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Sample records for abusing prescription drugs

  1. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  2. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

  5. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  6. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  7. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  8. Research Reports: Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... since 1999, and by 2007, outnumbered those involving heroin and cocaine. NIDA hopes to change this situation ...

  9. What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  10. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  11. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing. PMID:25062521

  12. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  13. Recognizing Signs of Prescription Drug Abuse and Addiction, Part I.

    PubMed

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Faye D

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse/misuse is increasing. Nonmedical use of prescription medications, especially opioid analgesics, now is considered an epidemic in the United States. Medical-surgical nurses are in a strategic position to help address substance abuse problems in patients.

  14. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  15. Prescription drug abuse information in D.A.R.E.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa C; Cline, Rebecca J Welch; Weiler, Robert M; Broadway, S Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized within 14 categories. A two-dimensional coding system for context identified Use versus Abuse and Explicit versus Implicit references to prescription drugs. Results indicated that content and objectives found in D.A.R.E. represent a very narrow breadth of prescription drug topics. Moreover, all prescription-drug related content and objectives were presented in an Abuse-Implicit context. Although some educational material in D.A.R.E. modules potentially is related to prescription drugs, none of the content or objectives explicitly identify drugs discussed as prescription drugs. If elementary and middle schools rely on D.A.R.E. modules to teach students about drug abuse, students are likely to be underinformed about prescription drug risks. PMID:16981638

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse & Diversion: Role of the Pain Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; March, Samantha J.; Inciardi, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research is to better understand the role that South Florida pain management clinics may be playing in the abuse and diversion of prescription drugs. This study explores 1) the characteristics and practices of pain clinics that may be facilitating the drug-seeking endeavors of prescription drug abusers and 2) the drug-seeking behaviors of prescription drug abusers who use pain clinics as a primary source for drugs. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with prescription drug abusers in South Florida. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and codes were generated based on thematic analyses of the data. Using grounded theory strategies, the analysis revealed six main themes: “pill mills”, on-site pharmacies, liberal prescribing habits, “sponsoring” drug diversion, pain doctor/pharmacy shopping, and faking symptoms/documentation. These findings should provide insights for law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and industry as they attempt to develop appropriate policy initiatives and recommendations for best practices. PMID:21278927

  17. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  18. A New Prescription for Fighting Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    It's a drug prevention conversation--and program--that was largely missing as recently as a decade ago in most middle and high schools. In those days, the principal concern of health educators and disciplinarians alike was to keep students from misusing alcohol and illegal street drugs such as ecstasy, cocaine and even heroine. But driven by the…

  19. A Primer on Prescription Drug Abuse and the Role of the Pharmacy Director.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Andre; Weber, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    Prescription drug abuse, or using a prescription drug in a way not intended by the provider, has become such an issue in the United States that in 2013 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified it as a new epidemic. The goal of this article is to provide pharmacy directors with a primer on prescription drug abuse and its prevention. This article will cover the causes and societal impact of prescription drug abuse, review recent and proposed strategies to prevent prescription drug abuse, and discuss efforts within the health system to reduce the risks of narcotic diversion that can lead to prescription drug abuse. There are several health and societal factors that have contributed to the rise in prescription drug abuse. As there is no singular contributory factor to this epidemic, there is no easy solution for proper containment and monitoring of prescription drug use. Pharmacy directors play a vital role in the safe use of prescription medications by providing for fail-safe systems for accounting and controlling prescription drugs. In addition, pharmacists can play a role in educating patients and health care workers on the dangers of prescription drug abuse. Health systems should form teams to identify drug diversion and provide an intervention that demands accountability while helping the impaired professional. Health system pharmacy directors must play an integral role in these efforts and continue to seek opportunities to reduce any risks for prescription drug abuse. PMID:26405329

  20. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Redican, Kerry J; Marek, Lydia I; Brock, Donna JP; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse. Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders. Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco¬done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries) turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers. Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed. PMID:24688929

  1. [The Pharmacist as Gatekeeper of Prescription Drug Abuse: Return to "Community Scientists"].

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya

    2016-01-01

      The non-medical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including benzodiazepines, is a growing health problem in Japan. An association between prescription drug overdose and suicide risk has also been reported. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has expected pharmacists to act as "gatekeepers", facilitating early identification of individuals at high risk of prescription drug abuse including overdose, supplying medication counseling to patients, and helping to introduce these patients to appropriate medical care. Prescription drugs such as benzodiazepines are widely used in psychiatry. However, these drugs are prescribed not only by psychiatrists but also by other healthcare professionals including primary care physicians. Moreover, in recent years, the dispensing of prescriptions has moved rapidly from inside to outside hospitals, with prescription drugs being dispensed mainly at community pharmacies. Although all healthcare professionals including hospital pharmacists can play a role in preventing prescription drug abuse, the role of the community pharmacist is vital in addressing this problem. Formerly, community pharmacists were recognized as "community scientists", low-threshold accessible healthcare advisors. Now, community pharmacists should return to the role of community scientists to prevent prescription drug abuse. This article begins by reviewing the current situation of prescription drug abuse and dependence in Japan. The role of pharmacists as gatekeepers in preventing prescription drug abuse is then examined. Finally, this article discusses the effect of intervention in the form of gatekeeper training for community pharmacists.

  2. Prediction and Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse: Role of Preclinical Assessment of Substance Abuse Liability.

    PubMed

    Marusich, Julie A; Lefever, Timothy W; Novak, Scott P; Blough, Bruce E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2013-07-01

    In 2011, the prevalence of prescription drug abuse exceeded that of any other illicit drug except marijuana. Consequently, efforts to curtail abuse of new medications should begin during the drug development process, where abuse liability can be identified and addressed before a candidate medication has widespread use. The first step in this process is scheduling with the Drug Enforcement Agency so that legal access is appropriately restricted, dependent upon levels of abuse risk and medical benefit. To facilitate scheduling, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has published guidance for industry that describes assessment of abuse liability. The purpose of this paper is to review methods that may be used to satisfy the FDA's regulatory requirements for animal behavioral and dependence pharmacology. Methods include psychomotor activity, self-administration (an animal model of the rewarding effects of a drug), drug discrimination (an animal model of the subjective effects of a drug), and evaluation of tolerance and dependence. Data from tests conducted at RTI with known drugs of abuse illustrate typical results, and demonstrate that RTI is capable of performing these tests. While using preclinical data to predict abuse liability is an imperfect process, it has substantial predictive validity. The ultimate goal is to increase consumer safety through appropriate scheduling of new medications.

  3. The Impact of Science Education Games on Prescription Drug Abuse Attitudes among Teens: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…

  4. An Exploration of Social Circles and Prescription Drug Abuse Through Twitter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. Objective To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Methods Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. Results From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, P<.001). Conclusions Twitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it—potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm. PMID:24014109

  5. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... died from overdoses of any other drug, including heroin and cocaine combined—and many more needed emergency ...

  6. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Email Facebook Twitter What is Prescription Drug Abuse: ... treatment of addiction. Read more Safe Disposal of Medicines Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know ( ...

  7. Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

  8. Prescription drug abuse & addiction: past, present and future: the paradigm for an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Hall, P Bradley; Hawkinberry, Denzil; Moyers-Scott, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and West Virginia is not immune. It is estimated that in 2009, the number of adolescents and adults with a substance abuse and/or dependence problem has reached 23.2 million in the US. There has been an alarming rate of increased sales of methadone, hydrocodone and oxycodone. This article addresses the scope of the problem of prescription drug abuse in West Virginia and the impact by and on the addicted individual. Addiction is a chronic relapsing neuropsychiatric illness manifested by compulsive drug seeking and use. It has created a substantive socioeconomic burden on our state. Prescription drug abuse and addiction increase medical expenses, drug related crime and unemployment. There are misconceptions regarding the etiology and treatment of addiction based on past clinical experience. The view of addiction as volitional misconduct alone has been disproven scientifically. A more current understanding of neurobiological alterations caused by this disease, current treatment strategies and future directions will be presented. This article provides an understanding of prescription drug abuse and addiction's contribution and impact on society's health and social policy. Addressing the problem of prescription drug abuse requires an understanding of the disease of addiction, thus enhancing the effectiveness in diminishing the associated health and social costs. It is the article's intent to illuminate the mutually symbiotic relationship of prescription drug abuse and the disease of addiction and subsequently provide recommendations toward the resolution of this most important issue.

  9. The impact of science education games on prescription drug abuse attitudes among teens: a case study.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G; Miller, Leslie M; Ramos, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated in a pretest, two game-play sessions, and a delayed posttest. Students in both groups demonstrated more negative attitudes toward prescription drug abuse after playing the game, driven by changes of students' normative beliefs and their ability to make the connection between prescription drug abuse and illicit drugs. A secondary aim was to assess gains in science knowledge; however, due to low internal consistency reliabilities of content measures, students' knowledge acquisition could not be determined.

