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Sample records for abusing illicit drugs

  1. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  2. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  3. Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

  4. Prevalence of illicit drug use in patients without controlled substance abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C

    2003-04-01

    Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3

  5. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

  6. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  7. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  8. Establishing a Link Between Prescription Drug Abuse and Illicit Online Pharmacies: Analysis of Twitter Data

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Background Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. Objective In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Methods Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public streaming application programming interface. Tweets were then analyzed for relevance to NUPM and whether they promoted illegal online access to prescription drugs using a protocol of content coding and supervised machine learning. Results A total of 2,417,662 tweets were collected and analyzed for this study. Tweets filtered for generic drugs names comprised 232,108 tweets, including 22,174 unique associated uniform resource locators (URLs), and 2,185,554 tweets (376,304 unique URLs) filtered for street names. Applying an iterative process of manual content coding and supervised machine learning, 81.72% of the generic and 12.28% of the street NUPM datasets were predicted as having content relevant to NUPM respectively. By examining hyperlinks associated with NUPM relevant content for the generic Twitter dataset, we discovered that 75.72% of the tweets with URLs included a hyperlink to an online marketing affiliate that directly linked to an illicit online pharmacy advertising the sale of Valium without a prescription. Conclusions This study examined the association between Twitter content, NUPM behavior promotion, and online access to drugs using a broad set of prescription drug keywords. Initial results are

  9. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  10. Illicit and abused drugs in sewage sludge: method optimization and occurrence.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Postigo, Cristina; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Barcelo, Damia

    2013-12-27

    A sensitive and reliable method for the determination of 20 abused and illicit drugs and their metabolites in sewage sludge has been developed and validated. To the authors' knowledge, nine out of the 20 selected analytes, namely, cocaethylene, ephedrine, heroin, alprazolam, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, and the cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD), are investigated for the first time in this matrix. In the optimized approach, freeze-dried sewage sludge samples were extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction, and the extracts were further cleaned-up by solid phase extraction. Analytes were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Method limits of quantification were below 3.3ng/g d.w. for all compounds but cannabinoids (8.2-22.5ng/g d.w.). Method repeatability was below 14% for most compounds. Overall method recoveries were low due to the presence of matrix interferences that could not be completely eliminated and suppressed the ionization of the target analytes between 26% and 89%. However, extraction losses and matrix effects were satisfactorily corrected through the use of isotopically labeled analogs as surrogate standards, ensuring reliable results. The method was applied to the analysis of various sewage sludge samples. Cannabinoids, methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) were the most ubiquitous and abundant compounds, showing maximum concentrations above 100ng/g d.w. in all cases (up to 579ng/g d.w. in the case of THC). This work is the first evidence of the presence of the cannabinoids CBN, CBD, and THC in sewage sludge. PMID:24275487

  11. Illicit drug use by women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Ford, J A

    1998-08-01

    As in the general female population, women with disabilities face a number of situations that encourage illicit drug use, such as low self-esteem, peer pressure, and family history of substance abuse. In addition, women with disabilities more frequently encounter problems of personal adjustment, unusual developmental experiences, easy access to prescription drugs, unemployment, and medical or health-related difficulties. Using a random sample of 900 women with disabilities, we conducted a study of the patterns of illicit drug use and risk factors relating to illicit drug use among women with various disabilities. Multiple regression analyses revealed that age, illicit drug use by a best friend, being a victim of substance-abuse-related violence, and attitudes toward substance use by people with disabilities were significantly related to illicit drug use by the study population. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:9741943

  12. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  13. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / 359 Hallucinogens / 397 Cocaine / 1,003 Inhalants / 161 Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use ...

  14. Perceived Need for Substance Abuse Treatment among Illicit Stimulant Drug Users in Rural Areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Krishnan, Laura L.; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Non-medical drug use in rural communities in the United States is a significant and growing public health threat. Understanding what motivates drug users in rural areas to seek substance abuse treatment may help in addressing the problem. Perceived need for treatment, a construct indicative of problem recognition and belief in problem solution, has been identified as an important predictor of help-seeking behavior. This cross-sectional study used data collected through face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with perceived need for drug abuse treatment among not-in-treatment, adult, illicit stimulant drug users (n=710) in rural areas of Ohio, Kentucky, and Arkansas. More than one-quarter of the sample perceived a need for treatment. Results from a stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that white users, users with better physical and mental health status, and occasional users of methamphetamine were significantly less likely to see a need for treatment. Users with higher Addiction Severity Index composite scores for family/social problems or legal problems, and users with prior drug abuse treatment experience were significantly more likely to perceive a need for treatment. These findings have practical implications for efforts addressing substance abuse in rural areas. PMID:17604917

  15. Illicit traffic and abuse of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Keele, S A

    1984-01-01

    There has been an increasing availability and abuse of cocaine in Canada in recent years. Cocaine abuse has spread from the affluent adult sectors of society to middle-income groups and the young, involving large sections of the population. The increase in illicit demand for, and the social acceptability of, cocaine has led to an increase in illicit cocaine supply. The availability of cocaine on the illicit market has been sustained by a vast over-production of the raw materials needed to produce cocaine in coca-growing areas of South America and the activities of sophisticated trafficking organizations with large operations and profits. As a result, cocaine prices at the wholesale level in South America and Canada are declining, and at the retail level in Canada have remained relatively stable or have slightly decreased. It has been estimated that more than one half of the amount of cocaine on the illicit market in Canada was illegally produced in Colombia, but the main quantities of the raw materials used for such production originated in Bolivia and Peru. Cocaine is smuggled into Canada primarily by commercial air transport, arriving at the three principal ports of entry, namely Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, from whence it is distributed to other parts of the country. As drug law enforcement efforts increase in one area, traffickers shift their illicit operations to other areas in an attempt to escape detection. Current evidence suggests that both the availability and abuse of cocaine in Canada are likely to increase in the coming years. PMID:6569821

  16. Self-reported versus administrative identification of American Indian and Alaska Native arrestees: effects on relative estimates of illicit drug use and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Wood, Darryl S; Hays, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program data were used to consider the effects of two methods of racial classification upon estimates of illicit drug use and alcohol abuse among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) arrestees. Overall, compared to arrestees who self-identified as Black, White, Asian/Pacific Islander, or Hispanic, arrestees self-identifying as AI/AN were most likely to be identified administratively as something other than AI/AN. Results of 'difference of difference' analyses indicate that differences in estimates of AI/AN versus non-AI/AN arrestees' illicit drug use and alcohol abuse were much more extreme when identification was based on administrative records than when based upon arrestees' self-reports. PMID:25111841

  17. Violent crime and substance abuse: a medico-legal comparison between deceased users of anabolic androgenic steroids and abusers of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Klötz, Fia; Petersson, Anna; Isacson, Dag; Thiblin, Ingemar

    2007-11-15

    Several case reports and survey studies have indicated that abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) often leads to increased aggressiveness and feelings of hostility that may occasionally trigger violent behaviour. Other observations indicate that many users of AAS also abuse alcohol and/or various illegal substances. Since substance abuse is a well-known risk factor for violent behaviour, it could be that violence committed by AAS users might, at least in many cases, actually be caused by abuse of other drugs. In order to examine this possibility further here, the criminal histories (in terms of incidences of convictions) of deceased users of AAS with (AASpos-subst.pos) and without (AASpos-subst.neg) signs of abuse of other illegal substances were compared to the corresponding histories of deceased users of illicit substances testing negatively for AAS (subst.pos-AASneg) at the time of autopsy. The risk of being convicted for a crime against property was significantly higher in the subst.pos-AASneg group than in either the AASpos-subst.neg or AASpos-subst.pos groups (RR=0.048 versus 0.408). At the same time, the risk of being convicted for a crime of violence was at least as high for the two AAS-positive groups as for the AAS-negative group. Furthermore, when compared with the first 3 years after the first criminal conviction, a pronounced increase in the proportion of incidence of violent crimes and a marked reduction in the proportion of incidence of crime against property was observed during the 3-year period immediately preceding death only among the AASpos-subst.neg subjects. In conclusion, the incidence of violent crime among users of AAS without signs of other drug abuse was comparable to the corresponding incidences for drug addicts without AAS use. This observation suggests that the violent criminality observed among AAS users is not confounded in any systematic fashion by abuse of other drugs. The findings also indicate that use of AAS in certain

  18. The Council of Europe Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs (the Pompidou Group).

    PubMed

    Nagler, N A

    1987-01-01

    The Pompidou Group was set up in 1971 to provide a forum for exchanging views and concerting action in Western Europe in response to the growing drugs problem. Until 1979 it had no formal status, but in 1980 the Group became part of the Council of Europe with member States being free to choose whether to join or not. Its initial membership of six countries has expanded to 16 members. Every two to three years, ministers from member countries meet to review the work of the Group and to set a new programme of activities. Government officials (Permanent Correspondents) then meet to further the programme by arranging meetings, working groups, seminars, symposia and related activities of experts in particular fields. The Group has considered a wide variety of topics of general interest, which included: European cooperation in the control of drug traffic; problems connected with drug addicts in prison; the care of hard-core addicts; problems related to the staffing of treatment and rehabilitation services; the development of administrative monitoring systems for the assessment of public health and social problems related to drug misuse; drug trafficking on the high seas; the role of the criminal justice system in responding to the needs of drug misusers; methods of reaching young people particularly at risk; problems concerning women and drugs; control services at major European airports; cannabis misuse in Europe; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among drug misusers; and consideration of elements for inclusion in a new United Nations convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. PMID:3620762

  19. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman ...

  20. Abuse of Dextromethorphan-Based Cough Syrup as a Substitute for Licit and Illicit Drugs: A Theoretical Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darboe, Momodou N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of new types of abused drugs in the United States. Notes that young persons often search for substitutes for better-known substances. It is unclear, however, what factors determine the choice of drug or substance for experimentation, considering the wide range of choices. This paper attempts to delineate the factors that…

  1. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  2. Role of the Leader in Therapy Groups Conducted with Illicit Drug Abusers: How Directive Does the Leader Have to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Conducted 17-hour marathon group in residential treatment center for 12 incarcerated drug abusers. Used Hill Interaction Matrix to measure types of leader activity and types of member activity during portions of each hour of group activity. Found that, when group was most therapeutic, there was relationship between therapists' actions and…

  3. ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE - PROPOSED NEW NON-INTRUSIVE TOOL TO HEIGHTEN PUBLIC AWARENESS OF SOCIETAL USE OF ILLICIT/ABUSED DRUGS AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though a body of data on the environmental occurrence of medicinal, government-approved ("ethical") pharmaceuticals has been growing over the last two decades (the subject of this book), nearly nothing is known about the disposition of illicit (illegal) drugs in the environm...

  4. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: A cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women

    PubMed Central

    Wingo, Aliza P.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = −0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = −0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848

  5. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-04-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848

  6. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  7. Occurrence of illicit drugs in surface waters in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiyang; Du, Peng; Xu, Zeqiong; Gao, Tingting; Li, Xiqing

    2016-06-01

    Illicit drugs have been recognized as a group of emerging contaminants. In this work, occurrence of common illicit drugs and their metabolites in Chinese surface waters was examined by collecting samples from 49 lakes and 4 major rivers across the country. Among the drugs examined, methamphetamine and ketamine were detected with highest frequencies and concentration levels, consistent with the fact that these are primary drugs of abuse in China. Detection frequencies and concentrations of other drugs were much lower than in European lakes and rivers reported in the literature. In most Chinese surface waters methamphetamine and ketamine were detected at concentrations of several ng L(-1) or less, but in some southern lakes and rivers, these two drugs were detected at much higher concentrations (up to several tens ng L(-1)). Greater occurrence of methamphetamine and ketamine in southern surface waters was attributed to greater abuse and more clandestine production of the two drugs in southern China. PMID:26942687

  8. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  9. Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

    This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

  10. Illicit Drug Use and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research. PMID:25938114

  11. Law enforcement approaches and measures used in countering illicit drug problems in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yodmani, C

    1992-01-01

    The Government of Thailand, which has long recognized the serious threat posed by illicit drugs, has implemented stringent law enforcement measures aimed at suppressing illicit drug trafficking by dismantling clandestine laboratories, intercepting essential chemicals, effecting significant seizures and eradicating illicit crops. In addition, the Government has taken steps to initiate the enactment of legislation providing for the confiscation of proceeds derived from illicit drug trafficking activity. Furthermore, it has maintained and strengthened its already close bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the field of drug abuse control. PMID:1477702

  12. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864

  13. Teratogenic risks from exposure to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Bradley D; Rayburn, William F

    2014-06-01

    Substance use is prevalent in the United States, especially in the reproductive age population. Even though a reduction in substance use may occur during pregnancy, some women may not alter their drug use patterns until at least pregnancy is confirmed. For these reasons, a large number of fetuses are exposed to illicit substances, including during critical stages of organogenesis. Associating illicit drug use with eventual pregnancy outcome is difficult. This article presents issues pertaining to limitations with published investigations about fetal risks and describes the most current information in humans about fetal effects from specific illicit substances. PMID:24845487

  14. NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE (NHSDA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) is sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The survey has been conducted since 1971 and serves as the primary source of information on the prevalence and incidence of illicit drug, al...

  15. 75 FR 67019 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 210 / Monday, November 1, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-16 of September 15, 2010 Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug...

  16. Drug abuse first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who ...

  17. Pulse Check: National Trends in Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dana

    This Pulse Check is a report of national trends in illicit drug abuse and drug markets in the United States. The report draws on conversations with ethnographers and epidemiologists working in the drug field, law enforcement agents, and drug treatment providers across the United States. Information from each of these sources is summarized in…

  18. Subcultural evolution and illicit drug use*

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2011-01-01

    This article articulates a subcultural basis to the evolving popularity for different illicit drugs primarily based on empirical research in the United States, especially among inner-city populations. From this perspective, drug use emerges from a dialectic between drug subcultures with individual identity development. The prevailing culture and subcultures affect drugs’ popularity by imparting significance to their use. Innovations, historical events, and individual choices can cause subcultures to emerge and change over time. This subcultural view provides insight into the widespread use of licit drug, the dynamics of drug eras (or epidemics), the formation of drug generations, and the apparent “gateway” phenomenon. PMID:23805068

  19. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  20. Infrequent Illicit Methadone Use Among Stimulant-Using Patients in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Programs: A National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Blaine, Jack D.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of past-month illicit methadone use and history of regular illicit use among stimulant-using methadone maintenance treatment patients. We obtained self-reported information on illicit methadone use from 383 participants recruited from six community-based methadone maintenance programs. Overall, 1.6% of participants reported illicit use in the past month, and 4.7% reported a history of regular use. Younger age and history of outpatient psychological treatment were associated with increased odds of past-month illicit use. Illicit methadone use among patients in maintenance programs is infrequent; however, a number of factors may increase risk of illicit use. PMID:18612886

  1. Smoking and Illicit Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Mark S., Ed.

    The biological mechanisms of nicotine dependence are described, the prevalence of tobacco dependency among those using other mood-altering drugs is examined, and the most efficacious way to address this dependency is discussed. New data on the relationship of smoking addiction to other addictions are examined. Topics include: (1) "Tobacco Smoking…

  2. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  3. Predictors of Illicit Drug Use Among Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Rowell-Cunsolo, Tawandra L.; Sampong, Stephen A.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States of America currently has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and approximately 80% of incarcerated individuals have a history of illicit drug use. Despite institutional prohibitions, drug use continues in prison, and is associated with a range of negative outcomes. Objectives To assess the relationship between prison drug use, duration of incarceration, and a range of covariates. Results Most participants self-reported a history of illicit drug use (77.5%). Seven percent reportedly used drugs during the previous six months of incarceration (n = 100). Participants who had been incarcerated for more than a year were less likely than those incarcerated for longer than a year to report using drugs (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.98). Participants aged 37–89 were less likely than younger prisoners to use drugs (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19–0.80). Heroin users were twice as likely as nonheroin users to use drugs (OR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.04–5.03); crack cocaine users were also twice as likely as participants with no history of crack cocaine usage to report drug use (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.13–5.69). Conclusions Correctional institutions should be used as a resource to offer evidence-based services to curb drug usage. Drug treatment programs for younger prisoners, heroin and crack cocaine users, and at the beginning of a prisoner's sentence should be considered for this population. PMID:26789438

  4. LLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE - PROPOSED NEW NON-INTRUSIVE TOOL TO HEIGHTEN PUBLIC AWARENESS OF SOCIETAL USE OF ILLICIT/ABUSED DRUGS AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though a body of data on the environmental occurrence of medicinal, government-approved ("ethical") pharmaceuticals has been growing over the last two decades (the subject of this book), nearly nothing is known about the disposition of illicit (illegal) drugs in the environm...

  5. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  6. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  7. Urological complications of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, Sean C; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2014-03-01

    Illicit drug use is prevalent worldwide; over 24 million people are estimated to have used recreational drugs during the past month in the UK and USA alone. Illicit drug use can result in a wide spectrum of potential medical complications that include many urological manifestations. To ensure optimal care and treatment, urologists need to be cognizant of these complications in their patients, particularly among youths. Ketamine uropathy is thought to affect over one-quarter of ketamine users and can lead to severe lower urinary tract symptoms, as well as upper tract obstruction. Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, prostate cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumours in case-control studies. Fournier's gangrene has been reported following injection of heroin and cocaine into the penis. Excessive use of cough medicines can lead to the development of radiolucent stones composed of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin. As the current evidence is mostly limited to case reports and case series, future epidemiological studies are needed to fully address this issue. PMID:24535583

  8. Predictors of Substance Abuse Treatment Entry Among Rural Illicit Stimulant Users in Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Robert G.; Sexton, Rocky; Wang, Jichuan; Falck, Russel; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use in the rural United States is increasingly common, yet little is known about drug users’ treatment-seeking behaviors. This study identifies predictors of substance abuse treatment entry over 24 months among 710 illicit stimulant users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Active users of powdered cocaine, crack cocaine, and/or methamphetamine (MA) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants completed structured interviews at baseline and follow-up questionnaires every 6 months for 24 months. Data were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The paper is informed by the Anderson-Newman Model. Overall, 18.7% of the sample entered treatment. Ohio or Kentucky residence, perceived need for substance abuse treatment, higher ASI legal problem composite scores, prior substance abuse treatment, and tranquilizer use were positively associated with treatment entry. Non-daily crack cocaine users and marijuana users were less likely to enter treatment. The findings can help inform rural substance abuse treatment program development and outreach. PMID:20391264

  9. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  10. Immunotherapy for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R

    2011-12-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  11. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide

  12. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  13. Illicit drugs or medicines taken by parachuting.

    PubMed

    Daveluy, Amélie; Géniaux, Hélène; Eiden, Céline; Boucher, Alexandra; Chenaf, Chouki; Deheul, Sylvie; Spadari, Michel; Gérardin, Marie; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Haramburu, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Parachuting (also called bombing) is a method of drug delivery where illicit drugs or medicines are ingested after wrapping the substance. There are little data describing parachuting in the literature. To provide a description of this practice, all cases of parachuting reported to the national addictovigilance network up to 31 December 2014 were identified from spontaneous reports and specific surveillance programs. Cases were described according to the type of substance used, patient age and gender, type of complications, context of use and year of the event. Forty-five cases of parachute use were identified and most (n = 43) occurred after 2011. Patients were mostly men (60%), and mean age was 28.9 years. The context of use, known in 19 cases, was mostly recreational. Complications were present in 24 cases, of which eight were serious. The substance was supposed to be 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the majority of cases (64.4%); research chemicals were more involved in the most recent years. The physical form was mainly granular (51.6%). The wrappers were a cigarette paper (nine cases) and in one case plastic package; in the other cases, the term of parachute was used without further details. The reason for use was not explained in the majority of cases; two patients indicated using a parachute for faster effect than with a methadone capsule. Clinicians should be aware of this delivery form as the results suggest that it is common and can involve a great variability of drugs. PMID:26609911

  14. Early Detection of Illicit Drug Use in Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was ... prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants. Every medicine has ...

  16. Childhood maltreatment and illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the role of neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Preeti; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2012-08-01

    This paper examined whether childhood maltreatment increases the risk of living in neighborhoods with less desirable characteristics (i.e., more disorder and disadvantage, less social cohesion, social control and advantage, and fewer resources) in middle adulthood and whether these neighborhood characteristics influence subsequent illicit drug use. Using a prospective cohort design study, court documented cases of childhood abuse and neglect and matched controls (n = 833) were first interviewed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) from 1989 to 1995 and again in middle adulthood from 2000 to 2002 (mean age = 40 years) and 2003 to 2005 (mean age = 41 years). In middle adulthood, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were more likely to live in neighborhoods with more disorder and disadvantage and less social cohesion and advantage compared to controls and to engage in illicit drug use during the past year. Path analyses showed an indirect effect on illicit drug use via neighborhood disorder among maltreated children, even after accounting for drug abuse symptoms in young adulthood, although this was sex specific and race specific, affecting women and Whites. Overall, child abuse and neglect places children on a negative trajectory that dynamically influences negative outcomes at multiple levels into middle adulthood. PMID:22781851

  17. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Main Findings 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This survey, monitoring levels of substance abuse in the United States, serves as a tool for researchers and policymakers to better understand and control substance abuse problems. It provides information on 25,500 participants' use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the civilian, noninstutionalized population. Trends for the years,…

  18. Pedagogical patronizing of the pharmacodynamic promises of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, P A

    1992-01-01

    A review of popular drug education textbooks and curricula indicated most juxtapose the physiologic effects of licitly manufactured drugs under headings representing illicitly prepared drugs. This misrepresentation ignores the literature, which is undivided, in reporting that illicit drugs contain adulterants and substitutes such as: sodium acetate, sodium cyclamate, dolomite, acetaminophen, gypsum, mannitol, inositol, lidocaine, amydricaine, benzocaine, caffeine, ephedrine, intercaine, phenylpropanolamine, piperocaine, procainamide, azopyridine, bromodiphenhydramine, ibuprofen, methaqualone, phenobarital trazodone, acetylcodine, codeine, quinine, quinidine, thallium, arsenic and strychnine. The temptation to extrapolate the results of licitly pure drug lots administered at precisely measured doses to represent the pharmacodynamics of illegally prepared drug lots administered at indiscernible doses must be avoided in drug educational resources. There is a pressing need to correct the factual base, both implied and suggestive, of drug education resources regarding the purity and toxicity of illicitly manufactured and purchased drugs. PMID:1593391

  19. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  20. Illicit Drugs and their Impact on Cardiovascular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bădilă, Elisabeta; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Weiss, Emma; Bartoş, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The use of illicit drugs has dramatically increased during the past years. Consequently, the number of presentations at the emergency departments due to the adverse effects of the illicit drugs has also increased. This review discusses the cardiovascular effects of cocaine, opiates and opioids, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methamphetamines and hallucinogens as we consider that it is essential for a clinician to be aware of them and understand their mechanisms in order to optimize the therapeutic management. PMID:26710497

  1. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use among women.

    PubMed

    McGann, K P; Spangler, J G

    1997-03-01

    Although the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among women is lower than that among men, women suffer unique adverse health effects from these substances. Furthermore, the use of these substances during pregnancy poses special risks to mother and fetus, including placental accidents, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital anomalies, and premature birth. Primary care clinicians should ask all women about their patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and should offer targeted interventions to those using these products. PMID:9082466

  2. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  3. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1989-06-01

    In this review, attention is paid to chromatographic and mass spectral properties of already identified impurities found to be present in frequently abused drug preparations of illegal origin of amphetamine and methamphetamine. The most commonly employed methods of synthesis of drugs of this type are briefly described. Special emphasis is given to the Leuckart route, found to be the preferred method, in the illicit production of amphetamine. Furthermore, some isolation and preconcentration methods for the contaminants are discussed. The importance of identifying impurities present in amphetamine or methamphetamine cannot be overestimated. These impurities originate mostly from the improper purification in the end stage of the different syntheses used in the clandestine manufacture of the substances; it is possible to differentiate between the several kinds of illegal drug preparations, synthesized by various methods, by means of so-called "route specific" impurities. Finally, a survey is given of the impurities already known to be present in amphetamine and methamphetamine, together with their mass spectral and some chromatographic properties. PMID:26266521

  4. Educating against Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book is a compilation of drug education and drug abuse prevention materials collected by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) along with example of activities carried out by various countries. It opens with four introductory papers by separate authors: (1) "Prevention of Drug Dependence: A Utopian Dream?"…

  5. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  6. Drugged Driving: Increased Traffic Risks Involving Licit and Illicit Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkinton, Melinda W.; Robertson, Angela; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Driving under the influence of drugs poses risks for traffic safety. Most research attention has been focused on the most prevalent drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs with high abuse potential. The objectives of this study were to determine the types of drugs used by convicted DUI offenders on the day of their…

  7. Recognizing illicit drug use by pregnant women: reports from Oregon birth attendants.

    PubMed Central

    Slutsker, L; Smith, R; Higginson, G; Fleming, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of recognized prenatal illicit substance abuse and the characteristics of women being identified as illicit drug users in a statewide population-based cohort. METHODS. During a 1-month period, birth attendants of all singleton births in Oregon (n = 3200) were surveyed regarding their knowledge of prenatal illicit drug use by women who gave birth. Birth certificates were linked to surveys after removal of personal identifiers. RESULTS. Illicit drug use was recognized in 5.2% of delivering women. Nearly half had used cocaine, methamphetamine, or heroin. Recognized users were significantly more likely than nonusers to be unwed and to have used tobacco or alcohol, have received inadequate prenatal care, and have public assistance as a source of payment. Drug use was recognized twice as frequently by practitioners who routinely questioned their patients about it compared with those who relied on clinical judgment or the occurrence of complications during pregnancy. Birth certificate reporting identified only 41% of recognized users. CONCLUSIONS. Oregon practitioners are identifying seven times as many drug-using women as can be accommodated by available treatment programs for this population. Increased efforts are needed to ensure the adequacy of resources necessary to cope with the problem as already recognized. PMID:8417609

  8. Illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni

    2014-09-01

    Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents. PMID:25038195

  9. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. PMID:24275167

  10. National and State Estimates of the Drug Abuse Treatment Gap: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This report presents information from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) on the number and percentage of the population in the nation and in each state who need but did not receive treatment for an illicit drug use problem, referred to as the treatment gap. Following the introduction, chapter 2 presents national estimates of…

  11. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Anxiety COPD Delirium Depression Pain Management Prevention Related News Older Adults Who Drink Alcohol at Risk for Drug Interactions Monday, November 23, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Drug and Substance Abuse ...

  12. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  13. Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemingway, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore the…

  14. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

  15. Modeling Illicit Drug Use Dynamics and Its Optimal Control Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of death and disability attributable to illicit drug use, remains a significant threat to public health for both developed and developing nations. This paper presents a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the effects of illicit drug use in the community. In our model the transmission process is captured as a social “contact” process between the susceptible individuals and illicit drug users. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction number. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in Cape Town, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Durban communities of South Africa. In addition, the basic model is extended to incorporate time dependent intervention strategies. PMID:26819625

  16. Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

  17. Cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and routes of administration among heroin and cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, PT; Trenz, RC; Scherer, M; Ropelewski, LR; Latimer, WW

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is ubiquitous among illicit drug users. Some have speculated that this may be partially due to similarities in the route of administration. However, research examining the relationship between cigarette smoking and routes of administration of illicit drugs is limited. To address this gap, we investigated sociodemographic and drug use factors associated with cigarette smoking among cocaine and heroin users in the Baltimore, Maryland community (N=576). Regular and heavy cigarette smokers were more likely to be White, have a history of a prior marriage, and have a lower education level. Regular smoking of marijuana and crack was associated with cigarette smoking, but not heavy cigarette smoking. Injection use was more common among heavy cigarette smokers. In particular, regular cigarette smokers were more likely to have a lifetime history of regularly injecting heroin. Optimal prevention and treatment outcomes can only occur through a comprehensive understanding of the interrelations between different substances of abuse. PMID:22305644

  18. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  19. [Prevention and treatment of hepatitis C in illicit drug users].

    PubMed

    Sakoman, Slavko

    2009-12-01

    Drug use is a complex behavior with multidimensional determinants, including social, psychological, cultural, economic, and biological factors. Blood borne viral infections including hepatitis C virus are transmitted when an uninfected intravenous drug user (IVDU) uses injection equipment, especially syringes, that have previously been used by an infected person. The transmission can also result from sharing other injection equipment such as 'cookers' and 'cottons'. Recent studies have shown that the prevalence and incidence of drug abuse have declined substantially since the introduction of needle exchange. Infection with hepatitis C may spontaneously resolve during the acute stage and never progress to chronic infection, or the infection may become chronic without medical complications, or the infection may become chronic with progressive medical complications. Regular testing for infection is an important strategy for secondary prevention of chronic hepatitis C infection. Care for hepatitis C is a vital component of a comprehensive health program for persons using illicit drugs. Such care includes screening for transmission risk behavior, prevention counseling and education, testing for HCV antibody and RNA. IDUs found to have chronic HCV infection should be assessed for the presence and degree of liver disease and evaluated for treatment for HCV Hepatitis C care also requires providing access to treatment for substance use and abuse. Therapy with opioid agonists, including methadone maintenance treatment, has been shown to diminish and often eliminate opioid use and reduce transmission of infection. Approval of buprenorphine makes office-based pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction possible. When considering treatment for hepatitis C, particular attention must be paid to mental health conditions. As a group, IDUs exhibit higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders than the general population. IFN-based regimens for hepatitis C are often complicated by

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse. PMID:25239857

  1. Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug

  2. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  3. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  4. Drug abuse in athletes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  5. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  6. Adulterants causing false negatives in illicit drug testing.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, S L; Ash, K O

    1988-11-01

    Illicit-drug users may attempt to falsify results by in vitro adulteration of specimens. We investigated eight additives (NaCl, Visine, handsoap, Drano, bleach, vinegar, golden-seal tea, and lemon juice) claimed by drug users to invalidate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) drug assays. We also analyzed adulterated urine specimens to determine if they could be identified, adding adulterants at several concentrations to 222 EIA-positive specimens confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to contain illicit drugs. To identify adulterated urines, we monitored pH, relative density, and urine color and turbidity at adulterant concentrations that falsified EIA results. Specimens contaminated with NaCl had relative densities greater than 1.035. Liquid Drano, bleach, and vinegar shifted urine pH outside the physiological range. Golden-seal tea caused a dark appearance, and specimens containing liquid soap were unusually cloudy. Lemon juice had no effect on the assays. Visine was the only adulterant not detected. The adulterants interfered somewhat differently with each of the drug assays. EIA assays for illicit drugs can be invalidated by specimen adulteration producing false-negative results. Therefore, if urine drug testing is to be conducted, pH, relative density, and appearance should be assessed and suspect specimens should be rejected. Not all adulterants can be detected, so observed collection is strongly recommended. PMID:3052928

  7. Illicit peyote use among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

    2006-01-01

    Few studies to date have addressed illicit (i.e., nonceremonial) peyote use among American Indians (AIs). Participants were 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substance abuse treatment program (RSATP) between 1998 and 2001. The RSATP is designed to provide specialized treatment of patients with substance use and other comorbid psychiatric disorders and is infused with a culturally sensitive approach to treatment. The participants completed a series of interviews that collected information on psychiatric diagnostic status, history of substance use, and ethnic identity. The majority of participants were male (65%), did not come from a two-parent household (75%), reported a mean use of 5.4 substances, and met full criteria for a median of 2.9 substance use disorders. Of 89 clients, 10 (11.2%) reported illicit use of peyote. The vast majority of these youth (n = 8) reported using peyote only once or twice in their lifetime. Illicit peyote users did not differ from nonusers in terms of age, gender, other substance use, prevalence of either other substance abuse/dependence or other nonsubstance use psychiatric disorders. However, illicit peyote users were more likely to report low levels of social support, low levels of self-esteem, and low identification with AI culture yet comparable involvement in AI traditional practices. The results of this exploratory study suggest that illicit peyote use is uncommon among AI adolescents with serious substance abuse problems. PMID:16798681

  8. Drug Abusers' Perceptions of Factors Related to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billips, Kathleen; And Others

    Researchers surveyed 78 clients in drug abuse treatment facilities to determine their perceptions regarding factors related to their use and abuse of drugs. About 40% of the sample began using drugs between 11 and 15 years of age. Males tended to begin using drugs at an earlier age than did females. Over 90% of participants reported using drugs…

  9. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  10. Overcoming barriers to prevention, care, and treatment of hepatitis C in illicit drug users.

    PubMed

    Edlin, Brian R; Kresina, Thomas F; Raymond, Daniel B; Carden, Michael R; Gourevitch, Marc N; Rich, Josiah D; Cheever, Laura W; Cargill, Victoria A

    2005-04-15

    Injection drug use accounts for most of the incident infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States and other developed countries. HCV infection is a complex and challenging medical condition in injection drug users (IDUs). Elements of care for hepatitis C in illicit drug users include prevention counseling and education; screening for transmission risk behavior; testing for HCV and human immunodeficiency virus infection; vaccination against hepatitis A and B viruses; evaluation for comorbidities; coordination of substance-abuse treatment services, psychiatric care, and social support; evaluation of liver disease; and interferon-based treatment for HCV infection. Caring for patients who use illicit drugs presents challenges to the health-care team that require patience, experience, and an understanding of the dynamics of substance use and addiction. Nonetheless, programs are successfully integrating hepatitis C care for IDUs into health-care settings, including primary care, methadone treatment and other substance-abuse treatment programs, infectious disease clinics, and clinics in correctional facilities. PMID:15768335

  11. Mexicans’ Use of Illicit Drugs in an Era of Drug Reform: National Comparative Analysis by Migrant Status

    PubMed Central

    Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376

  12. Problems of drug abuse and preventive measures in Poland.

    PubMed

    Tobolska-Rydz, H

    1986-01-01

    An increasing abuse of drugs emerged among young people in Poland at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. According to information provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, there are currently 35,000 drug abusers, but the actual number is estimated at approximately 200,000. The abuse of extract from poppy straw and the inhalation of volatile solvents, such as glue and paint remover, are the major drug abuse problems. Addicts prepare a decoction of poppy straw for injection, and morphine and heroin have been clandestinely manufactured in very elementary home-made laboratories. Recently, methamphetamine hydrochloride and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have also been illicitly produced in such home-made laboratories. The increasing drug abuse problem has prompted the authorities to prepare new complementary drug control legislation, the Act on the Prevention of Narcotic Addiction, which was adopted on 31 January 1985. The Act provides for more effective preventive and treatment measures, as well as severe punishment for involvement in illicit drug trafficking. Treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug-dependent persons is provided on a voluntary basis, except for persons convicted of drug-related offences and for persons under 18 years of age, in which case treatment may be compulsory. PMID:3779183

  13. Drug Abuse and the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    1971-01-01

    In reviewing some of the background information regarding the extent of drug abuse and the types of measures presently being used, this article describes in more detail the role of the school in drug abuse. Emphasis is placed on drug education from the viewpoint of youth. (Author)

  14. Assessing illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Young, M. Scott; Sellers, Brian G.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100

  15. [Alcohol, pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and driving].

