociation. Girls who engaged in self-injurious behavior had lower potency and higher depression levels, regardless of childhood sexual abuse history. PMID:25101954

  3. Superresolution imaging of viral protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Salka, Kyle; Bhuvanendran, Shivaprasad; Yang, David

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is closely apposed to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), which facilitates communication between these organelles. These contacts, known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), facilitate calcium signaling, lipid transfer, as well as antiviral and stress responses. How cellular proteins traffic to the MAM, are distributed therein, and interact with ER and mitochondrial proteins are subject of great interest. The human cytomegalovirus UL37 exon 1 protein or viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) is crucial for viral growth. Upon synthesis at the ER, vMIA traffics to the MAM and OMM, where it reprograms the organization and function of these compartments. vMIA significantly changes the abundance of cellular proteins at the MAM and OMM, including proteins that regulate calcium homeostasis and cell death. Through the use of superresolution imaging, we have shown that vMIA is distributed at the OMM in nanometer scale clusters. This is similar to the clusters reported for the mitochondrial calcium channel, VDAC, as well as electron transport chain, translocase of the OMM complex, and mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system components. Thus, aside from addressing how vMIA targets the MAM and regulates survival of infected cells, biochemical studies and superresolution imaging of vMIA offer insights into the formation, organization, and functioning of MAM. Here, we discuss these insights into trafficking, function, and organization of vMIA at the MAM and OMM and discuss how the use of superresolution imaging is contributing to the study of the formation and trafficking of viruses. PMID:25724304

  4. Ubiquitination of CXCR7 Controls Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    de Munnik, Sabrina; Han, Mitchell K. L.; Smit, Martine J.; Leurs, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR7 binds CXCL11 and CXCL12 with high affinity, chemokines that were previously thought to bind exclusively to CXCR4 and CXCR3, respectively. Expression of CXCR7 has been associated with cardiac development as well as with tumor growth and progression. Despite having all the canonical features of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the signalling pathways following CXCR7 activation remain controversial, since unlike typical chemokine receptors, CXCR7 fails to activate Gαi-proteins. CXCR7 has recently been shown to interact with β-arrestins and such interaction has been suggested to be responsible for G protein-independent signals through ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Signal transduction by CXCR7 is controlled at the membrane by the process of GPCR trafficking. In the present study we investigated the regulatory processes triggered by CXCR7 activation as well as the molecular interactions that participate in such processes. We show that, CXCR7 internalizes and recycles back to the cell surface after agonist exposure, and that internalization is not only β-arrestin-mediated but also dependent on the Serine/Threonine residues at the C-terminus of the receptor. Furthermore we describe, for the first time, the constitutive ubiquitination of CXCR7. Such ubiquitination is a key modification responsible for the correct trafficking of CXCR7 from and to the plasma membrane. Moreover, we found that CXCR7 is reversibly de-ubiquitinated upon treatment with CXCL12. Finally, we have also identified the Lysine residues at the C-terminus of CXCR7 to be essential for receptor cell surface delivery. Together these data demonstrate the differential regulation of CXCR7 compared to the related CXCR3 and CXCR4 receptors, and highlight the importance of understanding the molecular determinants responsible for this process. PMID:22457824

  5. Ligand-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus.

    PubMed

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2014-12-01

    GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that convey specific extracellular stimuli to intracellular signalling. They represent the largest family of cell surface proteins that are therapeutically targeted. According to the traditional two-state model of receptor theory, GPCRs were considered as operating in equilibrium between two functional conformations, an active (R*) and inactive (R) state. Thus, it was assumed that a GPCR can exist either in an "off" or "on" conformation causing either no activation or equal activation of all its signalling pathways. Over the past several years it has become evident that this model is too simple and that GPCR signalling is far more complex. Different studies have presented a multistate model of receptor activation in which ligand-specific receptor conformations are able to differentiate between distinct signalling partners. Recent data show that beside G proteins numerous other proteins, such as β-arrestins and kinases, may interact with GPCRs and activate intracellular signalling pathways. GPCR activation may therefore involve receptor desensitization, coupling to multiple G proteins, Gα or Gβγ signalling, and pathway activation that is independent of G proteins. This latter effect leads to agonist "functional selectivity" (also called ligand-directed receptor trafficking, stimulus trafficking, biased agonism, biased signalling), and agonist intervention with functional selectivity may improve the therapy. Many commercially available drugs with beneficial efficacy also show various undesirable side effects. Further studies of biased signalling might facilitate our understanding of the side effects of current drugs and take us to new avenues to efficiently design pathway-specific medications.

  6. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  7. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  8. A National Descriptive Portrait of Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Results From the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators." PMID:25548142

  9. A National Descriptive Portrait of Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Results From the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators."

  10. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  11. National Center on Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  12. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  13. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Human trafficking is a serious federal crime with penalties of up to imprisonment for life. Federal law defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons." In short, human trafficking is a form of modern slavery. Those who recruit minors into commercial sexual exploitation (or prostitution) violate federal anti-trafficking laws, even if there is no…

  14. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents questions and answers related to the human trafficking of children in the United States. It describes human trafficking and its extent in the United States, how human traffickers target children for coerced labor and sex exploitation, how to identify victims of human trafficking, how to report a suspected incidence of…

  15. Preventing child marriages: first international day of the girl child “my life, my right, end child marriage”

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    On 17 November 2011, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution (A/RES/66/170) designating 11 October as the first International Day of the Girl Child choosing ending child marriages as the theme of the day. Child marriage is a fundamental human rights violation and impacts all aspects of a girl’s life. These marriages deny a girl of her childhood, disrupts her education, limits her opportunities, increases her risk of violence and abuse, and jeopardizes her health. The article presents data about the prevalence and effects, contributing factors and recommends action for prevention. PMID:23163964

  16. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  17. Neurobiology of marijuana abuse.

    PubMed

    Abood, M E; Martin, B R

    1992-05-01

    Marijuana has a long history of abuse yet, as described here by Mary Abood and Billy Martin, there is little evidence that animals will self-administer the primary psychoactive constituent, tetrahydrocannabinol, or that marijuana stimulates brain reward pathways. While marked tolerance develops to marijuana, it has been difficult to demonstrate physical dependence, and until recently the mechanisms by which cannabinoids produced their behavioral effects were poorly defined. The development of new synthetic analogs played a critical role in the characterization and cloning of the cannabinoid receptor. Insight into cannabinoid receptors may lead to a better understanding of marijuana abuse in humans and provide new therapeutic strategies for several disorders.

  18. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD in adolescent victims of sexual abuse: resilience and social support as protection factors

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present analysis explored the contribution of personal (resilience), familial (maternal and paternal support, sibling support) and extra-familial (peer support, other adult) to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in teenagers reporting sexual abuse while controlling for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity, and multiple abuse). In a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec, a total of 15.2% of high school girls and 4.4% of high school boys reported a history of child sexual abuse. Sexually abused girls (27.8%) were more likely than boys (14.9%) to obtain scores reaching clinical levels of PTSD symptoms. A logistic hierarchical regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience, maternal as well as peer support contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD reaching the clinical threshold. Avenues for intervention practices and prevention among adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed. PMID:24714884

  19. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  20. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…