  10. Prescription Data Processing—Its Role in the Control of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Maronde, Robert F.; Seibert, Stanley; Katzoff, Jack; Silverman, Milton

    1972-01-01

    Prescriptions in an outpatient setting were kept on file for immediate recall by computer terminals. Drugs with abuse potential were found to make up 33.6 percent of all prescriptions, and 12.4 percent of these prescriptions were for excessive quantities. An additional 2.6 percent of these prescriptions represented irrationally large quantities of drugs dispensed by multiple prescriptions. The physician was cooperative and willing to correct this situation when it was brought to his attention by the pharmacist. PMID:5070695

  11. OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

  12. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse. PMID:19102471

  13. Opportunities for Exploring and Reducing Prescription Drug Abuse Through Social Media.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kevin R; Nelson, Lewis; Meisel, Zachary; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    The rising toll of opioid overdoses in the past decade has been declared a prescription drug epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control. In that same period, Internet platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, have grown exponentially, being used primarily by a population similar to new initiates of substance abuse. Researchers have utilized social media to gain insights into use patterns and prevailing attitudes about various substances. Social media has potential to enhance screening, prevention, and treatment of addiction. With future funding, they should be leveraged to advance understanding of prescription drug use and improve treatment and prevention of abuse.

  14. Utilizing Business, University, and Community Resources to Target Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade-Mdivanian, R.; Anderson-Butcher, D.; Hale, K.; Kwiek, N.; Smock, J.; Radigan, D.; Lineberger, J.

    2012-01-01

    "Generation Rx" is a prescription drug abuse prevention strategy which includes a "toolkit" designed to be used with youth. Developed by Cardinal Health Foundation and the Ohio State University, it provides health care providers (especially pharmacists), parents, teachers, youth workers, and other community leaders with interactive tools and…

  15. Desisting From Prescription Drug Abuse: An Application of Growth Models to Rx Opioid Users

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Whitney D.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Bakken, Nicholas W.; O’Connell, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern desistance research has examined many facets of desistance, in terms of theoretical predictors of desistance and recidivism, and in terms of differing types of offending. Though predicting desistance from illegal drug use is among these topics, no research to date has examined the predictors of desisting from prescription opioid abuse. This study uses longitudinal data from 318 prescription opioid users to analyze the effects of various predictors of desistance on declining nonmedical prescription opioid use, with an emphasis on gender differences among participants. Results indicate that theoretical and demographic characteristics correspond with differing rates of decline and further vary by gender. PMID:22736809

  16. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  17. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  18. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y.

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007–2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18–65 for ‘non-definitive’ conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or ‘definitive’ conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56–0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical

  19. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007-2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18-65 for 'non-definitive' conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or 'definitive' conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56-0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical provider education

  20. Prescription Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, especially in brain areas involved in the perception of pain and pleasure. Prescription stimulants , such as ... of drug that causes changes in your mood, perceptions, and behavior can affect judgment and willingness to ...

  1. Prescription for Drug Abuse Education: Managing the Mood Changers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Stanley F.

    1971-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need to prepare youth to make decisions about drug use. To do this it is essential to eliminate hypocrisy about the use of marihuana, to "infuse" the curriculum with drug information and to provide students with realistic learning experiences. (Author)

  2. Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This publication answers questions about the consequences of abusing commonly prescribed medications including opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants. In addition to offering information on what research says about how certain medications affect the brain and body, this publication also discusses treatment options. It examines…

  3. Establishing a Link Between Prescription Drug Abuse and Illicit Online Pharmacies: Analysis of Twitter Data

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Background Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. Objective In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Methods Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public streaming application programming interface. Tweets were then analyzed for relevance to NUPM and whether they promoted illegal online access to prescription drugs using a protocol of content coding and supervised machine learning. Results A total of 2,417,662 tweets were collected and analyzed for this study. Tweets filtered for generic drugs names comprised 232,108 tweets, including 22,174 unique associated uniform resource locators (URLs), and 2,185,554 tweets (376,304 unique URLs) filtered for street names. Applying an iterative process of manual content coding and supervised machine learning, 81.72% of the generic and 12.28% of the street NUPM datasets were predicted as having content relevant to NUPM respectively. By examining hyperlinks associated with NUPM relevant content for the generic Twitter dataset, we discovered that 75.72% of the tweets with URLs included a hyperlink to an online marketing affiliate that directly linked to an illicit online pharmacy advertising the sale of Valium without a prescription. Conclusions This study examined the association between Twitter content, NUPM behavior promotion, and online access to drugs using a broad set of prescription drug keywords. Initial results are

  4. 76 FR 24901 - Request for Input To Inform a Possible Surgeon General Action on Prescription Drug Abuse in Youth

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... stubbornly steady among persons 12 or older during recent years. Most abusers are between the ages of 18 and 25, but younger age groups are also a major concern. \\1\\ Prescription drug abuse is defined here as... media messages for a wide range of stakeholders; and possible roles for health care...

  5. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities. PMID:26798885

  6. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities.

  7. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R]) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…

  8. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  9. Treating Prescription Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  10. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  11. Long-term, high-dose benzodiazepine prescriptions in veteran patients with PTSD: influence of preexisting alcoholism and drug-abuse diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Hermos, John A; Young, Melissa M; Lawler, Elizabeth V; Rosenbloom, David; Fiore, Louis D

    2007-10-01

    Databases from the New England Veterans Integrated Service Network were analyzed to determine factors associated with long-term, high-dose anxiolytic benzodiazepine prescriptions dispensed to patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and existing alcoholism and/or drug abuse diagnoses. Among 2,183 PTSD patients, 234 received the highest 10% average daily doses for alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, or lorazepam, doses above those typically recommended. Highest doses were more commonly prescribed to patients with existing drug abuse diagnoses. Among patients with PTSD and alcoholism, younger age, drug abuse, and concurrent prescriptions for another benzodiazepine and oxycodone/acetaminophen independently predicted high doses. Results indicate that for veteran patients with PTSD, alcoholism alone is not associated with high-dose benzodiazepines, but existing drug abuse diagnoses do increase that risk.

  12. Prescription Opioid Abuse and Dependence: Assessment Strategies for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Donovan, Kimberly A.; Krug, Kevin S.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review the article "Prescription Drug Use and Abuse: Risk Factors, Red Flags, and Prevention Strategies" (J. H. Isaacson, J. A. Hopper, D. P. Alford, & T. Parran, 2005), which provides an overview of the recent increase in prescription opioid abuse and dependence from the physician's perspective. In the present article, the authors…

  13. Patterns of Prescription Medication Diversion among Drug Dealers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Khary K.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the following questions: (1) how do drug dealers acquire their inventories of prescription medications? and (2) which types of prescription medications do dealers most commonly sell? Data are drawn from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study that examined prescription drug diversion and abuse in South…

  14. 78 FR 28860 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for: “Data Rx: Prescription Drug Abuse Infographic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... abuse and the treatment of drug abusers. Consistent with this authority, one of NIDA's strategic goals... support this strategic goal. Entry Materials Applications for this Challenge will include the following... Possible data sources include (but are not limited to): Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Data (ADAM;...

  15. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... people also have to pay an additional monthly cost. Private companies provide Medicare prescription drug coverage. You choose the drug plan you like best. Whether or not you should sign up depends on how good your current coverage is. You need to sign up as ...

  16. Revisiting "the origins of compulsory drug prescriptions".

    PubMed Central

    Marks, H M

    1995-01-01

    It has been argued that today's prescription drug market originated in the arbitrary acts of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which in 1938 issued regulations creating a class of drugs that could be sold by prescription only. On the basis of the FDA's administrative records, I argue that the 1938 regulations on prescription drug labeling were initiated by industry and then agreed to by the FDA; that contemporaries understood and accepted the reasons for restricting the use of certain drugs; and that the subsequent evolution of these regulations is best understood as an FDA effort to limit industry abuses of the prescription labeling system. This decade-long war of position ended when drug manufacturers persuaded the US Congress to enshrine their version of prescription labeling in law in a highly politicized struggle over government's role in the economy. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7832245

  17. The nonmedical use of prescription drugs by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter D; Copley, LaRae

    2009-04-01

    The abuse of prescription drugs such as opioids, stimulants, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills is the fastest-growing class of drugs being abused by adolescents. Among this class of drugs, prescription opioids are being abused the most, although the abuse of prescription stimulants has been studied the most. There is a paucity of information on the nonmedical use of tranquilizers and sleeping pills. In this article we will discuss the specific prescription drugs that are most commonly abused by adolescents and how physicians need to be cautious when prescribing these drugs. The issue of screening for the abuse of these drugs will be addressed, as will the importance of parents' monitoring the use of these drugs by their own children. PMID:19492687

  18. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional.

  19. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional. PMID:26339207

  20. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    also deserve renewed attention on prescription drug abuse. It is imperative that as a nation we make ourselves aware of the consequences associated with drug abuse. Otherwise devastating effects of drug will destroy the manpower and economic growth of the country.