    PubMed

    Wennig, Robert; Origer, Alain; Bour, Jean; Pepin, G; Maurer, Hans H; Gillard, Claude; Verstraete, Alain; Maurer, Hans-Jürgen; Willekens, Michel

    2005-01-01

    A great number of clinical, epidemiological, pharmacological and toxicological data on the influence of psychotropics on driving are available. These psychotropics include psycholeptics like ethanol, opioids, psychoanaleptics like cocaine, amphetamines and congeners, psychodysleptics like cannabis, LSD and magic mushrooms. General epidemiology and specific epidemiology for Luxembourg will be outlined. Practical aspects of roadside testing, forensic aspects as well as the place of hair testing in drugs and road safety issues will be discussed. PMID:16042050

  16. Drug testing for newborn exposure to illicit substances in pregnancy: pitfalls and pearls.

    PubMed

    Farst, Karen J; Valentine, Jimmie L; Hall, R Whit

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of drug usage during pregnancy vary by region and survey tool used. Clinicians providing care to newborns should be equipped to recognize a newborn who has been exposed to illicit drugs during pregnancy by the effects the exposure might cause at the time of delivery and/or by drug testing of the newborn. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature and assess the clinical role of drug testing in the newborn. Accurate recognition of a newborn whose mother has used illicit drugs in pregnancy cannot only impact decisions for healthcare in the nursery around the time of delivery, but can also provide a key opportunity to assess the mother for needed services. While drug use in pregnancy is not an independent predictor of the mother's ability to provide a safe and nurturing environment for her newborn, other issues that often cooccur in the life of a mother with a substance abuse disorder raise concerns for the safety of the discharge environment and should be assessed. Healthcare providers in these roles should advocate for unbiased and effective treatment services for affected families. PMID:21785611

  17. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  18. Detection of Illicit Drugs with the EURITRACK System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Franulovic, A.

    2009-03-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system has been developed within the 6th EU Framework Program to complement X-ray scanners in the detection of explosives and other illicit materials hidden in cargo containers. Gamma rays are produced inside the cargo materials by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams, which yields information about the chemical composition of the transported goods. In the beginning of year 2007, the EURITRACK system was implemented in the Seaport of Rijeka, Croatia, primarily to carry out a demonstration using real containers to conduct a series of detection tests. This article reports tests performed with real samples of illicit drugs hidden in a metallic cargo with an average density of 0.2 g/cm3. Heroin and cocaine have been distinguished from benign substances based on their chemical composition. Marijuana, which chemical composition is similar to benign materials, cannot be distinguished from common organic goods. However, the detection of an unexpected organic substance inside the metallic cargo indicates that a suspicious object has been hidden in the container.

  19. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1971-01-01

    This article concerns the drug abuse related definitions of the words education" and prevention" as they have come to be used today. The writer infers that the changing uses of these words reflects an increasingly more enlightened approach to ameliorating the problem of drug abuse. (Author)

  20. Prevalence of illicit drug use among individuals with chronic pain in the Commonwealth of Kentucky: an evaluation of patterns and trends.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Fellows, Bert; Damron, Kim S; Pampati, Vidyasagar; McManus, Carla D

    2005-02-01

    The abuse of prescription-controlled substances is a common phenomenon, associated with illicit drug use, in patients suffering with chronic pain and receiving controlled substances for the management of pain. Prescription drug abuse in Kentucky has led to an increase in Medicare and Medicaid fraud, as well as physician indictments for unscrupulous practices and increased vigilance and prosecution by the authorities. This study was undertaken to evaluate 400 consecutive patients receiving controlled substances in an interventional pain management practice in Western Kentucky to evaluate the prevalence of illicit drug use and opioid abuse and noncompliance with opioid therapy. Results indicated that patients covered by third-party insurance showed 17% (95% CI, 10%-24%) prevalence of illicit drug use, with patients on Medicare, with or without third-party insurance, showing 10% (95% CI, 4%-6%) prevalence, compared to patients on Medicare and Medicaid with 24% (95% CI, 16%-32%) prevalence, and patients with only Medicaid with 39% (95% CI, 29%-49%) prevalence of illicit drug use. In addition, combined use of illicit drugs and misuse of prescription drugs was also seen in a substantially greater proportion of patients in Groups III and IV, with the highest (60%) in Group IV with Medicaid only, followed by Group III with Medicaid supplementation of Medicare insurance in 40% of the patients. Overall illicit drug use, opioid abuse, and noncompliance of opioids is significant in patients in Western Kentucky receiving Medicaid as a primary insurance or as a supplemental insurance to Medicare, despite extensive monitoring, written agreement, and education. PMID:15751456

  1. Research approaches in illicit drug use: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sadava, S W

    1975-02-01

    Research approached and substantive findings pertaining to determinants of the nonmedical use of illicit psychoactive drugs are reviewed. Discussion focuses upon the dimensions of drug use as a behaviorial phenomenon, the findings and limitations of four basic approaches to research in the ares--sociocultural, psychopathological, functionalist, and social learning-- and upon methodological problems. Drug use must be treated as a multidimensional phenomenon, with analyses extending well beyond simple user vs. nonuser comparisons or arbitrary categories of users. Research must be conducted within a coherent field-theoretical conceptual framework, directed toward the formulation of nomothetic laws concerning patterns of drug use. Inadequacies in sampling and measurement and the absence of longitudinal design have compromised the utility of a vast research literature. PMID:1091527

  2. Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

    2008-03-01

    A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

  3. Research on Rural Residence and Access to Drug Abuse Services: Where Are We and where Do We Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Illicit drug use is common in rural areas, but very little research has investigated rural populations' access to drug abuse services. Purpose: To describe the current state of the scientific literature on access to drug abuse services in rural areas and suggest directions for future research. Methods: We performed a literature review of…

  4. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention. PMID:2331555

  5. Pulmonary Complications of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Leon S.; Boylen, Thomas C.

    1974-01-01

    Complications resulting from drug abuse more frequently affect the lung than any other organ. The spectrum of pulmonary complications associated with drug abuse is wide. The current practice of using mixtures of drugs is mainly responsible for the increase in pulmonary complications. The chief complications observed in a series of 241 drug abuse patients were aspiration pneumonitis (12.9 percent), pulmonary edema (10.0 percent), and pneumonia (7.5 percent). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4812215

  6. Analysis of illicit drugs by direct ablation of solid samples.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Berdakin, Matias; Tejedor, Jesús M; Alonso, José L

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of illicit drugs arises as an important field of work given the high social impacts presented by drugs in the modern society. Direct laser ablation of solid compounds allows their analysis without sampling or preparation procedures. For that purpose, an experimental set-up that combines laser ablation with time-of- flight mass spectrometry has been constructed very recently to perform studies on the mass spectra of such drugs as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, commonly known as MDMA or ecstasy. Analysis of the observed fragmentation pattern in mass spectra may elucidate the ablation-induced photofragmentation phenomena produced, which differ from those previously observed with conventional ionization methods. PMID:26764307

  7. Alcohol, illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury in Thailand: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI). A case-control study was conducted among drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. Two hundred cases and 849 controls were enrolled between February and November 2006. Cases who sustained a RTI were matched with four controls recruited from petrol stations within a 1-km radius of the reported crash site of the case. A positive alcohol breath test (> or =50mg/dl), and positive tests for the presence of illicit (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana) and non-illicit psychoactive drugs (antihistamine, benzodiazepine, antidepressants), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were documented as primary measures. There were significantly higher odds of an alcohol breath test > or =50mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 63.6 (95% CI: 25.5-158.9)), illicit psychoactive drugs (adjusted OR 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.6)) and non-illicit psychoactive drug (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3)) among cases than controls. Even though driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs has been significantly linked to RTI, its contribution to road safety is much lower than driving under the influence of alcohol. With limited resources, the priority for RTI prevention should be given to control of driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID:19393818

  8. Long-Term Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use in Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws (ability to purchase alcohol <21 years) during adolescence can have long-term effects, including heavy alcohol use or alcohol use disorders as adults. We examined whether exposure to permissive MLDA laws during adolescence has long-term effects on illicit drug use and disorders in adulthood. Methods Participants from the 2004-2012 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were linked with historical state MLDA laws. Participants born in 1949-1972 (age 31-63 years at observation, n=110,300) were analyzed because they came of legal age for alcohol purchase when changes occurred in state MLDA laws. Logistic regression was used to model drug use measures as a function of exposure to permissive MLDA during adolescence, adjusting for state and birth-year fixed effects, demographics, and salient state characteristics. Results Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of marijuana were 4.7%, 7.8%, and 1.2% respectively. Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs other than marijuana were 2.9%, 6.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. Among the full sample, exposure to permissive MLDA laws was not significantly associated with drug use or abuse/dependence in adulthood. Men exposed to permissive MLDA laws were at 20% increased odds of past year illicit drug use (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32). Conclusions Restricting alcohol access during adolescence did not increase long-term drug use. Allowing the purchase of alcohol among those less than 21 years of age could increase the risk of drug use later in life. PMID:25707705

  9. Estimation of drug abuse in 9 Polish cities by wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Klupczynska, Agnieszka; Dereziński, Paweł; Krysztofiak, Janusz; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to measure illicit drug residues in raw sewage samples collected from nine Polish cities in order to determine trends in illicit drug use in these urban populations. This is the first study involving an analysis of samples from several sewage treatment plants in Poland and covering such a large population. Concentration of illicit drugs was determined using a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The samples were subjected to a multistep preparation procedure with a solid phase extraction as a main pre-treatment step. Among the selected drugs investigated in the study, amphetamine was found in the greatest amounts in all sewage samples and consequently was the most prevalent drug of abuse. Higher loads of illicit drug residues were found during weekends compared to the weekdays, especially for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) and benzoylecgonine, main metabolite of cocaine. PMID:26779963

  10. Cognitive changes in patients with acute phase psychosis--effects of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Helle, Siri; Gjestad, Rolf; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune Andreas; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2014-12-30

    Illicit drug use may influence cognition in non-affective psychosis. Previous studies have shown better cognition in psychosis with illicit drug use as compared to psychosis only. Possibly, illicit drug using patients have more transient drug-related cognitive deficits. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine cognitive change the first weeks after admission to a psychiatric emergency ward, expecting more cognitive improvement at follow-up in the illicit drug group as compared to psychosis only. Patients with acute non-affective psychosis with (26%) and without illicit drug use were examined at baseline (n=123) and follow-up (n=67), with alternative forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Latent Growth Curve models, controlling for cognition at baseline and age differences between the groups, were used to analyze cognitive change. The illicit drug using patients showed the largest improvement in cognition, especially among the youngest patients. Younger patients with non-affective psychosis and illicit drug use showed more cognitive improvement the first weeks after acute psychosis as compared to psychosis only. This suggests that the illicit drug users constitute a sub-group with less stable cognitive deficits and less cognitive vulnerability. PMID:25240944

  11. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... destined for U.S. markets. Without factoring in illegal maritime and air drug smuggling believed to be... threatened. European, Canadian, and U.S. bilateral drug control support, as well as the Caribbean Basin... objectives are achieved through U.S. support for Mexico's drug control policies and programs under the...

  12. High prevalence of childhood emotional, physical and sexual trauma among a Canadian cohort of HIV-seropositive illicit drug users

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Georgia; Co, Steven J.; Milloy, M-J; Qi, Jiezhi; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background The psychosocial impacts of various types of childhood maltreatment on vulnerable illicit drug-using populations remains unclear. We examined the prevalence and correlates of antecedent emotional, physical and sexual abuse among a community-recruited cohort of adult HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. Methods We estimated the prevalence of childhood abuse at baseline using data from the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item validated instrument used to retrospectively assess childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to estimate relationships between sub-types of childhood maltreatment with various social-demographic, drug-using and clinical characteristics. Results Overall, 233 HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) were included in the analysis, including 83 (35.6%) women. Of these, moderate or severe emotional childhood abuse was reported by 51.9% of participants; emotional neglect by 36.9%; physical abuse by 51.1%; physical neglect by 46.8%; and sexual abuse by 41.6%. In multivariate analyses, emotional, physical and sexual abuse were independently associated with greater odds of recent incarceration. Emotional abuse and neglect were independently associated with a score of ≥16 on the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). There was no association between any form of childhood maltreatment and clinical HIV variables, including viral load, CD4 count and history of antiretroviral therapy use. Conclusion These findings underscore the negative impact of childhood maltreatment on social functioning and mental health in later life. Given the substantial prevalence of childhood maltreatment among this population, there is a need for evidence-based resources to address the deleterious effect it has on the health and social functioning of HIV-positive IDU. PMID:21390877

  13. First evaluation of illicit and licit drug consumption based on wastewater analysis in Fort de France urban area (Martinique, Caribbean), a transit area for drug smuggling.

    PubMed

    Damien, Devault A; Thomas, Néfau; Hélène, Pascaline; Sara, Karolak; Yves, Levi

    2014-08-15

    Drugs of abuse are increasingly consumed worldwide. Such consumption could be back-calculated based on wastewater content. The West Indies, with its coca production and its thriving illicit drug market, is both a hub of world cocaine trafficking and a place where its consumption is prevalent particularly in the form of crack. The present study will firstly investigate Caribbean consumption by a daily 5 to 7 day sampling campaign of composite wastewater samples from the four wastewater treatment plants of the Martinique capital, including working and non-working periods. The local consumption of cocaine is ten to thirty times higher than OECD standards because of the prevalence of crack. The excretion coefficient for crack consumption and the impact of temperature on drug stability need further investigation. However, the low diversity of illicit drugs consumed and the crack prevalence suggest practices driven by the transiting of drugs for international trafficking. PMID:24914526

  14. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  15. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  16. Contracting for Treatment Termination to Reduce Illicit Drug Use among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Michael P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a contingency contracting intervention on reducing illicit drug use by methadone maintenance outpatients. Illicit drug use was significantly reduced during the 30-day intervention and remained below baseline levels during 60-day follow-up. (Author/MCF)

  17. Resolution No. 43/121. Use of children in the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and rehabilitation of drug-addicted minors, 8 December 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the text of a 1988 UN Resolution on the use of children in the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and rehabilitation of drug-addicted minors. In this Resolution, the General Assembly recalls previous resolutions adopted to fight illicit drugs, expresses alarm at the fact that drug dealers are using children to further their illicit activities and at the increasing number of drug-addicted children, and refers to the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the upcoming Convention on the Rights of the Child. Based on this, the UN condemns all forms of drug trafficking, especially those which involve children; urges states to establish programs to protect children from drugs; invites member states with the most urgent problems to adopt additional measures; calls for suitably severe punishment of drug-trafficking crimes that involve children; urges all organizations to place high priority on the prevention and treatment of drug addiction in children; asks international agencies and the UN Fund for Drug Abuse Control to give financial support to such programs; and asks the UN Department of Pubic Information of the Secretariat to publish information designed to prevent drug use in children. PMID:12289144

  18. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Dan; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252). Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5%) individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4%) individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1%) individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine) use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach. PMID:19622171

  19. Evaluation of a procedure to assess the adverse effects of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, J G C; Best, W; Opperhuizen, A; de Wolff, F A

    2004-02-01

    The assessment procedure of new synthetic illicit drugs that are not documented in the UN treaty on psychotropic drugs was evaluated using a modified Electre model. Drugs were evaluated by an expert panel via the open Delphi approach, where the written score was discussed on 16 items, covering medical, health, legal, and criminalistic issues of the drugs. After this face-to-face discussion the drugs were scored again. Taking the assessment of ketamine as an example, it appeared that each expert used its own scale to score, and that policymakers do not score deviant from experts trained in the medical-biological field. Of the five drugs evaluated by the panel, p-methoxy-metamphetamine (PMMA), gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and 4-methylthio-amphetamine (MTA) were assessed as more adverse than ketamine and psilocine and psilocybine-containing mushrooms. Whereas some experts slightly adjusted during the assessment procedure their opinion on ketamine and PMMA, the opinion on mushrooms was not affected by the discussion held between the two scoring rounds. All experts rank the five drugs in a similar way on the adverse effect scale i.e., concordance scale of the Electre model, indicating unanimity in the expert panel with respect to the risk classification of these abused drugs. PMID:14746774

  20. Does Illicit Drug Use Influence Inpatient Adverse Events, Death, Length of Stay, and Discharge After Orthopaedic Trauma?

    PubMed

    Babatunde, Victor D; Menendez, Mariano E; Ring, David

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use among adults is increasing, but its associated risk following orthopaedic trauma remains largely unexplored. This study assessed the relationship of illicit drug use with inpatient adverse events, in-hospital mortality, prolonged length of stay, and nonroutine discharge. With the use of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 7,118,720 orthopaedic trauma inpatients from 2002 to 2011 were identified and separated into illicit drug users (1.5%) and non-illicit drug users (98.5%). Multivariable regression modeling was used to determine the association between illicit drug use and each outcome variable. Illicit drug use was associated with higher odds of inpatient adverse events, but not greater likelihood of inpatient death. Illicit drug users were also more likely to experience prolonged hospital stay and nonroutine discharge. Prompt recognition and effective treatment interventions for orthopaedic trauma patients with a history of illicit drug use may improve inpatient outcomes. PMID:27082887

  1. Use of illicit and prescription drugs for cognitive or mood enhancement among surgeons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Surgeons are usually exposed to high workloads leading to fatigue and stress. This not only increases the likelihood of mistakes during surgery but also puts pressure on surgeons to use drugs to counteract fatigue, distress, concentration deficits, burnout or symptoms of depression. The prevalence of surgeons taking pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) or mood enhancement (ME) drugs has not been systematically assessed so far. Methods Surgeons who attended five international conferences in 2011 were surveyed with an anonymous self-report questionnaire (AQ) regarding the use of prescription or illicit drugs for CE and ME and factors associated with their use. The Randomized Response Technique (RRT) was used in addition. The RRT guarantees a high degree of anonymity and confidentiality when a person is asked about stigmatizing issues, such as drug abuse. Results A total of 3,306 questionnaires were distributed and 1,145 entered statistical analysis (response rate: 36.4%). According to the AQ, 8.9% of all surveyed surgeons confessed to having used a prescription or illicit drug exclusively for CE at least once during lifetime. As one would expect, the prevalence rate assessed by RRT was approximately 2.5-fold higher than that of the AQ (19.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 15.9% to 23.9%, N = 1,105). An even larger discrepancy between the RRT and AQ was observed for the use of antidepressants with a 6-fold higher prevalence (15.1%; 95% CI, 11.3% to 19.0%, N = 1,099) as compared to 2.4% with the AQ. Finally, logistic regression analysis revealed that pressure to perform at work (odds ratio (OR): 1.290; 95% CI, 1.000 to 1.666; P = 0.05) or in private life (OR: 1.266; 95% CI, 1.038 to 1.543; P = 0.02), and gross income (OR: 1.337; 95% CI, 1.091 to 1.640; P = 0.005), were positively associated with the use of drugs for CE or ME. Conclusions The use of illicit and prescription drugs for CE or ME is an underestimated phenomenon among surgeons which is

  2. A new exposure model to evaluate smoked illicit drugs in rodents: A study of crack cocaine.

    PubMed

    Hueza, Isis M; Ponce, Fernando; Garcia, Raphael C T; Marcourakis, Tânia; Yonamine, Maurício; Mantovani, Cínthia de C; Kirsten, Thiago B

    2016-01-01

    The use of smoked illicit drugs has spread dramatically, but few studies use proper devices to expose animals to inhalational abused drugs despite the availability of numerous smoking devices that mimic tobacco exposure in rodents. Therefore, the present study developed an inexpensive device to easily expose laboratory animals to smoked drugs. We used crack cocaine as the drug of abuse, and the cocaine plasma levels and the behaviors of animals intoxicated with the crack cocaine were evaluated to prove inhaled drug absorption and systemic activity. We developed an acrylic device with two chambers that were interconnected and separated by a hatch. Three doses of crack (100, 250, or 500 mg), which contained 63.7% cocaine, were burned in a pipe, and the rats were exposed to the smoke for 5 or 10 min (n=5/amount/period). Exposure to the 250-mg dose for 10 min achieved cocaine plasma levels that were similar to those of users (170 ng/mL). Behavioral evaluations were also performed to validate the methodology. Rats (n=10/group) for these evaluations were exposed to 250 mg of crack cocaine or air for 10 min, twice daily, for 28 consecutive days. Open-field evaluations were performed at three different periods throughout the experimental design. Exposed animals exhibited transient anorexia, increased motor activity, and shorter stays in central areas of the open field, which suggests reduced anxiety. Therefore, the developed model effectively exposed animals to crack cocaine, and this model may be useful for the investigation of other inhalational abused drugs. PMID:26391341

  3. Drug abuse and dependency during pregnancy: anaesthetic issues.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, J; Christmas, T; Paech, M J; Orr, B

    2007-12-01

    Drug abuse is a significant social problem that can lead to serious obstetric complications, some of which may be confused with pregnancy-related disease states. Substance abuse poses a number of challenges with respect to the management of pain and the conduct of anaesthesia in the peripartum period. This review was based on information from a literature search of epidemiological, research and review papers on substance abuse during pregnancy, obtained for the purpose of preparing a background paper for the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy, Commonwealth Government of Australia. Given that almost 80% of substance-abusing parturients require anaesthetic services in the perinatal period, early antenatal referral for anaesthetic review is recommended. To optimise the care of these vulnerable patients, obstetricians, general practitioners and midwives should attempt to identify substance-abusing parturients and refer them to an anaesthetist. A careful anaesthetic evaluation with non-judgemental questioning is essential, with management tailored to individual patient needs and the urgency of obstetric intervention for vaginal delivery or caesarean section. Opioid-dependent women, in particular, benefit from antenatal pain management planning. Patients recovering from drug addiction should also have a well-documented analgesic strategy. A multidisciplinary approach will involve obstetricians, anaesthetists and staff of the Drug and Alcohol Service. In acute admissions of women by whom antenatal care was not accessed, a high index of suspicion for illicit drug use should arise. Because illicit substance use is so prevalent, if untoward reactions occur during an otherwise uneventful anaesthetic, the possibility of drug abuse should be considered. PMID:18084978

  4. 77 FR 58915 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 14, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-23640 Filed 9..., Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico... Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimate that cultivation in Helmand decreased between 35 and...

  5. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  6. Epidemic of illicit drug use, mechanisms of action/addiction and stroke as a health hazard

    PubMed Central

    Esse, Katherine; Fossati-Bellani, Marco; Traylor, Angela; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse robs individuals of their jobs, their families, and their free will as they succumb to addiction; but may cost even more: a life of disability or even life lost due to stroke. Many illicit drugs have been linked to major cardiovascular events and other comorbidities, including cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, heroin, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and marijuana. This review focuses on available epidemiological data, mechanisms of action, particularly those leading to cerebrovascular events, and it is based on papers published in English in PubMed during 1950 through February 2011. Each drug's unique interactions with the brain and vasculature predispose even young, healthy people to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Cocaine and amphetamines have the strongest association with stroke. However, the level of evidence firmly linking other drugs to stroke pathogenesis is weak. Large epidemiological studies and systematic evaluation of each drug's action on the brain and cardiovascular system are needed to reveal the full impact of drug use on the population. PMID:22398980

  7. An Increasing Trend of Illicit Drug use among Romanian University Students from 1999 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    LOTREAN, Lucia Maria; SANTILLAN, Edna Arillo; THRASHER, James; LAZA, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study investigates the evolution of illicit drug use among Romanian university students from 1999 to 2011. Methods The study was performed in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in three phases: in 1999 (T1), in 2003 (T2) and in 2011 (T3). The study was carried out by means of anonymous questionnaires among university students aged 19–24. Results The results show that among girls the lifetime illicit drugs use increased statistically significantly from 2.5% in 1999 to 7.5% in 2003 and to 15% in 2011. Among boys the trend was also increasing, the prevalence of illicit drug use was 14.2% at T1, 18.1% at T2, and it increased dramatically to 30.6% at T3. The percentage of students reporting cannabis use was almost identical with the total prevalence of illicit drug use. Ecstasy was the second most frequent drug used by the students; its consumption had also an increasing trend during the examined periods (from 0 to 5.6% among girls and from 0.8% to 11.2% among boys). The results of the bivariate correlation analyses show that lifetime illicit drug use was associated with having friends who experimented with illicit drugs both among boys and girls. Moreover, girls who declared stress management problems and depressive episodes were more likely to try illicit drugs, while among boys illicit drug use was associated with poorer academic performance. Conclusions The data pointed out by our study call for comprehensive actions regarding the prevention of illicit drug use among Romanian young people.

  8. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog “alert” is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  9. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  10. Coexisting social conditions and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use in Finland: The HUUTI study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use is an important public health problem. Identifying conditions that coexist with illicit drug use is necessary for planning health services. This study described the prevalence and factors associated with social and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use. Methods We carried out cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of 2526 clients who sought treatment for illicit drug use at Helsinki Deaconess Institute between 2001 and 2008. At the clients’ first visit, trained clinicians conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with social and health problems. Results The mean age of the clients was 25 years, 21% (n = 519) were homeless, 54% (n = 1363) were unemployed and 7% (n = 183) had experienced threats of violence. Half of the clients (50%, n = 1258) were self-referred and 31% (n = 788) used opiates as their primary drugs of abuse. Hepatitis C (25%, n = 630) was more prevalent than other infectious diseases and depressive symptoms (59%, n = 1490) were the most prevalent psychological problems. Clients who were self-referred to treatment were most likely than others to report social problems (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.50–2.30) and psychological problems (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.23–1.85). Using opiates as primary drugs of abuse was the strongest factor associated with infectious diseases (AOR = 3.89; 95% CI = 1.32–11.46) and for reporting a combination of social and health problems (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.58–6.65). Conclusion The existence of illicit drug use with other social and health problems could lead to increased utilisation and cost of healthcare services. Coexisting social and health problems may interfere with clients’ treatment response. Our findings support the call for integration of

  11. HEAVY ALCOHOL USE AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR AMONG PEOPLE WHO USE ILLICIT DRUGS: A COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Mary Clare; Marshall, Brandon D.L; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) are known to experience high rates of suicidal behavior. While heavy alcohol use has been associated with suicide risk, its impact on the suicidal behavior of PWUD has not been well characterized. Therefore, we examined the relationship between heavy alcohol use and suicidal behavior among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Data are derived from two prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, from 2005 to 2013. Participants completed questionnaires that elicited information regarding sociodemographics, drug use patterns, and mental health problems, including suicidal behavior. We used recurrent event survival analyses to estimate the independent association between at-risk/heavy drinking (based on National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] criteria) and risk of incident, self-reported suicide attempts. Results Of 1,757 participants, 162 participants (9.2%) reported 227 suicide attempts over the 8-year study period, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.5 cases per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, including intensive illicit drug use patterns, heavy alcohol use (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.78) was positively associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Conclusions We observed a high burden of suicidal behavior among a community-recruited sample of PWUD. Heavy alcohol use predicted a higher risk of suicide attempt, independent of other drug use patterns. These findings demonstrate the need for evidence-based interventions to address suicide risk among PWUD, particularly those who are heavy consumers of alcohol. PMID:25823908

  12. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part A: chemical analysis and drug use estimates.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Barron, Leon; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, community-wide estimation of drug and pharmaceuticals consumption in England using wastewater analysis and a large number of compounds. Among groups of compounds studied were: stimulants, hallucinogens and their metabolites, opioids, morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and others. Obtained results showed the usefulness of wastewater analysis in order to provide estimates of local community drug consumption. It is noticeable that where target compounds could be compared to NHS prescription statistics, good comparisons were apparent between the two sets of data. These compounds include oxycodone, dihydrocodeine, methadone, tramadol, temazepam and diazepam. Whereas, discrepancies were observed for propoxyphene, codeine, dosulepin and venlafaxine (over-estimations in each case except codeine). Potential reasons for discrepancies include: sales of drugs sold without prescription and not included within NHS data, abuse of a drug with the compound trafficked through illegal sources, different consumption patterns in different areas, direct disposal leading to over estimations when using parent compound as the drug target residue and excretion factors not being representative of the local community. It is noticeable that using a metabolite (and not a parent drug) as a biomarker leads to higher certainty of obtained estimates. With regard to illicit drugs, consistent and logical results were reported. Monitoring of these compounds over a one week period highlighted the expected recreational use of many of these drugs (e.g. cocaine and MDMA) and the more consistent use of others (e.g. methadone). PMID:24377678

  13. Effects of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse and HIV/AIDS Next Español English Español PDF Version Download Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  14. Drug Abuse Prevention For Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst G.

    Drug abuse is not confined to the young, but if a young person between the ages of 8 and 20 can be prevented from abusing drugs, chances are that he/she will never have a serious drug problem. Drug abuse prevention means helping young people develop personal strengths and values to reduce the chance that they will hurt themselves or others by…

  15. Drug abuse in slum population

    PubMed Central

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  16. Drug abuse in slum population.

    PubMed

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  17. Risk assessment of technologies for detecting illicit drugs in containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenstein, Albert E.

    1995-03-01

    This paper provides the highlights of the role risk assessment plays in the United States technology program for nonintrusive inspection of cargo containers for illicit drugs. The Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center is coordinating the national effort to develop prototype technologies for an advanced generation, nonintrusive cargo inspection system. In the future, the U.S. Customs Service could configure advanced technologies for finding not only drugs and other contraband hidden in cargo, but for a wide variety of commodities for customs duty verification purposes. The overall nonintrusive inspection system is envisioned to consist primarily of two classes of subsystems: (1) shipment document examination subsystems to prescreen exporter and importer documents; and (2) chemical and physics-based subsystems to detect and characterize illicit substances. The document examination subsystems would use software algorithms, artificial intelligence, and neural net technology to perform an initial prescreening of the information on the shipping manifest for suspicious patterns. This would be accomplished by creating a `profile' from the shipping information and matching it to trends known to be used by traffickers. The chemical and physics-based subsystems would apply nuclear physics, x-ray, gas chromatography and spectrometry technologies to locate and identify contraband in containers and other conveyances without the need for manual searches. The approach taken includes using technology testbeds to assist in evaluating technology prototypes and testing system concepts in a fully instrumented but realistic operational environment. This approach coupled with a substance signature phenomenology program to characterize those detectable elements of benign, as well as target substances lends itself particularly well to the topics of risk assessment and elemental characterization of substances. A technology testbed established in Tacoma, Washington provides a national

  18. Drug abuse first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... or extremely dry, hot skin Tremors Unconsciousness ( coma ) Violent or aggressive behavior Drug withdrawal symptoms also vary ... jeopardize your own safety. Some drugs can cause violent and unpredictable behavior. Call for professional assistance. Do ...

  19. HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

  20. Determination of illicit drugs and metabolites in oral fluid by microextraction on packed sorbent coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Camilla; Simeoni, Maria Chiara; Curini, Roberta; Sergi, Manuel; Lo Sterzo, Claudio; Compagnone, Dario

    2015-05-01

    Oral fluid (OF) has become a valuable biologic specimen for toxicological analysis, especially in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) investigations, because of easy and non-invasive collection procedures. In OF testing, being the sample volume is limited, multi-analyte procedures are particularly advantageous since they save time and resources. In this work, a procedure for the simultaneous analysis of 20 illicit drugs, belonging to the classes of cocaine, amphetamines, natural and synthetic opioids and hallucinogens, is presented. The sample preparation is based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), a novel technique which is based on the miniaturization of solid-phase extraction (SPE). The presented method, which includes all the most diffused illicit drugs and their metabolites, has been fully validated according to the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) guidelines. LLOQs ranged from 0.5 to 30 ng mL(-1) (diacetylmorphine); the presented method allows the detection of all the selected drugs quite below the cutoff values recommended by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) for abuse identification. PMID:25772560

  1. Other Drugs of Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... can make you pass out. It's called a "date rape" drug because someone can secretly put it in your ... you without your permission. Rohypnol (roofies) is a date rape pill and can ... about these drugs . Bath Salts are drugs made with chemicals like ...

  2. Drugs of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Donald E., Ed.

    This Drug Enforcement Administration publication delivers clear, scientific information about drugs in a factual, straightforward way, combined with precise photographs shot to scale. The publication is intended to serve as an A to Z guide for drug history, effects, and identification information. Chapters are included on the Controlled Substances…

  3. Drug abuse problems in countries of the Andean subregion.

    PubMed

    Flores Agreda, R

    1986-01-01

    The scarcity of epidemiological data makes it difficult for an accurate and comprehensive assessment to be made of the drug abuse situation in countries of the Andean subregion. Available evidence, however, indicates that in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru prevalence and incidence rates of drug abuse, particularly of the abuse of basic cocaine paste, are relatively high. Studies indicate that in Bolivia 4-5 per cent of youth are habitual cocaine users and that in Colombia drug abuse was in 1984 the seventh leading cause of psychiatric morbidity. A survey in Peru shows that 37 per cent of secondary school students use drugs, while 27 per cent of the respondents used basic cocaine paste as their first drug. It appears that the abuse of basic cocaine paste has spread evenly across urban social classes. The illegal cultivation of the coca bush has drastically increased in countries of the Andean subregion. For example, it is estimated that more than 135,000 hectares of coca bush are cultivated in Peru, producing approximately 135,000 tons of coca leaves a year, while the amount needed for legitimate purposes in that country is estimated at 10,000 tons a year. In the same country, seizures of basic cocaine paste increased from 4,755 kg in 1980 to 7,168 kg in 1983, and of macerated coca leaf from 2,570 kg in 1979 to 27,822 kg in 1984. The demand for illicit cocaine has substantially increased in the world. It is estimated that the total amount of illicit cocaine consumed in the world was 33-45 tons in 1981 and 50-61 tons in 1983. PMID:3490890

  4. When 'drugs' become 'drugs': issues of pharmaceutical abuse in France from the 1960s to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, media frenzies about drug addiction have focused mainly on illicit drugs taken by rebellious or marginalised addicts, relegating iatrogenic drug abuse, and policies and problems linked to psychotropic pharmaceuticals available by prescription or over-the-counter to the shadows. In this article I go beyond the division between illicit drugs and medicines still configuring both public representations and historiography: using archival materials from the 1960s-1990s in France, I highlight some blind spots in drug history. Firstly I demonstrate the role of pharmaceutical abuse in the career of addicts, and then examine regulation policies, which are the dark side, however complementary, of drug policies and prohibition. Finally, I analyse the role of physicians and pharmacists in this control, and discuss the various professional debates relating to the legal supply of psychoactive drugs. In all these issues, the frame of the Cold War context will also be highlighted. PMID:26054215

  5. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and ... to you. Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites ...

  6. Chemiluminescence detection of heroin in illicit drug samples.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Learey, Jessica J; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2013-11-15

    Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) and several important extraction and synthesis impurities (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and 6-acetylcodeine) were determined in illicit drug samples, using high performance liquid chromatography with 'parallel segmented flow', which enabled the simultaneous use of three complementary modes of detection (UV-absorbance, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence and permanganate chemiluminescence). This rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of street heroin was used to explore the chemistry of a proposed heroin screening test that is based on the relative response with these two chemiluminescence reagents using flow injection analysis. Although heroin was the major constituent of the six drug samples (between 16% and 67% by mass), the synthetic by-product 6-acetylcodeine (2.5-8.3%) made a greater contribution to the total [Ru(bipy)3](3+) chemiluminescence response of the screening test. The signal with permanganate was primarily due to the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (0.9-29%), and was therefore indicative of the degree of sample degradation during clandestine manufacture or poor storage conditions prior to the drug seizure. In the second part of the screening test, the sample is treated with sodium hydroxide, which results in a large increase in the signal with permanganate, due to the rapid hydrolysis of heroin to 6-monoacetylmorphine. As the emission of these two reagents with morphinan-alkaloids and their derivatives largely depends on the substituent at the O(3) position, the slower hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine to morphine, and 6-acetylcodeine to codeine, did not have a major impact on the characteristic pattern of responses in the screening test. PMID:24148453

  7. Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

  8. Drug–drug interactions between anti-retroviral therapies and drugs of abuse in HIV systems

    PubMed Central

    Rao, PSS; Earla, Ravindra; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substance abuse is a common problem among HIV-infected individuals. Importantly, addictions as well as moderate use of alcohol, smoking, or other illicit drugs have been identified as major reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV patients. The literature also suggests a decrease in the response to ART among HIV patients who use these substances, leading to failure to achieve optimal virological response and increased disease progression. Areas covered This review discusses the challenges with adherence to ART as well as observed drug interactions and known toxicities with major drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, smoking, methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and opioids. The lack of adherence and drug interactions potentially lead to decreased efficacy of ART drugs and increased ART, and drugs of abuse-mediated toxicity. As CYP is the common pathway in metabolizing both ART and drugs of abuse, we discuss the possible involvement of CYP pathways in such drug interactions. Expert opinion We acknowledge that further studies focusing on common metabolic pathways involving CYP and advance research in this area would help to potentially develop novel/alternate interventions and drug dose/regimen adjustments to improve medication outcomes in HIV patients who consume drugs of abuse. PMID:25539046

  9. Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boren, John J., Ed.; Onken, Lisa Simon, Ed.; Carroll, Kathleen M., Ed.