  1. Evolution of the National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act (NASPER): a public law for balancing treatment of pain and drug abuse and diversion.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Whitfield, Ed; Pallone, Frank

    2005-10-01

    In the United States, physicians are faced with two opposing dilemmas in the treatment of pain - the potential for drug abuse and diversion, and the possible undertreatment of pain. While controlled prescription drugs such as narcotic analgesics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, stimulants, and sedative-hypnotics, play a legitimate role in managing chronic pain and other conditions, the illicit use of prescribed medicines is increasing at epidemic proportions. Diversion and abuse of prescription drugs is costly in terms of addiction, overdose, death, and related criminal activities, but chronic pain carries significant economic, social, and health impact as well. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), as the introducing organization, was joined by several physician and nurse practitioner organizations in support of the National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting (NASPER) Act of 2005, legislation that not only will give physicians an information tool to aid in prescribing controlled substances but also will help identify illicit use and abuse. NASPER is the law that provides for the establishment of a controlled substances monitoring program in each state. The concept for NASPER originated with ASIPP and was modeled after the highly successful Kentucky All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Program (KASPER). Legislation was introduced in the United States House of Representatives during three different Congresses, the 107th, 108th, and 109th, by Reps. Edward Whitfield (R-KY) and Frank Pallone (D-NJ). It was first introduced in the United States Senate in the 107th Congress by Sen. Tim Hutchinson (R-AK), and in the 108th and 109th by Sens. Jeff Sessions (R-AL) and Dick Durbin (D-IL), with multiple cosponsors in both chambers. NASPER passed the House on July 27, 2005, by voice vote and passed the Senate by unanimous consent on July 29, 2005. President George W. Bush signed NASPER on August 11, 2005, and it became Public Law

  2. Teens and Prescription Drugs: An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report synthesizes a number of national studies that show the intentional abuse of prescription drugs to get high is a growing concern, particularly among teens. The analysis shows that teens are turning away from street drugs and using prescription drugs to get high. New users of prescription drugs have caught up with new users of marijuana.…

  3. Women Who Abuse Prescription Opioids: Findings from the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version® Connect Prescription Opioid Database

    PubMed Central

    Green, Traci C.; Grimes Serrano, Jill M.; Licari, Andrea; Budman, Simon H.; Butler, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests gender differences in abuse of prescription opioids. This study aimed to describe characteristics of women who abuse prescription opioids in a treatment-seeking sample and to contrast gender differences among prescription opioid abusers. Methods Data collected November 2005 to April 2008 derived from the Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version Connect (ASI-MV® Connect) database. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression examined correlates of prescription opioid abuse stratified by gender. Results 29,906 assessments from 220 treatment centers were included, of which 12.8% (N=3,821) reported past month prescription opioid abuse. Women were more likely than men to report use of any prescription opioid (29.8% females vs. 21.1% males, p< 0.001) and abuse of any prescription opioid (15.4% females vs. 11.1% males, p < 0.001) in the past month. Route of administration and source of prescription opioids displayed gender-specific tendencies. Women-specific correlates of recent prescription opioid abuse were problem drinking, age <54, inhalant use, residence outside of West US Census region, and history of drug overdose. Men-specific correlates were age <34, currently living with their children, residence in the South and Midwest, hallucinogen use, and recent depression. Women prescription opioid abusers were less likely to report a pain problem although they were more likely to report medical problems than women who abused other drugs. Conclusions Gender-specific factors should be taken into account in efforts to screen and identify those at highest risk of prescription opioid abuse. Prevention and intervention efforts with a gender-specific approach are warranted. PMID:19409735

  4. Women's Dependency on Prescription Drugs; Hearing Before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    This record of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control contains testimonies addressing the problems facing drug abusing women. The extensive prescribing of legal drugs such as tranquilizers, sedatives, pain killers, and stimulants is examined. The problems of polydrug abuse and alcohol abuse in combination with other drugs are also…

  5. Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heroin Use Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use Email Facebook Twitter NIDA recently challenged the ... References for Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use The authors conducted an independent analysis of ...

  6. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  7. Prescription Opioid Abuse and Diversion in an Urban Community: The Results of an Ultra- Rapid Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Beard, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion is a topic about which comparatively little is known, and systematic information garnered from prescription drug abusers and dealers on the specific mechanisms of diversion is extremely limited. Design A pilot ultra-rapid assessment was carried out in Wilmington, Delaware, during December 2006 to better understand the scope and dynamics of prescription drug abuse and diversion. This involved focus groups with prescription drug abusers, and key informant interviews with police, regulatory officials, prescription drug dealers, and pill brokers. Results The primary sources of prescription drugs on the street were the elderly, pain patients, and doctor shoppers, as well as pill brokers and dealers who work with all of the former. The popularity of prescription drugs in the street market was rooted in the abusers’ perceptions of these drugs as: 1) less stigmatizing; 2) less dangerous; and, 3) less subject to legal consequences than illicit drugs. For many, the abuse of prescription opioids also appeared to serve as a gateway to heroin use. Conclusion The diversion of prescription opioids might be reduced through physician education focusing on: 1) recognizing that a patient is misusing and/or diverting prescribed medications; 2) considering a patient’s risk for opioid misuse before initiating opioid therapy; and, 3) understanding the variation in the abuse potential of different opioid medications currently on the market. Patient education also appears appropriate in the areas of safeguarding medications, disposal of unused medications, and understanding the consequences of manipulating physicians and selling their medications. PMID:19416440

  8. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  9. Child Abuse Intervention: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchter, Arnold

    Written from a criminal justice perspective, the report on child abuse intervention provides a model system that emphasizes prompt medical treatment for the child and due process for both parents and children. The authors recommend that court action take the form of a civil proceeding whenever possible. Part I provides a framework for the…

  10. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  11. [Drugs prescription for osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Erviti, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the evolution of the global and relative use of medicines recommended for osteoporosis during the period between 1998 and 2002 in Navarra, and their adaptation to present evidence, making reference to the differences in the prescription profile in primary and specialised care. To this end, information is used from all the prescriptions made within the National Health System where one of these medicines is recommended, issued in pharmacies of Navarra, and billed to the Navarra Health Service-Osasunbidea. The profile of the use of medicines in osteoporosis differs significantly depending on the type of specialist who prescribes them. It would be useful to homogenise the approach to the prevention of bone fractures. In the period under study the use of medicines in Navarra rose by some 85.6% in number of dose/1,000 inhabitants/day. The relative use of hormone replacement therapy fell constantly, the employment of calcitonins remained steady, undergoing a cyclical profile of peaks in winter and valleys in summer, while the relative use of biphosphonates and raloxifen tended to increase. There is a need to evaluate the results on health of the use of these medicines in clinical practice given the discreet efficacy results obtained in clinical trials. Use of calcium should be encouraged because of its potential in the prevention of hip fractures against the rest of the medicinal alternatives. The relative use of raloxifen and calcitonins seems excessive.

  12. Substance use - prescription drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance use; Oxycodone - substance use; Hydrocodone - substance use; Morphine - substance use; Fentanyl - substance use ... fluff, hydros, v-itamin, vic, vike, Watson-387. Morphine. Drugs include Avinza, Duramorph, Kadian, Ormorph, Roxanol. Street ...

  13. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  14. The “Black Box” of Prescription Drug Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Martin, Steven S.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine if there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS® System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Delaware School Survey, and a series of quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Miami, Florida. The data suggest that the major sources of diversion include drug dealers, friends and relatives, smugglers, pain patients, and the elderly, but these vary by the population being targeted. In all of the studies examined, the use of the Internet as a source for prescription drugs is insignificant. Little is known about where drug dealers are obtaining their supplies, and as such, prescription drug diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:20155603

  15. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  16. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  17. Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Law Enforcement Resources Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals ... in your brain or body. Common opioids include heroin and prescription drugs such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and ...

  18. How Can I End a Prescription Drug Habit Safely?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  19. Patterns of prescription medication diversion among drug dealers

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the following questions: (1) how do drug dealers acquire their inventories of prescription medications? and (2) which types of prescription medications do dealers most commonly sell? Data are drawn from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study that examined prescription drug diversion and abuse in South Florida. In-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 50) were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of prescription drug dealers from a variety of milieus to assess patterns of diversion. Audiotapes of the interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analysed using the NVivo 8 software program. Dealers relied on a wide array of diversion methods including visiting multiple pain clinics, working with pharmacy employees to steal medications from pharmacies, and purchasing medications from indigent patients. The type of medication most commonly sold by dealers was prescription opioid analgesics, and to a lesser extent benzodiazepines such as alprazolam. These findings inform public health policy makers, criminal justice officials, the pharmaceutical industry and government regulatory agencies in their efforts to reduce the availability of diverted prescription drugs in the illicit market. Specifically, these data support the need for statewide prescription drug monitoring programs and increased training for healthcare workers who have access to controlled medications. PMID:22665955

  20. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  1. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  2. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  3. Descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of male prescription opioid abusers: Cross-sectional study from Sikkim, North East India

    PubMed Central

    Datta, D.; Pandey, S.; Dutta, S.; Verma, Y.; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sikkim is emerging as an important area for prescription opioid abuse with frequent news of seizures and arrests due to possession of prescription opioids. However, till date there is a little information on descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of prescription opioid abusers from Sikkim. Aims: The aim was to describe demographic (age, sex, religion, marital status, community, occupation, etc.); socioeconomic (income, education, family information etc.); and high risk behavior (e.g., injection sharing, visit to commercial sex workers [CSWs], homosexuality etc.) among treatment-seeking prescription opioid abusers in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological data were collected by administering predevised questionnaires from n = 223 prescription opioid abusers (main problem prescription opioids) reporting for treatment at five different drug abuse treatment centers across Sikkim. Results: The mean age of prescription opioid abusers in Sikkim was 27 years; all were male, of Nepalese ethnicity and single/never married, school dropout and/or illiterate, earning < Rs. 10,000/month with most spending almost Rs. 5000 a month on prescription opioids. Most (57.4%) prescription opioid abusers belonged to the urban community. Commonly abused prescription opioids were dextropropoxyphene and codeine. Injection sharing was more in urban areas whereas syringe exchange was observed equally among rural and urban prescription opioid abusers. Among urban injectors visits to CSWs, and multiple sex partners were also common in spite of knowledge about AIDS. Limited condom use was observed among rural respondents. Incidences of arrests, public intoxication, and violence under the influence of prescription opioids were also reported. Conclusion: Both the rural and urban areas of Sikkim show increasing rates of prescription opioid abuse among males. It is more prevalent among school dropouts and unemployed youth. Trends of injection drug use, unsafe injection

  4. Motivations for Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Ibañez, Gladys E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among illicit drug users, their motives for abusing prescription drugs are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to 1) determine the motivations for engaging in the non-medical use of prescription opioids and sedatives among street-based illicit drug users, methadone maintenance patients, and residential drug treatment clients, 2) examine associations between prescription drug abuse motivations and gender, age, race/ethnicity, and user group, and 3) examine associations between specific motivations and prescription drug abuse patterns. Quantitative surveys (n = 684) and in-depth interviews (n = 45) were conducted with a diverse sample of prescription drug abusers in South Florida between March 2008 and November 2009. The three most common motivations reported were “to get high”, “to sleep”, and “for anxiety/stress”. There were age, race/ethnicity, and gender differences by motives. Prescription drug abuse patterns were also found to be associated with specific motivations. While additional research is needed, these findings serve to inform appropriate prevention and treatment initiatives for prescription drug abusers. PMID:20667680

  5. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  6. Rural Adolescents' Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Implications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, April M.; Glover, Natalie; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities often have distinct contextual factors that impact residents' substance abuse behavior. However, most studies to date have focused either exclusively on urban populations or neglected to analyze data in a way that allows any rural/urban comparison. This is especially true for research examining nonmedical prescription drug use…

  7. Educating against Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book is a compilation of drug education and drug abuse prevention materials collected by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) along with example of activities carried out by various countries. It opens with four introductory papers by separate authors: (1) "Prevention of Drug Dependence: A Utopian Dream?"…

  8. Relative abuse liability of prescription opioids compared to heroin in morphine-maintained heroin abusers

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D; Sullivan, Maria A; Whittington, Robert A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Kowalczyk, William J

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of prescription opioid medications has increased dramatically in the U.S. during the past decade, as indicated by a variety of epidemiological sources. However, few studies have systematically examined the relative reinforcing effects of commonly abused opioid medications. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled inpatient study was designed to compare the effects of intravenously delivered fentanyl (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.187, and 0.250 mg/70 kg), oxycodone (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg), morphine (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg), buprenorphine (0, 0.125, 0.5, 2, and 8 mg/70 kg), and heroin (0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/70 kg) in morphine-maintained heroin abusers (N=8 completers maintained on 120 mg per day oral morphine in divided doses [30 mg q.i.d.]). All of the participants received all of the drugs tested; drugs and doses were administered in non-systematic order. All of the drugs produced statistically significant, dose-related increases in positive subjective ratings, such as “I feel a good drug effect” and “I like the drug.” In general, the order of potency in producing these effects, from most to least potent, was: fentanyl > buprenorphine ≥ heroin > morphine = oxycodone. In contrast, buprenorphine was the only drug that produced statistically significant increases in ratings of “I feel a bad drug effect” and it was the only drug that was not self-administered above placebo levels at any dose tested. These data suggest that the abuse liability of buprenorphine in heroin-dependent individuals may be low, despite the fact that it produces increases in positive subjective ratings. The abuse liabilities of fentanyl, morphine, oxycodone, and heroin, however, appear to be similar under these experimental conditions. PMID:17581533

  9. Contemporary drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Giannini, M C

    1986-03-01

    The physician needs to know the signs, symptoms and recommended treatments of drug overdoses. Overdose of hallucinogens usually does not require drug therapy. Overdose of amphetamines ("uppers") may be complicated by the presence of PCP, a dissociative substance. It is important for the physician to be familiar with the street terminology for contemporary drugs of abuse and to be aware of how users obtain these drugs.

  10. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Anxiety COPD Delirium Depression Pain Management Prevention Related News Older Adults Who Drink Alcohol at Risk for Drug Interactions Monday, November 23, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Drug and Substance Abuse ...

  11. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Is Marijuana Medicine? Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  12. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  13. 76 FR 51310 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal... issuing temporary regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care... preliminary fee calculation is valid and justifies an adjustment to the preliminary fee calculation....

  14. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  15. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  16. Effects of cold pressor pain on the abuse liability of intranasal oxycodone in male and female prescription opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Lofwall, Michelle R.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.9 million persons in the U.S. have prescription opioid use disorders often with concomitant bodily pain, but systematic data on the impact of pain on abuse liability of opioids is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pain alters the intranasal abuse liability of oxycodone, a commonly prescribed and abused analgesic, in males and females. Methods Sporadic prescription opioid abusers (10 females, 10 males) participated in this mixed (between and within-subject), randomized inpatient study. Experimental sessions (n=6) tested intranasal placebo, oxycodone 15 or 30 mg/70 kg during cold pressor testing (CPT) and a warm water control. Observer- and subject-rated drug effect measures, analgesia, physiologic and cognitive effects were assessed. Results The CPT significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, pain, stress, and “opiate desire” compared to the no-pain control but did not alter opioid liking, high or street value. Intranasal oxycodone produced effects within 10 minutes, significantly decreasing pain and significantly increasing subjective measures of abuse liability (e.g., high). Females had higher ratings of street value, high, and liking for one or both active doses. Conclusions The CPT was a reliably painful and stressful stimulus that did not diminish the abuse liability of intranasal Oxycodone®. Females were more sensitive to oxycodone on several abuse liability measures that warrant further follow-up. Snorting oxycodone rapidly produced psychoactive effects indicative of substantial abuse liability. PMID:22209386

  17. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim’s paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim’s findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. PMID:27285519

  18. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  19. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  20. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    MedlinePlus

    ... name drugs when you buy them at a pharmacy or order them through the mail. • Some coverage ... savings if you buy your prescriptions at a pharmacy or order them through the mail. The discount ...

  1. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  2. Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Kresanek, Jaroslav; Plackova, Silvia; Caganova, Blazena; Klobusicka, Zora

    2005-01-01

    The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information.

  3. Drug abuse and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Smith, C G; Asch, R H

    1987-09-01

    It is clear that a number of CNS agents, including drugs of abuse, can inhibit reproductive function. Figure 1 shows the chemical diversity of some of the drug groups that affect reproductive hormones. Their structural dissimilarity to the steroid hormones is also readily apparent in the figure. These chemically diverse drugs share an important pharmacologic property: they are highly potent neuroactive drugs, and they can disrupt hypothalamic-pituitary function. Although it is frequently difficult to distinguish between direct drug actions on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and subsequent effects on gonadal hormones and sex accessory gland function, the distinction is an important one. Most neuroactive drugs produce only transient effects on the central nervous pathways necessary for normal gonadotropin secretion. The disruptive effects of these drugs are likely to be transient and completely reversible, and tolerance to the inhibitory drug effects may occur even with continued drug use. Under these circumstances, normal adults may experience only subtle changes in sexual function. However, individuals with compromised reproductive function may exhibit major problems. It is also likely that adolescents may be at substantial risk for reproductive damage from these neuroactive drugs since the endocrine events associated with puberty are dependent on the normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  4. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Public Health What Can We Do About the Heroin Overdose Epidemic? NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts ...