    The intent of this book is to present information on various counseling approaches for drug abuse used in some of the best known and most respected treatment programs in the United States. In an effort to make the comparison of the various models less difficult and to clarify how the model is applied in practice, each chapter follows a specific…

  10. Tattoo designs among drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Borokhov, Alexander; Bastiaans, Roland; Lerner, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one males with drug abuse who had tattoos with designs related to drug use were selected from a larger sample of tattooed males in forensic psychiatric wards, prisons and military recruitment centers during the period 1986-2000 in the former Soviet Union. Two-thirds of the tattoo images were related to a specific drug, some served to hide signs of repeated drug use, others to identify ideal sites for injection. Knowledge of these details may be helpful to clinicians, although images may be influenced by current trends. PMID:16910382

  11. DRUG ABUSE--ESCAPE TO NOWHERE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WINN, MITCHELL; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A GUIDE TO EDUCATORS IN THEIR EFFORTS TO DEVELOP PROGRAMS TO COMBAT DRUG ABUSE. IT IS DESIGNED AS AN INFORMATION SOURCE, NOT A PLAN FOR TEACHING. MAJOR AREAS INCLUDED IN THE DOCUMENT ARE (1) A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, (2) DRUGS OF ABUSE AND THEIR EFFECTS, (3) THE DRUG ABUSER AND METHODS OF THERAPY, (4) EDUCATION APPROACHES, AND…

  12. A review of ecological effects and environmental fate of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L

    2015-01-23

    Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. PMID:25062553

  13. Is there a gender difference in associates of adolescents’ lifetime illicit drug use in Tehran, Iran?

    PubMed Central

    Ameneh-Forouzan, Setareh-; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Assari, Shervin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding gender differences in drug use of adolescents is essential for designing gender-specific drug prevention policies. This study was conducted in high school students in Tehran, Iran, in 2007. Here, we report the gender differences in lifetime prevalence as well as psychosocial associates of drug use. Material and methods This was a gender analysis of the data collected in a drug use survey conducted in a random sample of high school adolescents (573 boys and 551 girls) in Tehran, Iran, 2007. Demographic characteristics, parental and peers’ substance use, school performance, religious beliefs, attachment, self-esteem and emotional intelligence (EI) were entered in logistic regression analyses to predict the lifetime illicit drug use in boy and girls, separately. Results Boys were more likely to report lifetime illicit drug use than girls (10.1% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.023). Differences in the risk profile associated with lifetime illicit drug use by gender included history of substance use in the family, higher score of attachment, and having an employed mother as predictors of substance use in boys, but not girls. Conclusions Understanding this gender difference in predictors of lifetime use of illicit drugs in high school adolescents facilitates the design of gender-sensitive drug use preventive programmes. It seems that family variables may have more value in prevention of illicit drug use in male adolescents. PMID:22371778

  14. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes. PMID:24447983

  15. Chicanoizing Drug Abuse Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, William S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Focus is on the community of La Colonia in Oxnard, California because it has (1) a high concentration of Mexican Americans, (2) a high incidence of drug addiction, and (3) reliable statistical data available. (NQ)

  16. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25816790

  17. Perspectives on Preventing Student Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Ronald, Ed.; Gwaltney, Margaret K., Ed.

    This set of papers is one part of the United States Department of Education's effort to establish a research agenda for drug use. It consists of a foreword and 10 papers that examine issues of drug abuse, students, and schools. It presents different views on the drug abuse problem in order to affect research on schools, drugs, and drug education.…

  18. Drug abuse in Nepal: a rapid assessment study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Uprety, L; Chapagain, M; Kafle, K

    1996-01-01

    A rapid assessment of drug abuse in Nepal was conducted at different sites, including eight municipalities in the five development regions of the country. To interview various groups of key informants, such methods as semi-structured interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used. A snowball sampling strategy for respondents who were drug abusers and a judgemental sampling strategy for the non-drug-using key informants were applied. About one fifth of the sample was recruited from the treatment centres and the rest from the community. Drug abusers in prison were interviewed, and secondary data from treatment centres and prisons analysed. The study revealed that the sample of drug abusers had a mean age of 23.8 years and was overwhelmingly male. Most respondents lived with their families and were either unemployed or students. About 30 per cent of the sample was married. A large majority of the sample had a family member or a close relative outside the immediate family who smoked or drank alcohol and a friend who smoked, drank or used illicit drugs. Apart from tobacco and alcohol, the major drugs of abuse were cannabis, codeine-containing cough syrup, nitrazepam tablets, buprenor-phine injections and heroin (usually smoked, rarely injected). The commonest sources of drugs were other drug-using friends, cross-border supplies from India or medicine shops. The commonest source of drug money was the family. There has been a clear trend towards the injection of buprenorphine by abusers who smoke heroin or drink codeine cough syrup. The reasons cited for switching to injections were the unavailability and rising cost of non-injectable drugs and the easy availability and relative cheapness of injectables. About a half of the injecting drug users (IDUs) commonly reported sharing injecting equipment inadequately cleaned with water. Over a half of IDUs reported visiting needle-exchange programmes at two of the study sites where such programmes were

  19. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

  20. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment. PMID:20011899

  1. Crystallographic investigations of select cathinones: emerging illicit street drugs known as `bath salts'.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew R; Lalancette, Roger A; Bernal, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The name `bath salts', for an emerging class of synthetic cathinones, is derived from an attempt to evade prosecution and law enforcement. These are truly illicit drugs that have psychoactive CNS (central nervous system) stimulant effects and they have seen a rise in abuse as recreational drugs in the last few years since first having been seen in Japan in 2006. The ease of synthesis and modification of specific functional groups of the parent cathinone make these drugs particularly difficult to regulate. MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is commonly encountered as its hydrochloride salt (C16H21NO3·HCl), in either the hydrated or the anhydrous forms. This `bath salt' has various names in the US, e.g. `Super Coke', `Cloud Nine', and `Ivory Wave', to name just a few. We report here the structures of two forms of the HCl salt, one as a mixed bromide/chloride salt, C16H22NO3(+)·0.343Br(-)·0.657Cl(-) [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one bromide/chloride (0.343/0.657)], and the other with the H7O3(+) cation, as well as the HCl counter-ion [systematic name: hydroxonium 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one dichloride, H7O3(+)·C16H22NO3(+)·2Cl(-)]. This is one of a very few structures (11 to be exact) in which we have a new example of a precisely determined hydroxonium cation. During the course of researching the clandestine manufacture of MDPV, we were surprised by the fact that a common precursor of this illicit stimulant is known to be the fragrant species piperonal, which is present in the fragrances of orchids, most particularly in the case of the vanilla orchid. We found that MDPV can be made by a Grignard reaction of this heliotropin. This may also explain the unexpected appearance of the bromide counter-ion in some of the salts we encountered (C16H21NO3·HBr), one of which is presented here [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one

  2. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  3. Perspectives on Health among Adult Users of Illicit Stimulant Drugs in Rural Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…

  4. Drug Abuse Control--Administrative Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA.

    These guidelines were developed to assist administrators, teachers, and other staff members of the Los Angeles Public Schools in the formulation of an effective program designed to alleviate drug abuse. Staff responsibilities are spelled out. Specific attention is directed to the problems of drug abuse, drug possession and drug selling. The…

  5. Migration and illicit drug use among two types of male migrants in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frank Y; He, N; Huang, Z J; Young, D; O'Conor, C; Ding, Y Y; Fu, C; Arayasirikul, S

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale internal migrations within China have led to speculation of increased drug use, but with little empirical evidence. This cross-sectional study examines the association between migration characteristics and illicit drug use in 100 general male migrants and 239 "money boys" (i.e., male migrants engaging in same-sex transactional sex) in Shanghai, China. Only three general male migrants reported any drug use. Among money boys, lifetime illicit drug use was 12%; Ecstasy and methamphetamine appeared to be the most popular drugs. In addition, depression prevalence was very high among both types of male migrants. Depression was associated with lifetime soft- and hard-drug use, while earning a higher income was associated with lifetime soft-drug use. These findings provide the first set of quantitative evidence of illicit drug use among Chinese male migrants. Although illicit drug use among male migrants is low compared to Western countries, its resurgence after 30 years of drug control gives cause for concern. PMID:20464801

  6. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments. PMID:27267659

  7. A further component analysis for illicit drugs mixtures with THz-TDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling; He, Ting; Pan, Rui

    2009-07-01

    A new method for quantitative analysis of mixtures of illicit drugs with THz time domain spectroscopy was proposed and verified experimentally. In traditional method we need fingerprints of all the pure chemical components. In practical as only the objective components in a mixture and their absorption features are known, it is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection and identification. Our new method of quantitatively inspect of the mixtures of illicit drugs is developed by using derivative spectrum. In this method, the ratio of objective components in a mixture can be obtained on the assumption that all objective components in the mixture and their absorption features are known but the unknown components are not needed. Then methamphetamine and flour, a illicit drug and a common adulterant, were selected for our experiment. The experimental result verified the effectiveness of the method, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs. This THz spectroscopy technique is great significant in the real-world applications of illicit drugs quantitative analysis. It could be an effective method in the field of security and pharmaceuticals inspection.

  8. Wastewater testing compared to random urinalyses for the surveillance of illicit drug use in prisons

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Alex J.; Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Ort, Christoph; Robel, Alix E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Illicit drug use is known to occur among inmate populations of correctional (prison) facilities. Conventional approaches to monitor illicit drug use in prisons include random urinalyses (RUAs). Conventional approaches are expected to be prone to bias because prisoners may be aware of which days of the week RUAs are conducted. Therefore, we wanted to compare wastewater loads for methamphetamine and cocaine during days with RUA testing and without. Design and Methods We collected daily 24-hour composite samples of wastewater by continuous sampling, computed daily loads for one month and compared the frequency of illicit drug detection to the number of positive RUAs. Diurnal data also were collected for three days in order to determine within-day patterns of illicit drugs excretion. Results Methamphetamine was observed in each sample of prison wastewater with no significant difference in daily mass loads between RUA testing and non-testing days. Cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were observed only at levels below quantification in prison wastewater. Six RUAs were positive for methamphetamine during the month while none were positive for cocaine out of the 243 RUAs conducted. Discussion and Conclusions Wastewater analyses offer data regarding the frequency of illicit drug excretion inside the prison that RUAs alone could not detect. PMID:25100044

  9. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. PMID:26978791

  10. Nephrotoxic effects of common and emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Pendergraft, William F; Herlitz, Leal C; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Rosner, Mitchell; Niles, John L

    2014-11-01

    The kidneys can be injured in diverse ways by many drugs, both legal and illegal. Novel associations and descriptions of nephrotoxic effects of common and emerging drugs of abuse have appeared over the past several years. Anabolic androgenic steroids, illicitly used by athletes and others for decades to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat, are emerging as podocyte toxins given recent descriptions of severe forms of FSGS in long-term abusers. Synthetic cannabinoids, a new group of compounds with marijuana-like effects, recently became popular as recreational drugs and have been associated with an atypical form of AKI. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, commonly known as ecstasy, is a widely used synthetic recreational drug with mood-enhancing properties and a constellation of toxicities that can result in death. These toxic effects include hyperthermia, hypotonic hyponatremia due to its arginine vasopressin secretagogue-like effects, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiovascular collapse. Cocaine, a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor that serves as an illegal stimulant, appetite suppressant, and anesthetic, also causes vasoconstriction and rhabdomyolysis. Recent adulteration of much of the world's supply of cocaine with levamisole, an antihelminthic agent with attributes similar to but distinct from those of cocaine, appears to have spawned a new type of ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis. This review discusses the nephrotoxic effects of these common and emerging drugs of abuse, of which both community and health care providers should become aware given their widespread abuse. Future investigation into pathogenetic mechanisms associated with these drugs is critical and may provide a window into ways to lessen and even prevent the nephrotoxic effects of these drugs of abuse and perhaps allow a deeper understanding of the nephrotoxicities themselves. PMID:25035273

  11. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  12. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  13. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  14. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  15. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  16. Examining the role of common genetic variants on alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and illicit drug dependence

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, RHC; Brick, L; Nugent, NR; Bidwell, LC; McGeary, JE; Knopik, VS; Keller, MC

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Twin and family studies suggest that genetic influences are shared across substances of abuse. However, despite evidence of heritability, genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have indicated numerous markers of limited effects, suggesting that much of the heritability remains missing. We estimated (1) the aggregate effect of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on multiple indicators of comorbid drug problems that are typically employed across community and population-based samples, and (2) the genetic covariance across these measures. Participants 2596 unrelated subjects from the “Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment” provided information on alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, cannabis, and other illicit substance dependence. Phenotypic measures included: (1) a factor score based on DSM-IV drug dependence diagnoses (DD), (2) a factor score based on problem use (PU; i.e., 1+ DSM-IV symptoms), and (3) dependence vulnerability (DV; a ratio of DSM-IV symptoms to the number of substances used). Findings Univariate and bivariate Genome-wide complex trait analyses of this selected sample indicated that common SNPs explained 25-36% of the variance across measures, with DD and DV having the largest effects [h2SNP (CI)=0.36 (0.11-0.62) and 0.33(0.07-0.58), respectively; PU = 0.25 (-0.01-0.51)]. Genetic effects were shared across the three phenotypic measures of comorbid drug problems (rSNP; rDD-PU = 0.92 (0.76-1.00), rDD-DV = 0.97 (0.87-1.00), and rPU-DV = 0.96 (0.82-1.00)). Conclusion At least 20% of the variance in the generalized vulnerability to substance dependence is attributable to common single nucleotide polymorphisms. The additive effect of common single nucleotide polymorphisms is shared across important indicators of comorbid drug problems. PMID:25424661

  17. Spatial and temporal occurrence of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in the aqueous environment and during wastewater treatment: new developments.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, spatial and temporal occurrence of a comprehensive set of >60 pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater (7 wastewater treatment plants utilising different treatment technologies) and a major river in the UK over a 12 month period. This paper also undertakes a comparison of the efficiency of processes utilised during wastewater treatment and it discusses under-researched aspects of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in the environment including sorption to solids and stereoselectivity in the fate of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters. The removal efficiency of analytes strongly depended on the type of wastewater treatment technology employed and denoted <50% or >60% in the case of tricking filter and activated sludge respectively. It should be stressed, however, that the removal rate was highly variable for different groups of compounds. A clear increase in the cumulative concentration of all monitored compounds was observed in receiving waters; thus highlighting the impact of WWTP discharge on water quality and the importance of the removal efficiency of WWTPs. No seasonal variation was observed with regard to the total load of targeted compounds in the river each month. The concentration of each analyte was largely dependent on rainfall and the dilution factor of WWTP discharge. These results indicate that although the drugs of abuse are not present at very high concentrations in river water (typically low ng L(-1) levels), their occurrence and possible synergic action is of concern, and the study of multiple groups of drugs of abuse is of significant importance. PMID:23563258

  18. Development of a fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug--GBL.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Duanting; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Eng, Pei Sze Fronia; Lee, Sung-Chan; Xu, Wang; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-07-14

    The first fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug, GBL, was developed and named Green Date. It shows high fluorescence enhancement to GBL and allows its detection in different drinks. The mechanism between GBL and Green Date was explored. This discovery may help to prevent the drug-facilitated sexual assault problems. PMID:23728479

  19. DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STREAMS USING INTEGRATIVE SAMPLERS AND LC MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drug...

  20. Marital Homophily on Illicit Drug Use among Young Adults: Assortative Mating or Marital Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal and current survey data on 545 married/cohabiting couples found highest marital homophily for ethnicity, fertility expectations, religion, educational attainment, marital satisfaction, and illicit drug use. On drug use, data best supported a model of marital selection and assortative mating but was inconclusive concerning…

  1. Knowledge and experience of young people of drug abuse 1969-84.

    PubMed

    Wright, J D; Pearl, L

    1986-01-18

    An anonymous questionnaire survey of the knowledge and experience of drug abuse among fourth year pupils in three Wolverhampton secondary schools in 1969, 1974, 1979, and 1984 showed familiarity with the names of drugs but considerable ignorance and misunderstanding about how the drugs were taken and their dangers. The proportion of pupils who knew someone taking illicit drugs almost doubled over the period from 15% in 1969 to 28% in 1984, and the proportion of those who had been offered illicit drugs almost trebled, from 5% in 1969 to 14% in 1984. Television remained the most important source of information about drugs. Peer group and social pressures continued to be the most important reason for starting to take drugs. The results of this study endorse the need for continued evaluation of programmes of education about drugs. Such programmes must be part of a wider programme of health and social education, define clear goals, and be sensitive to culture, locality, and ability. PMID:3080126

  2. The impact of science education games on prescription drug abuse attitudes among teens: a case study.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G; Miller, Leslie M; Ramos, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated in a pretest, two game-play sessions, and a delayed posttest. Students in both groups demonstrated more negative attitudes toward prescription drug abuse after playing the game, driven by changes of students' normative beliefs and their ability to make the connection between prescription drug abuse and illicit drugs. A secondary aim was to assess gains in science knowledge; however, due to low internal consistency reliabilities of content measures, students' knowledge acquisition could not be determined. PMID:25445507

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  4. Drug Abuse Information, Teacher Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Haskell, Comp.

    This informational publication is to be used as an aid for teachers, bringing them basic facts regarding drugs and drug abuse. Its purpose is to (1) give additional teacher background information and (2) enrich any course of study that has been developed on drug abuse. To use the material most effectively, it is suggested the teacher have an…

  5. Drug Abuse: A Challenge for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conte, Anthony E.; Mason, Eugene R.

    This report provides comprehensive information regarding drug use/abuse. The first chapter describes drugs -- those generally accepted by society as well as those less accepted -- and discusses potential psychic and physical dangers inherent in their abuse. The second chapter explains the reasons offered by drug users for their generally…

  6. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections. PMID:27000123

  7. Non-destructive inspections of illicit drugs in envelope using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Shen, Jingling; Lu, Meihong; Jia, Yan; Sun, Jinhai; Liang, Laishun; Shi, Yanning; Xu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Cunlin

    2006-09-01

    The absorption spectra of two illicit drugs, methylenedioxyamphetarnine (MDA) and methamphetamine (MA), within and without two conventional envelopes are studied using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The characteristic absorption spectra of MDA and MA are obtained in the range of 0.2 THz to 2.5 THz. MDA has an obvious absorption peak at 1.41 THz while MA has obvious absorption peaks at 1.23 THz, 1.67 THz, 1.84 THz and 2.43 THz. We find that the absorption peaks of MDA and MA within the envelopes are almost the same as those without the envelopes respectively although the two envelopes have some different absorption in THz waveband. This result indicates that the type of illicit drugs in envelopes can be determined by identifying their characteristic absorption peaks, and THz time-domain spectroscopy is one of the most powerful candidates for illicit drugs inspection.

  8. The Effects of American Sign Language on General Self-Efficacy and Anxiety among Mothers in a Residential Rehabilitation Facility for Drug Addiction and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, approximately 208 million people aged 15 and older used illicit drugs at least once in the last 12 months; 2 billion consumed alcohol and tobacco consumption affected 25% (World Drug Report, 2008). In the United States, 20.1 million (8.0%) people aged 12 and older were illicit drug users, 129 million (51.6%) abused alcohol and 70.9…

  9. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse. PMID:24829628

  10. Application of a sewage-based approach to assess the use of ten illicit drugs in four Chinese megacities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Li, Jing; Maho, Walid; Du, Peng; Li, Kaiyang; Hou, Linlin; Zhang, Jiying; Meng, Xiangzhou; Li, Xiqing; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-07-15

    Sewage-based epidemiology was applied for the first time to a number of mainland Chinese megacities. The application monitored influents to 9 sewage treatment plants (STPs) to estimate the use of illicit drugs in Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Shanghai. Altogether, 11.4 million inhabitants were covered during September-October 2012. 24-h composite raw sewage samples were collected for 4 consecutive days at each STP. Each collected sample was analyzed for cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methylester, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, mephedrone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, ketamine, and norketamine. Through the analysis of these chemical residues, the use of amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, heroin, mephedrone, methadone, methamphetamine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone and ketamine among Chinese urban inhabitants was monitored. The results obtained demonstrated in a quantitative way that the drug use patterns of Chinese are different from their European counterparts. Abuse of methamphetamine and ketamine was particularly noteworthy in China, while consumption of cocaine and ecstasy, the most popular drugs in Europe, was very low among the sampled Chinese inhabitants. Further, the use of most drugs demonstrated a geographical trend, since their use was much higher in the southern cities of Shenzhen and Guangzhou than it was in Beijing and Shanghai. Interestingly, the exclusive, but minor, metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, was detected only sporadically. This would suggest that the use of heroin among Chinese urban users sampled in the study was low. Further, the patterns of drug use observed during the study are largely consistent with trends reported by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Overall, our study suggests that sewage-based epidemiology can readily be used to monitor the use of illicit drugs in

  11. Comprehensive drug screening in blood for detecting abused drugs or drugs potentially hazardous for traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Lillsunde, P; Michelson, L; Forsstrom, T; Korte, T; Schultz, E; Ariniemi, K; Portman, M; Sihvonen, M L; Seppala, T

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive drug screening procedure for detecting drugs in the blood samples of car drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs, is presented. Amphetamines, cannabinoids, opioids, cocaine and benzodiazepines were screened by an immunological EMIT ETS system after acetone precipitation. Gas chromatographic methods were used to screen and quantitate basic, neutral and acidic drugs. The free amino groups of basic drugs were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Analysis was performed by a dual channel gas chromatograph combined with a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector. Phenyltrimethylammonium hydroxide was used as a methylathing agent for acidic substances before analysis with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus detector. A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry was used as a common confirmation method. Tetrahydrocannabinol was quantitated after bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide derivatization, opiates after pentafluoropropionic anhydride derivatization and benzoylecgonine after pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol derivatization. Excluding benzodiazepines, which were confirmed with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector, the other basic drugs as well as the acidic drugs were confirmed after the same derivatization procedures as in the screening methods. Alcohols were quantitated in triplicate by gas chromatography using three different kinds of columns. Although urine is the most important specimen for screening abused drugs, it has only limited use in forensic toxicology. The described system is most useful for analyzing a wide range of substances, including illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antidepressants and phenothiazenes in forensic samples when urine is not available. PMID:8819994

  12. Testing wastewater to detect illicit drugs: state of the art, potential and research needs.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Sara; Thomas, Kevin V; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Vandam, Liesbeth; Griffiths, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Illicit drug use is a global phenomenon involving millions of individuals, which results in serious health and social costs. The chemical analysis of urban wastewater for the excretion products of illicit drugs is a potent approach for monitoring patterns and trends of illicit drug use in a community. The first international and multidisciplinary conference on this topic was recently organized to present the epidemiological knowledge of patterns in drug use and the information obtained from wastewater analysis. This paper gives an overview of the main issues that emerged during the conference, focusing on the identified research gaps and requirements and on the future challenges and opportunities from bringing together wastewater analysis and drug epidemiology. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) uses an established multi-indicator system to monitor illicit drug use and to identify the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The methodological challenges of monitoring a hidden and stigmatized behavior like drug use include the limitations of self-report data and reporting delays. An increasing evidence base suggests that wastewater analysis can address some of these problems. Specifically this technique can: monitor temporal and spatial trends in drug use at different scales, provide updated estimates of drug use, and identify changing habits and the use of new substances. A best practice protocol developed by a Europe-wide network of experts is available to produce homogeneous and comparable data at different sites. The systematic evaluation of uncertainties related to wastewater analysis has highlighted which areas require careful control and those that need further investigation to generally improve the approach. Wastewater analysis has considerable potential to complement existing approaches for monitoring drug use due to its ability to produce objective, real-time estimates of drug use and to give timely information of any

  13. Nonmedical Use of Prescription ADHD Stimulants and Preexisting Patterns of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Christine T.; Sembower, Mark A.; Ertischek, Michelle D.; Shiffman, Saul; Schnoll, Sidney H.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug use is well documented among nonmedical users of prescription stimulants. We sought to provide insight into the drug use patterns of those reporting nonmedical use of prescription attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulants in an attempt to discern whether such use is a first step in a pattern of drug-abusing behavior or, conversely, is a later development accompanied or preceded by a history of drug abuse. A cross-sectional, population-based survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 12 years and older was analyzed for lifetime nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants, lifetime nonmedical use of another prescription drug, illicit drug use, and drug use initiation patterns. This included 443,041 respondents from the 2002–2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Lifetime nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants was reported by 3.4% of those aged 12 years and older. Of these, 95.3% also reported use of an illicit drug (i.e., marijuana, cocaine/crack, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants) or nonmedical use of another prescription drug (i.e., tranquilizers, pain relievers, or sedatives), and such use preceded nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants in 77.6% of cases. On average, 2.40 drugs were used prior to the first nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants. These data suggest that nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants is not commonly an initiating factor leading to the nonmedical use of other prescription medications or abuse of illicit drugs. Rather, nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulants appears to be adopted by individuals already engaged in broader patterns of drug abuse and misuse. PMID:23480243

  14. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2015-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. PMID:24752638

  15. Social and structural factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M-J; Marshall, Brandon; Kerr, Thomas; Buxton, Jane; Rhodes, Tim; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users, focusing on exposures exogenous to individuals that likely shape access and adherence to HIV treatment. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed English-language studies among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users with at least one of these endpoint of interest: a diagnosis of AIDS; death; changes/differences in CD4 cell counts; or changes/differences in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods Articles were included if they reported factors associated with an outcome of interest among a group of illicit drug users. Studies were identified, screened and selected using systematic methods. Results Of 2,668 studies matching the search criteria, 58 (2%) met the inclusion criteria, all but one from North America or Western Europe. Overall, 41 (71%) studies contained significant individual-level clinical characteristics or behaviours (e.g., illicit drug use) associated with disease progression. Fifteen studies (26%) identified significant social, physical, economic or policy-level exposures, including incarceration, housing status or lack of legal income. Conclusion While past studies demonstrate important environmental exposures that appear to shape access to care and subsequent disease progression, the limited literature to examine these factors demonstrates the need for future research to consider risk environment characteristics and the role they may play in shaping health outcomes from HIV infection among drug users through determining access and adherence to evidence-based care. (198 words) PMID:22333747

  16. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  17. The First Lady Talks about Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Mrs. Reagan discusses effects of drug use among teenagers and offers suggestions to teachers, parents, and students for combating drug abuse. She stresses parent involvement and the formation of parent peer groups, as well as teachers' responsibilities. (NJ)

  18. Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What to Ask

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask » Introduction Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask Email Facebook Twitter Introduction The goal of drug abuse treatment is to stop drug use and allow ...

  19. Drug Abuse: A Community College Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellander, Gustavo A.; Hubbard, Gary

    In 1985, the Chancellor of West Valley College met with California Attorney General John Van De Kamp to explore methods by which the community college district could respond to the growing problem of drug abuse. The first step was the establishment of a 15-hour, fee-supported class on drug and alcohol abuse education for adult offenders at the…

  20. DRUG ABUSE WARNING NETWORK (DAWN) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is an ongoing drug abuse data collection system sponsored by SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies. DAWN collects data from: (1) hospital emergency departments (EDs) and (2) medical examiners (MEs). The DAWN ED component relies on a nationally r...

  1. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  2. Behavioral Analysis and Modification of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, George E.

    Some of the unique characteristics of the drug abuse field which distinguish it from the other varieties of substance abuse and research methodologies for studying determinants of drug self-administration behavior which have been developed in response to these characteristics were investigated. Data suggest that residential drug…

  3. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (<0.2-10doses/day/1000 inhabitants) and cocaine (0.2-8.7doses/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (<0.01-4.4doses/day/1000 inhabitants). Enhanced consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results

  4. Review: The neuropathology of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Büttner, A

    2011-02-01

    Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. The major substances abused include cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 'ecstasy'. Alterations of intracellular messenger pathways, transcription factors and immediate early genes within the brain reward system seem to be fundamentally important for the development of addiction and chronic drug abuse. Genetic risk factors and changes in gene expression associated with drug abuse are still poorly understood. Besides cardiovascular complications, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms are the most common manifestations of drug toxicity. A broad spectrum of changes affecting the central nervous system is seen in drug abusers. The major findings result from the consequences of ischaemia and cerebrovascular diseases. Except for a few observations of vasculitis, the aetiology of these cerebrovascular accidents is not fully understood. The abuse of amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA has been related to neurotoxicity in human long-term abusers and to the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. However, whether such neurotoxicity occurs remain to be established. Systematic histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric investigations have shown profound morphological alterations in the brains of polydrug abusers. The major findings comprise neuronal loss, neurodegenerative alterations, a reduction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunopositive astrocytes, widespread axonal damage with concomitant microglial activation as well as reactive and degenerative changes of the cerebral microvasculature. These observations demonstrate that drugs of abuse initiate a cascade of interacting toxic, vascular and hypoxic factors, which finally result in widespread disturbances within the complex network of central nervous system cell-to-cell interactions. PMID:20946118

  5. Is nonmedical prescription opiate use a unique form of illicit drug use?

    PubMed

    Catalano, Richard F; White, Helene R; Fleming, Charles B; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2011-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription opiate (NMPO) use is of great concern because of its high addiction potential, cognitive impairment effects, and other adverse consequences (e.g., hormonal and immune system effects, hyperalgesia and overdose). Due to the combination of drugs used by those who are NMPO users, it is difficult to isolate the negative effects of NMPO use from the effects of other legal and illicit drugs. Based on a stage model of substance use, this study tested whether NMPO use represents a unique form of illicit drug use among emerging adults and whether there are unique consequences of early NMPO use. We used longitudinal data from 912 emerging adults from the Raising Healthy Children study who were interviewed at least annually from the first or second grade through age 21. The findings indicated that almost all NMPO users have also used marijuana and a large majority has also used other drugs, such as cocaine and ecstasy. In addition, more frequent users of NMPOs are also more frequent users of other drugs. Except for violent behavior, NMPO use explained little unique variance in negative outcomes of use (e.g., drug use disorder, mood disorder, nonproductive behavior, poor health, and property crime) beyond that explained by other illicit drug use. Future studies examining the predictors or consequences of NMPO use and nonmedical use of other prescription drugs need to consider use within the context of other drug use. PMID:20864261

  6. Identifying medical-surgical nursing staff perceptions of the drug-abusing patient.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Stacy L; Stone, Wendy L; Burleson, Stephanie L

    2013-01-01

    Nurses report a negative, stereotypical, and moralistic view of substance-abusing patients. Unaddressed bias may impede delivery of quality care. There is limited research of the needs specific to medical-surgical nursing staff interacting with substance-abusing patients. Nursing therapeutic commitment refers to the degree the nurse feels prepared with an adequate knowledge base, professional support, and personal ownership of a patient condition. Low therapeutic commitment correlates with job dissatisfaction. The Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire assesses healthcare provider attitude and therapeutic commitment to patients using or abusing medication or illicit substances. This therapeutic commitment survey serves as a staff needs assessment for a targeted educational innovation. The results show that the medical and surgical nursing staff has a constructive attitude and a moderately high degree of therapeutic commitment to the drug-abusing patient population, similar to more specialized multidisciplinary, mental healthcare workers. This study showed that medical-surgical nurses feel professionally responsible and clinically supported with patients with primary or comorbid drug abuse. Consistent with established results, focused and ongoing education on the risk factors, outcomes, and physical and psychological effects of illicit substances is necessary to improve therapeutic commitment to drug-dependent patients. PMID:24621546

  7. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

  8. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  9. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernández, Félix; González-Mariño, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Östman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10−3), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. PMID:24861844

  10. Coexisting Child Neglect and Drug Abuse in Young Mothers: Specific Recommendations for Treatment Based on a Review of the Outcome Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad

    2004-01-01

    Although perpetrators of child neglect often abuse illicit substances, treatment outcome evaluations in drug-abusing young mothers who have been found to neglect their children are conspicuously absent. Problem-solving interventions and family-based therapies that include skill acquisition components have demonstrated effectiveness in…

  11. Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cofrancesco, Joseph; Scherzer, Rebecca; Tien, Phyllis C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Southwell, Heather; Sidney, Stephen; Dobs, Adrian; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and the impact on HIV treatment. Design Multivariable regression of cross-sectional data from 1163 HIV-infected and 294 controls from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). Methods An analysis of (1) prevalence of specific illicit drug use (ever, current), (2) being on HAART among those with an indication and (3) current HIV RNA and CD4 cell count among HAART users. Results Median age was 42 years, approximately 50% were non-Caucasian and 33% were women. Eighty-six percent of HIV-infected and 67% of controls reported ever using illicit drugs (P <0.0001); 28% of HIV-infected and 16% of controls reported current use (P = 0.0001). In adjusted models, current cocaine use and past heroin use were associated with not currently being on HAART. Among HAART users, those reporting past heroin use were as likely to have an undetectable HIV viral load as those who had never used heroin. Current and past cocaine use and current heroin use was associated with lower odds of undetectable HIV RNA. Past amphetamine use was associated with having an undetectable HIV. Similar results were seen for CD4 lymphocyte counts. Conclusion Illicit drug use in the US is common, although far fewer report current use than past use. Among HIV-infected patients, understanding of the type of illicit drugs used and whether drug use was in the past or ongoing is important, because of their differential effects on HIV treatment outcomes. PMID:18195562

  12. Unhealthy Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use are Associated with Decreased Quality of HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Korthuis, P. Todd; Fiellin, David A.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Gordon, Adam J.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Asch, Steven M.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Crystal, Stephen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients with substance use experience suboptimal health outcomes, possibly to due to variations in care. Objectives To assess the association between substance use and the quality of HIV care (QOC) received. Research Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Measures We collected self-report substance use data and abstracted 9 HIV quality indicators (QIs) from medical records. Independent variables were unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score ≥4) and illicit drug use (self-report of stimulants, opioids, or injection drug use in past year). Main outcome was the percentage of QIs received, if eligible. We estimated associations between substance use and QOC using multivariable linear regression. Results The majority of the 3,410 patients were male (97.4%) and Black (67.0%) with a mean age of 49.1 years (SD 8.8). Overall, 25.8% reported unhealthy alcohol use, 22% illicit drug use, and participants received 81.5% (SD=18.9) of QIs. The mean percentage of QIs received was lower for those with unhealthy alcohol use vs. not (59.3% vs. 70.0%, p<.001) and those using illicit drugs vs. not (57.8% vs. 70.7%, p<.001). In multivariable models, unhealthy alcohol use (adjusted β −2.74; 95% CI −4.23, −1.25) and illicit drug use (adjusted β −3.51 95% CI −4.99, −2.02) remained inversely associated with the percentage of QIs received. Conclusions Though the overall QOC for these HIV-infected Veteran patients was high, gaps persist for those with unhealthy alcohol and illicit drug use. Interventions that address substance use in HIV-infected patients may improve the QOC received. PMID:22820808

  13. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  14. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    The Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972 directed the development and promulgation of a comprehensive, coordinated long-term Federal strategy for all drug abuse prevention and drug traffic control functions conducted, sponsored, or supported by the Federal Government. This second annual report of the Strategy Council builds on the…

  15. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  16. Gender Differences in Substance Dependence and Abuse. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Males are more likely to use, abuse, and be dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs than females. The 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asked questions of persons aged 12 or older to assess their use of alcohol and illicit drugs, as well as their symptoms of substance dependence or abuse during the past year. NSDUH defines "any…

  17. Screening for drugs in oral fluid: illicit drug use and drug driving in a sample of Queensland motorists.

    PubMed

    Davey, J; Leal, N; Freeman, J

    2007-05-01

    Police Services in a number of Australian states have indicated random roadside drug testing will be implemented to target drug driving. This paper outlines research conducted to provide an estimate of the prevalence of drug driving in a sample of Queensland drivers. Oral fluid samples were collected from 781 drivers who volunteered to participate at Random Breath Testing (RBT) sites in a large Queensland regional area. Illicit substances tested for included cannabis (delta 9 tetrahydrocannibinol [THC]), amphetamine type substances, heroin and cocaine. Drivers also completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their drug-related driving behaviour. Samples that were drug-positive at initial screening were sent to a government laboratory for confirmation. Oral fluid samples from 27 participants (3.5%) were confirmed positive for at least one illicit substance. The most common drugs detected in oral fluid were cannabis (delta 9 THC) (n = 13) followed by amphetamine type substances (n = 11). A key finding was that cannabis was also confirmed as the most common self-reported drug combined with driving and that individuals who tested positive to any drug through oral fluid analysis were also more likely to report the highest frequency of drug driving. Furthermore, a comparison between drug vs drink driving detection rates for the study period revealed a higher detection rate for drug driving (3.5%) vs drink driving (0.8%). This research provides evidence that drug driving is relatively prevalent on Queensland Roads. The paper will further outline the study findings and present possible directions for future drug driving research. PMID:17454020

  18. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  19. Bibliography for Drug Abuse and Narcotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCOPE, Stony Brook, NY.