  5. Sale of prescription drugs over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, K; Bloom, B S

    1999-01-01

    Online drugstores represent one of the hottest categories in electronic commerce. The Internet offers great promise in expanding access to prescription drugs for the disabled, the elderly, and people living in rural areas. But with this promise comes the danger of eliminating the safeguards that protect consumers from inappropriate use of medications and adverse drug events. This Issue Brief highlights two studies that investigate the availability of prescription drugs over the Internet, and focuses on the alarming ease with which consumers can obtain drugs without seeing a physician or a pharmacist. PMID:12523341

  6. How patients understand the term ‘nonmedical use’ of prescription drugs: insights from cognitive interviews

    PubMed Central

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Horton, Ariana; Khan, Rubina; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background With rising rates of prescription drug abuse and associated overdose deaths, there is great interest in having accurate and efficient screening tools that identify nonmedical use of prescription drugs in health care settings. We sought to gain a better understanding of how patients interpret questions about misuse of prescription drugs, with the goal of improving the accuracy and acceptability of instruments intended for use in primary care. Methods A total of 27 English speaking adult patients were recruited from an urban safety net primary care clinic to complete a cognitive interview about a four-item screening questionnaire for tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and misuse of prescription drugs. Detailed field notes were analyzed for overall comprehension of the screening items on illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse, the accuracy with which participants classified drugs into these categories, and whether the screening response correctly captured the participant’s substance use behavior. Results Based on initial responses to the screening items, 6 (22%) participants screened positive for past year prescription drug misuse, and 8 (30%) for illicit drug use. The majority (26/27) of participants correctly interpreted the item on illicit drug use, and appropriately classified drugs in this category. Eleven (41%) participants had errors in their understanding of the prescription drug misuse item. The most common error was including use of medications without abuse potential as misuse. All cases of misunderstanding prescription drug misuse occurred among participants who screened negative for illicit drug use. Conclusions Our results suggest that terminology used to describe misuse of prescription medications may be misunderstood by many primary care patients, particularly those who do not use illicit drugs. Failure to improve upon the language used to describe prescription drug misuse in screening questionnaires intended for use in medical

  7. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  8. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  9. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  10. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  11. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  12. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  13. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  14. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  15. Drug Use by Students of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Ronald; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of differences in the use of certain psychoactive drugs among students who enrolled for an elective drug abuse course and students not enrolled, or who have not previously taken a drug abuse course. (Author)

  16. The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R B

    1988-10-01

    The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 is described, and its implications for hospitals and other health-care entities are discussed. The act, which became effective on July 21, 1988, is intended to reduce public health risks from adulterated, misbranded, and counterfeit drug products that enter the marketplace through drug diversion. The law provides that prescription drug products manufactured in the United States and exported can no longer be reimported, except by the product's manufacturer. It also establishes restrictions on sales of prescription drug products and samples. Samples of prescription drug products may be distributed only if a licensed prescriber requests them. Other distribution channels for samples specified in the law are permissible, provided records are maintained. Under the law, wholesale distributors must be licensed by the state and meet uniform standards. Penalties for violations of the law are also identified. According to FDA's advisory guidelines on the statute, the law will permit hospitals to return drug products, provided the return is made to the manufacturer or wholesaler and provided written notice is secured that the goods were received (for manufacturers) or the goods were destroyed or returned to the manufacturer (for wholesalers). The final chapter on drug diversion must await issuance of final FDA regulations. PMID:3228083

  17. Mechanisms of Prescription Drug Diversion Among Drug-Involved Club- and Street-Based Populations

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Cicero, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion involves the unlawful channeling of regulated pharmaceuticals from legal sources to the illicit marketplace, and can occur along all points in the drug delivery process, from the original manufacturing site to the wholesale distributor, the physician's office, the retail pharmacy, or the patient. However, empirical data on diversion are limited. Method In an attempt to develop a better understanding of how specific drug-using populations are diverting prescription opioids and other medications, or obtaining controlled drugs that have already been diverted, qualitative interviews and focus group data were collected on four separate populations of prescription drug abusers in Miami, Florida—club drug users, street-based illicit drug users, methadone maintenance patients, and HIV positive individuals who abuse and/or divert drugs. Results Sources of abused prescription drugs cited by focus group participants were extremely diverse, including their physicians and pharmacists; parents and relatives; “doctor shopping”; leftover supplies following an illness or injury; personal visits to Mexico, South America and the Caribbean; prescriptions intended for the treatment of mental illness; direct sales on the street and in nightclubs; pharmacy and hospital theft; through friends or acquaintances; under-the-door apartment flyers advertising telephone numbers to call; and “stealing from grandma's medicine cabinet.” Conclusion While doctor shoppers, physicians and the Internet receive much of the attention regarding diversion, the data reported in this paper suggest that there are numerous active street markets involving patients, Medicaid recipients and pharmacies as well. In addition, there are other data which suggest that the contributions of residential burglaries, pharmacy robberies and thefts, and “sneak thefts” to the diversion problem may be understated. PMID:17305688

  18. No End in Sight: The Abuse of Prescription Narcotics.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting-and dangerous.

  19. The epidemic of prescription opioid abuse, the subsequent rising prevalence of heroin use, and the federal response.

    PubMed

    Kanouse, Andrew B; Compton, Peggy

    2015-06-01

    Opioids are a mainstay in the treatment of pain both chronically and acutely. In the past 20 years, the prescribing of opioids has increased exponentially. As the population for whom opioids are indicated has grown, with the number of opioid prescriptions written increased, so have indicators of opioid misuse, abuse, morbidity, and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review and explore the combination of factors of events that led to the current "epidemic" of prescription opioid abuse and overdose deaths, as well as the subsequent resurgence of heroin use among opioid addicts. Federal initiatives to mount war on prescription opioid abuse are reviewed, including responses from the White House, Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and interagency initiatives. Many initiatives are currently in place to combat the rising rates of morbidity and mortality associated with opioids, and those involved are hopeful in their efforts to curb the epidemic of this deadly phenomenon.

  20. Computer-aided auditing of prescription drug claims.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Vijay S; Hermiz, Keith B; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2014-09-01

    We describe a methodology for identifying and ranking candidate audit targets from a database of prescription drug claims. The relevant audit targets may include various entities such as prescribers, patients and pharmacies, who exhibit certain statistical behavior indicative of potential fraud and abuse over the prescription claims during a specified period of interest. Our overall approach is consistent with related work in statistical methods for detection of fraud and abuse, but has a relative emphasis on three specific aspects: first, based on the assessment of domain experts, certain focus areas are selected and data elements pertinent to the audit analysis in each focus area are identified; second, specialized statistical models are developed to characterize the normalized baseline behavior in each focus area; and third, statistical hypothesis testing is used to identify entities that diverge significantly from their expected behavior according to the relevant baseline model. The application of this overall methodology to a prescription claims database from a large health plan is considered in detail.

  1. Prescription drugs purchased through the internet: Who are the end users?

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Rosenblum, Andrew; Ahwah, Candice; Bailey, J. Elise; Dart, Richard C.; Burke, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Although prescription drugs are readily available on the Internet, little is known about the prevalence of Internet use for the purchase of medications without a legitimate prescription, and the characteristics of those that obtain non-prescribed drugs through online sources. The scientific literature on this topic is limited to anecdotal reports or studies plagued by small sample sizes. Within this context, the focus of this paper is an examination of five national data sets from the U.S. with the purpose of estimating: (1) how common obtaining prescription medications from the Internet actually is, (2) who are the typical populations of “end users” of these non-prescribed medications, and (3) which drugs are being purchased without a prescription. Three of the data sets are drawn from the RADARS® (Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance) System, a comprehensive series of studies designed to collect timely and geographically specific data on the abuse and diversion of a number of prescription stimulants and opioid analgesics. The remaining data sets include the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey. Our analysis yielded uniformly low rates of prescription drug acquisition from online sources across all five data systems we examined. The consistency of this finding across very diverse populations suggests that the Internet is a relatively minor source for illicit purchases of prescription medications by the individual end-users of these drugs. PMID:20227199

  2. Resonant Messages to Prevent Prescription Drug Misuse by Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.; Agnew, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse is a major health problem, particularly among teens. A key step in curbing misuse is the development of effective prescription drug prevention messages. This paper explores the elements of prescription drug misuse prevention messages that resonate with teens using data from focus groups with seventh and eighth grade…

  3. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  4. Developing an effective generic prescription drug program.

    PubMed

    Jones, John D

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) use a variety of pricing strategies. When employers have a thorough knowledge of those strategies, they can use them to their advantage to help manage pharmacy benefits. This article discusses PBM strategies in terms of what employers need to know, the questions employers need to ask and goals employers must keep in mind in order to secure the affordable cost and quality prescription drug management programs that they and their employees need and deserve.