    The material presented deals with the many facets of: (1) drug abuse, (2) drug addiction, (3) treatment, (4) alcoholism, (5) glue sniffing, (6) narcotic laws, (7) drugs and youth, and (8) the kinds of drugs used. The types of materials listed are: (1) pamphlets, (2) lay periodicals, (3) periodicals and professional articles, (4) books, and (5)…

  20. Drug Traffic and Abuse in Schools: NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Drug abuse in schools, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and tobacco abuse, are the topics of this report. Discussions are provided in these areas: (1) prevalence of drug abuse; (2) student attitudes and beliefs; (3) drug laws and school rules; (4) student searches and drug testing; (5) drug epidemic reaching the very young; (6) tobacco abuse; (7)…

  1. Drug Traffic and Abuse in Schools: NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Drug abuse in schools, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and tobacco abuse are the topics of this paper. The paper is divided into the following sections: (1) prevalence of drug abuse; (2) student attitudes and beliefs; (3) drug laws and school rules; (4) student searches and drug testing; (5) drug epidemic reaches very young; (6) tobacco abuse; (7)…

  2. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  3. The recovery of illicit drugs from oral fluid sampling devices.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Stuart; Park, Alexandra; Nolan, Susan; Kenworthy, Sarah; Nicholson, Cheryl; Midgley, Julie; Pinfold, Rowena; Hampton, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Testing for drugs in oral fluid is a convenient procedure for determining recent drug use. A number of issues are still to be resolved and this paper investigates the effects of storage systems on drug stability and recovery using three different collection devices supplied by Cozart, Immunalysis and Microgenics (third party). Drugs were analysed using a range of immunoassay systems followed by MS confirmation and quantitation. The reproducibility of the weight of specimen collected was excellent (CV<10%) for the three collection devices tested. Of the three systems studied, only the Cozart product gave acceptable recovery of THC from drug-spiked oral fluid. A combination of Cozart, Immunalysis and Diagnostix immunoassays with the Cozart collection system gave the most sensitive and discriminating screening assays for the drugs studied, namely THC, benzodiazepines, methamphetamine and morphine. Storage at either 5 degrees C or room temperature had no significant effect on drug recoveries. PMID:16621382

  4. Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica.

    PubMed Central

    Soyibo, K.; Lee, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively. PMID:10212517

  5. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  6. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  7. Can price get the monkey off our back? A meta-analysis of illicit drug demand.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Because of the increased availability of price data over the past 15 years, several studies have estimated the demand for illicit drugs, providing 462 estimates of the price elasticity. Results from estimating several meta-regressions reveal that these price elasticity estimates are influenced by a number of study characteristics. For instance, the price elasticity differs across drugs, with its absolute value being smallest for marijuana, compared with cocaine and heroin. Furthermore, price elasticity estimates are sensitive to whether demand is modeled in the short-run or the long-run, measures of quantity and price, whether or not alcohol and other illicit drugs are included in the specification of demand, and the location of demand. However, a number of other factors, including the functional form of demand, several specification issues, the type of data and method used to estimate demand, and the quality of the publication outlet, have less influence on the price elasticity. PMID:23303721

  8. Searching for safety: addressing search engine, website, and provider accountability for illicit online drug sales.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Online sales of pharmaceuticals are a rapidly growing phenomenon. Yet despite the dangers of purchasing drugs over the Internet, sales continue to escalate. These dangers include patient harm from fake or tainted drugs, lack of clinical oversight, and financial loss. Patients, and in particular vulnerable groups such as seniors and minorities, purchase drugs online either naïvely or because they lack the ability to access medications from other sources due to price considerations. Unfortunately, high risk online drug sources dominate the Internet, and virtually no accountability exists to ensure safety of purchased products. Importantly, search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and MSN, although purportedly requiring "verification" of Internet drug sellers using PharmacyChecker.com requirements, actually allow and profit from illicit drug sales from unverified websites. These search engines are not held accountable for facilitating clearly illegal activities. Both website drug seller anonymity and unethical physicians approving or writing prescriptions without seeing the patient contribute to rampant illegal online drug sales. Efforts in this country and around the world to stem the tide of these sales have had extremely limited effectiveness. Unfortunately, current congressional proposals are fractionated and do not address the key issues of demand by vulnerable patient populations, search engine accountability, and the ease with which financial transactions can be consummated to promote illegal online sales. To deal with the social scourge of illicit online drug sales, this article proposes a comprehensive statutory solution that creates a no-cost/low-cost national Drug Access Program to break the chain of demand from vulnerable patient populations and illicit online sellers, makes all Internet drug sales illegal unless the Internet pharmacy is licensed through a national Internet pharmacy licensing program, prohibits financial transactions for illegal online drug

  9. Is there heterogeneity among syndromes of substance use disorder for illicit drugs?

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Tsuang, Ming T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of DSM criteria to evaluate liability to substance use disorders (SUDs) and to identify SUD phenotypes may not provide the sensitivity required to identify genes associated with vulnerability to SUDs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a number of basic aspects of substance use that may be more proximal than full SUDs to risk genes, some of which may thus have greater potential utility as phenotypes in subsequent molecular genetic analyses. In this paper we present results from the first stage of our planned analyses, focusing on how individual symptoms of abuse and dependence may be used to create alternate phenotypes for SUDs. Specifically, we used factor analysis and biometrical modeling on each symptom of illicit substance abuse and dependence within different types of substances, and compared and contrasted factor patterns and heritabilities across the different substances. These analyses were carried out using a population-based sample of 3372 male–male twin pairs from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse. We obtained extensive data from these participants on substance use and SUDs via telephone interview in 1992, including data on the illicit substances: opiates, cocaine, cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, and psychedelics. The results indicate that: A) although a one-factor model assuming a single underlying liability for abuse and dependence symptoms and behaviors can be rejected for most substances, there is no uniform support for a two-factor model differentiating between abuse versus dependence; B) patterns of symptoms or behaviors reported by substance users vary across substances; C) not all symptoms or behaviors contribute equally to the presentation of an SUD; and D) the heritability of symptoms or behaviors of substance users varies both within and between substances. These results represent important first steps in facilitating the search for SUD-risk genes in subsequent high

  10. Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yuuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2003-10-01

    The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra measured with a tunable terahertz-wave source. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.

  11. Hospitalization in a cohort seeking treatment for illicit drug use in Finland.

    PubMed

    Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Beynon, Caryl M; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Tiihonen, Jari; Föhr, Jaana; Kuikanmäki, Outi; Paasolainen, Mika; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2015-06-01

    Illicit drug use is associated with various health problems that result in inpatient hospital admissions. The primary objective of this study was to examine all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations by gender. The cohort comprised 4817 drug users (3365 males and 1452 females) who sought treatment in Helsinki between 1997 and 2008. Data on hospitalizations that occurred among these clients were extracted from the National Hospital Discharge Register. Crude hospitalization rates (CHRs) and standardized hospitalization ratios (SHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and Kaplan-Meier analysis with Log-Rank test was used to compare survival in terms of time to hospitalization between males and females. At the end of the follow-up period, 84.5% of females and 73.3% of male clients were hospitalized at least once. Female clients had higher CHR (607.6/1000 person-years, 95%CI: 594.1-621.4) than males (511.0/1000, 95% CI: 502.9-519.3), and had significantly poorer survival than males (Log-Rank test, P<0.001). However, male clients stayed longer on admission than females (mean length of stay 70.2days versus 60.7days respectively, P<0.001). Compared to the national rates, excess hospitalizations were noted in both males (SHR=6.3, 95% CI: 6.2-6.4) and female clients (SHR=4.3, 95% CI: 4.2-4.4). Based upon primary discharge diagnosis, the leading causes of hospitalizations included psychosis (n=622), schizophrenia (n=604), depression (n=497), cardiovascular diseases (n=223), hepatitis C (n=116), HIV (n=81), and other types of hepatitis (n=45). Female clients were more likely than males to be admitted for hepatitis C infection (P<0.001) and depression (P<0.001). Male clients were more likely than females to be diagnosed with other types of hepatitis infections (P=0.032) and psychosis (P=0.035). Excess hospitalizations signify excessive utilization of health resources. Effective drug abuse treatment, gender-sensitive approaches, and regular health checks can

  12. A Strategy for Local Drug Abuse Assessment. Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John O.

    This paper provides a model to assist local program planners, administrators, and other decisionmakers in the assessment of local drug abuse conditions and problems. The model presents data on which to base everyday judgments about drug abuse, to plan for drug abuse services, and to allocate limited resources on local levels. Drug abuse indicators…

  13. A Drug Abuse Prevention Strategy for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglan, Anthony; Duncan, Terry; Irvine, A. Blair; Ary, Dennis; Smolkowski, Keith; James, Lisa

    This paper describes strategies for developing drug abuse prevention programs in rural communities, based on available evidence about factors contributing to drug abuse. Comprehensive interventions to prevent drug abuse and other youth problems are needed because drug abuse is entwined with other problem behaviors and stems from a complex set of…

  14. Cellular Mechanisms of Action of Drug Abuse on Olfactory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Heinbockel, Thomas; Wang, Ze-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) are the active ingredient of marijuana (cannabis) which is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the USA. In addition to being known and used as recreational drugs, cannabinoids are produced endogenously by neurons in the brain (endocannabinoids) and serve as important signaling molecules in the nervous system and the rest of the body. Cannabinoids have been implicated in bodily processes both in health and disease. Recent pharmacological and physiological experiments have described novel aspects of classic brain signaling mechanisms or revealed unknown mechanisms of cellular communication involving the endocannabinoid system. While several forms of signaling have been described for endocannabinoids, the most distinguishing feature of endocannabinoids is their ability to act as retrograde messengers in neural circuits. Neurons in the main olfactory bulb express high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Here, we describe the cellular mechanisms and function of this novel brain signaling system in regulating neural activity at synapses in olfactory circuits. Results from basic research have the potential to provide the groundwork for translating the neurobiology of drug abuse to the realm of the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of addiction, specifically marijuana substance use disorder. PMID:26703658

  15. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  16. Drug abusers show impaired performance in a laboratory test of decision making.

    PubMed

    Grant, S; Contoreggi, C; London, E D

    2000-01-01

    A defining feature of drug addiction is persistent drug use despite long-term adverse consequences. This study examined the performance of drug abusers on a neuropsychological test that requires evaluation of long-term outcomes in the presence of a complex set of mixed reward/punishment contingencies (the Gambling Task). In order to control for generalized deficits related to choice and planning, subjects were also administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Thirty polysubstance abusers were compared to a comparison group of 24 subjects who did not use illicit drugs of abuse. Drug abusers performed much more poorly on the Gambling Task (net score = 10.2 +/- 4.7, mean +/- s.e.m.) than controls (26.0 +/- 5.3), but did not differ from controls on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. The results show that drug abusers are more likely to make maladaptive decisions in the Gambling Task that result in long-term losses exceeding short-term gains. These findings indicate that the Gambling Task may be a useful model in laboratory studies of cognitive dysfunctions associated with drug abuse. PMID:10838152

  17. [Illegal aspects of illicit drugs use in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Gallegos Torres, Ruth Magdalena; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to obtain the opinions of a group of people about legal issues regarding addiction. Data collection was performed using a structured questionnaire with four themes. In order to participate, the individual could not use any drugs but should have a close relationship with a drug user. The data was processed using SPSS V. 14. There were 100 participants, 75% of whom were women, and 38% had a drug user as a friend, mainly cocaine and marijuana users. The participants had one opinion in common: laws should be more severe for people who use, sell, or transport drugs. The current laws do not improve consumers' criminal behavior. There is a need for further studies addressing people's opinion about this phenomenon in order to obtain a more realistic view of this drug issue. PMID:20011902

  18. The "Why" of Youthful Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taintor, Zebulon

    1974-01-01

    Factors contributing to youthful drug abuse include the declining consensus about values in our society, the generation gap, changes in the family and peer group pressure. As drug dependency deepens, the influence of conditioning and individual psychodynamics is greater than social and group factors. Drug education is ineffectual because…

  19. [Prevalence of illicit drug use and associated factors during pregnancy in the BRISA cohort].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Priscila Coimbra; Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de; Chagas, Deysianne Costa das; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Batista, Rosangela Fernandes Lucena; Silva, Raimundo Antonio da

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of illicit drug use and associated factors during pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study of participants in the BRISA prenatal care cohort. Frequencies and hierarchical logistic regression were used. Estimated prevalence rates were 1.45% for illicit drug use, 22.32% for alcohol consumption, and 4.22% for smoking. The study population was mostly young (81% in the 20-34-year bracket), with 9 to 11 years of schooling (75.55%), with more than half of the women outside the workforce (52.18%), and in economic class "C" (67.61%). Pregnant women showed a high level of stress (24.46%), moderate to intense anxiety (40.84%), and severe depressive symptoms (28.8%). Approximately half (49.72%) of the pregnant women reported some type of violence, and they had wide networks (72.77%) and low social support (65.21%). Use of legal drugs, high stress levels, and single parenthood were independently associated with illicit drug use in pregnancy. PMID:26886368

  20. Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Illicit Drug Use and Health Services Utilization

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael T; Fang, Hai; Balsa, Ana I

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationships between illicit drug use and three types of health services utilization: emergency room utilization, hospitalization, and medical attention required due to injury(s). Data Waves 1 and 2 (11,253 males and 13,059 females) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Study Design We derive benchmark estimates by employing standard cross-sectional data models to pooled waves of NESARC data. To control for potential bias due to time-invariant unobserved individual heterogeneity, we reestimate the relationships with fixed-effects models. Principal Findings The cross-sectional data models suggest that illicit drug use is positively and significantly related to health services utilization in almost all specifications. Conversely, the only significant (p<.05) relationships in the fixed-effects models are the odds of receiving medical attention for an injury and the number of injuries requiring medical attention for men, and the number of times hospitalized for men and women. Conclusions Failing to control for time-invariant individual heterogeneity could lead to biased coefficients when estimating the effects of illicit drug use on health services utilization. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between types of drug user (casual versus heavy) and estimate gender-specific models. PMID:21143479

  1. Breaking the Taboo: Illicit Drug Use among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hogendorf, Anna M.; Fendler, Wojciech; Sieroslawski, Janusz; Bobeff, Katarzyna; Wegrewicz, Krzysztof; Malewska, Kamila I.; Przudzik, Maciej W.; Szmigiero-Kawko, Malgorzata; Sztangierska, Beata; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1) in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. Methods. Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15–18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011. Metabolic control was regarded as good if self-reported HbA1c was <8% or poor if HbA1c was ≥8%. Results. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use was lower among adolescents with DM1 than in the control group [58 (28%) versus 5524 (46%), p = 10−5]. Cannabis preparations were the most frequently used substances [38 (18.3%) versus 3976 (33.1%), p = 10−5], followed by tranquilizers, sedatives, and amphetamine. Lifetime and last 12-month use of cannabis were associated with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%), p < 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions. Adolescents with DM1 report using illicit drugs to a lesser extent than their healthy peers. The use of cannabis is associated with a poorer metabolic control in teens with DM1. PMID:26858959

  2. Systematic review of interventions to reduce illicit drug use in female drug-dependent street sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Jeal, Nikki; Macleod, John; Turner, Katrina; Salisbury, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most female street-based sex workers (SSWs) are drug users and this group experience particularly poor outcomes in achieving and maintaining abstinence. In 2010 the UK adopted a recovery-orientated Drug Strategy. This strategy did not specifically highlight the complex drug treatment needs of SSWs. Therefore we sought to synthesise and critically appraise existing evidence of interventions to reduce illicit drug use in this group, in order to guide service change toward better provision for the drug treatment needs of SSWs. Methods A systematic review of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce illicit drug use in female SSWs. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a structured search strategy was used. Searches included databases, organisational and government websites to identify published and grey literature, as well as contacting experts in the field, and hand-searching reference lists and journals. Results Six studies, one experimental and five observational, were identified which met review inclusion criteria. Intervention approaches evaluated included substitute prescribing, educational sessions and motivational interviewing. All studies reported a positive intervention effect but the five observational studies were all subject to a relatively high risk of bias. By contrast, the experimental study provided little or no evidence of positive effect (OR for reduction of illicit drug in intervention compared to controls 1.17 95%CI 0.84–1.66 at 3 months and 1.14 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.61) at 6 months follow-up). All six studies described challenges and solutions to study recruitment, retention and follow-up, which were influenced by issues affecting SSWs’ health and social stability. Conclusions There is currently no strong evidence for effectiveness of interventions to reduce illicit drug use in female SSWs with problematic drug use. Thus, the development and robust evaluation of effective interventions should be a priority if recovery

  3. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  4. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  5. Antiretroviral therapy adherence: testing a social context model among Black men who use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J Craig

    2011-01-01

    Individuals living with HIV who receive treatment and optimal care live longer and healthier lives. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to understand the effects of social context factors (individual, interpersonal, and social capital) that influence antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among a sample of HIV-infected Black men who use illicit drugs (N = 160). Ecosocial theory and social epidemiology provided the theoretical framework for this study. Multiple regression techniques and path analysis were used to test the model for these subjects. Homelessness among the subjects significantly affected adherence to ART. Tolerability of ART was observed to have a greater indirect effect on ART adherence than a direct effect. A positive state of mind and current illicit drug use indirectly affected ART adherence; however, significance was not achieved. Implications for the use of this theoretical model to guide research, clinical practice, and policy as part of a human rights approach to HIV disease is articulated. PMID:21123085

  6. Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

  7. Realistic mixture of illicit drugs impaired the oxidative status of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Zuccato, Ettore; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Illicit drugs are considered to be emerging aquatic pollutants since they are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems in the high ng L(-1) to low μg L(-1) range concentrations. Although the environmental occurrence of the most common psychoactive compounds is well known, recently some investigations showed their potential toxicity toward non-target aquatic organisms. However, to date, these studies completely neglected that organisms in the real environment are exposed to a complex mixture, which could lead to dissimilar adverse effects. The present study investigated the oxidative alterations of the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha induced by a 14-d exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in the aquatic environment, namely cocaine (50 ng L(-1)), benzoylecgonine (300 ng L(-1)), amphetamine (300 ng L(-1)), morphine (100 ng L(-1)) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (50 ng L(-1)). The total oxidant status (TOS) was measured to investigate the increase in the reactive oxygen species' levels, while the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase were measured to note the eventual imbalances between pro-oxidant and antioxidant molecules. In addition, oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Significant time-dependent increases of all the antioxidant activities were induced by the mixture. Moreover, the illicit drug mixture significantly increased the levels of carbonylated proteins and caused a slight variation in lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that a mixture of illicit drugs at realistic environmental concentrations can impair the oxidative status of the zebra mussel, posing a serious hazard to the health status of this bivalve species. PMID:25676616

  8. Stigmatization of Illicit Drug Use among Puerto Rican Health Professionals in Training1

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Negrón, Salvador Santiago; Neilands, Torsten B.; Bou, Francheska Cintrón; Rivera, Souhail Malavé

    2010-01-01

    Social stigma continues to be a barrier for health promotion in our society. One of the most stigmatized health conditions in our time continues to be addiction to illicit drug use. Although it has been widely recognized as a health concern, criminalizing approaches continue to be common in Puerto Rico. Health professionals need to engage in challenging the stigma of illicit drug use in order to foster policies and government efforts with health-oriented approaches. Still, personal stigmatizing attitudes among them continue to be a barrier for the implementation of this agenda. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to document stigma towards illicit drug use among a sample of health professionals in training, and explore differences in such attitudes among participants from different areas of training. In order to achieve this objective we carried out a sequential mixed method approach with a sample of 501 health professionals in training or practice from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. Results evidence the continued existence of stigmatizing attitudes among this population. We discuss some of the implications for public health and potential strategies for action. PMID:20496525

  9. Violence-related injury and gender: The role of alcohol and alcohol combined with illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Korcha, Rachael A.; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Witbrodt, Jane; Borges, Guilherme; Hejazi-Bazargan, Shahrzad; Bond, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background The positive relationship between alcohol use, gender and violence-related injury is well established. However, less is known about injuries when alcohol is used in combination with other drugs. Method Self-report information was collected on alcohol and illicit drug use in the six hours prior to a violence-related injury in probability samples of patients presenting to emergency departments (n=9686). Results Patients with violence-related injuries reported the highest rates of alcohol use (49% of men; 23% of women) and alcohol use combined with illicit drugs (8% of men; 4% of women) prior to the injury event while non-violent injury patients reported lower rates of alcohol use (17% of men; 8% of women) and alcohol use combined with drugs (2% for men; 1% for women). Marijuana/hashish was the most commonly reported drug. The odds of a violent injury were increased when alcohol was used (men: odds ratio [OR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–6.3; women: OR=4.0, 95% CI 3.0–5.5) or when alcohol was combined with illicit drug use prior to the injury (men: OR=6.6, 95% CI 4.7–9.3; women: OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.7–12.2) compared to non-users. No significant change in the odds of a violent injury was observed for men or women when alcohol users were compared with alcohol and drug users. Conclusion The positive association between alcohol and violent injury does not appear to be altered by the added use of drugs. Additional work is needed to understand the interpersonal, contextual and cultural factors related to substance use to identify best prevention practices and develop appropriate policies. PMID:24261437

  10. Water quality in coastal wetlands: illicit drugs in surface waters of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Roig, P.; Blasco, C.; Andreu, V.; Pascual, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Picó, Y.

    2010-05-01

    A wide range of emerging pollutants have been identified in environment: antibiotics, hormones, personal care products, etc. But quite recently a new class of ecological threat has been reported: the presence in waters of abuse drugs coming from human consumption [1,2]. Treatment of wastewaters may remove a portion of these compounds, but sometimes, these treatments are insufficient or nonexistent, residues can reach into the aquatic environment. ĹAlbufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) is a marsh area of a great interest because it is the habitat of a large quantity of unique species of flora and fauna, and a zone of refuge, feeding and breeding for a large number of migratory birds. However, this area is threatened by urban, industrial and agricultural pressures. The aim of this work has been to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue analytical method for to establish the occurrence and distribution of commonly consumed illicit drugs in surface waters of ĹAlbufera lake. A representative set of abuse drugs with different mode of action was chosen for this purpose, including: amphetaminics, opiates, cocainics and cannabinoids (THC and nor-9-carboxy-THC). In April 2008 and October 2008 a total of 16 samples of water were collected, corresponding to different sampling points previously designed, and covering the most important channels that flow in to the lake. Samples of 250 mL of water were concentrated by Solid Phase Extraction through an Oasis HLB cartridge and extracted subsequently with methanol as solvent. Quantification was carried out by LC-MS/MS with an ESI interface. Performance characteristics of the PLE-SPE followed by LC-MS/MS were established by validation procedure. Selectivity, linearity, precision, recoveries and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were studied. Our search shows that current sewage treatment systems do not completely remove illicit drug residues from urban wastewater. Benzoylecgonine, the main metabolite from

  11. Psychosocial Stressors of Drug-Abusing Disadvantaged Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafidi, Frank A.; Field, Tiffany; Prodromidis, Margarita; Rahdert, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Explores psychosocial stressors associated with adolescent pregnancy and drug abuse among 104 mothers between 13 and 21 years of age. Results suggest that drug-abusing mothers were depressed, whereas the nondrug-abusing mothers were not depressed. Drug-abusing mothers reported more mental and physical health problems, more problematic…

  12. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Shin; Forbes, Thomas P; van Asten, Arian C; Gillen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal intensity to the amount of drug deposited on the surface were generated from inkjet-printed arrays of cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin with a deposited-mass ranging nominally from 10 pg to 50 ng per spot. These curves were used to construct concentration maps that visualized the spatial distribution of the drugs on top of a fingerprint, as well as being able to quantify the amount of drugs in a given area within the map. For the drugs on the fingerprint on silicon, ToF-SIMS showed great success, as it was able to generate concentration maps of all three drugs. On the fingerprint on paper, only the concentration map of cocaine could be constructed using ToF-SIMS and DESI-MS, as the signals of methamphetamine and heroin were completely suppressed by matrix and substrate effects. Spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs using imaging mass spectrometry is possible, but the choice of substrates could significantly affect the results. PMID:25915085

  13. Factors Associated with Initiating Someone into Illicit Drug Injection

    PubMed Central

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Wenger, Lynn; Chu, Daniel; Quinn, Brendan; Thing, James; Kral, Alex H

    2014-01-01

    Aims Most people who inject drugs (PWID) were first initiated into injection by a current PWID. Few studies have examined PWID who assist others into drug injection. Our goal is to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for initiating someone into injection in the last 12 months. Methods We recruited a cross-sectional sample of PWID (N=605) in California from 2011 to 2013. We examined bivariate and multivariate risk factors for initiating someone into injection with a focus on behaviors that might encourage injection initiation such as injecting in front of non-PWID, describing how to inject to non-PWID, and willingness to initiate someone into drug injection. Results Having initiated someone into injection was reported by 34% of PWID overall and 7% in the last 12 months. Forty-four PWID had assisted 431 people into injection in the past year. Factors independently associated with initiating someone into injection in the last 12 months were having injected any person in past month – referred to as being a street doctor‟ -- (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=3.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.72, 7.08), having described how to inject to non-injectors (2.76; 95% CI=1.28, 5.93), self-reported likelihood of initiating someone in the future (AOR=6.37; 95% CI=3.12, 13.01), and non-injection powder cocaine use in past month (AOR=4.40; 95% CI= 1.90, 10.19). Conclusion Active PWID are important in facilitating the process of drug injection uptake. Interventions to reduce initiation should include efforts to change behaviors and intentions among PWID that are associated with injection uptake among others. PMID:25282308

  14. Attitudes Among a Group of College Students toward Drug-Abuse and the Drug-Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    A study of student attitudes toward drug abuse and the drug abuser was conducted, using a modified version of Marcus's "Alcoholism Questionnaire." One hundred twenty-two college students participated. Mean factor scores (MFS) were developed for the nine factors tested. Marcus's "safe operating criterion" (ignore MFS differences that are less than…

  15. Results of the Queensland 2007-2012 roadside drug testing program: The prevalence of three illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Martin, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to present an overview of roadside drug driving enforcement and detections in Queensland, Australia since the introduction of oral fluid screening. Drug driving is a problematic issue for road safety and investigations of the prevalence and impact of drug driving suggest that, in particular, the use of illicit drugs may increase a driver's involvement in a road crash when compared to a driver who is drug free. In response to the potential increased crash involvement of drug impaired drivers, Australian police agencies have adopted the use of oral fluid analysis to detect the presence of illicit drugs in drivers. This paper describes the results of roadside drug testing for over 80,000 drivers in Queensland, Australia, from December 2007 to June 2012. It provides unique data on the prevalence of methamphetamine, cannabis and ecstasy in the screened population for the period. When prevalence rates are examined over time, drug driving detection rates have almost doubled from around 2.0% at the introduction of roadside testing operations to just under 4.0% in the latter years. The most common drug type detected was methamphetamine (40.8%) followed by cannabis (29.8%) and methamphetamine/cannabis combination (22.5%). By comparison, the rate of ecstasy detection was very low (1.7%). The data revealed a number of regional, age and gender patterns and variations of drug driving across the state. Younger drivers were more likely to test positive for cannabis whilst older drivers were more likely to test positive for methamphetamine. The overall characteristics of drivers who tested positive to the presence of at least one of the target illicit drugs are they are likely to be male, aged 30-39 years, be driving a car on Friday, Saturday or Sunday between 6:00 pm and 6:00 am and to test positive for methamphetamine. PMID:24389088

  16. Detection and mapping of illicit drugs and their metabolites in fingermarks by MALDI MS and compatibility with forensic techniques.

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, G; de Puit, M; Bleay, S; Bradshaw, R; Francese, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect's lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details. PMID:26118853

  17. Detection and mapping of illicit drugs and their metabolites in fingermarks by MALDI MS and compatibility with forensic techniques

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, G.; de Puit, M.; Bleay, S.; Bradshaw, R.; Francese, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect’s lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details. PMID:26118853

  18. Detection and mapping of illicit drugs and their metabolites in fingermarks by MALDI MS and compatibility with forensic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, G.; de Puit, M.; Bleay, S.; Bradshaw, R.; Francese, S.

    2015-06-01

    Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect’s lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details.

  19. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Illicit Drug Use Compared to Biological and Self-Reported Methods

    PubMed Central

    Genz, Andrew; Westergaard, Ryan P; Chang, Larry W; Bollinger, Robert C; Latkin, Carl; Kirk, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mHealth methods for capturing illicit drug use and associated behaviors have become more widely used in research settings, yet there is little research as to how valid these methods are compared to known measures of capturing and quantifying drug use. Objective We examined the concordance of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of drug use to previously validated biological and audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) methods. Methods The Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study utilized EMA methods to assess drug use in real-time in participants’ natural environments. Utilizing mobile devices, participants self-reported each time they used heroin or cocaine over a 4-week period. Each week, PharmChek sweat patch samples were collected for measurement of heroin and cocaine and participants answered an ACASI-based questionnaire to report behaviors and drug using events during the prior week. Reports of cocaine and heroin use captured through EMA were compared to weekly biological or self-report measures through percent agreement and concordance correlation coefficients to account for repeated measures. Correlates of discordance were obtained from logistic regression models. Results A total of 109 participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, and 52% male. During 436 person-weeks of observation, we recorded 212 (49%) cocaine and 103 (24%) heroin sweat patches, 192 (44%) cocaine and 161 (37%) heroin ACASI surveys, and 163 (37%) cocaine and 145 (33%) heroin EMA reports. The percent agreement between EMA and sweat patch methods was 70% for cocaine use and 72% for heroin use, while the percent agreement between EMA and ACASI methods was 77% for cocaine use and 79% for heroin use. Misreporting of drug use by EMA compared to sweat patch and ACASI methods were different by illicit drug type. Conclusions Our work demonstrates moderate to good agreement of EMA to biological and standard self-report methods in

  20. Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jadidi, Nadjme

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe), individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals' views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies. PMID:25247105

  1. Misguided Intentions in Drug-Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    1994-01-01

    Many drug abuse prevention programs and materials, such as the "Smart Choices" newsletter for kindergartners, are developmentally inappropriate for young children. Successful preventive measures need to address the mixed messages that society itself gives to children about alcohol and other drugs and present developmentally appropriate instruction…

  2. Racial Differences in Rural Adolescent Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staggs, Frank M., Jr.; Nyberg, Kenneth L.

    Drug abuse and the differences in drug use patterns and related behavior between rural blacks and whites were examined. Questionnaires were administered to 993 (369 black and 624 white) rural adolescents in grades 7-12 in randomly selected schools in Texas. The instrument totaled 15 pages containing 65 items which yielded 178 quantifiable…

  3. Selected Materials on Drug Abuse and Misuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigo County Public Library, Terre Haute, IN.

    The Vigo County Public Library has a Center for Drug Information which contains pamphlets, leaflets, newsletters, realia kits, films, records, cassettes, slides, educational aids and other materials on drug use, abuse and education. The materials in this list were selected for their relevance to the needs of local groups and organizations in…

  4. Etiology of drug abuse: a narrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Jadidi, Nadjme; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18-40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe), individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals' views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies. PMID:25247105

  5. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  6. Drug Abuse and Eating Disorders: Prevention Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Ellis, Anne Marie

    1992-01-01

    Explored relationship between drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders in female adolescents (n=826). Eating Disorders Risk Scale was adopted and correlated with drug and alcohol use, other forms of deviance, family and peer relationships, and depression. Findings support concept of generalized theory of addictions based on psychosocial,…

  7. Action by the Customs Co-operation Council to combat illicit drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gotschlich, G D

    1983-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1953, the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) has been actively involved in combating illicit drug trafficking. CCC has adopted legal measures designed to meet the requirements of member States in their efforts to promote the prevention, investigation and repression of customs offences, including drug smuggling. CCC studies patterns and trends in drug trafficking and promotes ways and means of detecting drug smuggling and financial transactions related to such smuggling. CCC publishes studies and handbooks that serve as practical guides to national customs administrations of member States. In its work to combat drug trafficking, the CCC co-operates with the United Nations bodies concerned with drug control and the International Criminal Police Organizations (ICPO/Interpol). PMID:6563930

  8. Analysis of illicit drugs in human urine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with on-column fast scanning polychrome absorption detection.