  5. No End in Sight: The Abuse of Prescription Narcotics.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting-and dangerous. PMID:27358666

  6. Understanding the Etiology of Prescription Opioid Abuse: Implications for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Murphy, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the initiation of substance abuse abound, the body of literature on prescription opioid abuse (POA) etiology is small. Little is known about why and how the onset of POA occurs, especially among high-risk populations. In this study we aimed to fill this important knowledge gap by exploring the POA initiation experiences of 90 prescription opioid abusers currently in treatment and their narrative accounts of the circumstances surrounding their POA onset. This research was conducted within a storyline framework, which operates on the premise that the path to drug abuse represents a biography or a process rather than a static condition. Audiotapes of in-depth interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Analyses revealed the presence of four trajectories leading to POA. This study adds to the limited research on POA etiology by not only illuminating the psychosocial factors that contribute to POA onset, but also by situating initiation experiences within broader life processes. The study findings provide crucial insights to policymakers and interventionists in identifying who is at risk for POA, and more important, when and how to intervene most efficaciously. PMID:23656723

  7. Proton pump inhibitor prescription abuse and sepsis in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Antonio; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent one of the most extensively prescribed classes of drugs in general and in patients with liver cirrhosis. Many prescriptions are made without a clear adherence to standard indications. As a class of ordinarily well tolerated drug, PPIs are not free of side-effects and concerns have been raised about a possible role for PPIs in predisposing patients to an increased risk of bacterial infections and sepsis. As evidences of different power are accumulating on this topic, prospective studies are needed to reach a more universal agreement, but definitely more attention is needed by prescribers in being more adherent to the few recognized indications for the use of PPIs, particularly in patients with liver cirrhosis. Otherwise, doctors could run the risk of being accused of “abused” prescription. PMID:26855807

  8. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  9. Constructing a Real-Time Prescription Drug Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Tae; Jo, Emmanuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the possibility of the construction of a real-time prescription drug monitoring system (PDMOS) using data from the nationwide Drug Utilization Review (DUR) system in Korea. Methods The DUR system collects information on drug prescriptions issued by healthcare practitioners and on drugs dispensed by pharmacies. PDMOS was constructed using this data. The screen of PDMOS is designed to exhibit the number of drug prescriptions, the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, and the dispensed prescription drug costs on a daily and weekly basis. Data was sourced from the DUR system between June 1, 2016 and July 18, 2016. The TOGA solution developed by the EYEQMC Co. Ltd. of Seoul, Korea was used to produce the screen shots. Results Prescription numbers by medical facilities were more numerous than the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, as expected. The number of prescriptions per day was between 2 to 3 million. The prescriptions issued by primary care clinics were most numerous, at 75% of the total number of prescriptions. Daily prescription drug costs were found to be approximately US $50 million. The prescription drug costs were highest on Mondays and were reduced towards the end of the week. Prescriptions and dispensed prescriptions numbered approximately 1,200 and 1,000 million, respectively. Conclusions The construction of a real-time PDMOS has been successful to provide daily and weekly information. There was a lag time of only one day at the national level in terms of information extraction, and scarcely any time was required to load the data. Therefore, this study highlights the potential of constructing a PDMOS to monitor the estimate the number of prescriptions and the resulting expenditures from prescriptions. PMID:27525159

  10. Effects of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse and HIV/AIDS Next Español English Español PDF Version Download Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  11. 75 FR 15376 - Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements; Presentation of the Major Statement in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Register of May 6, 1998 (63 FR 24996 at 25002), FTC summarized the factors it takes into account in... these services to avoid the abuse of consumers. In the Federal Register of August 9, 1993 (58 FR 42364... prescription drug television broadcast advertisements (72 FR 47051, August 22, 2007). FDA recognizes...

  12. Drug Abuse Prevention For Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst G.

    Drug abuse is not confined to the young, but if a young person between the ages of 8 and 20 can be prevented from abusing drugs, chances are that he/she will never have a serious drug problem. Drug abuse prevention means helping young people develop personal strengths and values to reduce the chance that they will hurt themselves or others by…

  13. Drug abuse in slum population

    PubMed Central

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  14. Other Drugs of Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... can make you pass out. It's called a "date rape" drug because someone can secretly put it in your ... you without your permission. Rohypnol (roofies) is a date rape pill and can ... about these drugs . Bath Salts are drugs made with chemicals like ...

  15. Drugs of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Donald E., Ed.

    This Drug Enforcement Administration publication delivers clear, scientific information about drugs in a factual, straightforward way, combined with precise photographs shot to scale. The publication is intended to serve as an A to Z guide for drug history, effects, and identification information. Chapters are included on the Controlled Substances…

  16. [Clinical practice guideline. Drug prescription in elderly].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Valdivia-Ibarra, Francisco Javier; Hernández-Manzano, Mario; Medina-Beltrán, Gustavo Rodrigo; Cordero-Guillén, Miguel Angel; Baca-Zúñiga, José; Cruz-Avelar, Agles; Aguilar-Salas, Ismael; Avalos-Mejía, Annia Marisol

    2013-01-01

    The process of prescribing a medication is complex and includes: deciding whether it is indicated, choosing the best option, determining the dose and the appropriate management scheme to the physiological condition of the patient, and monitoring effectiveness and toxicity. We have to inform patients about the expected side effects and indications for requesting a consultation. Specific clinical questions were designed based on the acronym PICOST. The search was made in the specific websites of clinical practice guidelines, was limited to the population of older adults, in English or Spanish. We used 10 related clinical practice guidelines, eight systematic reviews and five meta-analyses. Finally, we made a search of original articles or clinical reviews for specific topics. The development and validation of clinical practice guidelines for "rational drug prescriptions in the elderly" is intended to promote an improvement in the quality of prescription through the prevention and detection of inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and, as a result of this, a decrease in the adverse events by drugs, deterioration of health of patients and expenditure of resources.

  17. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and ... to you. Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites ...

  18. HOW CLINICIANS USE PRESCRIPTION DRUG MONITORING PROGRAMS: A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY

    PubMed Central

    Hildebran, Christi; Cohen, Deborah J.; Irvine, Jessica M.; Foley, Carol; O’Kane, Nicole; Beran, Todd; Deyo, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) are now active in most states to assist clinicians in identifying potential controlled drug misuse, diversion or excessive prescribing. Little is still known about the ways in which they are incorporated into workflow and clinical decision making, what barriers continue to exist, and how clinicians are sharing PDMP results with their patients. Design Qualitative data were collected through online focus groups and telephone interviews Setting Clinicians from pain management, emergency and family medicine, psychiatry/behavioral health, rehabilitation medicine, internal medicine and dentistry. Subjects 35 clinicians from 9 states participated. Methods We conducted two online focus groups and seven telephone interviews. A multidisciplinary team then used a grounded theory approach coupled with an immersion-crystallization strategy for identifying key themes in the resulting transcripts. Results Some participants, mainly from pain clinics, reported checking the PDMP with every patient, every time. Others checked only for new patients, for new opioid prescriptions, or for patients for whom they suspected abuse. Participants described varied approaches to sharing PDMP information with patients, including openly discussing potential addiction or safety concerns; avoiding discussion altogether; and approaching discussion confrontationally. Participants described patient anger or denial as a common response and noted the role of patient satisfaction surveys as an influence on prescribing. Conclusion Routines for accessing PDMP data and how clinicians respond to it vary widely. As PDMP use becomes more widespread, it will be important to understand what approaches are most effective for identifying and addressing unsafe medication use. PMID:24833113

  19. 45 CFR 156.122 - Prescription drug benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prescription drug benefits. 156.122 Section 156... Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.122 Prescription drug benefits. (a) A health plan does not provide... at least the greater of: (i) One drug in every United States Pharmacopeia (USP) category and...

  20. 45 CFR 156.122 - Prescription drug benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prescription drug benefits. 156.122 Section 156... Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.122 Prescription drug benefits. (a) A health plan does not provide... at least the greater of: (i) One drug in every United States Pharmacopeia (USP) category and...

  1. Correlates of Prescription Drug Market Involvement among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background While a significant minority of prescription drug misusers report purchasing prescription drugs, little is known about prescription drug selling. We build upon past research on illicit drug markets, which increasingly recognizes networks and nightlife as influential, by examining prescription drug market involvement. Methods We use data from 404 young adult prescription drug misusers sampled from nightlife scenes. Using logistic regression, we examine recent selling of and being approached to sell prescription drugs, predicted using demographics, misuse, prescription access, and nightlife scene involvement. Results Those from the wealthiest parental class and heterosexuals had higher odds (OR=6.8) of selling. Higher sedative and stimulant misuse (ORs=1.03), having a stimulant prescription (OR=4.14), and having sold other illegal drugs (OR=6.73) increased the odds of selling. College bar scene involvement increased the odds of selling (OR=2.73) and being approached to sell (OR=2.09). Males (OR=1.93), stimulant users (OR=1.03), and sedative prescription holders (OR=2.11) had higher odds of being approached. Discussion College bar scene involvement was the only site associated with selling and being approached; such participation may provide a network for prescription drug markets. There were also differences between actual selling and being approached. Males were more likely to be approached, but not more likely to sell than females, while the opposite held for those in the wealthiest parental class relative to lower socioeconomic statuses. Given that misuse and prescriptions of sedatives and stimulants were associated with prescription drug market involvement, painkiller misusers may be less likely to sell their drugs given the associated physiological dependence. PMID:25175544

  2. Chasing the Bean: Prescription Drug Smoking among Socially Active Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Vuolo, Mike; Pawson, Mark; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alternative consumption practices of prescription drug misuse have been less well monitored than general prevalence. We describe prescription drug smoking among socially active youth and highlight correlates of this practice. We also examine its association with drug problems, drug dependence, and mental health. Methods We surveyed 404 young adults recruited from nightlife venues in New York via time-space sampling. We use linear and logistic regression models to examine the probability of smoking prescription drugs and its association with drug problems, dependence, and mental health. Qualitative findings supplement the survey data. Results Males have higher odds than females (OR=3.4) and heterosexuals have higher odds than sexual minority youth (OR=2.3) of smoking prescription drugs. Those involved in Electronic Dance Music nightlife have higher odds (OR=2.1) compared to those who do not participate in that scene, while those in college bar scenes have lower odds (OR=0.4) of having smoked prescription drugs. Prescription drug smokers report more drug problems (β=0.322) and greater symptoms of dependence (β=0.298) net of the frequency of misuse and other characteristics. Prescription drug smokers do not report greater mental health problems. Qualitative interview data support these survey findings. Conclusions Prescription drug smoking is a significant drug trend among socially active youth. It is associated with drug problems and symptoms of dependence net of frequency of misuse. Prevention and intervention efforts for youth who misuse prescription drugs should address the issue of prescription drug smoking, and this may be an area for clinicians to address with their adolescent patients. PMID:26003578

  3. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  4. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain. PMID:26274819

  5. How Medicare Prescription Drug Plans & Medicare Advantage Plans with Prescription Drug Coverage (MA-PDs) Use Pharmacies,...

    MedlinePlus

    ... drug. Example of step therapy Step 1 —Dr. Smith wants to prescribe a new sleeping pill to ... sleeping pill available. Some of the drugs Dr. Smith considers prescribing are brand-name only prescription drugs. ...

  6. Benzodiazepines: a major component in unintentional prescription drug overdoses with opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Jann, Michael; Kennedy, William Klugh; Lopez, Gaylord

    2014-02-01

    The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in the United States continues to increase despite interventions by health care professionals, regulatory, and law enforcement agencies. Opioid analgesics are the leading class of prescription drugs that have caused unintentional overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines when taken alone are relatively safe agents in overdose. However, a 5-fold increase in deaths attributed to benzodiazepines occurred from 1999 to 2009. Emergency department visits related to opioid analgesics increased by 111% followed by benzodiazepines 89%. During 2003 to 2009, the 2 prescriptions drugs with the highest increase in death rates were oxycodone 264.6% and alprazolam 233.8%. Therefore, benzodiazepines have a significant impact on prescription drug unintentional overdoses second only to the opioid analgesics. The combination prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics commonly takes place. The pharmacokinetic drug interactions between benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics are complex. The pharmacodynamic actions of these agents differ as their combined effects produce significant respiratory depression. Physician and pharmacy shopping by patients occurs, and prescription drug-monitoring programs can provide important information on benzodiazepine and opioid analgesic prescribing patterns and patient usage. Health care professionals need to inform patients and work closely with regulatory agencies and legislatures to stem the increasing fatalities from prescription drug unintentional overdoses.

  7. The use and potential abuse of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs in Norway: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Gjerden, Pål; Bramness, Jørgen G; Slørdal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    AIMS The use of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs is assumed to have shifted from the therapy of Parkinson's disease to the amelioration of extrapyramidal adverse effects induced by antipsychotic drugs. There is a considerable body of data suggesting that anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs have a potential for abuse. The aim was to investigate the use and potential abuse of this class of drugs in Norway. METHODS Data were drawn from the Norwegian Prescription Database on sales to a total of 73 964 patients in 2004 of biperiden and orphenadrine, and use in patients with Parkinson's disease or in patients who were also prescribed antipsychotic agents. Possible abuse of these drugs was assessed by the level of use, skewedness of use, indications of drug-seeking behaviour and concomitant use of benzodiazepine tranquillizers, a group of prescription drugs with a recognized potential for abuse. RESULTS Anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs were prescribed to 4.5% of all outpatients who used antipsychotic drugs. This outnumbered sales to patients with Parkinson's disease by >20 to 1. We found indications of abuse of benzodiazepine tranquillizers among patients using antipsychotics, but there were no clear indications of abuse of anticholinergics, even among patients who were strongly suspected of abuse of benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS Anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs were used primarily by patients with psychotic illnesses. These patients have a very high prevalence of legal and illegal drug abuse, but the risk of abuse of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs seemed small. PMID:19094158

  8. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease.

  9. Drugs of abuse--opiates.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, W; Wesson, D R

    1990-01-01

    Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, for which there are specific diagnostic criteria, and an understanding of the pharmacology of opiates of abuse and the medications used in treating opiate dependence. The opiate agonist, methadone, is useful for both detoxification and maintenance. The opiate antagonist, naloxone, is the treatment of choice for opiate overdose, and naltrexone, also an opiate antagonist, is a useful adjunct in subgroups of opiate-dependent patients for preventing relapse. New medications for the treatment of opiate dependence are being developed. PMID:2161588

  10. Gender and Prescription Opioids: Findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health

    PubMed Central

    Back, Sudie E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Simpson, Annie N.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Significant gender differences in drug and alcohol use have been reported, however little is known about gender differences in prescription opioid misuse and dependence. This study compared correlates, sources and predictors of prescription opioid non-medical use, as well as abuse or dependence among men and women in a nationally-representative sample. Methods Participants were 55,279 (26,746 men, 28,533 women) non-institutionalized civilians aged 12 years and older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Results Rates of lifetime and past year non-medical use of prescription opiates were 13.6% and 5.1%, respectively. Significantly more men than women endorsed lifetime (15.9% vs. 11.2%) and past year use (5.9% vs. 4.2%; ps < .0001). Among past year users, 13.2% met criteria for current prescription opiate abuse or dependence, and this did not differ significantly by gender. Polysubstance use and treatment underutilization were common among both men and women, however significantly fewer women than men had received alcohol or drug abuse treatment (p = .001). Women were more likely to obtain prescription opioids for free from family or friends, while men were more likely to purchase them (ps < .01). Gender-specific predictors of use as compared to abuse/dependence were also observed. Conclusions The findings highlight important differences between men and women using prescription opiates. The observed differences may help enhance the design of gender-sensitive surveillance, identification, prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20598809

  11. Perspectives on Preventing Student Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Ronald, Ed.; Gwaltney, Margaret K., Ed.

    This set of papers is one part of the United States Department of Education's effort to establish a research agenda for drug use. It consists of a foreword and 10 papers that examine issues of drug abuse, students, and schools. It presents different views on the drug abuse problem in order to affect research on schools, drugs, and drug education.…

  12. Popping Pills: Prescription Drug Abuse in America

    MedlinePlus

    ... but few people are aware of just how big the problem really is. In its candy-coated ... Figure 7: Sources NSDUH: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11Results/NSDUHresults2011.htm NSDUH: http://www.samhsa. ...

  13. Combating Misuse and Abuse of Prescription Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Médicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud Infantil Salud de la Mujer Suplementos Dietéticos Vacunas, ...

  14. Motivations for prescription drug misuse among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Philadelphia

    PubMed Central

    Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Corliss, Heather L.; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse (i.e. opioids, tranquilizers and stimulants) has become the fastest growing area of substance abuse among young adults. Limited studies focus on prescription drug misuse among young men who have sex with men (YMSM, aged 18–29 years). Furthermore, little is known about YMSM’s motivations for misuse. The purpose of this study was to explore personal motivations for prescription drug misuse among YMSM, including the possible connection between misuse and sexual behaviors. Methods As part of a larger mixed methods study of 191 YMSM recruited in Philadelphia during 2012–2013, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 25 of these participants to gather additional contextual information about their prescription drug misuse. We conducted thematic analysis of qualitative data. Results While our results corroborated previous literature on motives for misuse of prescription drugs, our data yielded some distinct motivations specific among YMSM. These motives included social/recreational motives, facilitating sex with other men (including motives such as use of opioids for less painful anal receptive sex), and psychological motives such as depression, stress management, coping with everyday hardships (opioids and tranquilizers) or feeling more energized (stimulants). Prescription drugs were commonly misused within the broader contexts of participants' polysubstance use, adding to the significance of this problem. Conclusions Our findings offer insights into YMSM’s motivations for prescription drug misuse, and point to the importance of recognizing and addressing them. While substance use is likely related to various psychosocial issues impacting YMSM, it also may lead to significant health consequences. Results support the need to include prescription drugs and polysubstance use in harm reduction messages and treatment approaches aimed at substance using YMSM. PMID:25936445

  15. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  16. 77 FR 46653 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ..., August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51310). The rules of 26 CFR 601.601(a)(3) apply to the hearing. Persons who wish... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing AGENCY... proposed regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care...

  17. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug ... conducted over the telephone. The Family component collects information on ... Questions about strategies to reduce prescription drug cost are from the ...

  18. Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Knopf, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-medical prescription drug use is an increasing problem among university students. Purpose: The present study investigated university students' involvement in non-medical prescription drug (NMPD) use and associations between use and other risky behaviors. Methods: A sample of 363 university students completed a four page survey…

  19. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  20. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  1. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing means the transmission... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...

  2. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  3. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing means the transmission... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...

  4. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales.

  5. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales. PMID:27265843

  6. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  7. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics in the management of chronic noncancer pain.