    PubMed

    Wernly, P; Thormann, W

    1991-12-15

    Using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with a borate/phosphate buffer containing 75 mM SDS (pH 9.1), common drugs of abuse and/or their metabolites, including opioids, benzoylecgonine, amphetamines, and methaqualone, can easily be analyzed. After solid-phase extraction of 5 mL of urine, drug concentrations down to about 100 ng/mL can be unambiguously monitored with on-column multiwavelength detection. Peak assignment is achieved through comparison of retention times and absorption spectra of eluting peaks with those of computer-stored model runs. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated with data obtained from different patient urines which tested positively for one or several drugs using nonisotopic immunoassays. Results suggest that MECC of illicit drugs is a highly specific and sensitive instrumental approach suitable for confirmation testing following a positive response of a toxicological screening procedure. PMID:1789451

  9. Predicting aberrant drug behavior in patients treated for chronic pain: importance of abuse history.

    PubMed

    Michna, Edward; Ross, Edgar L; Hynes, Wilfred L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Soumekh, Sharonah; Janfaza, David; Palombi, Diane; Jamison, Robert N

    2004-09-01

    Physicians can encounter problems in prescribing opioids for some patients with chronic pain such as multiple unsanctioned dose escalations, episodes of lost or stolen prescriptions, and positive urine drug screenings for illicit substances. This study explored the usefulness of questions on abuse history in predicting problems with prescribing opioids for patients at a hospital-based pain management program. One hundred forty-five (145) patients who were taking long- and short-acting opioids for their pain were classified as high or low risk on the basis of their responses to interview questions about 1) substance abuse history in their family, 2) past problems with drug or alcohol abuse, and 3) history of legal problems. The treating physicians completed a questionnaire about problems that they had encountered with their patients. Problem behaviors were verified through chart review. No differences in demographic characteristics were found between those classified as high and low risk. Patients who admitted to a family history of substance abuse, a history of legal problems, and drug or alcohol abuse were prone to more aberrant drug-related behaviors, including a higher incidence of lost or stolen prescriptions and the presence of illicit substances in their urine (P < 0.05). Patients classified as high risk also had a significantly higher frequency of reported mental health problems and motor vehicle accidents. More of these patients smoked cigarettes, tended to need a cigarette within the first hour of the day, took higher doses of opioids, and reported fewer adverse effects from the medications than did those without such a history (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that questions about abuse history and legal problems can be useful in predicting aberrant drug-related behavior with opioid use in persons with chronic noncancer pain. PMID:15336337

  10. Illicit Drug Markets Among New Orleans Evacuees Before and Soon After Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Morse, Edward

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes illicit drug markets in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina and access to drug markets following evacuation at many locations and in Houston. Among New Orleans arrestees pre-Katrina, rates of crack and heroin use and market participation was comparable to New York and higher than in other southern cities. Both cities have vigorous outdoor drug markets. Over 100 New Orleans evacuees provide rich accounts describing the illicit markets in New Orleans and elsewhere. The flooding of New Orleans disrupted the city’s flourishing drug markets, both during and immediately after the storm. Drug supplies, though limited, were never completely unavailable. Subjects reported that alcohol or drugs were not being used in the Houston Astrodome, and it was a supportive environment. Outside the Astrodome, they were often approached by or could easily locate middlemen and drug sellers. Evacuees could typically access illegal drug markets wherever they went. This paper analyzes the impact of a major disaster upon users of illegal drugs and the illegal drug markets in New Orleans and among the diaspora of New Orleans evacuees following Hurricane Katrina. This analysis includes data from criminal justice sources that specify what the drug markets were like before this disaster occurred. This analysis also includes some comparison cities where no disaster occurred, but which help inform the similarities and differences in drug markets in other cities. The data presented also include an initial analysis of ethnographic interview data from over 100 New Orleans Evacuees recruited in New Orleans and Houston. PMID:19081751

  11. Spontaneous remission from alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse: seeking quantitative answers to qualitative questions.

    PubMed

    Walters, G D

    2000-08-01

    A quantitative review of the substance abuse literature revealed a mean general prevalence of spontaneous remission from alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs abuse of 26.2% when a broad definition of remission was employed and 18.2% when a narrow definition was implemented. From the results of this review, it was concluded that few meaningful differences exist between spontaneous remitters and persons who either continue misusing substances or remit through treatment on pre-remission measures of prior drug involvement. Of the factors cited by self-remitters as important in facilitating their desistance from substances, the present review found that health concerns, pressure from friends and family, and extraordinary events were instrumental in initiating spontaneous remission, while social support, non-drug-using friendships, willpower, and identity transformation were pivotal in maintaining change. Evidence is presented to indicate that spontaneous remission from alcohol and illicit drugs and spontaneous remission from tobacco smoking may differ in several key respects. PMID:10976668

  12. Educational Implications of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    1978-01-01

    Possible drug-behavior relationships were viewed from a developmental perspective (e.g., sex, age, and maturation rate), insofar as drug effects will be directly related to the level of physiological and psychological maturation achieved by the drug user. Consequently, proposals were made dealing with drug education in the schools. (Author)

  13. Contamination profiles and mass loadings of macrolide antibiotics and illicit drugs from a small urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Bommanna; Phillips, Malia; Mowery, Holly; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L

    2009-03-01

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The objective of this study was to determine the contamination profiles and mass loadings of urobilin (a chemical marker of human waste), macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin), and two drugs of abuse (methamphetamine and ecstasy), from a small (<19 mega liters day(-1), equivalent to <5 million gallons per day) wastewater treatment plant in southwestern Kentucky. The concentrations of azithromycin, clarithromycin, methamphetamine and ecstasy in wastewater samples varied widely, ranging from non-detects to 300 ng L(-1). Among the macrolide antibiotics analyzed, azithromycin was consistently detected in influent and effluent samples. In general, influent samples contained relatively higher concentrations of the analytes than the effluents. Based on the daily flow rates and an average concentration of 17.5 ng L(-1) in the effluent, the estimated discharge of azithromycin was 200 mg day(-1) (range 63-400 mg day(-1)). Removal efficiency of the detected analytes from this WWTP were in the following order: urobilin>methamphetamine>azithromycin with percentages of removal of 99.9%, 54.5% and 47%, respectively, indicating that the azithromycin and methamphetamine are relatively more recalcitrant than others and have potential for entering receiving waters. PMID:19121838

  14. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S C

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16-29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported "binge" drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  15. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  16. Can Brief Alcohol Interventions for Youth Also Address Concurrent Illicit Drug Use? Results from a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.; Hennessy, Emily A.; Lipsey, Mark W.; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol use among youth may interrupt a possible developmental progression to more serious substance use if they can also affect the use of other illicit drugs. This meta-analysis examined the findings of recent research on the effects of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults on both alcohol and illicit drug use. Eligible studies were those using randomized or controlled quasi-experimental designs to examine the effects of brief alcohol interventions on illicit drug use outcomes among youth. A comprehensive literature search identified 30 eligible study samples that, on average, included participants age 17, with 57% male participants and 56% White youth. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate mean effect sizes and explore variability in effects. Overall, brief interventions targeting both alcohol and other drugs were effective in reducing both of these substances. However, the brief interventions that targeted only alcohol had no significant secondary effects on untargeted illicit drug use. The evidence from current research, therefore, shows modest beneficial effects on outcomes that are targeted by brief interventions for youth, but does not show that those effects generalize to untargeted illicit drug use outcomes. PMID:25600491

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of illicit drug mixtures on paper currency using Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kathryn Y; Beshire, Melissa; Darnell, Jason; Frederick, Kimberley A

    2005-12-01

    Measurement of illicit drugs on paper currency is of interest for evidentiary purposes in legal cases involving the drug trade. Current methods, primarily based on mass spectrometry, are destructive and prevent re-analysis of the evidence. This article details a method based on Raman microspectroscopy that is able to collect spectra from individual crystals on the surface of paper currency. Mixtures of isoxsuprine and norephedrine, which are non-pharmacologically active drug surrogates, as well as lidocaine and benzocaine, common excipients in street drugs, were doped in small quantities onto US currency. Significant fluorescence interference resulted from the underlying dollar bill. This work presents two methods for reducing the fluorescence background, photobleaching and background subtraction, which both worked well. Finally, a method for determining the percent composition of individual components in heterogeneous mixtures was developed by systematically sampling the surface of the dollar bill. Results were accurate within a few percent, although the method was quite time consuming. PMID:16390588

  18. The impact of harm reduction on HIV and illicit drug use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There has been widespread support for harm reduction programs as an essential component for responding to the HIV and illicit drug use epidemics. However, despite the growing international acceptance of harm reduction, there continues to be strong opposition to this approach, with critics alleging that harm reduction programs enable drug use. Vancouver, Canada provides a compelling case study that demonstrates that many positive impacts of harm reduction can be attained while addiction treatment-related goals are simultaneously supported. While the evidence for harm reduction is clearly mounting, it is unfortunate that ideological and political barriers to implementing harm reduction programs in Canada remain. As evidenced by Vancouver and elsewhere, harm reduction programs do not exacerbate drug use and undermine treatment efforts and should thereby occupy a well-deserved space within the continuum of programs and services offered to people who inject drugs. PMID:24559062

  19. Religiosity and exposure to users in explaining illicit drug use among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Palamar, Joseph J; Kiang, Mathew V; Halkitis, Perry N

    2014-06-01

    Religiosity is a protective factor against illicit drug use, but further investigation is needed to delineate which components of religiosity are protective against use. A racially diverse sample (N = 962) was surveyed about religiosity, exposure to users, and recent use of marijuana, powder cocaine, ecstasy, and nonmedical use of opioids and amphetamine. Results suggest that identifying as Agnostic increased odds of use for each of the five drugs; however, this effect disappeared when controlling for religious importance and attendance. High levels of religious attendance were protective against recent use of marijuana and cocaine, but protective effects diminished when controlling for exposure to users, which was a robust predictor of use of every drug. Religion is a protective mechanism against drug use, but this effect may diminish in light of exposure to users. Alternative preventative methods need to be directed toward individuals who are not religious or are highly exposed to users. PMID:23114835

  20. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Public Health What Can We Do About the Heroin Overdose Epidemic? NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts ...

  1. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  2. A one year investigation of the occurrence of illicit drugs in wastewater from Brussels, Belgium.

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Mougel, Jean-François; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Jorens, Philippe G; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    Daily 24 hour composite influent wastewater samples were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of Brussels-North (Belgium) for eight months to study variations in the concentrations and mass loads of nine illicit drugs and metabolites: cocaine (COC) and its metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine (METH), methadone (MTD) and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and the specific metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM). Samples were analyzed using a validated analytical method based on solid-phase extraction and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The selected compounds could be detected and quantified in all samples. The measured concentrations were in agreement with earlier published concentrations, when available. All illicit drugs showed significant differences in mass loads between months. Daily variations were observed for MDMA, AMP and COC and metabolites, with higher mass loads observed during the weekend. This is probably related to their recreational consumption pattern and was further confirmed when holiday periods (New Year's Eve, Belgian national holiday) were in detail investigated. For METH, 6-MAM, MTD and EDDP, stable and consistent amounts were observed during the week. In all samples, the ratio of the concentration of the parent compound to its metabolite(s) was calculated to evaluate whether measured concentrations reflect human excretion of the illicit drugs. For MTD, the ratio of parent compound/metabolite was in agreement with the excretion pattern, while for COC some deviations were observed, resulting from excretion pattern uncertainties, and stability and discharge issues. PMID:21331424

  3. Paradigms of public policies for licit and illicit drugs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Analice; Ribeiro, Marcelo; Tapia Aguilera, Amarílis; Rezende, Elton; Ogata Perrenoud, Luciane

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions that, over the last 3 decades, has been making increased efforts to develop effective public policies for controlling the use of both licit and illicit psychoactive substances. In the case of licit drugs, Brazil was a pioneer in following the guidance of the World Health Organization for tobacco control and has witnessed surprising results relating to reduction of smoking prevalence and correlated morbidity and mortality. Today, Brazil has a national structure for organizing, applying, and monitoring laws relating to tobacco. However, in the field of illicit drugs, with crack consumption as a paradigm, the situation is the opposite: its use has been increasing year by year and is being consumed at increasingly young ages and by all social classes. Thus, it is becoming an enormous challenge for public policies relating to prevention and treatment. In this context, the aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological data relating to tobacco and crack use in Brazil, with an analysis on the impact of public policies for controlling consumption over recent years. Despite the efforts made over the last 3 decades, Brazil still has a long way to go in order to construct a consistent and effective national drugs policy. PMID:24869455

  4. Perceptions of parental bonding in freebase cocaine users versus non-illicit drug users

    PubMed Central

    Pettenon, Márcia; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim; Guimarães, Luciano S. P.; Pedroso, Rosemeri Siqueira; Hauck, Simone; Pechansky, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Evidence has suggested that parenting styles have peculiar characteristics in families with drug-related issues. This study was undertaken to investigate the perception of crack (smoke cocaine) users and non-users about parental bonding quality regarding care and control in Brazil. Methods: A total of 198 hospitalized crack users and 104 users of any non-illicit drug were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results: Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that crack users were more likely (ORadj = 9.68; 95% CI: 2.82, 33.20) to perceive neglectful mothers, as well as more likely (ORadj = 4.71, 95% CI: 2.17, 10.22) to perceive controlling and affectionless fathers in comparison with non-illicit drug users who were more likely to perceive optimal parenting. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that the perception of neglectful mothers and affectionless controlling fathers may be associated with the tendency of the children to be less resilient when facing stressful events, leading them to a greater risk to use crack. PMID:25109717

  5. Myocardium and striated muscle damage caused by licit or illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Anita Réka; Varga, Tibor

    2009-04-01

    Illicit and central nervous system active licit drug consumption related deaths are mainly the consequences of either unintentional or intentional overdose. According to the data in the relevant literature occurrences of different organ damages are also observable and this can play a role in death, as well. Organ damages may appear simultaneously with overdosing or can be extended in time, which may lead to proving the cause of death and establishing the relationships with previous medication difficult. The most frequent damage observed is rhabdomyolysis syndrome, which has been mainly described after cocaine or opium consumption. Authors present four cases from the autopsy documentation of the period between 2003 and 2008 at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged, Hungary in which illicit drug consumption or neuroleptic licit drug medication resulted in development of myocardium and striated muscle damage. The dominant clinical symptoms were hyperthermia, renal and circulatory failure. The laboratory tests showed renal and liver insufficiency; in addition the CK and CK-MB level increase suggested damage in striated muscles. The focal myocardium and striated muscle damage could be assessed as the cause of death in one case, but microscopic investigation proved the presence of damage in each. PMID:19342269

  6. The economics of drug use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1992-01-01

    The markets for drugs such as cocaine are characterized by much ignorance about the nature of trading relationships, in particular the volumes and prices exhibited by overlapping national and international networks of buyers and sellers (i.e. markets), and by severe regulation by the State. The regulation of illegal markets is expensive; for example, in 1988 in the UK, over 5000 Customs officers and 1800 CID and uniformed policemen were involved in enforcing the law at a cost of about 140 million pounds. The size of the markets can be only 'guesstimated': in 1989 just over 520 kg of cocaine was seized. If this is assumed to be 10% of the market, the total size of the cocaine market was somewhere in excess of 5000 kg. The 'cost-effectiveness' of both Customs and the police in enforcing the law may have declined in the late 1980s. What economic arguments are there for sustaining illegality and an expensive enforcement effort? Some arguments for State regulation are explored; for example, the drug user harms 'innocent' third parties, the drug user is less productive and reduces national income, the drug user will impose costs on the National Health Service, the drug user's behaviour is offensive, and the drug user should be protected from his own stupidity. Where do these arguments leave the case for maintaining public policy towards illicit drugs? Would it be cost effective to move towards the liberalization of these markets? PMID:1638917

  7. National study of illicit drug use in Slovakia based on wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Skubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Birošová, Lucia; Fedorova, Ganna; Spalková, Viera; Bodík, Igor

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater from eight selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. The effect of two of the biggest music festivals in Slovakia on illicit drugs in wastewater was also investigated. Urinary bio-markers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy use were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in other parts of Europe and the world. This study demonstrates that Slovakia has one of highest methamphetamine consumption rates in Europe. Within Slovakia, the highest level of methamphetamine consumption was found in Petržalka, where the mean specific load of this drug in sewage was 169 mg/day/1000 inhabitants; the next highest loads were detected in Piešťany (128 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Bratislava (124 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Amphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis consumption in our study were comparable to that found in other European cities, whereas cocaine consumption was lower. We also analyzed the pattern of drug consumption over the course of a week. The load of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in wastewater increased during the weekend. The use of this drug was most common in the capital of Slovakia. Increased consumption was also found during a folk festival in Piešťany. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend. An increase of drug consumption was also detected during a music festival in Trenčín, especially for ecstasy. The specific load of ecstasy during this festival increased from 3mg/day/1000 inhabitants to 29 mg/day/1000 inhabitants. The possible influence of music styles on the consumption of certain drugs was also observed. During a folk festival, methamphetamine and cocaine were more commonly used. PMID:25046607

  8. Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Linas, Beth S.; Latkin, Carl; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Chang, Larry W.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Genz, Andrew; Kirk, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand the environmental and contextual influences of illicit cocaine and heroin use and craving using mobile health (mHealth) methods. Design Interactive mHealth methods of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) were utilized in the Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study to assess drug use and craving among urban drug users in real time. Participants were provided with mobile devices and asked to self-report every time they either craved (without using) or used heroin or cocaine for 30 days from November 2008 through May 2013. Setting Baltimore, MD, USA. Participants A total of 109 participants from the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) study. Measurements For each drug use or craving event, participants answered questions concerning their drug use, current mood and their social, physical and activity environments. Odds ratios (OR) of drug use versus craving were obtained from logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations of all reported events. Findings Participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, 52% male and 59% HIV-infected. Participants were significantly more likely to report use rather than craving drugs if they were with someone who was using drugs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 1.86), in an abandoned space (aOR = 6.65, 95% CI = 1.78, 24.84) or walking/wandering (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.54). Craving drugs was associated with being with a child (aOR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.59), eating (aOR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.85) or being at the doctor’s office (aOR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.80). Conclusions There are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real-time context-sensitive interventions. PMID:25311241

  9. Descriptive and Functional Classifications of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Albert S.; Stauss, Fred F.

    1977-01-01

    Polydrug (non-opiate-drug) abusers have previously been classified by a variety of typologies that can be characterized as either descriptive, functional, or a combination of both. This investigation proposes two objective scoring systems that classify polydrug users on a streetwise/straight dimension and on a self-medication/recreational-use…

  10. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  11. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... drogas Tagalog (Tagalog) Substance Abuse or Dependence Pag-abuso sa Paggamit ng Mga Bagay o Dependensya - Tagalog (Tagalog) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: A Consumer Guide English Rượu & ...

  12. Prediction and Prevention of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, R. A. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This paper uses the infectious disease model as an approach to the prevention of narcotic or poly drug abuse. It lists and discusses productive and counterproductive educational techniques on the basis of research findings and international reports on the outcomes of effective and counterproductive programs. (Author)

  13. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.; Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary S.; Huber, Diane L.; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I.; Reedy, Amanda R.; Jang, MiJin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. Method: 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual…

  14. Facts About Drug Abuse: Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, William E.; And Others

    Following an introductory survey of the course, this modular drug abuse trainer's manual contains all course-specified materials. These materials are: the course goals and objectives; time/activity sheets; trainer guidelines, process notes, and exercise instructions; detailed lectures and supplementary information. The time/activity sheets contain…

  15. Drug Dependence and Abuse: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This selected list of references is designed to provide an introduction to both scientific and popular drug abuse literature. Criteria for selection are presented and include: (1) 1969 or 1970 books by recognized and authoritative writers, (2) current and responsible research, (3) classic books, articles and studies, and (4) factual popular…

  16. Illicit drugs as new environmental pollutants: cyto-genotoxic effects of cocaine on the biological model Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Binelli, A; Pedriali, A; Riva, C; Parolini, M

    2012-03-01

    The increase in global consumption of illicit drugs has produced not only social and medical problems but also a potential new environmental danger. Indeed, it has been established that drugs consumed by humans end up in surface waters, after being carried through the sewage system. Although many studies to measure concentrations of several drugs of abuse in freshwater worldwide have been conducted, no data have been available to evaluate their potentially harmful effects on non-target organisms until now. The present study represents the first attempt to investigate the cyto-genotoxic effects of cocaine, one of the primary drugs consumed in Western Countries, in the biological model Dreissena polymorpha by the use of a biomarker battery. We performed the following tests on Zebra mussel hemocytes: the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the apoptosis frequency evaluation and the micronucleus assay (MN test) for the evaluation of genotoxicity and the lysosomal membranes stability test (neutral red retention assay; NRRA) to identify the cocaine cytotoxicity. We exposed the molluscs for 96 h to three different nominal concentrations in water (40 ng L(-1); 220 ng L(-1); and 10 μg L(-1)). Cocaine caused significant (p<0.05) primary DNA damage in this short-term experiment, but it also caused a clear increase in micronucleated cells and a marked rise in apoptosis, which was evident in samples from even the lowest environmental cocaine concentration. Because cocaine decreased the stability of lysosomal membranes, we also highlighted its cytotoxicity and the possible implications of oxidative stress for the observed genotoxic effects. PMID:22119280

  17. The use of Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy in the forensic identification of illicit drugs and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Colin M.; Akhavan, Jacqueline

    For routine identification of forensic samples many techniques are employed. These include ultraviolet spectrophotometry, combined gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy together with high performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Conventional Raman spectroscopy is not routinely used by forensic laboratories for the identification of drugs and explosives because of high background scatter and time consuming sample alignment. One way of overcoming these problems is to use the newly developed technique of Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. Here negligible sample alignment is required, and there is reduced sample fluorescence. FTR spectra were recorded of pure and contaminated illicit drug samples, together with some explosive materials. Identification of an unknown explosive (Semtex) was also conducted. FTR provides a simple and satisfactory method of identifying certain drugs and explosives. The technique is non-destructive, utilizing small samples with no sample preparation being required.

  18. Quantitative analysis of terahertz spectra for illicit drugs using adaptive-range micro-genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Peng, Bei; Chen, Qin

    2011-08-01

    In the field of anti-illicit drug applications, many suspicious mixture samples might consist of various drug components—for example, a mixture of methamphetamine, heroin, and amoxicillin—which makes spectral identification very difficult. A terahertz spectroscopic quantitative analysis method using an adaptive range micro-genetic algorithm with a variable internal population (ARVIPɛμGA) has been proposed. Five mixture cases are discussed using ARVIPɛμGA driven quantitative terahertz spectroscopic analysis in this paper. The devised simulation results show agreement with the previous experimental results, which suggested that the proposed technique has potential applications for terahertz spectral identifications of drug mixture components. The results show agreement with the results obtained using other experimental and numerical techniques.

  19. Social and structural barriers to housing among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from May to October 2008. Interviewees were recruited from the At-risk Youth Study (ARYS) cohort, which follows youth aged 14 to 26 who have experience with illicit drug use. All interviews were thematically analyzed, with particular emphasis on participants' perspectives regarding their housing situation and their experiences seeking housing. Many street-involved youth reported feeling unsupported in their efforts to find housing. For the majority of youth, existing abstinence-focused shelters did not constitute a viable option and, as a result, many felt excluded from these facilities. Many youth identified inflexible shelter rules and a lack of privacy as outweighing the benefits of sleeping indoors. Single-room occupancy hotels (SROs) were reported to be the only affordable housing options, as many landlords would not rent to youth on welfare. Many youth reported resisting moving to SROs as they viewed them as unsafe and as giving up hope for a return to mainstream society. The findings of the present study shed light on the social and structural barriers street-involved youth face in attaining housing and challenge the popular view of youth homelessness constituting a lifestyle choice. Our findings point to the need for housing strategies that include safe, low threshold, harm reduction focused housing options for youth who engage in illicit substance use. PMID:20102394

  20. The Search for Drug Abuse Information. Drug Abuse Information Research Project (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.; Pet, Marilyn L.

    A large proportion of those who seek drug abuse information from a telephone hotline service have immediate drug information needs, either for themselves or to assist others. Requests for general or pharmacological information are less frequent. Content analysis was applied in a study of telephone calls to a Hartford, Connecticut, "drug abuse…

  1. National Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith Droitcour; And Others

    This 1982 national survey on drug abuse is the seventh in a series of surveys since 1971 sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. To investigate the current prevalence of drug abuse in a nationwide sample, 5,624 randomly selected Americans (aged 12 and older) were personally interviewed in their homes using a specially designed answer…

  2. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  3. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  4. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  5. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  6. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  7. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  8. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  9. Survey of City/County Drug Abuse Activities 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Abuse Council, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This monograph is the second of a two-part report delineating state and local government activities and programs in the area of drug abuse. Presented here are the efforts of cities and counties to control drug abuse, accompanied by comparisons with state actions where appropriate. A survey instrument was developed by the Drug Abuse Council, Inc.…

  10. Medical Readings on Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    Summaries are presented of over 150 articles in the recent medical and psychiatric literature. Topics covered are: effects of drugs, tobacco, alcohol, drugs used in medicine, vapor sniffing, marijuana, barbiturates, tranquilizers, amphetamines, methamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, other hallucinogens, heroin and the opiates, psychiatric…

  11. Drug Abuse Films, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coordinating Council on Drug Education, Washington, DC.

    This second edition updates and expands a 1971 evaluation of films and audiovisuals related to drug education performed by the National Coordinating Council on Drug Education. Materials in this edition are evaluated both for accuracy and effectiveness as a communications tool. They are separated into two sections--films and other audiovisuals…

  12. Decline but No Fall? New Millennium Trends in Young People's Use of Illegal and Illicit Drugs in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe trends since 2000 in young people's use of illegal/illicit drugs in Britain, and to place these into a longer-term context alongside recent theorising on youthful drug taking. The implications for health educators are to be examined. Design/methodology/approach: A selective narrative review of…

  13. [Workplace testing of drugs of abuse and psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Mura, P; Saussereau, E; Brunet, B; Goullé, J-P

    2012-05-01

    In France, workplace testing of drugs of abuse and psychotropic drugs is rarely performed; meanwhile it is a major public health problem. Furthermore, France is the European country that has been associated with the highest increase of the use of drugs of abuse, particularly cannabis. So workplace biological screening of drugs of abuse and of psychotropic drugs exposure is of major concern. New analytical techniques have been developed during the last years. The authors will consider analytical screening of drugs of abuse and particularly the comparison of analytical techniques applied to urine and saliva. The advantages and the disadvantages of these two matrices will be considered. Urinary and blood quantification will be reviewed, but also the interest of hair testing to explore chronic exposure. The research of psychotropic drugs in biological fluids is also a part of this paper. New analytical trends are promising and complete analysis of these substances will be soon routinely possible in blood using a single spot test. PMID:22655580

  14. Substance abuse: the designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Beebe, D K; Walley, E

    1991-05-01

    Designer drugs, chemically altered compounds derived from federally controlled substances, have become a major cause of addiction and overdose deaths. These drugs include mescaline analogs, synthetic opioids, arylhexylamines, methaqualone derivatives and crack, a new form of cocaine. Sudden changes in mood, weight loss, depression, disturbed sleep patterns, deteriorating school or work performance, marital problems, and loss of interest in friends and social activities may be signs of drug addiction. Life-threatening complications of acute intoxication, such as hyperthermia, seizures, combative and psychotic behavior, and cardiorespiratory collapse, require prompt diagnosis and supportive intervention. PMID:2021104

  15. Genotoxic effects induced by the exposure to an environmental mixture of illicit drugs to the zebra mussel.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Binelli, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Despite the growing interest on the presence of illicit drugs in freshwater ecosystems, just recently the attention has been focused on their potential toxicity towards non-target aquatic species. However, these studies largely neglected the effects induced by exposure to complex mixtures of illicit drugs, which could be different compared to those caused by single psychoactive molecules. This study was aimed at investigating the genetic damage induced by a 14-day exposure to a realistic mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in surface waters worldwide (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, morphine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The mixture caused a significant increase of DNA fragmentation and triggered the apoptotic process and micronuclei formation in zebra mussel hemocytes, pointing out its potential genotoxicity towards this bivalve species. PMID:27261879

  16. Infant birth outcomes among substance using women: why quitting smoking during pregnancy is just as important as quitting illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Beth A; McCook, Judy G; Hodge, Alexis; McGrady, Lana

    2012-02-01

    Poor birth outcomes are associated with illicit drug use during pregnancy. While prenatal cigarette exposure has similar effects, cessation of illicit drug use during pregnancy is often prioritized over cessation of smoking. The study goal was to examine the impact of pregnancy tobacco use, relative to use of illicit drugs, on birth outcomes. Women were recruited at entry to prenatal care, with background and substance use information collected during pregnancy. Urine drug screens were performed during pregnancy, and the final sample (n = 265) was restricted to infants who also had biologic drug testing at delivery. Participants were classified by pregnancy drug use: no drugs/no cigarettes, no drugs/cigarette use, illicit drugs/no cigarettes, and illicit drugs/cigarette use. Groups differed significantly on infant birthweight, but not gestational age at delivery after control for confounders including background and medical factors. Among women who smoked, the adjusted mean birthweight gain was 163 g for those not using hard illicit drugs, while marijuana use had no effect on birth weight beyond the effect of smoking cigarettes. Women who used hard illicit drugs and did not smoke had an adjusted mean birthweight gain of 317 g over smokers. Finally, women who refrained from hard illicit drugs and smoking had a birthweight gain of 352 g. Among substance using pregnant women, smoking cessation may have a greater impact on birthweight than eliminating illicit drug use. Intervention efforts should stress that smoking cessation is at least as important to improving pregnancy outcomes as abstaining from illicit drug use. PMID:21424740

  17. Drugs of abuse and addiction: A slippery slope toward liver injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dijendra Nath; Goswami, Ritobrata

    2016-08-01

    Substances of abuse induce alteration in neurobehavioral symptoms, which can lead to simultaneous exacerbation of liver injury. The biochemical changes of liver are significantly observed in the abused group of people using illicit drugs or drugs that are abused. A huge amount of work has been carried out by scientists for validation experiments using animal models to assess hepatotoxicity in cases of drugs of abuse. The risk of hepatotoxicity from these psychostimulants has been determined by different research groups. Hepatotoxicity of these drugs has been recently highlighted and isolated case reports always have been documented in relation to misuse of the drugs. These drugs induce liver toxicity on acute or chronic dose dependent process, which ultimately lead to liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis etc. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review emphasizes on various drugs of abuse and addiction which induce hepatotoxicity along with their mechanism of liver damage in clinical aspect as well as in vitro and in vivo approach. However, the mechanisms of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is dependent on reactive metabolite formation via metabolism, modification of covalent bonding between cellular components with drug and its metabolites, reactive oxygen species generation inside and outside of hepatocytes, activation of signal transduction pathways that alter cell death or survival mechanism, and cellular mitochondrial damage, which leads to alteration in ATP generation have been notified here. Moreover, how the cytokines are modulated by these drugs has been mentioned here. PMID:26409324

  18. National Institute on Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & ... Cold Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs ...

  19. Research Reports: Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... since 1999, and by 2007, outnumbered those involving heroin and cocaine. NIDA hopes to change this situation ...

  20. [The onset of drug abuse in children].

    PubMed

    Chvíla, L; Vengrínová, J

    1989-08-01

    The paper deals with drug abuse in minors who are on the records of the regional surgery for toxicomania in Ostrava-Poruba. The authors give an account of examinations of 27 children aged 7.5 to 14 years. They emphasize the social and psychological aspects leading in these children to drug abuse. They present the basic four types of children who incline to failure in this respect: markedly extrovert subjects with good intellect, markedly submissive children, more introvert subjects with inferior intellect, neglected children with poor intellect and behavioural disorders and children with a high appetence for the drug. In the conclusion the authors emphasize possibilities of prevention within the discipline of psychiatry. PMID:2805126

  1. Postmortem toxicology of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2004-06-10

    Conducting toxicology on post-mortem specimens provides a number of very significant challenges to the scientist. The range of additional specimens include tissues such as decomposing blood and other tissues, hair, muscle, fat, lung, and even larvae feeding on the host require special techniques to isolate a foreign substance and allow detection without interference from the matrix. A number of drugs of abuse are unstable in the post-mortem environment that requires careful consideration when trying to interpret their significance. Heroin, morphine glucuronides, cocaine and the benzodiazepines are particularly prone to degradation. Moreover, redistributive process can significantly alter the concentration of drugs, particularly those with a higher tissue concentration than the surrounding blood. The designer amphetamines, methadone and other potent opioids will increase their concentration in blood post-mortem. These processes together with the development of tolerance means that no concentration of a drug of abuse can be interpreted in isolation without a thorough examination of the relevant circumstances and after the conduct of a post-mortem to eliminate or corroborate relevant factors that could impact on the drug concentration and the possible effect of a substance on the body. This article reviews particular toxicological issues associated with the more common drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opioids and the benzodiazepines. PMID:15172074

  2. Occurrence and behavior of illicit drugs and metabolites in sewage water from the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Valencia region).

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Serrano, Roque; Ferrer, Carlos; Tormos, Isabel; Hernández, Félix

    2014-07-15

    In this work, a study on the occurrence and behavior of illicit drugs and metabolites in sewage water systems has been made. A comprehensive dataset was obtained by analyzing illicit drugs daily in influent and effluent waters from three sewage treatment plants (STPs), over three different weeks. To complete this dataset, monitoring was conducted during an international pop/rock festival, an interesting facet within this study. The STPs selected were sited along the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Castellón province, Valencia region) and represent towns of different sizes, with appreciable variations in the population in the summer period. Illicit drug concentrations in the influents were low, except during the celebration of the music festival, when the levels of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, MDA and MDMA increased. Comparing the influent and effluent concentration data allowed the rough estimation of the removal of illicit drugs and metabolites by each STP. Removal efficiencies were estimated between 75 and 100% for most of the analytes under investigation. The loads discharged into the aquatic ecosystem were also calculated from effluent data. Weekly discharges of drugs and metabolites via effluent sewage waters presented values commonly below 10 g for each individual drug, with the exception of benzoylecgonine, which usually exceeded this level. The increase in population and drug consumption during the music event led to a notable increase in the weekly discharges, reaching values up to 406 g of MDMA and 122 g of benzoylecgonine. PMID:24342491

  3. Spatial variations in the consumption of illicit stimulant drugs across Australia: A nationwide application of wastewater-based epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, Paul; Gartner, Coral; Thai, Phong; Carter, Steve; Lloyd, Belinda; Burns, Lucy; Mueller, Jochen

    2016-10-15

    Obtaining representative information on illicit drug use and patterns across a country remains difficult using surveys because of low response rates and response biases. A range of studies have used wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as a complementary approach to monitor community-wide illicit drug use. In Australia, no large-scale WBE studies have been conducted to date to reveal illicit drug use profiles in a national context. In this study, we performed the first Australia-wide WBE monitoring to examine spatial patterns in the use of three illicit stimulants (cocaine, as its human metabolite benzoylecgonine; methamphetamine; and 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)). A total of 112 daily composite wastewater samples were collected from 14 wastewater treatment plants across four states and two territories. These covered approximately 40% of the Australian population. We identified and quantified illicit drug residues using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. There were distinctive spatial patterns of illicit stimulant use in Australia. Multivariate analyses showed that consumption of cocaine and MDMA was higher in the large cities than in rural areas. Also, cocaine consumption differed significantly between different jurisdictions. Methamphetamine consumption was more similar between urban and rural locations. Only a few cities had elevated levels of use. Extrapolation of the WBE estimates suggested that the annual consumption was 3tonnes for cocaine and 9tonnes combined for methamphetamine and MDMA, which outweighed the annual seizure amount by 25 times and 45 times, respectively. These ratios imply the difficulty of detecting the trafficking of these stimulants in Australia, possibly more so for methamphetamine than cocaine. The obtained spatial pattern of use was compared with that in the most recent national household survey. Together both WBE and survey methods provide a more comprehensive evaluation of drug use that can assist

  4. Pulse Check: Trends in Drug Abuse, Mid-Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meth, Marcia; Chalmers, Rebecca; Bassin, Gail

    This report serves as a source of information on drug abuse and drug markets. It aims to describe drug-abusing populations; emerging drugs; new routes of administration; varying use patterns; changing demand for treatment; drug-related criminal activity; and shifts in supply and distribution patterns. It is not designed to be used as a law…

  5. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  6. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  7. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  8. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  9. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  10. The influence of protective and risk factors in individual, peer and school domains on Thai adolescents' alcohol and illicit drug use: a survey.

    PubMed

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates risk and protective factors for substance abuse in a sample of 1778 students attending technical colleges in Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces of Thailand using a self-report questionnaire modified from the Communities That Care youth survey. Low school commitment was strongly associated with illicit drug use, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.84 (glue sniffing) to 10.06 (ecstasy). Having friends using drugs, and friends with delinquent behaviors increased the risk of using alcohol and illegal drugs, with adjusted odds ratios of 6.84 and 6.72 respectively for marijuana use. For protective factors, approximately 40-60% of students with high levels of moral belief, participation in religious activities, and social skills were less likely to use alcohol. It is concluded that peer influence is a significant contributor to Thai adolescents' participation in substance abuse and that engaging in religiosity may assist adolescents to internalize negative aspects of harmful drugs into positive perceptions and encourage them to avoid alcohol and illegal drugs. PMID:24930052

  11. Neurotoxicity screening of (illicit) drugs using novel methods for analysis of microelectrode array (MEA) recordings.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, L; Verboven, A H A; Drega, W S; Schmeink, S; de Groot, M W G D M; van Kleef, R G D M; Wijnolts, F M J; de Groot, A; Meulenbelt, J; Westerink, R H S

    2016-07-01

    Annual prevalence of the use of common illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) is high, despite the often limited knowledge on the health risks of these substances. Recently, cortical cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have been used for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and toxins with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, the use of mwMEAs to investigate the effects of illicit drugs on neuronal activity is largely unexplored. We therefore first characterised the cortical cultures using immunocytochemistry and show the presence of astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Neuronal activity is concentration-dependently affected following exposure to six neurotransmitters (glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and nicotine). Most neurotransmitters inhibit neuronal activity, although glutamate and acetylcholine transiently increase activity at specific concentrations. These transient effects are not detected when activity is determined during the entire 30min exposure window, potentially resulting in false-negative results. As expected, exposure to the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline increases neuronal activity. Exposure to a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA-receptor (diazepam) or to glutamate receptor antagonists (CNQX and MK-801) reduces neuronal activity. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to common drugs (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine) and NPS (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and methoxetamine (MXE)) decreases neuronal activity. MXE most potently inhibits neuronal activity with an IC50 of 0.5μM, whereas 4-FA is least potent with an IC50 of 113μM. Our data demonstrate the importance of analysing neuronal activity within different time windows during exposure to prevent false-negative results. We also show that cortical cultures grown on mwMEAs can successfully be applied to investigate the effects of

  12. Precocious emphysema in intravenous drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, G L; Rahman, M; Chamberlain, D; Herman, S J

    1993-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that obstructive airway disease and early emphysema occur in some drug addicts who intravenously abuse drugs intended for oral use. We report four patients with such a history who had clinical, pathophysiologic, and radiologic evidence of severe obstructive airway disease with hyperinflation. Three patients had bullae. All had radiologic changes of intravenous talc granulomatosis. One patient had moderately severe emphysema at autopsy. The pathogenesis of this disease is uncertain but may involve synergism with cigarette smoke, direct toxic effects of the drug, or induced intravascular leukocyte sequestration causing proteolytic pulmonary injury. PMID:8320766

  13. Oral Fluid Testing for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bosker, Wendy M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) is an exciting alternative matrix for monitoring drugs of abuse in workplace, clinical toxicology, criminal justice, and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) programs. During the last 5 years, scientific and technological advances in OF collection, point-of-collection testing devices, and screening and confirmation methods were achieved. Guidelines were proposed for workplace OF testing by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DUID testing by the European Union’s Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) program, and standardization of DUID research. Although OF testing is now commonplace in many monitoring programs, the greatest current limitation is the scarcity of controlled drug administration studies available to guide interpretation. CONTENT This review outlines OF testing advantages and limitations, and the progress in OF that has occurred during the last 5 years in collection, screening, confirmation, and interpretation of cannabinoids, opioids, amphetamines, cocaine, and benzodiazepines. We examine controlled drug administration studies, immunoassay and chromatographic methods, collection devices, point-of-collection testing device performance, and recent applications of OF testing. SUMMARY Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration approval of OF testing was delayed because questions about drug OF disposition were not yet resolved, and collection device performance and testing assays required improvement. Here, we document the many advances achieved in the use of OF. Additional research is needed to identify new bio-markers, determine drug detection windows, characterize OF adulteration techniques, and evaluate analyte stability. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that OF offers multiple advantages as an alternative matrix for drug monitoring and has an important role in DUID, treatment, workplace, and criminal justice programs. PMID:19745062

  14. The Literature on Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary D.; Brooks, Bonnie S.

    This is a bibliographical compilation of much of the literature pertinent to the current drug emphasis which has appeared since c. 1960. It is divided into two general sections: (1) books and pamphlets; and (2) articles. In all, there are 13 books and pamphlets on LSD, three on marihuana, and 52 of a more general nature. Articles are more…

  15. A General Causal Model to Guide Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Prevention: Assessing the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.

    2004-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…

  16. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol, illicit drugs, and medicines, in Spanish drivers: a roadside study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Colás, Monica; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Javier Álvarez, F

    2012-11-30

    Following population, geographic, road type and time criteria, Spain has carried out random, roadside controls of 3302 representative sample of Spanish drivers, including saliva analysis for 24 psychoactive substances and alcohol breath tests. The 81.4% of the drivers were male, with an average age of 34.8±11.8 (mean±SD). The 17% of the drivers were found to be positive to any of the substances analysed. The 6.6% of the drivers found positive to alcohol (>0.05 mg/l in breath), 11% were found positive to any illicit drug, and 2% were positive to one of the medicines analysed. Some drivers were positive in more than one substance. The most common illicit drugs among Spanish drivers were cannabis (7.7%), or cocaine (3.5%), either alone or combined with other substances. The most prevalent medicines were the benzodiazepines (1.6%). As a tendency, higher figures for positive cases were observed among males than in females (being statistically significant the differences for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). Alcohol and cocaine positive cases were more frequently found among drivers of urban roads. Alcohol positive cases (alone, >0.05 mg/l), were more likely found as age increase (OR=1.02), those driving in urban roads (OR=2.13), and driving at any period than weekdays, while alcohol+drugs cases were more likely found among males (OR=2.819), those driving on urban road (OR=2.17) and driving at night periods. Finding a medicines positive case was more likely as elder the driver was (OR=1.05). There have been differences in the prevalence of positive cases of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, in relation to the period of the week: in three cases the highest prevalence seen in night time. This study shows the high prevalence of psychoactive substances and alcohol in Spanish drivers, mainly illicit drugs (cannabis). This question requires a response from the authorities and from society, with an integral and multi-disciplinary approach that can heighten the population

  17. Vitamin D receptor and epigenetics in HIV infection and drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Nirupama; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2015-01-01

    Illicit drug abuse is highly prevalent and serves as a powerful co-factor for HIV exacerbation. Epigenetic alterations in drug abuse and HIV infection determine expression of several critical genes such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), which participates in proliferation, differentiation, cell death under both physiological and pathological conditions. On that account, active vitamin D, the ligand of VDR, is used as an adjuvant therapy to control infection, slow down progression of chronic kidney diseases, and cancer chemotherapy. Interestingly, vitamin D may not be able to augment VDR expression optimally in several instances where epigenetic contributes to down regulation of VDR; however, reversal of epigenetic corruption either by demethylating agents (DACs) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors would be able to maximize expression of VDR in these instances. PMID:26347716

  18. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  19. Trends in Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use among College Students: Results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys--1993-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Lee, Jae Eun; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined changes in college students' illicit drug use, patterns of polydrug use, and the relationship between students' ages of initiation of substance use and later use of marijuana and other illicit drugs between 1993 and 2001. Data from 119 US colleges and universities in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study…

  20. Prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and psychoactive medicines in killed drivers in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Gjerde, Hallvard; Isalberti, Cristina; Van der Linden, Trudy; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Dias, Mario J; Gustafsson, Susanne; Ceder, Gunnel; Verstraete, Alain G

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the presence of psychoactive substances in blood of drivers killed in road crashes in four European countries. Data from 1118 drivers of car and vans, killed between 2006 and 2009, were collected in Finland, Norway, Portugal and Sweden. The prevalence of any psychoactive substance ranged between 31 and 48%. Alcohol (≥ 0.1 g/L) was the most common finding, 87% had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥ .5 g/L. Benzodiazepines (1.8-13.3%) and amphetamines (0-7.4%) were the most prevalent psychoactive medicines and illicit drugs, respectively. Alcohol-drug and drug-drug combinations were rather prevalent. Differences in alcohol/drug findings seemed to reflect differences in use in the countries. More research should be done to develop preventive strategies to reduce the number of alcohol- and drug-related traffic accidents targeting at-risk groups, such as drivers with very high BACs and novice drivers. PMID:23297822

  1. Substance Dependence, Abuse and Treatment: Findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Joan F.

    This report provides the first information on substance dependence, abuse, and treatment obtained from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). Several important changes to the NHSDA in 1999 and 2000 affected the estimates of drug use, as well as the estimates for dependence, abuse, and needing and receiving treatment. Following…

  2. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1992-12-01

    Attention is given here to the mass spectral data of impurities present in illicit drug preparations of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine. These "designer" drugs, having emphatic properties, were synthesized following well-known procedures such as the reductive amination route, the Leuckart reaction, and the nitropropene and the bromopropane routes. Based on the structure elucidation of impurities - especially those so-called "route specific" ones - present in these illicit drug preparations conclusions can be drawn about the method of preparation of a drug sample. Furthermore, on the basis of this kind of information methods can be developed for the comparison of drug samples, by which questions about the origin of drug samples can be solved (commonly known as the signature method). PMID:26267375

  3. Drug Abuse Education Program. Drug Abuse Education, Grades 5,7,9. Bibliography Included.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    A drug abuse education program was implemented in grades five, seven, and nine in the Baltimore City Public Schools. Unit plans outline the curriculum content and learning activities for each of the three grades. The major objective in grade five is to familiarize pupils with various medically used drugs and to develop an understanding that they…

  4. Lifetime history of heroin use is associated with greater drug severity among prescription opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Andrew C.; Patrick, Mollie E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While research suggests primary prescription opioid (PO) abusers may exhibit less severe demographic and drug use characteristics than primary heroin abusers, less is known about whether a lifetime history of heroin use confers greater severity among PO abusers. Objective In this secondary analysis, we examined demographic and drug use characteristics as a function of lifetime heroin use among 89 PO-dependent adults screened for a trial evaluating the relative efficacy of buprenorphine taper durations. Exploratory analyses also examined contribution of lifetime heroin use to treatment response among a subset of participants who received a uniform set of study procedures. Methods Baseline characteristics were compared between participants reporting lifetime heroin use ≥5 (H+; n=41) vs. <5 (H−; n=48) times. Treatment response (i.e., illicit opioid abstinence and treatment retention at end of study) was examined in the subset of H+ and H− participants randomized to receive the 4-week taper condition (N=22). Results H+ participants were significantly older and more likely to be male. They reported longer durations of illicit opioid use, greater alcohol-related problems, more past-month cocaine use, greater lifetime IV drug use, and greater lifetime use of cigarettes, amphetamines and hallucinogens. H+ participants also had lower scores on the Positive Symptom Distress and Depression subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Finally, there was a trend toward poorer treatment outcomes among H+ participants. Conclusion A lifetime history of heroin use may be associated with elevated drug severity and unique treatment needs among treatment-seeking PO abusers. PMID:25481453

  5. Non-injected illicit drug use and infectious disease risk of donor tissue: a single institution retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Barton, Mark D; Qureshi, Amir; Vijapura, Anita; Temple, H Thomas

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship of non-injected illicit drug use and infectious disease seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Syphilis. In a retrospective review of 986 donor charts recovered from 2009 to 2011 at a single tissue bank, the absence of reported non-injected illicit drug use corresponded with seropositivity in 6.61 %, of recovered donors while reported illicit drug use in the medical and social history corresponded with seropositivity in 11.25 %, representing a 70 % increased risk. There was no significant difference noted for overall seropositivity rates between types on noninjected illicit drugs, although donors that used cocaine had a higher incidence of HIV, while marijuana use was associated with a higher rate of HBV, HCV, and syphilis positivity. Toxicology screening results were not an accurate predictor of seropositivity (PPV = 3.77 %; NPV = 91.56 %). Further, the degree of relationship between the donor and the next of kin had no bearing on the veracity of actual drug use when comparing the response of the medical-social history and the toxicology screen. PMID:26006785

  6. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  7. The histopathology of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Milroy, Christopher Mark; Parai, Jacqueline Louise

    2011-10-01

    The use of drugs for recreational purposes is widespread. The drugs used can be divided into groups including stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, etc.), opiates and opioids (heroin, oxycodone, methadone, fentanyl, etc.), sedatives (benzodiazepines and related substances) and miscellaneous drugs, including ketamine and cannabis (marijuana). These drugs can have profound effects on all organ systems in the body. The method of administration, whether by injection or inhalation, can cause localized and systemic effects, including the transmission of infection and granulomata at the site of injection and in the lungs. Suppurative abscesses from injection can result in systemic amyloidosis. Stimulants have profound effects on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, with enlarged hearts with fibrosis seen microscopically and cerebral infarction and haemorrhage. Crack cocaine use is also associated with changes in the pulmonary system, including carbon pigmented intra-alveolar macrophages, emphysema and pulmonary arterial changes. Cannabis use is associated with brown pigmented macrophages in the lung as well as changes in the respiratory tract epithelium. Opiates/opioids are associated with inhalational pneumonitis and hypoxic brain damage due to their respiratory depressant effects. Heroin use has been associated with focal segmental glomerulonephritis (heroin-associated nephropathy: HAN). 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) use is associated with changes in the cardiovascular system. Its use can lead to hyperpyrexia, which results in systemic changes. Ketamine abuse has been associated with cystitis. Drugs of abuse may affect testicular function. In analysing the effects of drugs at autopsy a systematic approach to sampling of histology is required. PMID:21261690

  8. Drug and alcohol abuse in patients with acute burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Swenson, J R; Dimsdale, J E; Rockwell, E; Carroll, W; Hansbrough, J

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed records of adult patients admitted to our burn unit who were reported to abuse drugs or alcohol from 1985 to 1988. The proportion of patients reported as abusing drugs increased significantly from 1987 to 1988, compared to previous years. However, there was no increase in the proportion of patients reported to abuse alcohol. Patients identified as abusing drugs had longer hospital stays, compared to patients who were not reported to abuse substances. Methamphetamine and cocaine were the drugs most often abused by patients who abused drugs or both drugs and alcohol. Mechanisms of burn injury in these patients included "accidental" burn injury related to acute intoxication, and self-injury due to psychosis or depression. PMID:1882020

  9. Drug Abuse. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Souver, F. Gerald; Plunkett, Thomas G.

    This booklet is concerned with providing information on drug abuse. A brief history of drug traffic and today's problem begin the pamphlet. The second part discusses the identification of drugs including opium, heroin, and marihuana. The next section is concerned with non-narcotic drug abuse, including Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) mascaline,…

  10. Individual differences as predictors of illicit drug use among Turkish college students.

    PubMed

    Ayvasik, H Belgin; Sümer, H Canan

    2010-12-01

    Although the prevalence of drug use in the young adult population in Turkey is still far below the figures reported for most European Union countries and the United States, there seems to be a noteworthy increase in drug use, especially among high school and college students. The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent of drug use among college students in Turkey and to identify some of the individual-difference variables associated with drug use. Participants were 781 college students. A survey package including (a) measures of sensation seeking-risk taking, self-esteem, affectivity level, global mental health, overall life satisfaction, and the rate and nature of substance use and (b) demographic questions was administered to the participants during regularly held class meetings. A logistic regression analysis revealed that sensation seeking-risk taking, parental education level, smoking, and frequency of alcohol use predicted illicit drug experience. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed using the context of the study as a framework. PMID:21053764

  11. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2010. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series. Paper 74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The full 2010 survey results are reported in "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975;2010: Volume I, Secondary School Students". That monograph contains a description of MTF's design and purposes, as well as extended reporting on substance use of all kinds, licit and illicit, and a number of related factors such as…

  12. Fenton-like reaction: a possible way to efficiently remove illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Mosný, Michal; Grabic, Roman; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Birošová, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed 13 psychoactive pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent and the possibility of their degradation by biological and chemical processes. Tramadol (413-853 ng/L) and methamphetamine (460-682 ng/L) were the most concentrated compounds in the wastewater in winter and summer, respectively. A significant decrease in the concentration of tramadol in wastewater was measured during the summer. The lowest efficiency was observed for tramadol, venlafaxine, citalopram and oxazepam (∼ 10%) and the highest efficiency was observed for amphetamine and THC-COOH (∼ 80%). The efficiency of compound degradation via the Fenton reaction, a modified Fenton reaction and different degradation (by algae, wood-rotting fungi and enzymes at influent versus effluent) was determined. The Fenton reaction and its modification were efficient at eliminating these substances in comparison with the tested biological processes. PMID:25680092

  13. Illicit drug use in late pregnancy associated with stillbirth and eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Katherine; Fagermo, Narelle; Callaway, Leonie; Lust, Karin

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 20-year-old student with an undiagnosed pregnancy who had taken ecstasy and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide). Twenty-four hours later she delivered a stillborn term infant, and subsequently developed eclampsia with seizures, hypertension and proteinuria. Illicit drug use is relatively common in women of child-bearing age in Australia, and is a risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes. Ecstasy (MDMA [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine]) is a sympathomimetic amine, similar to amphetamine in its cardiovascular effects. LSD is a hallucinogen with complex pharmacology and has potential for significant compromise of placental blood flow. We propose that the combined vasoconstrictive effects of MDMA and LSD caused placental ischaemia, contributing to the fetal death and precipitating a cascade of endothelial dysfunction which resulted in an eclamptic syndrome.

  14. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Johnson, Renee M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. Methods We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th–12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n = 108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths’ residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n = 103). Results The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p = 0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p > 0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p > 0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. Conclusions We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. PMID:24326203

  15. Illicit Drug Use among Rave Attendees in a Nationally Representative Sample of US High School Seniors

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Ompad, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The popularity of electronic dance music and rave parties such as dance festivals has increased in recent years. Targeted samples of party-goers suggest high rates of drug use among attendees, but few nationally representative studies have examined these associations. Methods We examined sociodemographic correlates of rave attendance and relationships between rave attendance and recent (12-month) use of various drugs in a representative US sample of high school seniors (modal age: 18) from the Monitoring the Future study (2011–2013; Weighted N= 7,373). Results One out of five students (19.8%) reported ever attending a rave, and 7.7% reported attending at least monthly. Females and highly religious students were less likely to attend raves, and Hispanics, students residing in cities, students with higher income and those who go out for fun multiple times per week were more likely to attend. Rave attendees were more likely than non-attendees to report use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (35.5% vs. 15.6%, p < .0001). Attendees were more likely to report use of each of the 18 drugs assessed, and attendees were more likely to report more frequent use (≥6 times) of each drug (ps < .0001). Controlling for sociodemographic covariates, frequent attendance (monthly or more often) was associated with higher odds of use of each drug (ps < .0001). Frequent attendees were at highest risk for use of “club drugs.” Discussion Findings from this study can help inform prevention and harm reduction among rave attendees at greatest risk for drug use. PMID:26005041

  16. The Demand for Antiretroviral Drugs in the Illicit Marketplace: Implications for HIV Disease Management Among Vulnerable Populations.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L; Levi-Minzi, Maria A; O'Grady, Catherine L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2015-05-01

    The diversion of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has implications for the integrity and success of HIV care, however little is known about the ARV illicit market. This paper aimed to identify the motivations for buying illicit ARVs and to describe market dynamics. Semi-structured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with substance-involved individuals living with HIV who have a history of purchasing ARVs on the street. Grounded theory was used to code and analyze interviews. Motivations for buying ARVs on the illicit market were: to repurchase ARVs after having diverted them for money or drugs; having limited access or low quality health care; to replace lost or ruined ARVs; and to buy a back-up stock of ARVs. This study identified various structural barriers to HIV treatment and ARV adherence that incentivized ARV diversion. Findings highlight the need to improve patient-provider relationships, ensure continuity of care, and integrate services to engage and retain high-needs populations. PMID:25092512

  17. The Demand for Antiretroviral Drugs in the Illicit Marketplace: Implications for HIV disease management among vulnerable populations

    PubMed Central

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; O’Grady, Catherine L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The diversion of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has implications for the integrity and success of HIV care, however little is known about the ARV illicit market. This paper aimed to identify the motivations for buying illicit ARVs and to describe market dynamics. Semi-structured interviews (n=44) were conducted with substance-involved individuals living with HIV with a history of purchasing ARVs on the street. Grounded theory was used to code and analyze interviews. Motivations for buying ARVs on the illicit market were: to repurchase ARVs after having diverted them for money or drugs; having limited access or low quality health care; to replace lost or ruined ARVs; and to buy a back-up stock of ARVs. This study identified various structural barriers to HIV treatment and ARV adherence that incentivized ARV diversion. Findings highlight the need to improve patient-provider relationships, ensure continuity of care, and integrate services to engage and retain high-needs populations. PMID:25092512

  18. A Review on Renal Toxicity Profile of Common Abusive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varun Parkash; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse has become a major social problem of the modern world and majority of these abusive drugs or their metabolites are excreted through the kidneys and, thus, the renal complications of these drugs are very common. Morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine and alcohol are the most commonly abused drugs, and their use is associated with various types of renal toxicity. The renal complications include a wide range of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases leading to acute or chronic renal failure. The present review discusses the renal toxicity profile and possible mechanisms of commonly abused drugs including morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine and alcohol. PMID:23946695

  19. Community drug abuse agencies: an effective approach to the drug abuse problem.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Zitter, S; Savarese, R; Kern, J

    1976-01-01

    Community-based drug agencies were established as a means for confronting the drug abuse dilemma. However, due to the traditional guidelines that were followed in developing CBDA programs, the unique aspects of the problem were overlooked. This uniqueness relates to the ability of the drug culture to satisfy basic human needs. To be effective CBDA must be able to satisfy the same needs that clients previously met through participation in the drug culture. This article examines three areas of weakness which limit the effectiveness of CBDA: (1) fragment delivery of services; (2) perpetuation of minimal client involvement, commitment, and responsibility; and (3) motivational considerations of board members. The alternative family structure is described as an innovative CBDA approach that directly relates to the uniqueness of the drug abuse problem. PMID:10316884

  20. Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  1. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  2. Intracranial Self-Stimulation to Evaluate Abuse Potential of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. PMID:24973197

  3. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  4. Youth Illicit Drug Use Prevention: DARE Long-Term Evaluations and Federal Efforts To Identify Effective Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanof, Marjorie E.

    The most widely used school-based substance abuse prevention program in the United States is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program, which is funded by a variety of sources, including private, federal, and other public entities. DAREs primary mission is to provide children with the information and skills they need to live drug- and…

  5. Special Considerations for Substance Abuse Intervention with Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 10% of Latino youth who are twelve and older are in need of substance abuse treatment for alcohol or illicit drug use. Ethnic differences exist with regard to susceptibility to drug use, attitudes regarding drugs, and drug resistance strategies. The failure of some substance abuse prevention programs can be traced in part to their lack of…

  6. Drug use and abuse: the ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Almond, B

    1992-01-01

    Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use. PMID:1638919

  7. Factors Associated with Leaving Hospital against Medical Advice among People Who Use Illicit Drugs in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Lianping; Milloy, M-J; Buxton, Jane; McNeil, Ryan; Dobrer, Sabina; Hayashi, Kanna; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Leaving hospital against medical advice (AMA) is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) and is associated with severe health-related harms and costs. However, little is known about the prevalence of and factors associated with leaving AMA among PWUD. Methods Data were collected through two Canadian prospective cohort studies involving PWUD between September 2005 and July 2011 and linked to a hospital admission/discharge database. Bivariable and multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine factors associated with leaving hospital AMA among PWUD who were hospitalized. Results Among 488 participants who experienced at least one hospitalization, 212 (43.4%) left the hospital AMA at least once during the study period. In multivariable analyses, factors positively and significantly associated with leaving hospital AMA included: unstable employment (AOR = 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–3.03); recent incarceration (AOR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.07–2.49); ≥ daily heroin injection (AOR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.05–2.11); and younger age per year younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04; 95%CI: 1.02–1.06). Conclusions We found a substantial proportion of PWUD in this setting left hospital AMA and that various markers of risk and vulnerability were associated with this phenomenon. Our findings highlight the need to address substance abuse issues early following hospital admission. These findings further suggest a need to develop novel interventions to minimize PWUD leaving hospital prematurely. PMID:26509447

  8. Prescription drug abuse. Patient, physician, and cultural responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D R; Smith, D E

    1990-05-01

    The abuse of prescription drugs is one facet of America's drug problem that is particularly complex because access to prescription drugs must be maintained for some purposes and contained for others. The American Medical Association has sponsored two national conferences to grapple with the confluence of the medical access to prescription drugs and a national drug abuse control policy. One result has been a classification of misprescribing physicians that blames physicians for prescription drug abuse. The conceptualization and public policy response to prescription drug abuse have been largely shaped by the emotional response to the epidemic of crack cocaine and other nonprescription drug abuse. A new perspective is needed--one that accommodates the evolving role of physicians in society, the life-style choices that physicians enable in their patients, and the respective responsibilities of both physicians and patients in physician-patient transactions. PMID:2349802

  9. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  10. Advisory Committee Report on Drug Abuse: Summations and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    A citizen's Drug Abuse Evaluation Committee was formed in Utah to evaluate past research and gather new data on basic questions concerning the drug problem. This booklet provides information based on the Committee's research, hearings, and an investigation of the current drug abuse problem in Utah. Data was also obtained from recorded testimony of…

  11. The Role of Education in Drug Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sandra C.

    A 1984 survey of teachers and principals revealed that the respondents considered the use of drugs and alcohol to be the worst type of discipline problem they had experienced. While the significance of the drug and alcohol abuse problem in schools supports the existence of drug abuse prevention programs in the schools, several practical reasons…

  12. Critical review on the stability of illicit drugs in sewers and wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Bade, Richard; Kinyua, Juliet; Lai, Foon Yin; Thai, Phong K; Covaci, Adrian; Bijlsma, Lubertus; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Ort, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) applies advanced analytical methods to quantify drug residues in wastewater with the aim to estimate illicit drug use at the population level. Transformation processes during transport in sewers (chemical and biological reactors) and storage of wastewater samples before analysis are expected to change concentrations of different drugs to varying degrees. Ignoring transformation for drugs with low to medium stability will lead to an unknown degree of systematic under- or overestimation of drug use, which should be avoided. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the stability of commonly investigated drugs and, furthermore, suggest a more effective approach to future experiments. From over 100 WBE studies, around 50 mentioned the importance of stability and 24 included tests in wastewater. Most focused on in-sample stability (i.e., sample preparation, preservation and storage) and some extrapolated to in-sewer stability (i.e., during transport in real sewers). While consistent results were reported for rather stable compounds (e.g., MDMA and methamphetamine), a varying range of stability under different or similar conditions was observed for other compounds (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine and morphine). Wastewater composition can vary considerably over time, and different conditions prevail in different sewer systems. In summary, this indicates that more systematic studies are needed to: i) cover the range of possible conditions in sewers and ii) compare results more objectively. To facilitate the latter, we propose a set of parameters that should be reported for in-sewer stability experiments. Finally, a best practice of sample collection, preservation, and preparation before analysis is suggested in order to minimize transformation during these steps. PMID:26618807

  13. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council...

  14. The Controlled Study of the Ecology of Child Abuse and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, R. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The article reports on an ongoing, controlled study of factors related to the occurrence of child abuse, family factors related to heroin addiction, and the overall relationship between child abuse and drug abuse in 240 families. Journal availability: see EC 111 256. (DLS)

  15. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) methods for determining the purity of reference drug standards and illicit forensic drug seizures.

    PubMed

    Hays, Patrick A

    2005-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive, accurate, precise, reproducible, and versatile method for determining the purity of reference drug standards and the routine analysis of illicit drugs and adulterants using proton (1H) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy is presented. The methodology uses a weighed sample dissolved in a deuterated solvent or solvent mixture containing a high purity internal standard. The NMR experiment employs 8 scans using a 45 second delay and 90 degrees pulse. In the determination of purity of reference standards, the number of quantitative determinations available is equal to the number of peak groups that are baseline resolved. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of these signals is usually < 1% for pure standards, and the results agree well with other purity determining methods. This method can also aid in the determination of correct molecular weight for standards containing an unknown number of waters of hydration or an unknown number of acids per drug in salts. Because the molar response for the hydrogen nucleus is 1 for all compounds, and since no separation media are used, only one linearity study is required to test a probe. In the presented study, the linearity of the NMR probe was determined using methamphetamine HCl dissolved in deuterium oxide (D2O) with maleic acid as the internal standard (5 mg) for a range of concentrations from 0.033 to 69.18 mg/ml with a resulting correlation coefficient of >0.9999 for all 6 methamphetamine peak groups. The spectra of complex illicit heroin, methamphetamine, MDMA, and cocaine samples are presented, as well as an extensive list of compounds, their solubilities and the solvent(s) and internal standard used. PMID:16382828

  16. An Experimental Analysis of Reaction to Filmed Drug Abuse Information. Drug Abuse Information Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.; McEwen, William J.

    Message strategies relating to information about social problems such as drug abuse have been based on the assumption that exposure to relevant information via mass media will result in behavior modification. There is need, however, for scientific inquiry into methods of information acquisition and perceptual response to information. A two-part…

  17. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  18. Occurrence and removal of transformation products of PPCPs and illicit drugs in wastewaters: a review.

    PubMed

    Evgenidou, Eleni N; Konstantinou, Ioannis K; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) along with illicit drugs (IDs) are newly recognized classes of environmental pollutants and are receiving considerable attention because of their environmental impacts: frequent occurrence, persistence and risk to aquatic life and humans. However, relatively little information is often available with regard to their possible biotic and abiotic transformation products (TPs). This lack of knowledge has resulted in a substantial amount of ongoing effort to develop methods and approaches that would assess their occurrence, degradability potential elimination mechanisms and efficiencies in sewage treatment plants as well as environmental and human health risks. In this article, an extensive literature survey was performed in order to present the current stage of knowledge and progress made in the occurrence of TPs of PPCPs and IDs in raw and treated wastewaters. Apart from the TPs resulting from structural transformations of the parent compound in the aquatic environment or in technological treatment facilities (e.g. sewage and drinking water treatment plants), free metabolites and drug conjugates formed during human metabolism have also been included in this review as they are also released into the aquatic environment through wastewaters. Their concentration levels were reported in influents and effluents of WWTPs, hospital effluents and their removals in the treatment plants were discussed. Finally, information on the toxicity of TPs has been compiled when available. PMID:25461093

  19. Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem®): differences in characteristics and misuse

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate. PMID:19493637

  20. Analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater from two Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Yargeau, Viviane; Taylor, Bryanne; Li, Hongxia; Rodayan, Angela; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2014-07-15

    Several drugs of abuse, including amphetamines, cocaine and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine and several opioid prescription drugs were detected in wastewater from two Canadian cities, a small community (75,000 population) and a large urban center (1.6 million population). The objective of this study was to evaluate community use of these drugs in two cities with large differences in population size and demographics. In addition, we evaluated the use of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) as a monitoring tool for drugs of abuse. Heroin was not detected at either location, probably because this illicit drug is metabolized to morphine prior to excretion. Acetylcodeine and acetylmorphine were also not detected. Estimates of community consumption from wastewater analysis indicated that the most widely used drug was cocaine at a median level of consumption in the larger city of approximately 38 doses per day per 1000 people. Consumption of the substituted amphetamine, ephedrine, as well as methamphetamine was also higher in the larger city, at 21 and 1.8 doses per day per 1000 people, respectively. Use of amphetamine, MDMA and tramadol were similar in both centers, but use of oxycodone was greater in the smaller city. Use of MDMA (ecstasy) peaked on weekends. Ketamine was detected in wastewater from the larger city; the first report of abuse of this veterinary anesthetic in a North American city. POCIS sampling rates were determined for the first time for 7 of the target compounds. Comparing the time weighted average concentrations estimated from POCIS data to the concentrations obtained from 24-h composite samples, the data were generally comparable, except for some compounds which were not detected in POCIS deployed in the untreated wastewater, probably because of biofouling or accumulation of debris on the cages containing the POCIS. This study indicates that the size and demographics of population centers can influence the patterns of abuse of

  1. Illicit drugs and their metabolites in 36 rivers that drain into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea, north China.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Gao; Zheng, Qiu-Da; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Du, Juan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Wang, Zhuang; Ge, Lin-Ke

    2016-08-01

    Illicit drugs and their metabolites have recently been recognized as an emerging group of contaminants due to their potential ecotoxicological impact in aquatic ecosystems. To date, information on the occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment of China remains limited. In this study, we collected surface water samples from 36 rivers in north China that discharge into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea and measured the concentrations of amphetamine-like compounds, ketamines, cocainics, and opioids. The occurrence and spatial patterns of these substances show significant differences between the rivers and regions. Two designer drugs, methamphetamine (METH) and ketamine (KET), were the most abundant compounds detected in the entire set of samples (detection frequency of 92 and 69 %). The concentrations of METH and KET ranged from <0.1 to 42.0 ng L(-1) (mean = 4.53 ng L(-1)) and <0.05 to 4.50 ng L(-1) (mean = 0.49 ng L(-1)), respectively. The high detection frequencies of METH and KET are consistent with the fact that they are the main illicit drugs consumed in China. The high concentrations of these illicit drugs and their metabolites were found in areas that have a high population density. The riverine input of total illicit drugs into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea was estimated to be in the range of 684 to 1160 kg per year. PMID:27167374

  2. Direct detection of illicit drugs from biological fluids by desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with nanoporous silicon microparticles.

    PubMed

    Guinan, T M; Kirkbride, P; Della Vedova, C B; Kershaw, S G; Kobus, H; Voelcker, N H

    2015-12-01

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is a high throughput analytical technique capable of detecting low molecular weight analytes, including illicit drugs, and with potential applications in forensic toxicology as well as athlete and workplace testing, particularly for biological fluids (oral fluids, urine and blood). However, successful detection of illicit drugs using SALDI-MS often requires extraction steps to reduce the inherent complexity of biological fluids. Here, we demonstrate an all-in-one extraction and analytical system consisting of hydrophobically functionalized porous silicon microparticles (pSi-MPs) for affinity SALDI-MS of prescription and illicit drugs. This novel approach allows for the analysis of drugs from multiple biological fluids without sample preparation protocols. The effect of pSi-MP size, pore diameter, pore depth and functionalization on analytical performance is investigated. pSi-MPs were optimized for the rapid and high sensitivity detection of methadone, cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). This optimized system allowed extraction and detection of methadone from spiked saliva and clinical urine samples. Furthermore, by detecting oxycodone in additional clinical saliva and plasma samples, we were able to demonstrate the versatility of the pSi-MP SALDI-MS technique. PMID:26502296

  3. A series of forensic toxicology and drug seizure cases involving illicit fentanyl alone and in combination with heroin, cocaine or heroin and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Ehlers, Brooke J

    2014-10-01

    The Montgomery County Coroner's Office Toxicology Section and the Miami Valley Regional Crime Lab (MVRCL) Drug Chemistry Section have been receiving case work in drug seizures, death cases and human performance cases involving products marketed as heroin or as illicit fentanyl. Upon analysis by the Drug Chemistry Section, these products were found to contain various drug(s) including illicit fentanyl only, illicit fentanyl and heroin, illicit fentanyl and cocaine and illicit fentanyl, heroin and cocaine. Both the Chemistry and Toxicology Sections began seeing these combinations starting in late October 2013. The percentage of the combinations encountered by the MVRCL as well as the physical appearance of the product, and the results of presumptive screening tests will be discussed. The demographics of the users and the results of toxicology and autopsy findings on the decedents will also be discussed. According to regional drug task force undercover agents, there is evidence that some of the products are being sold as illicit fentanyl and not just as a heroin product. Also, there is no evidence to support that the fentanyl source is being diverted from pharmaceutical grade fentanyl. The chemistry section currently has over 109 confirmed cases, and the toxicology section currently has 81 confirmed drug deaths, 8 driving under the influence of drugs and 1 suicidal hanging. Both sections are continuing to see these cases at the present time. PMID:25217552

  4. Alcohol Abuse: Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Alcohol Abuse | Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery Why do I need to tell my doctor that I am in recovery? The decision to stop using alcohol or other drugs is very important to your ...

  5. Drug Use, Misuse, and Abuse Incidents among Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stuart J.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review recent drug use, misuse, and abuse incidents among elementary school children in order to emphasize the fact that the drug problem in society has spread rapidly. (Author)

  6. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  7. 78 FR 14562 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Treatment of HIV and HCV Infections in Drug Abusing Populations (8907). Date: April 16, 2013. Time: 1:00 p.m... Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Synthesis and Distribution of Drugs of Abuse and...

  8. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses intoxicants to excess is subject to removal (5 U.S.C. 7352). The Relocation Commission recognizes...

  9. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  10. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area. This includes scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports.…

  11. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  12. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  13. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area. This includes scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports.…

  14. Drug Abuse Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  15. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  16. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  17. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  18. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  19. A Guide to Drug Abuse Education and Information Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Drug-abuse-prevention materials developed by and available from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information are described in this guide. The materials are television and radio spots, print ads, posters, a federal source book, flyers, special audience publications, information for the professional,…

  20. Assessment of AIDS Risk among Treatment Seeking Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, John L.; And Others

    Intravenous (IV) drug abusers are at risk for contracting transmittable diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of risk behaviors for acquiring and transmitting AIDS and hepatitis B among treatment-seeking drug abusers (N=168). Subjects participated in a…

  1. Adolescent Drug Use: Trends in Abuse, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Susan M.

    This report highlights the important trends in adolescent drug use. Although the focus is on the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and inhalants, it is important to remember that adolescents abuse a wide range and combination of drugs. This report also addresses state-of-the-art treatment methods, and summarizes research on…

  2. A Guide to Multicultural Drug Abuse Prevention: Funding. Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison-Burns, Bettye; And Others

    This booklet explores sources of money for multicultural and minority drug abuse prevention programs and provides an overview of fundraising methods and resources. Local, State and Federal agencies (including private organizations) that provide funds for drug abuse prevention programs are listed. Ways to go about soliciting funds are outlined.…

  3. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  4. Drug Abuse Training as Part of a Family Medicine Clerkship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confusione, Michael; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A program incorporating experiential and didactic experience in identification and treatment of drug abuse into third-year clerkship curriculum is described. Experiential training is in a methadone maintenance clinic. Students are evaluated on their knowledge, attitudes, and level of participation in the drug abuse treatment. (MSE)

  5. Chemistry, pharmacology, and metabolism of emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Hans H

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, besides the classic designer drugs of the amphetamine type, a series of new drug classes appeared on the illicit drugs market. The chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, metabolism, and toxicokinetics is discussed of 2,5-dimethoxy amphetamines, 2,5-dimethoxy phenethylamines, beta-keto-amphetamines, phencyclidine derivatives as well as of herbal drugs, ie, Kratom. They have gained popularity and notoriety as rave drugs. The metabolic pathways, the involvement of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in the main pathways, and their roles in hepatic clearance are also summarized. PMID:20683389

  6. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  7. Psychosocial interventions for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programs compared to other interventions

    PubMed Central

    Terplan, Mishka; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Locke, Abigail; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Lui, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use in pregnancy is a complex social and public health problem. The consequences of drug use in pregnancy are high for both the woman and her child. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate effective treatments. There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in drug treatment but it is unclear whether they are effective in pregnant women. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2007. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in pregnant women enrolled in illicit drug treatment programmes on birth and neonatal outcomes, on attendance and retention in treatment, as well as on maternal and neonatal drug abstinence. In short, do psychosocial interventions translate into less illicit drug use, greater abstinence, better birth outcomes, or greater clinic attendance? Search methods We conducted the original literature search in May 2006 and performed the search update up to January 2015. For both review stages (original and update), we searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trial's register (May 2006 and January 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 1); PubMed (1996 to January 2015); EMBASE (1996 to January 2015); and CINAHL (1982 to January 2015). Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing any psychosocial intervention vs. a control intervention that could include pharmacological treatment, such as methadone maintenance, a different psychosocial intervention, counselling, prenatal care, STD counselling and testing, transportation, or childcare. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We performed analyses based on three comparisons: any psychosocial intervention vs. control, contingency management (CM) interventions vs. control, and motivational interviewing based (MIB) interventions vs. control. Main results

  8. Nutritional status of deceased illicit drug addicts in Stockholm, Sweden--a longitudinal medicolegal study.

    PubMed

    Rajs, Jovan; Petersson, Anna; Thiblin, Ingemar; Olsson-Mortlock, Caroline; Fredriksson, Ake; Eksborg, Staffan

    2004-03-01

    Autopsy investigations, toxicological analyses, and calculation of body mass index were performed in 1180 deceased illicit drug addicts (IDAs) in Stockholm. Sweden during 1988-2000, i.e., during a period of time when the general population in numerous countries showed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight. Nutritional deficit in IDAs has been pointed out as a threat to their health as well as to their quality of life. The prevalence of overweight in deceased IDAs increased from 27.4% in 1988 to 45.5% in 2000. The prevalence of overweight among all heroin users, heroin injectors, methadone, cocaine, and amphetamine users was 36.0, 38.4, 43.1, 45.0 and 50.9%, respectively, the lowest prevalence being among users of cannabis alone and HIV-positive IDAs (22.0 and 16.1%, respectively). In conclusion, Stockholm's IDAs are affected by the past decade's dramatically increased prevalence of overweight, at least to the same degree as the general population. The increased body weight seems not to influence the danger of dying upon heroin administration. PMID:15027554

  9. Effect of illicit recreational drugs upon sleep: cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Berger, Mathias; Hornyak, Magdolna

    2008-10-01

    The illicit recreational drugs cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana have pronounced effects upon sleep. Administration of cocaine increases wakefulness and suppresses REM sleep. Acute cocaine withdrawal is often associated with sleep disturbances and unpleasant dreams. Studies have revealed that polysomnographically assessed sleep parameters deteriorate even further during sustained abstinence, although patients report that sleep quality remains unchanged or improves. This deterioration of objective sleep measures is associated with a worsening in sleep-related cognitive performance. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a substance with arousing properties. Heavy MDMA consumption is often associated with persistent sleep disturbances. Polysomnography (PSG) studies have demonstrated altered sleep architecture in abstinent heavy MDMA users. Smoked marijuana and oral Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce REM sleep. Moreover, acute administration of cannabis appears to facilitate falling asleep and to increase Stage 4 sleep. Difficulty sleeping and strange dreams are among the most consistently reported symptoms of acute and subacute cannabis withdrawal. Longer sleep onset latency, reduced slow wave sleep and a REM rebound can be observed. Prospective studies are needed in order to verify whether sleep disturbances during cocaine and cannabis withdrawal predict treatment outcome. PMID:18313952

  10. Case studies in the family treatment of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Noone, R J; Reddig, R L

    1976-09-01

    This article, with case illustrations, attempts to demonstrate that drug-abuse behavior can be understood more clearly in the light of family loyalties and unresolved family crises than from the perspective that drug abusers are social deviates.1 Drug abuse is viewed as symptomatic, as a signal that both drug abuser and his or her family are having difficulty in getting past a particular stage in the natural unfolding life cycle of a family. Treatment of drug abuse is seen primarily as helping the family to become "unstuck," thereby freeing the individual's and family's energy for the task of self-development and growth rather than expending it to maintain rigid patterns of interaction in an attempt to prevent change. PMID:1026451

  11. Illicit drug use and HIV risk in the Dominican Republic: tourism areas create drug use opportunities.

    PubMed

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Ruiz, Yumary; Hagan, Holly; Delva, Marlyn; Quiñones, Zahira; Kamler, Alexandra; Robles, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas. PMID:25330110

  12. Determination of the illicit drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human saliva and beverages by 1H NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Grootveld, Martin; Algeo, Deborah; Silwood, Christopher J L; Blackburn, John C; Clark, Anthony D

    2006-01-01

    High resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the detection and quantification of the illicit "date-rape" drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in both human saliva and a commonly-consumed low-alcohol beer product. Data acquired revealed that this multicomponent analytical technique provided unequivocal evidence for the detection of this agent by this technique in both of these matrices, i.e., all three of its resonances [those ascribable to the alpha-CH2 (t, delta=2.25 ppm), beta-CH2 (tt, delta=1.81 ppm) and gamma-CH2 (t, delta=3.61 ppm) group protons] were present in spectra acquired on human saliva, and two of these (the alpha- and beta-CH2 group signals) in the beverage product examined, the latter observation attributable to overlap of the gamma-CH2 1H resonance with those of carbohydrates. Since good linear calibration relationships between the intensities of each of the NMR-visible signals and added GHB concentration (the former normalised to that of an external 3-trimethylsilyl [2,2,3,3-2H4]- propionate standard present in a coaxial NMR tube insert) were observed, this illicit drug is also readily quantifiable in such multicomponent samples. Our data demonstrate the advantages offered by this technique when applied to the analysis of illicit drugs in multicomponent sample matrices such as human biofluids and beverage products. PMID:17012769

  13. Temporal variability of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and the effects of a major sporting event.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-11-01

    Diurnal variations in wastewater flows are common phenomena related to peak water use periods. However, few studies have examined high-resolution temporal variability in trace organic contaminant (TOrC) concentrations and loadings. Even fewer have assessed the impacts of a special event or holiday. This study characterizes the temporal variability associated with a major sporting event using flow data and corresponding mass loadings of a suite of prescription pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and illicit drugs. Wastewater influent and finished effluent samples were collected during the National Football League's Super Bowl, which is a significant weekend for tourism in the study area. Data from a baseline weekend is also provided to illustrate flows and TOrC loadings during "normal" operational conditions. Some compounds exhibited interesting temporal variations (e.g., atenolol), and several compounds demonstrated different loading profiles during the Super Bowl and baseline weekends (e.g., the primary cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine). Interestingly, the influent mass loadings of prescription pharmaceuticals were generally similar in magnitude to those of the illicit drugs and their metabolites. However, conventional wastewater treatment was more effective in removing the illicit drugs and their metabolites. Total influent and effluent mass loadings are also provided to summarize treatment efficacy and environmental discharges. PMID:21920575

  14. An Exploratory Study Examining the Spatial Dynamics of Illicit Drug Availability and Rates of Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.; Treno, Andrew J.; Lascala, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the spatial relationship between drug availability and rates of drug use in neighborhood areas. Responses from 16,083 individuals were analyzed at the zip code level (n = 158) and analyses were conducted separately for youth and adults using spatial regression techniques. The dependent variable is the percentage of respondents…

  15. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  16. Do cannabis drug abusers differ from intravenous drug abusers? The role of social and behavioural risk factors.

    PubMed

    Stenbacka, M; Allebeck, P; Romelsjö, A

    1992-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between social and behavioural factors, and the use of different types of drugs in a cohort of 8168 Swedish men conscripted for military service in 1969-70. Data about social and behavioural characteristics, self-reported use of alcohol and narcotics was obtained from a survey of all Swedish conscripts. Information on intravenous drug abuse up to 1970 was obtained from a survey of injecting males among persons brought to the central police arrest. A higher proportion of intravenous drug abusers than cannabis abusers came from social class III, had divorced parents, had been in contact with the police and juvenile authorities, and had low emotional control. Indicators of deviant behaviour, e.g. truancy, having run away from home, and contact with police or juvenile authorities, were associated with high odds ratios for intravenous drug abuse and for cannabis abuse. In multivariate analyses, these risk factors still carried significantly increased odds ratios. In general, the odds ratios associated with these background factors were higher for intravenous drug abuse than for cannabis abuse. The risk increased, however, with increasing level of cannabis abuse. In conclusion, poor social background and deviant behaviour was strongly associated with future intravenous drug addiction, whereas the association was much weaker in the case of future cannabis abuse. PMID:1555002

  17. Reasons for Recent Marijuana Use in Relation to Use of Other Illicit Drugs among High School Seniors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Kamboukos, Dimita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Studies show that illicit cannabis (marijuana) use is related to use of other illicit drugs and that reasons for use are related to frequency of marijuana use. However, research is needed to examine whether specific reasons for marijuana use are associated with use of other illicit drugs. Methods Data from recent-marijuana-using high school seniors were examined from 12 cohorts of Monitoring the Future (Weighted N=6,481) to examine whether reasons for recent marijuana use are associated with use of eight other illicit drugs. Results Using “to experiment” decreased odds of reporting use of each drug and using to decrease effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting use of each drug. In multivariable models, using marijuana “to experiment” decreased the odds for reporting use of hallucinogens other than LSD and narcotics other than heroin. Using marijuana for “insight” increased the odds for use of hallucinogens other than LSD, and use due to “boredom” increased the odds for reporting use of powder cocaine and hallucinogens other than LSD. Using marijuana to increase effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting each of the eight drugs, and using it to decrease other drug effects increased odds of reporting use of crack, hallucinogens other than LSD, and amphetamine/stimulants. Conclusions This study helped identify illicit marijuana users who are more likely to report use of other illicit drugs. Prevention efforts need to focus on students who report certain reasons for marijuana use as they may be at risk for use of other illicit drugs. PMID:26115351

  18. Simultaneous determination of traditional and emerging illicit drugs in sediments, sludges and particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ruiz, Rodrigo; Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2015-07-31

    An analytical method for determining traditional and emerging drugs of abuse in particulate matter, sewage sludge and sediment has been developed and validated. A total of 41 drugs of abuse and metabolites including cocainics, tryptamines, amphetamines, arylcyclohexylamines, cathinones, morphine derivatives, pyrrolidifenones derivatives, entactogens, piperazines and other psychostimulants were selected. Samples were ultrasound extracted with McIlvaine buffer and methanol, and the extracts were cleaned up by solid phase extraction (SPE) using Strata-X cartridges. Drugs were eluted using methanol and methanol-dichloromethane and determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The optimum solid-liquid extraction (SLE) conditions were: weight 1g of sample and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) with 10mL of methanol-McIlvain buffer (1:1, v/v, pH 4.5) for 10min. Recoveries for all compounds were ≥50% in the three matrices with the exception of ephedrine (EPHE), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), ecgonine methyester (ECME), heroin (HER), 3,4-methylendioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 4-acetoxy N,N'-dimethyltryptamine (4-AcO-DIPT) and methadone (MET). Data acquisition was done by selective reaction monitoring (SRM), and the two most abundant product ions were used for confirmation. Limits of detection were lower than 1.32ngg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and limits of quantification were between 0.12 and 3.96ngg(-1) (d.w.). The method was applied to the analysis of particulate matter, where cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BECG), ecgoninemethylester (ECME), cocaethylene (COCET), methadone (MET) and codeine (COD) were mostly detected. In the case of dehydrated sludge, opioids are at higher concentration than cocainics and some emerging drugs such as 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), ketamine (KET) and bufotenine (BUF) were detected. In sediment COC, 4-methoxyphencyclidine (4-MeO-PCP), MET and BECG were most relevant compounds. PMID:26091784

  19. Searching for Truth: Internet Search Patterns as a Method of Investigating Online Responses to a Russian Illicit Drug Policy Debate

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Background This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. Objective This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's adequacy for investigating online interest in a 2010 national debate over Russian illicit drug policy. We hoped to learn what search patterns and specific search terms could reveal about the relative importance and geographic distribution of interest in this debate. Methods A national drug debate, centering on the anti-drug campaigner Egor Bychkov, was one of the main Russian domestic news events of 2010. Public interest in this episode was accompanied by increased Internet search. First, we measured the search patterns for 13 search terms related to the Bychkov episode and concurrent domestic events by extracting data from Google Insights for Search (GIFS) and Yandex WordStat (YaW). We conducted Spearman Rank Correlation of GIFS and YaW search data series. Second, we coded all 420 primary posts from Bychkov's personal blog between March 2010 and March 2012 to identify the main themes. Third, we compared GIFS and Yandex policies concerning the public release of search volume data. Finally, we established the relationship between salient drug issues and the Bychkov episode. Results We found a consistent pattern of strong to moderate positive correlations between Google and Yandex for the terms "Egor Bychkov" (r s = 0.88, P < .001), “Bychkov” (r s = .78, P < .001) and “Khimki”(r s = 0.92, P < .001). Peak search volumes for the Bychkov episode were comparable to other prominent domestic political events during 2010. Monthly search counts were 146,689 for “Bychkov” and

  20. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting...

  1. Rural Drug Users: Factors Associated with Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen’s (1968, 1995) Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users’ substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users. PMID:20463206

  2. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  3. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  4. [Experiences from two HIV prevention projects among drug abusers in Oslo. Is methadone maintenance treatment useful?].

    PubMed

    Skogstad, M

    1990-06-10

    Experience from two HIV-preventive projects among drug abusers in Oslo, Norway, shows that HIV-positive drug abusers carry on their drug abuse independent of visits to residential drug-free treatment or prison. HIV-positive former drug abusers show a tendency to relapse to drug abuse. In terms of HIV-prevention among drug abusers it is important to reduce injection of drugs among HIV-positive drug abusers. Thus, methadone maintenance programmes should be considered in HIV-prevention in Norway. PMID:2363170

  5. Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, 1982. Prepared for the President Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…

  6. Exercise as a Potential Treatment for Drug Abuse: Evidence from Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies reveal that individuals who engage in regular aerobic exercise are less likely to use and abuse illicit drugs. Until recently, very few studies had examined the causal influences that mediate this relationship, and it was not clear whether exercise was effective at reducing substance use and abuse. In the past few years, several preclinical studies have revealed that exercise reduces drug self-administration in laboratory animals. These studies have revealed that exercise produces protective effects in procedures designed to model different transitional phases that occur during the development of, and recover from, a substance use disorder (e.g., acquisition, maintenance, escalation, and relapse/reinstatement of drug use). Moreover, recent studies have revealed several behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exercise that may be responsible for its protective effects in these assays. Collectively, these studies have provided convincing evidence to support the development of exercise-based interventions to reduce compulsive patterns of drug intake in clinical and at-risk populations. PMID:22347866

  7. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... illegally shipped chemicals. West Africa Although no West African country is currently listed as a major... drug trafficking in West Africa with direct links to transnational crime organizations based in Latin... estimates that cocaine trafficking in West Africa generates approximately $1.25 billion at wholesale...

  8. Route of administration for illicit prescription opioids: a comparison of rural and urban drug users

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonmedical prescription opioid use has emerged as a major public health concern in recent years, particularly in rural Appalachia. Little is known about the routes of administration (ROA) involved in nonmedical prescription opioid use among rural and urban drug users. The purpose of this study was to describe rural-urban differences in ROA for nonmedical prescription opioid use. Methods A purposive sample of 212 prescription drug users was recruited from a rural Appalachian county (n = 101) and a major metropolitan area (n = 111) in Kentucky. Consenting participants were given an interviewer-administered questionnaire examining sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders, and self-reported nonmedical use and ROA (swallowing, snorting, injecting) for the following prescription drugs: buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, OxyContin® and other oxycodone. Results Among urban participants, swallowing was the most common ROA, contrasting sharply with substance-specific variation in ROA among rural participants. Among rural participants, snorting was the most frequent ROA for hydrocodone, methadone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone, while injection was most common for hydromorphone and morphine. In age-, gender-, and race-adjusted analyses, rural participants had significantly higher odds of snorting hydrocodone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone than urban participants. Urban participants had significantly higher odds of swallowing hydrocodone and oxycodone than did rural participants. Notably, among rural participants, 67% of hydromorphone users and 63% of morphine users had injected the drugs. Conclusions Alternative ROA are common among rural drug users. This finding has implications for rural substance abuse treatment and harm reduction, in which interventions should incorporate methods to prevent and reduce route-specific health complications of drug use. PMID:20950455

  9. Rapid screening and identification of illicit drugs by IR absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengali, Sandro; Liberatore, Nicola; Luciani, Domenico; Viola, Roberto; Cardinali, Gian Carlo; Elmi, Ivan; Poggi, Antonella; Zampolli, Stefano; Biavardi, Elisa; Dalcanale, Enrico; Bonadio, Federica; Delemont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre; Romolo, Francesco S.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical instruments based on InfraRed Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS) and Gas Chromatography (GC) are today available only as bench-top instrumentation for forensic labs and bulk analysis. Within the 'DIRAC' project funded by the European Commission, we are developing an advanced portable sensor, that combines miniaturized GC as its key chemical separation tool, and IRAS in a Hollow Fiber (HF) as its key analytical tool, to detect and recognize illicit drugs and key precursors, as bulk and as traces. The HF-IRAS module essentially consists of a broadly tunable External Cavity (EC) Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL), thermo-electrically cooled MCT detectors, and an infrared hollow fiber at controlled temperature. The hollow fiber works as a miniaturized gas cell, that can be connected to the output of the GC column with minimal dead volumes. Indeed, the module has been coupled to GC columns of different internal diameter and stationary phase, and with a Vapour Phase Pre-concentrator (VPC) that selectively traps target chemicals from the air. The presentation will report the results of tests made with amphetamines and precursors, as pure substances, mixtures, and solutions. It will show that the sensor is capable of analyzing all the chemicals of interest, with limits of detection ranging from a few nanograms to about 100-200 ng. Furthermore, it is suitable to deal with vapours directly trapped from the headspace of a vessel, and with salts treated in a basic solution. When coupled to FAST GC columns, the module can analyze multi-components mixes in less than 5 minutes.

  10. Contingency management: utility in the treatment of drug abuse disorders.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, M L; Vandrey, R

    2008-04-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a strategy that uses positive reinforcement to improve the clinical outcomes of substance abusers in treatment, especially sustained abstinence from drugs of abuse. Further, CM has been adopted to improve methodology and interpretation of outcomes in clinical trials testing new pharmacotherapies and to improve adherence to efficacious medications in substance abuse patients. Thus, CM has proven to be widely useful as a direct therapeutic intervention and as a tool in treatment development. PMID:18305456

  11. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  12. Factors linked to transitions in adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Brenden; Kerr, Thomas; Puskas, Cathy M; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Milloy, M-J

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs typically achieve lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and experience higher rates of sub-optimal HIV/AIDS treatment outcomes. Given the dearth of longitudinal research into ART adherence dynamics, we sought to identify factors associated with transitioning into and out of optimal adherence to ART in a longitudinal study of HIV-infected people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in a setting of universal no-cost HIV/AIDS treatment. Using data from a prospective cohort of community-recruited HIV-positive illicit drug users confidentially linked to comprehensive HIV/AIDS treatment records, we estimated longitudinal factors associated with losing or gaining ≥95% adherence in the previous six months using two generalized linear mixed-effects models. Among 703 HIV-infected ART-exposed PWUD, becoming non-adherent was associated with periods of homelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.52, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.56-4.07), active injection drug use (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.56) and incarceration (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.10-2.17). Periods of sex work (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.75) and injection drug use (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.77) were barriers to becoming optimally adherent. Methadone maintenance therapy was associated with becoming optimally adherent (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.50-2.33) and was protective against becoming non-adherent (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41-0.65). In conclusion, we identified several behavioural, social and structural factors that shape adherence patterns among PWUD. Our findings highlight the need to consider these contextual factors in interventions that support the effective delivery of ART to this population. PMID:25915438

  13. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2008-07-01

    The presence and fate of 56 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs (PPCPs) were investigated in the South Wales region of the UK. Two contrasting rivers: River Taff and River Ely were chosen for this investigation and were monitored for a period of 10 months. The impact of the factors affecting the levels of concentration of PPCPs and illicit drugs in surface water such as surrounding area, proximity to wastewater effluent and weather conditions, mainly rainfall was also investigated. Most PPCPs were frequently found in river water at concentrations reaching single microgL(-1) and their levels depended mainly on the extent of water dilution resulting from rainfall. Discharge of treated wastewater effluent into the river course was found to be the main cause of water contamination with PPCPs. The most frequently detected PPCPs represent the group of pharmaceuticals dispensed at the highest levels in the Welsh community. These were antibacterial drugs (trimethoprim, erythromycin-H(2)O and amoxicillin), anti-inflammatories/analgesics (paracetamol, tramadol, codeine, naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac) and antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine and gabapentin). Only four PPCPs out of 56 (simvastatin, pravastatin, digoxin and digoxigenin) were not quantified over the course of the study. Several PPCPs were found to be both ubiquitous and persistent in the aqueous environment (e.g. erythromycin-H(2)O, codeine, carbamazepine, gabapentin and valsartan). The calculated average daily loads of PPCPs indicated that in total almost 6 kg of studied PPCPs are discharged daily into the studied rivers. The illicit drugs studied were found in rivers at low levels of ng L(-1). Average daily loads of amphetamine, cocaine and its main metabolite benzoylecgonine were as follows: 8, 1.2 and 39 gday(-1), respectively. Their frequent occurrence in surface water is primarily associated with their high illegal usage and is strongly associated with the

  14. Factors linked to transitions in adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected illicit drug users in a Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Brenden; Kerr, Thomas; Puskas, Cathy M.; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Milloy, M-J

    2016-01-01

    HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs typically achieve lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and experience higher rates of sub-optimal HIV/AIDS treatment outcomes. Given the dearth of longitudinal research into ART adherence dynamics, we sought to identify factors associated with transitioning into and out of optimal adherence to ART in a longitudinal study of HIV-infected people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in a setting of universal no-cost HIV/AIDS treatment. Using data from a prospective cohort of community-recruited HIV-positive illicit drug users confidentially linked to comprehensive HIV/AIDS treatment records, we estimated longitudinal factors associated with losing or gaining ≥ 95% adherence in the previous six months using two generalized linear mixed-effects models. Among 703 HIV-infected ART-exposed PWUD, becoming non-adherent was associated with periods of homelessness (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.52, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.56 - 4.07), active injection drug use (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.56) and incarceration (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.10 - 2.17). Periods of sex work (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34 - 0.75) and injection drug use (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50 - 0.77) were barriers to becoming optimally adherent. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) was associated with becoming optimally adherent (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.50 - 2.33) and was protective against becoming non-adherent (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41 - 0.65). In conclusion, we identified several behavioural, social and structural factors that shape adherence patterns among PWUD. Our findings highlight the need to consider these contextual factors in interventions that support the effective delivery of ART to this population. PMID:25915438

  15. Estimation of illicit drug use in the main cities of Colombia by means of urban wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Botero-Coy, Ana M; Rincón, Rolando J; Peñuela, Gustavo A; Hernández, Félix

    2016-09-15

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) relies on the principle that traces of compounds, which a population is exposed to or consume, are excreted unchanged or as metabolites in urine and/or feces, and ultimately end up in the sewer network. Measuring target metabolic residues i.e. biomarkers in raw urban wastewater allows identifying the exposure or use of substances of interest in a community. Up to date, the most popular application of WBE is the estimation of illicit drug use and studies have been made mainly across Europe, which has allowed estimating and comparing drug use in many European cities. However, until now a comprehensive study applying WBE on the most frequently consumed illicit drugs has not been performed in South American countries. In this work, we applied this approach to samples from Colombia, selecting two of the most populated cities: Bogotá and Medellin. Several biomarkers were selected to estimate drug use of cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), heroin and ketamine. Composite samples (24-h) were collected at the corresponding municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sample treatment was performed at location by applying solid-phase extraction (SPE). Before SPE, the samples were spiked with appropriate isotope labeled internal standards. In parallel, samples (spiked with the analytes under study at two concentration levels) were also processed for quality control. Analysis of influent wastewater was made by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with triple quadrupole analyzer. Data shown in this paper reveal a high use of cocaine by the population of the selected Colombian cities, particularly from Medellin, while the use of other illicit drugs were low. The relevance of using quality control samples, particularly in collaborative studies, as those presented in this work, where research groups from different countries participate and where the samples had to be shipped overseas, is highlighted in this

  16. Detection of illicit drugs with the technique of spectral fluorescence signatures (SFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poryvkina, Larisa; Babichenko, Sergey

    2010-10-01

    The SFS technology has already proved its analytical capabilities in a variety of industrial and environmental tasks. Recently it has been introduced for forensic applications. The key features of the SFS method - measuring a 3-dimensional spectrum of fluorescence of the sample (intensity versus excitation and emission wavelengths) with following recognition of specific spectral patterns of SFS responsible for individual drugs - provide an effective tool for the analysis of untreated seized samples, without any separation of the substance of interest from its mixture with accompanying cutting agents and diluents as a preparatory step. In such approach the chemical analysis of the sample is substituted by the analysis of SFS matrix visualized as an optical image. The SFS technology of drug detection is realized by NarTest® NTX2000 analyzer, compact device intended to measure suspicious samples in liquid, solid and powder forms. It simplifies the detection process due to fully automated procedures of SFS measuring and integrated expert system for recognition of spectral patterns. Presently the expert system of NTX2000 is able to detect marijuana, cocaine, heroin, MDMA, amphetamine and methamphetamine with the detection limit down to 5% of the drug concentration in various mixtures. The numerous tests with street samples confirmed that the use of SFS method provides reliable results with high sensitivity and selectivity for identification of drugs of abuse. More than 3000 street samples of the aforesaid drugs were analyzed with NTX2000 during validation process, and the correspondence of SFS results and conclusions of standard forensic analyses with GC/MS techniques was in 99.4% cases.

  17. Drug Abuse in the Military: An Adolescent Misbehavior Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beary, John F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes drug abuse in the military. Survey data of military personnel (N=15,268) revealed that single, enlisted males under age 25 were the population most at risk. Alcohol and cannabis were the most common substances of abuse. Some work impairment and dependence were reported but were not typical. (Author/JAC)

  18. Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Patrick C.; And Others

    This participant manual is designed to provide an overview of federal laws and regulations pertaining to the confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records. The relationship of federal laws to state laws and regulations is also discussed. The materials, useful for persons involved in the fields of substance abuse treatment or…

  19. Alcohol and Drug Abusers Entering Treatment: How Different Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seraganian, Peter; And Others

    A major shift in drug abuse epidemiology has been witnessed in North America over the past decade. Although alcohol continues to be widely abused, usage of other substances has proliferated. While addicted individuals share some attributes, certain demographic, psychological, and cognitive characteristics may distinguish alcoholics from those who…

  20. Student Assistance Programs: An Important Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.; DuPont, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a new approach to school-based drug abuse prevention called Student Assistance Programs (SAP). SAP offers various approaches tailored to particular settings and includes students, teachers, parents, and community representatives who define and resolve student problems including substance abuse. SAP facilitates the use of 12-step…

  1. High-intensity cannabis use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    Slawson, Gregory; Milloy, M-J; Balneaves, Lynda; Simo, Annick; Guillemi, Silvia; Hogg, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabis is increasingly prescribed clinically and utilized by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to address symptoms of HIV disease and to manage side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In light of concerns about the possibly deleterious effect of psychoactive drug use on adherence to ART, we sought to determine the relationship between high-intensity cannabis use and adherence to ART among a community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users. Methods We used data from the ACCESS study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of HIV-seropositive illicit drug users linked to comprehensive ART dispensation records in a setting of universal no-cost HIV care. We estimated the relationship between at least daily cannabis use in the last six months, measured longitudinally, and the likelihood of optimal adherence to ART during the same period, using a multivariate linear mixed-effects model accounting for relevant socio-demographic, behavioral, clinical and structural factors. Results From May 2005 to May 2012, 523 HIV-positive illicit drug users were recruited and contributed 2430 interviews. At baseline, 121 (23.1%) participants reported at least daily cannabis use. In bivariate and multivariate analyses we did not observe an association between using cannabis at least daily and optimal adherence to prescribed HAART (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.12, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 0.76 – 1.64, p-value = 0.555.) Conclusions High-intensity cannabis use was not associated with adherence to ART. These findings suggest cannabis may be utilized by PLWHA for medicinal and recreational purposes without compromising effective adherence to ART. PMID:25012624

  2. Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler.

    PubMed

    Peltenburg, Hester; Timmer, Niels; Bosman, Ingrid J; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2016-05-20

    The mixed-mode (C18/strong cation exchange-SCX) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber has recently been shown to have increased sensitivity for ionic compounds compared to more conventional sampler coatings such as polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, data for structurally diverse compounds to this (prototype) sampler coating are too limited to define its structural limitations. We determined C18/SCX fiber partitioning coefficients of nineteen cationic structures without hydrogen bonding capacity besides the charged group, stretching over a wide hydrophobicity range (including amphetamine, amitriptyline, promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, difenzoquat), and eight basic pharmaceutical and illicit drugs (pKa>8.86) with additional hydrogen bonding moieties (MDMA, atenolol, alprenolol, metoprolol, morphine, nicotine, tramadol, verapamil). In addition, sorption data for three neutral benzodiazepines (diazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) and the anionic NSAID diclofenac were collected to determine the efficiency to sample non-basic drugs. All tested compounds showed nonlinear isotherms above 1mmol/L coating, and linear isotherms below 1mmol/L. The affinity for C18/SCX-SPME for tested organic cations without Hbond capacities increased with longer alkyl chains, ranging from logarithmic fiber-water distribution coefficients (log Dfw) of 1.8 (benzylamine) to 5.8 (triflupromazine). Amines smaller than benzylamine may thus have limited detection levels, while cationic surfactants with alkyl chain lengths >12 carbon atoms may sorb too strong to the C18/SCX sampler which hampers calibration of the fiber-water relationship in the linear range. The log Dfw for these simple cation structures closely correlates with the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral form (Kow,N), and decreases with increased branching and presence of multiple aromatic rings. Oxygen moieties in organic cations decreased the affinity for C18/SCX-SPME. Log Dfw values of

  3. Drug Scene Syllabus, A Manual on Drugs and Volatile Chemical of Potential Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert B.; And Others

    A brief historical review of attempts to control the abuse of drugs introduces a series of tables listing pertinent information about drugs of potential abuse. Each table provides the common commercial and slang names for the drugs, their medical and legal classification, their potential for emotional and physical dependence, whether the user…

  4. Objective Method for Presumptive Field-Testing of Illicit Drug Possession Using Centrifugal Microdevices and Smartphone Analysis.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Shannon T; Remcho, Thomas P; Lipes, Shelby M; Aranda, Roman; Maynard, Henry P; Shukla, Nishant; Li, Jingyi; Tontarski, Richard E; Landers, James P

    2016-09-01

    Current colorimetric presumptive identification of illicit drugs for determining illegal possession of controlled substances by law enforcement relies solely on the subjective interpretation of color change using drug- or class-specific reactions. Here, we describe the use of inexpensive polyester-toner, rotation-driven microfluidic devices with a smartphone as a potential alternative for current presumptive colorimetric field-testing of illicit drugs, allowing for an objective and user-friendly image analysis technique for detection. The centrifugal microfluidic platform accommodates simultaneous presumptive testing of material from a single input to multiple reaction chambers, enabling rapid screening. Hue and saturation image analysis parameters are used to define threshold values for the detection of cocaine and methamphetamine as proof-of-principle with 0.25 and 0.75 mg/mL limits of detection, respectively, with nonvolatile reagents stored on-board and smartphone for detection. Reported LODs are lower than those concentrations used in the field. Additionally, the developed objective detection method addresses the testing of drugs with various common cutting agents, including those known to produce false negative and positive results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by successfully identifying the composition of 30 unknown samples. PMID:27525468

  5. 78 FR 63996 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ....279, Drug Abuse and ] Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Quantification of Drugs of Abuse...

  6. Adolescent Drug Abuse and Alcoholism: Directions for the School and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie J.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extent of adolescent drug abuse and alcoholism, psychological factors that lead to drug abuse and drinking, and treatment approaches that have been used with young people. Focuses on drug-abusing family systems and the roles of the school and the community in combatting drug abuse. (Author/GC)

  7. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  8. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Is Marijuana Medicine? Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  9. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2009. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series. Paper 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This occasional paper serves as a supplement to one of four annual monographs from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, written by the study's investigators and published by the study's sponsor, the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The full 2009 survey results are reported in "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use,…

  10. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  11. Evaluation of Idaho's DARE "Drug Abuse Resistance Education Projects."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Roberta K.

    The goal of DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) is not to completely eliminate the drug and alcohol problems of society. It is a proactive prevention program designed to equip youth (focusing on elementary school) with skills for resisting peer pressure to experiment with drugs, and to manage anger without resorting to violence or the use of…

  12. Evaluation of Idaho's DARE "Drug Abuse Resistance Education" Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Roberta K.

    The DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program teaches students decision-making skills, shows them how to resist peer pressure to experiment with drugs and alcohol, and provides positive alternatives to drug use. This report looks at one state's DARE programs. Included are an overview of the implementation process, a program appraisal with…

  13. Drug Abuse and Politics: The Construction of a Social Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric L.; And Others

    Relying on the social constructionist approach as advanced by Armand L. Mauss (1975), this paper analyzes the construction of a recent U.S. social problem, drug abuse. It is argued that the objective conditions of drug use alone cannot explain why drugs became an issue immediately prior to the 1986 Congressional elections. Explanations for the…

  14. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  15. Racism and Illicit Drug Use Among African American Women: The Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity, Affirmation, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Harp, Kathi L.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Though recent evidence indicates that rates of illicit drug use among African American women are now higher than the national average, little is known about the etiology of substance use in this population. In addition, the effects of racism and other cultural factors are understudied and may be unique amongst African American women. This cross-sectional study explores risk and protective factors for drug use among 204 African American women. More specifically, associations between racism experiences and drug use are investigated in the context of potential moderating influences (i.e., psychosocial resources, social safety net variables, and cultural identity and practices). Findings suggest that racism is associated with drug use, but that its effects diminish with age. In addition, results suggest that psychosocial resources, social safety net factors and culturally specific factors like ethnic community membership and engagement in cultural practices afford African American women some protection against the detrimental effects of racism. PMID:24482547

  16. Treatment of Drug Abuse: An Overview. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series 34, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This report presents a brief review of the development of methods and programs for treatment of drug abusers in the United States. In order to limit the scope of the report, discussion of the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is excluded. The report focuses primarily on the treatment of opiate dependence, since most of the experience on…

  17. Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…

  18. A Controlled Evaluation of Family Behavior Therapy in Concurrent Child Neglect and Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Bradshaw, Kelsey; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Cross, Chad L.; Urgelles, Jessica; Romero, Valerie; Hill, Heather H.; Allen, Daniel N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Approximately 50% of Child Protective Service (CPS) referrals abuse drugs; yet, existing treatment studies in this population have been limited to case examinations. Therefore, a family-based behavioral therapy was evaluated in mothers referred from CPS for child neglect and drug abuse utilizing a controlled experimental design. Method 72 mothers evidencing drug abuse or dependence and child neglect were randomly assigned to Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) or Treatment as Usual (TAU). Participants were assessed at baseline, 6- month-, and 10-month post-randomization. Results As hypothesized, intent-to-treat repeated measures analyses revealed mothers referred for child neglect not due to their children being exposed to illicit drugs demonstrated better outcomes in child maltreatment potential from baseline to 6- and 10-month post-randomization assessments when assigned to FBT, as compared with TAU mothers and FBT mothers who were referred due to child drug exposure. Similar results occurred for hard drug use from baseline to 6- and 10-month post-randomization. However, TAU mothers referred due to child drug exposure were also found to decrease their hard drug use more than TAU mothers of non-drug exposed children and FBT mothers of drug exposed children at 6- and 10-month post-randomization. Although effect sizes for mothers assigned to FBT were slightly larger for marijuana use than TAU (medium vs. large), these differences were not statistically significant. Specific to secondary outcomes, mothers in FBT, relative to TAU, increased time employed from baseline to 6- and 10-month post-randomization. Mothers in FBT, compared to TAU, also decreased HIV risk from baseline to 6-month post-randomization. There were no differences in outcome between FBT and TAU for number of days children were in CPS custody and alcohol intoxication, although FBT mothers demonstrated marginal decreases (p = .058) in incarceration from baseline to 6-month post

  19. Detection of drugs of abuse by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    West, Matthew J; Went, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy can provide rapid, sensitive, non-destructive analysis of a variety of drug types (e.g. amphetamines, alkaloids, designer drugs, and date rape drugs). This review concentrates on developments in the past 15 years. It considers identification and quantification of drugs of abuse in different types of forensic evidence, including bulk street drugs as well as traces found in drinks, on fibres/clothing, in fingerprints, on fingernails, on bank notes, and in body fluids. PMID:21960539

  20. Factors associated with hospitalization for blood-borne viral infections among treatment-seeking illicit drug users.

    PubMed

    Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Olubamwo, Olubunmi; Beynon, Caryl M; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Föhr, Jaana; Tiihonen, Jari; Tuomola, Pekka; Tasa, Niko; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2015-06-01

    Blood-borne viral infections (BBVIs) are important health consequences of illicit drug use. This study assessed predictors of inpatient hospital admissions for BBVIs in a cohort of 4817 clients seeking treatment for drug use in Finland. We examined clients' data on hospital admissions registered in the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register from 1997 to 2010 with diagnoses of BBVIs. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were separately conducted for each of the three BBVI groups to test for association between baseline variables and hospitalizations. Findings were reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Based upon primary discharge diagnoses, 81 clients were hospitalized for HIV, 116 for hepatitis C, and 45 for other types of hepatitis. Compared to those admitted for hepatitis C and other hepatitis, drug users with HIV had higher total number of hospital admissions (294 versus 141 and 50 respectively), higher crude hospitalization rate (7.1 versus 3.4.and 1.2 per 1000 person-years respectively), and higher total length of hospital stay (2857 days versus 279 and 308 respectively). Trends in hospitalization for all BBVI groups declined at the end of follow-up. HIV positive status at baseline (aHR: 6.58) and longer duration of drug use (aHR: 1.11) were independently associated with increased risk for HIV hospitalization. Female gender (aHR: 3.05) and intravenous use of primary drug (aHR: 2.78) were significantly associated with HCV hospitalization. Having hepatitis B negative status at baseline (aHR: 0.25) reduced the risk of other hepatitis hospitalizations. Illicit drug use coexists with blood-borne viral infections. To address this problem, clinicians treating infectious diseases need to also identify drug use in their patients and provide drug treatment information and/or referral. PMID:25736625

  1. Improvements in HIV treatment outcomes among indigenous and non-indigenous people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M-J; King, Alexandra; Kerr, Thomas; Adams, Evan; Samji, Hasina; Guillemi, Silvia; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In many settings worldwide, members of indigenous groups experience a disproportionate burden of HIV. In Canada, there is an urgent need to improve HIV treatment outcomes for indigenous people living with HIV (IPLWH), to not only reduce HIV/AIDS-associated morbidity and mortality but also curb elevated rates of viral transmission. Thus, by comparing indigenous and non-indigenous participants in an ongoing longitudinal cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs, we sought to investigate longitudinal changes in three HIV treatment indicators for IPLWH who use illicit drugs during a community-wide treatment-as-prevention (TasP) initiative in British Columbia, Canada. Methods We used data from the ACCESS study, an ongoing observational prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users recruited from community settings in Vancouver, British Columbia. Cohort data are linked to comprehensive retrospective and prospective clinical records in a setting of no-cost HIV/AIDS treatment and care. We used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) to evaluate longitudinal changes in the proportion of participants with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the previous 180 days, optimal adherence to ART (i.e. ≥95% vs. <95%) and non-detectable HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL <50 copies/mL plasma). Results Between 2005 and 2014, 845 individuals were recruited, including 326 (39%) self-reporting any indigenous ancestry, and contributed 6732 interviews and 13,495 VL measurements. Among indigenous participants, the proportion with recent ART increased from 51 to 94% and non-detectable VL from 23 to 65%. In multivariable models, later interview period was positively associated with recent ART (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.16 per interview period, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 to 1.20) and non-detectable VL (AOR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.10). In adjusted models comparing indigenous and non-indigenous participants, we did not observe differences

  2. Drugs of abuse and their metabolites in the Ebro River basin: occurrence in sewage and surface water, sewage treatment plants removal efficiency, and collective drug usage estimation.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, María José; Barceló, Damià

    2010-01-01

    Drugs of abuse and their metabolites have been recently recognized as environmental emerging organic contaminants. Assessment of their concentration in different environmental compartments is essential to evaluate their potential ecotoxicological effects. It also constitutes an indirect tool to estimate drug abuse by the population at the community level. The present work reports for the first time the occurrence of drugs of abuse and metabolites residues along the Ebro River basin (NE Spain) and also evaluates the contribution of sewage treatment plants (STPs) effluents to the presence of these chemicals in natural surface waters. Concentrations measured in influent sewage waters were used to back calculate drug usage at the community level in the main urban areas of the investigated river basin. The most ubiquitous and abundant compounds in the studied aqueous matrices were cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ephedrine and ecstasy. Lysergic compounds, heroin, its metabolite 6-monoacetyl morphine, and Delta(9)-tetradhydrocannabinol were the substances less frequently detected. Overall, total levels of the studied illicit drugs and metabolites observed in surface water (in the low ng/L range) were one and two orders of magnitude lower than those determined in effluent (in the ng/L range) and influent sewage water (microg/L range), respectively. The investigated STPs showed overall removal efficiencies between 45 and 95%. Some compounds, such as cocaine and amphetamine, were very efficiently eliminated (>90%) whereas others, such as ecstasy, methamphetamine, nor-LSD, and THC-COOH where occasionally not eliminated at all. Drug consumption estimates pointed out cocaine as the most abused drug, followed by cannabis, amphetamine, heroin, ecstasy and methamphetamine, which slightly differs from national official estimates (cannabis, followed by cocaine, ecstasy, amphetamine and heroin). Extrapolation of the consumption data obtained for the studied area to Spain points out a total

  3. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, S R

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives. PMID:1955823

  4. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  5. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment--forensic applications of environmental data. Part 1: Estimation of the usage of drugs in local communities.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2009-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and recently also illicit drugs have been recognised as emerging environmental contaminants due to their potential environmental impact: frequent occurrence, persistence and risk to aquatic life and humans. This manuscript is part one of the two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. An attempt to use wastewater data is made in order to verify patterns of the usage of drugs (in particular illicit) in local communities. The average usage of cocaine in South Wales was estimated at 0.9 g day(-1) 1000 people(-1), which equals 1 tonne of this drug used or disposed of to sewage annually in Wales. The calculated usage of amphetamine denoted 2.5 g day(-1) 1000 people(-1) and is suspected to be an overestimate. Because no analysis of enantiomers of amphetamine was undertaken, no distinction between amphetamine's legal and illicit usage could be made. PMID:19324480

  6. Emergency Department Trends from the Drug Abuse Warning Network, Preliminary Estimates January-June 2002. Drug Abuse Warning Network Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This publication presents estimates of drug-related emergency department (ED) episodes from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) from 1994 through the first half of 2001. DAWN is an ongoing, national data system that collects information on drug-related visits to EDs from a national probability sample of hospitals. This publication marks a major…

  7. Relationship Between Psychiatric Distress and Criminal History Among Intravenous Drug Abusers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Leyla; Asghari Jafar Abadi, Mohammad; Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Khalili, Majid; Seyedi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, and illicit substances) have an important effect on the occurrence or exacerbation of psychological and behavioral derangements such as criminal activity and mental abnormalities. Objectives: The objective was to assess the relationship between psychiatric distress and criminal history among abusers of intravenous drugs, including heroin, benzodiazepine, codeine, cannabis, opium, and ecstasy. Materials and Methods: Criminal activity history and psychiatric distress were evaluated among intravenous drug abusers in drop-in centers (DIC) (141 subjects) and an outpatient service to delivery methadone to the addicts located in Razy Hospital (Baghdad, Iraq) (120 subjects). Logistic regression analyses using the SPSS for Windows 18.0 were used for analyzing the data. Results: About 86% of the intravenous drug abusers had psychiatric distress and 48.2% had criminal activity history. DIC addicts group had a better mental well-being compared to the other group, but criminal history rate was similar in two groups. In multiple logistic regression, addiction to heroin (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1 - 4.1), mental disorders (β = 0.060, P = 0.026), and low level of education was highly related with criminal activity (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.89). Conclusions: Higher scores in mental well-being questionnaire of DIC addicts suggest the positive effects of psychological interventions. There is a possibility of the involvement of heroin in occurrence of mental disorders and criminal activity. This finding needs further investigations by larger cohort studies. PMID:26288645

  8. Novel Drugs of Abuse: A Snapshot of an Evolving Marketplace

    PubMed Central

    Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W.; Johnson, Patrick S.; Khalil, Miral A.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives Over the past decade, non-medical use of novel drugs has proliferated worldwide. In most cases these are synthetic drugs first synthesized in academic or pharmaceutical laboratories for research or drug development purposes, but also include naturally occurring substances that do not fit the typical pharmacological or behavioral profile of traditional illicit substances. Perhaps most unique to this generation of new drugs is that they are being sold over the counter and on the Internet as “legal highs” or substitutes for traditional illicit drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, MDMA, and LSD. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of novel drugs in current use, including the epidemiology of use and toxicologic and pharmacological properties, and to offer some guidelines to clinicians who see patients experiencing adverse effects from these drugs. Method We review the known scientific literature on recently introduced synthetic drug types, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones, and the hallucinogen Salvia divinorum. Results These substances comprise part of a rapidly evolving and controversial drug market that has challenged definitions of what is legal and illegal, has benefitted from open commercial sales without regulatory oversight, and is noteworthy for the pace at which new substances are introduced. Conclusions This emerging trend in substance use presents significant and unique public health and criminal justice challenges. At this time, these substances are not detected in routine drug screens and substance-specific treatment for cases of use-related toxicity are not available. Clinicians are encouraged to learn characteristic signs associated with misuse of novel drugs to recognize cases in their practice, and are recommended to use a symptom-specific approach for treatment in each case. PMID:24921061

  9. Gender differences in drug abuse in the forensic toxicological approach.

    PubMed

    Buccelli, C; Della Casa, E; Paternoster, M; Niola, M; Pieri, M

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in substance use/abuse have been the focus of research in the last 15 years. Initiation, use patterns, acceleration of disease course, and help-seeking patterns are known to be influenced by gender differences with regard to biological, psychological, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This paper presents a systematic review of published data on gender differences in the use/abuse of psychoactive and psychotic drugs, focusing on the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. The basis for this paper was obtained by Medline searches using the search terms "human" and "gender", combined with individual drug names or "drugs of abuse". The reference lists of these papers were further checked for other relevant studies. The gender difference in drug abuse is more evident in adults than in adolescents (13-19 years): adult men are 2-3 times more likely than women to develop drug abuse/dependence disorders and approximately 4 times as likely to have an alcohol use disorder. Such prevalence rates have not been observed in adolescents. Differences between men and women involve: (i) the biological response to the drug, (ii) the progression to drug dependence, and (iii) the comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, which may be due to both sociocultural factors and innate biological differences. A crucial role played by ovarian hormones (oestrogens and progesterone) has been documented in both human and animal model studies. Epidemiological data on how particular psychobiological and physiological characteristics in females influence vulnerability to both drug addiction and toxicological consequences of drugs are still in their infancy. Significant gaps remain in our knowledge, which are primarily attributable to the lack of empirical data that only a systematic and multidisciplinary approach to the topic can generate. The introduction of gender into forensic toxicological evaluations may help elucidate the relationship between the body's absorption of abused drugs

  10. Neuronal ferritin heavy chain and drug abuse affect HIV-associated cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Jonathan; Abt, Anna; Myers, Jaclyn; Han, Rachel; Snyder, Melissa; Graziano, Alessandro; Festa, Lindsay; Kutzler, Michele; Garcia, Fernando; Gao, Wen-Jun; Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Rappaport, Jay; Meucci, Olimpia

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of the chemokine CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4 promotes neuronal function and survival during embryonic development and throughout adulthood. Previous studies indicated that μ-opioid agonists specifically elevate neuronal levels of the protein ferritin heavy chain (FHC), which negatively regulates CXCR4 signaling and affects the neuroprotective function of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis. Here, we determined that CXCL12/CXCR4 activity increased dendritic spine density, and also examined FHC expression and CXCR4 status in opiate abusers and patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which is typically exacerbated by illicit drug use. Drug abusers and HIV patients with HAND had increased levels of FHC, which correlated with reduced CXCR4 activation, within cortical neurons. We confirmed these findings in a nonhuman primate model of SIV infection with morphine administration. Transfection of a CXCR4-expressing human cell line with an iron-deficient FHC mutant confirmed that increased FHC expression deregulated CXCR4 signaling and that this function of FHC was independent of iron binding. Furthermore, examination of morphine-treated rodents and isolated neurons expressing FHC shRNA revealed that FHC contributed to morphine-induced dendritic spine loss. Together, these data implicate FHC-dependent deregulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 as a contributing factor to cognitive dysfunction in neuroAIDS. PMID:24401274

  11. Hair analysis in order to evaluate drug abuse in driver's license regranting procedures.

    PubMed

    Tassoni, G; Mirtella, D; Zampi, M; Ferrante, L; Cippitelli, M; Cognigni, E; Froldi, R; Cingolani, M

    2014-11-01

    In Italy, driving under the influence of drugs determines the suspension of the offender's driver's license. To regain the license the person must be drug free during an observation period. People whose license has been revoked or suspended can obtain, or re-obtain their driver's license subject to the judgment of a medical commission. The exclusion of illicit drug use is determined by means of toxicological analysis, mainly on urine or hair matrices. We reported the results of several years of experience of the forensic toxicology laboratory of the University of Macerata in the use of hair analysis for the assessment of past exposure to drugs in people suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. From 2004 to 2013, 8612 hair samples, were analyzed for opiates, cocaine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. We used a cutoff (SoHT or national guidelines) to determine the positive data, regardless of the hair sample concentrations. 1213 samples resulted positive, 71.7% were positive for cocaine and metabolites, 19.8% for morphine and metabolites, 8.5% for Δ(9)-THC. We also studied the timeframe of the abuse, as well as gender and age distribution of positive subjects. Moreover, we analyzed the possible deterrent effect of the hair analysis on driving under the influence of psychoactive substances. PMID:25151106

  12. Vaccines against drugs of abuse: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious problem worldwide. One therapy being investigated is vaccines against drugs of abuse. The antibodies elicited against the drug can take up the drug and prevent it from reaching the reward centers in the brain. Few such vaccines have entered clinical trials, but research is going on apace. Many studies are very promising and more clinical trials should be coming out in the near future. PMID:24982760

  13. 75 FR 14175 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Substance Abuse Treatment Referral..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda,...

  14. 75 FR 385 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Substance Use and Abuse Among U.S... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive...

  15. Estimating the coverage of a targeted mobile tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with truncated models

    PubMed Central

    VAN HEST, N. A. H.; De VRIES, G.; SMIT, F.; GRANT, A. D.; RICHARDUS, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Truncated models are indirect methods to estimate the size of a hidden population which, in contrast to the capture–recapture method, can be used on a single information source. We estimated the coverage of a tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with a mobile digital X-ray unit between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005 in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, using truncated models. The screening programme reached about two-third of the estimated target population at least once annually. The intended coverage (at least two chest X-rays per person per year) was about 23%. We conclude that simple truncated models can be used relatively easily on available single-source routine data to estimate the size of a population of illicit drug users and homeless persons. We assumed that the most likely overall bias in this study would be overestimation and therefore the coverage of the targeted mobile tuberculosis screening programme would be higher. PMID:17631692

  16. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug...

  17. Analytical methods for abused drugs in hair and their applications.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mitsuhiro; Ikeda, Rie; Kuroda, Naotaka; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2010-06-01

    Hair has been focused on for its usability as an alternative biological specimen to blood and urine for determining drugs of abuse in fields such as forensic and toxicological sciences because hair can be used to elucidate the long intake history of abused drugs compared with blood and urine. Hair analysis consists of several pretreatment steps, such as washing out contaminates from hair, extraction of target compounds from hair, and cleanup for instrumental analysis. Each step includes characteristic and independent features for the class of drugs, e.g., stimulants, narcotics, cannabis, and other medicaments. In this review, recently developed methods to determine drugs of abuse are summarized, and the pretreatment steps as well as the sensitivity and applicability are critically discussed. PMID:20232061

  18. Drug Education Curriculum: Kindergarten. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  19. City Views on Drug Abuse: A Washington, DC Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart (Peter D.) Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A telephone survey was done of a representative sample of 801 adults in the District of Columbia. The survey explored District residents' attitudes about the current situation in the city and in their neighborhoods, with specific emphasis on their attitudes toward drug abuse and drug policy in the District of Columbia. The margin of error for the…

  20. Resource Book for Drug Abuse Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, Muriel, Ed.

    This second edition of the "Resource Book" assembles a selection of scientific, philosophical, and educational drug abuse literature. The publication, as viewed by its authors, serves as a basis for improved understanding, trust, and communication between teacher and student concerning drug use and its place in both contemporary youth culture and…

  1. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  2. Drug Abuse and the Brain: A Viewer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This guide provides a detailed look at the biological basis of drug addiction, examining how the brain and its reward system work and how drug abuse can cause fundamental changes in the way the brain works. It is a resource for clinicians and practitioners. The first section of the guide provides an outline of the following basic concepts…

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse & Diversion: Role of the Pain Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; March, Samantha J.; Inciardi, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research is to better understand the role that South Florida pain management clinics may be playing in the abuse and diversion of prescription drugs. This study explores 1) the characteristics and practices of pain clinics that may be facilitating the drug-seeking endeavors of prescription drug abusers and 2) the drug-seeking behaviors of prescription drug abusers who use pain clinics as a primary source for drugs. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with prescription drug abusers in South Florida. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and codes were generated based on thematic analyses of the data. Using grounded theory strategies, the analysis revealed six main themes: “pill mills”, on-site pharmacies, liberal prescribing habits, “sponsoring” drug diversion, pain doctor/pharmacy shopping, and faking symptoms/documentation. These findings should provide insights for law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and industry as they attempt to develop appropriate policy initiatives and recommendations for best practices. PMID:21278927

  4. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

    2012-09-01

    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288

  5. Ethnic Differences in Analgesic Drug Related Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Franklyn L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated ethnic differences among 121 analgesic drug-related deaths. Data from the medical examiner's office and interviews with survivors indicated greater codeine involvement for non-Whites and greater propoxyphene involvement for Whites, higher incidences of illicit drug abuse among non-Whites, and more abuse of prescribed drugs among…

  6. Treatment of drug abusers in Malaysia: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two forms of treatment for heroin abusers in Malaysia--traditional medicine and institutional--and to evaluate which form of treatment the drug abusers consider more effective. The study involved interviewing 100 male drug abusers in Malaysia who had had treatment from an institution and from a traditional healer. The data revealed that traditional medicine was better for some abusers, but institutional treatment was better for others, depending upon an individual's own needs and personality. Advantages and disadvantages of both forms of treatment were given by those interviewed. The data can be used as guidelines for the development of a more flexible, individualized program within an institutional setting in Malaysia. PMID:6642801

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Treatment Outcomes among Adults in Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…

  8. Drug abuse treatment in the context of correctional surveillance.

    PubMed

    Nurco, D N; Hanlon, T E; Bateman, R W; Kinlock, T W

    1995-01-01

    Evaluating drug abuse treatment within a correctional framework presents unique issues and challenges. Given their respective emphases on rehabilitation and incapacitation, treatment and corrections approaches to incarcerated drug abusers often differ in methods aimed at reducing deviant behavior. Although this results in problems in planning integrative drug abuse intervention strategies, the two approaches are not always incompatible. Corrections can help identify those individuals in need of treatment, and for some of these, treatment can lessen the need for incapacitation. Understandably, gaining a drug-abusing offender's cooperation in monitoring routines and engendering trust in the confidentiality of treatment conducted in criminal justice systems settings, while still ensuring public safety, are not easy tasks. Nevertheless, there are decided advantages, in terms of compliance and retention, to the increased surveillance exercised by the criminal justice system in community-based treatment efforts. In these efforts, therapy coupled with urine monitoring appears particularly promising. Along with the presentation of descriptive and preliminary outcome information, this report provides a discussion of treatment/corrections issues within the framework of an ongoing treatment evaluation study involving drug-abusing parolees in Baltimore City. PMID:7752293

  9. GHB: a new and novel drug of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, K L; Balster, R L

    2001-06-01

    There has been increasing attention in the United States to problems of abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), with some evidence for problems in other parts of the world as well. In vitro and animal research show that, while GHB shares some properties with abused central nervous system depressant drugs, it has unique aspects of its pharmacology as well, including actions at a specific neural receptor which probably mediates many of its effects. Abuse potential assessment of GHB using standard animal models has not yielded a picture of a highly abusable substance, but little human testing has yet been done. Very little systematic data exist on tolerance and dependence with GHB, but both have been seen in human users. Quantitative data on the prevalence of GHB abuse is incomplete, but various qualitative measures indicate that a mini-epidemic of abuse began in the late 1980s and continues to the present. GHB is often included with the group of 'club drugs', and can be used as an intoxicant. It also has been used as a growth promoter and sleep aid and has been implicated in cases of 'date rape', usually in combination with alcohol. Undoubtedly the easy availability of GHB and some of its precursors has contributed to its popularity. Recent changes in the control status of GHB in the US may reduce its availability with as yet unknown consequences for the scope of the public health problem. Drug abuse experts need to familiarize themselves with GHB as possibly representing a new type of drug abuse problem with some unique properties. PMID:11297827

  10. Drug Abuse; A Reference for Teachers. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burcat, William

    Current information and advice on the seriousness of drug problems are contained in this revised edition published by the New Jersey Department of Education. As a reference booklet for teachers, it provides factual information on drugs, adolescent drug users, and effects of drug addiction. To give an understanding of the drug problem, the…

  11. Reducing risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    PubMed

    Heck, Nicholas C; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Oost, Kathryn; Stewart, Brandon T; Cochran, Bryan N

    2014-04-01

    Previous research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at elevated risk for using illicit drugs and misusing prescription drugs relative to heterosexual youth. Previous research also indicates that LGBT youth who attend high schools with a gay-straight alliance (GSA) report having fewer alcohol problems and lower levels of cigarette smoking. The present study investigates whether the absence of a GSA is associated with risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse in a sample of 475 LGBT high school students (M age=16.79) who completed an online survey. After controlling for demographic variables and risk factors associated with illicit drug use, the results of 12 logistic regression analyses revealed that LGBT youth attending a high school without a GSA evidenced increased risk for using cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]=3.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.23-7.86), hallucinogens (adjOR=2.59; 95% CI=1.18-5.70), and marijuana (adjOR=2.22; 95% CI=1.37-3.59) relative to peers attending a high school with a GSA. Youth without a GSA also evidenced increased risk for the misuse of ADHD medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.02-3.92) and prescription pain medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.10-3.65). These findings extend the research base related to GSAs and further demonstrate the importance of providing LGBT youth with opportunities for socialization and support within the school setting. Important limitations of the present study are reviewed. PMID:24531638

  12. 16mm Films on Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Abuse. Product Information Supplement No.6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Prod Rep, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Sixty-two films on drug abuse, 33 on smoking abuse, and 28 on alcohol abuse are listed showing title, distributor, suggested grade level, technical information, description of content, cost, and availability. (MLF)

  13. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part B: Placing back-calculations in a formal statistical framework

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hayley E.; Hickman, Matthew; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Welton, Nicky J.; Baker, David R.; Ades, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of metabolites of illicit drugs in sewage water can be measured with great accuracy and precision, thanks to the development of sensitive and robust analytical methods. Based on assumptions about factors including the excretion profile of the parent drug, routes of administration and the number of individuals using the wastewater system, the level of consumption of a drug can be estimated from such measured concentrations. When presenting results from these ‘back-calculations’, the multiple sources of uncertainty are often discussed, but are not usually explicitly taken into account in the estimation process. In this paper we demonstrate how these calculations can be placed in a more formal statistical framework by assuming a distribution for each parameter involved, based on a review of the evidence underpinning it. Using a Monte Carlo simulations approach, it is then straightforward to propagate uncertainty in each parameter through the back-calculations, producing a distribution for instead of a single estimate of daily or average consumption. This can be summarised for example by a median and credible interval. To demonstrate this approach, we estimate cocaine consumption in a large urban UK population, using measured concentrations of two of its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norbenzoylecgonine. We also demonstrate a more sophisticated analysis, implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Our model allows the two metabolites to simultaneously inform estimates of daily cocaine consumption and explicitly allows for variability between days. After accounting for this variability, the resulting credible interval for average daily consumption is appropriately wider, representing additional uncertainty. We discuss possibilities for extensions to the model, and whether analysis of wastewater samples has potential to contribute to a prevalence model for illicit drug use. PMID:24636801

  14. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part B: placing back-calculations in a formal statistical framework.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hayley E; Hickman, Matthew; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Welton, Nicky J; Baker, David R; Ades, A E

    2014-07-15

    Concentrations of metabolites of illicit drugs in sewage water can be measured with great accuracy and precision, thanks to the development of sensitive and robust analytical methods. Based on assumptions about factors including the excretion profile of the parent drug, routes of administration and the number of individuals using the wastewater system, the level of consumption of a drug can be estimated from such measured concentrations. When presenting results from these 'back-calculations', the multiple sources of uncertainty are often discussed, but are not usually explicitly taken into account in the estimation process. In this paper we demonstrate how these calculations can be placed in a more formal statistical framework by assuming a distribution for each parameter involved, based on a review of the evidence underpinning it. Using a Monte Carlo simulations approach, it is then straightforward to propagate uncertainty in each parameter through the back-calculations, producing a distribution for instead of a single estimate of daily or average consumption. This can be summarised for example by a median and credible interval. To demonstrate this approach, we estimate cocaine consumption in a large urban UK population, using measured concentrations of two of its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norbenzoylecgonine. We also demonstrate a more sophisticated analysis, implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Our model allows the two metabolites to simultaneously inform estimates of daily cocaine consumption and explicitly allows for variability between days. After accounting for this variability, the resulting credible interval for average daily consumption is appropriately wider, representing additional uncertainty. We discuss possibilities for extensions to the model, and whether analysis of wastewater samples has potential to contribute to a prevalence model for illicit drug use. PMID:24636801

  15. Mechanisms of Action and Persistent Neuroplasticity by Drugs of Abuse.

    PubMed

    Korpi, Esa R; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Farooq, Usman; Vashchinkina, Elena; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Nutt, David J; Hyytiä, Petri; Dawe, Gavin S

    2015-10-01

    Adaptation of the nervous system to different chemical and physiologic conditions is important for the homeostasis of brain processes and for learning and remembering appropriate responses to challenges. Although processes such as tolerance and dependence to various drugs of abuse have been known for a long time, it was recently discovered that even a single pharmacologically relevant dose of various drugs of abuse induces neuroplasticity in selected neuronal populations, such as the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area, which persist long after the drug has been excreted. Prolonged (self-) administration of drugs induces gene expression, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and structural changes in many brain cell populations. These region-specific changes correlate with addiction, drug intake, and conditioned drugs effects, such as cue- or stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. In rodents, adolescent drug exposure often causes significantly more behavioral changes later in adulthood than a corresponding exposure in adults. Clinically the most impairing and devastating effects on the brain are produced by alcohol during fetal development. In adult recreational drug users or in medicated patients, it has been difficult to find persistent functional or behavioral changes, suggesting that heavy exposure to drugs of abuse is needed for neurotoxicity and for persistent emotional and cognitive alterations. This review describes recent advances in this important area of research, which harbors the aim of translating this knowledge to better treatments for addictions and related neuropsychiatric illnesses. PMID:26403687

  16. Improvements in analytical methodology for the determination of frequently consumed illicit drugs in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Beltrán, Eduardo; Boix, Clara; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix

    2014-07-01

    Rapid and sensitive analytical methodology based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of widely consumed drugs of abuse (amphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, opioids, cannabis and ketamine) and their major metabolites in urban wastewaters. Sample clean-up and pre-concentration was performed by a generic off-line SPE procedure using Oasis HLB. Special effort was made to incorporate amphetamine, which was found highly problematic in the wastewater samples tested, including an additional clean-up with Oasis MCX SPE and dispersive primary secondary amine. Correction for possible SPE losses or degradation during storage was made by the use of isotope-labelled internal standards (ILIS), available for all compounds, which were added to the samples as surrogates. Although ILIS were also efficient for matrix effects correction, the strong ionization suppression observed was not eliminated; therefore, a four-fold dilution prior to SPE was applied to influent wastewaters and a low injection volume was selected (3 μL), in order to reach a compromise between matrix effects, chromatographic performance and sensitivity. The method was validated at 25 and 200 ng L(-1) (effluent), and 100 and 800 ng L(-1) (influent), obtaining limits of quantification (i.e. the lowest level that the compound can be quantified and also confirmed with at least two MS/MS transitions) between 0.4-25 ng L(-1) (effluent) and 2-100 ng L(-1) (influent). The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of 14 influent and 14 effluent wastewater samples collected over 2 weeks in Castellón (Spain) within a European collaborative study. PMID:24752696

  17. The Family Dance around Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Russell A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the dynamics and characteristics of families with a chemically abusive member. Suggests that since the family is intricately involved in the addictive system, family therapy is needed to promote clear communication, consistent parenting, and aid in developing independent living skills and attitudes. (Author/JAC)

  18. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  19. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse. PMID:25988826

  20. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication.

    PubMed

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse. PMID:25988826