    PubMed

    Hale, Martin E; Moe, Derek; Bond, Mary; Gasior, Maciej; Malamut, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Misuse, abuse and diversion of prescription opioid analgesics represent a global public health concern. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse and diversion of these medications, as well as potentially limiting medical consequences when misused or administered in error. ADFs aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or aversive. However, opioid ADFs may still be abused via the intended route of administration by increasing the dose and/or dosing frequency. The science of abuse deterrence and the regulatory landscape are still relatively new and evolving. This paper reviews the current status of opioid ADFs, with particular focus on different approaches that can be used to deter abuse, regulatory considerations and implications for clinical management.

  8. FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159779.html FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug Differin Gel 0.1% is first retinoid ... July 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Good news for acne sufferers: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has ...

  9. Development and Reliability of Items Measuring the Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs for the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Results Froman Initial Pilot Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa M.; Weiler, Robert M.; Haddox, J. David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability of self-report survey items designed to monitor the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among adolescents. Methods: Eighteen nonmedical prescription drug items designed to be congruent with the substance abuse items in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's…

  10. [Medical drug abuse and aging].

    PubMed

    Nubukpo, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Drug addiction is often underestimated among the aged. Opiate drugs (mostly pain killers) are the most frequently implicated in drug addiction after benzodiazepines (BZD) in the aged. The subjects aged of 65 years or more are the most represented among the BZD users in France. Frequency of BZD use varies according to various studies from 39 to 55% in this age group. Leading a lonely life is associated with the use of psychotropic drugs among retired people (OR=1.7). Vulnerability at this age must take into account not only polypathology, but also the faster aging of a minority of the population under opiate drugs substitution treatment (OST), more subjects to drugs interaction. Drug addiction among elderly often reflects the drift of "lawful" doctor's instructions that leads to an increase in drugs use. The difficulty has to do with a lack of specificity of diagnosis of addiction at this age, but perhaps also with physicans'instructions in the aged. Some authors suggest that continued and prolonged use should be considered the main criterion for BZD addiction at this age, with or without increase in doses and failed attempt at cessation. Besides, the prescription of BZD increases after retirement and loneliness.

  11. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality.

    PubMed

    Copeland, C

    1999-04-01

    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  12. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for human use. A drug subject to the requirements of section 503(b)(1) of the act shall be exempt...

  13. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experience adequately documented in medical literature or by other data (to be supplied to the Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  15. Inhalant and Prescription Medication Abuse among Adolescents: An Inexpensive, Accessible, and Misperceived Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April; Walley, Cynthia; McBride, Rebecca; Fusco, Angela; Cole, Rebekah F.; Lauka, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Inhalant and prescription medication abuse, particularly among adolescents, are serious problems in our society. Several risk factors associated with inhalant and medication abuse among adolescents have been identified. As a result, adolescents may suffer multiple consequences in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article is to…

  16. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  17. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  18. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  19. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  20. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  1. Common drugs of abuse--Part II.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Mary Linda Stotter

    2004-01-01

    Drug abuse affects a significant number of individuals of all ages. Health care practitioners must be knowledgeable about both the physiological effects of such drugs and the impact of drug-seeking behavior on their patients.

  2. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior.

  3. Purchasing Medicare prescription drug benefits: a new proposal.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L

    1999-01-01

    Medicare policymakers are considering using private-sector firms to offer and manage a prescription drug benefit. In such arrangements Medicare and its potential contractors will need to consider four major areas of risk: selection risk, cost management risk, risks of government as a business partner, and risks that new Medicare benefits will change competitive advantages. This paper considers these risk factors and suggests a model for Medicare prescription drug coverage. By adapting private-sector purchasing practices and using competitive markets, Medicare could offer prescription drug benefits--at affordable premiums for beneficiaries--without resorting to national price controls for pharmaceutical products.

  4. Patterns of Psychoactive Drug Prescriptions by House Officers for Nonpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Allan W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that a source of psychoactive drugs for physician trainees is prescription writing by house officers was tested. A survey determined that, of the number of prescriptions written for nonpatients, the largest number was written for family members and friends, and the second largest for fellow house officers. (Author/MLW)

  5. Drug Abuse Information, Teacher Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Haskell, Comp.

    This informational publication is to be used as an aid for teachers, bringing them basic facts regarding drugs and drug abuse. Its purpose is to (1) give additional teacher background information and (2) enrich any course of study that has been developed on drug abuse. To use the material most effectively, it is suggested the teacher have an…

  6. The relationship between temporal discounting and the prisoner's dilemma game in intranasal abusers of prescription opioids.

    PubMed

    Yi, Richard; Buchhalter, August R; Gatchalian, Kirstin M; Bickel, Warren K

    2007-02-23

    Previous research on college students has found that cooperation in iterated prisoner's dilemma game is correlated with preference for delayed rewards in studies of temporal discounting. The present study attempted to replicate this finding in a drug-dependent population. Thirty-one individuals who intranasally abuse prescription opioids participated in temporal discounting and iterated prisoner's dilemma game procedures during intake for a treatment study. Rate of temporal discounting was determined for each participant at two hypothetical reward magnitudes, as well as proportion of cooperation in a 60-trial iterated prisoner's dilemma game versus a tit-for-tat strategy. Cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game and temporal discounting rates were significantly correlated in the predicted direction: individuals who preferred delayed rewards in the temporal discounting task were more likely to cooperate in the prisoner's dilemma game.

  7. Medicare program; Medicare prescription drug benefit. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-01-28

    This final rule implements the provisions of the Social Security Act (the Act) establishing and regulating the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit. The new voluntary prescription drug benefit program was enacted into law on December 8, 2003 in section 101 of Title I of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) (Pub. L. 108-173). Although this final rule specifies most of the requirements for implementing the new prescription drug program, readers should note that we are also issuing a closely related rule that concerns Medicare Advantage organizations, which, if they offer coordinated care plans, must offer at least one plan that combines medical coverage under Parts A and B with prescription drug coverage. Readers should also note that separate CMS guidance on many operational details appears or will soon appear on the CMS website, such as materials on formulary review criteria, risk plan and fallback plan solicitations, bid instructions, solvency standards and pricing tools, plan benefit packages. The addition of a prescription drug benefit to Medicare represents a landmark change to the Medicare program that will significantly improve the health care coverage available to millions of Medicare beneficiaries. The MMA specifies that the prescription drug benefit program will become available to beneficiaries beginning on January 1, 2006. Generally, coverage for the prescription drug benefit will be provided under private prescription drug plans (PDPs), which will offer only prescription drug coverage, or through Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans (MA PDs), which will offer prescription drug coverage that is integrated with the health care coverage they provide to Medicare beneficiaries under Part C of Medicare. PDPs must offer a basic prescription drug benefit. MA-PDs must offer either a basic benefit or broader coverage for no additional cost. If this required level of coverage is offered, MA-PDs or PDPs, but not

  8. The attitudes of consumers toward direct advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, L A; Brinberg, D; Klimberg, R; Rivera, C; Millstein, L G

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes about prescription drug advertising directed to consumers were assessed in 1,509 persons who had viewed prototypical advertisements for fictitious prescription drug products. Although many subjects were generally favorable toward the concept of drug advertising directed to consumers, strong reservations were also expressed, especially about television advertising. Prescription drug advertising did not appear to undermine the physician's authority, since respondents viewed the physician as the primary drug decision-maker. However, the physician was not perceived as the sole source of prescription drug information. Television advertising appeared to promote greater information-seeking about particular drugs; however, magazine ads were more fully accepted by subjects. Furthermore, magazine ads led to enhanced views of the patient's authority in drug decision-making. The greater information conveyed in magazine ads may have given subjects more confidence in their own ability to evaluate the drug and the ad. Ads that integrated risk information into the body of the advertisement were more positively viewed than ads that gave special emphasis to the risk information. The results suggest that consumer attitudes about prescription drug advertising are not firmly held and are capable of being influenced by the types of ads people view. Regulation of such ads may need to be flexed to adapt to the way different media are used and processed by consumers. PMID:3080797

  9. Senior citizens and the burden of prescription drug outlays: what lessons for the Medicare prescription drug benefit?

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos; Gemmill, Marin

    2004-01-01

    This article uses data from a cohort of elderly and retired persons over the 1996-2001 period in the US to (i) determine the extent to which changes in socioeconomic or demographic characteristics, particularly age, income and education, impact the total amount that is spent on prescription drugs and (ii) to analyse the predictors of individual out-of-pocket (OOP) prescription drug outlays among the same cohort and determine whether age, race, sex, income, education, marital status and health status have an influence on these. The analysis considers the implications for elderly individuals who choose to participate in the new Medicare Part D drug benefit, labelled the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernisation Act of 2003. The results highlight the necessity for the Medicare prescription drug benefit to carefully target the eldest among the elderly, who are most in need and are in danger of becoming trapped in the so-called Medicare 'doughnut hole', i.e. incur high prescription drug outlays, without adequate coverage. The study also finds evidence that women, those who are not married, middle income elderly and those in poor health, who purchase drugs more intensively, are at risk of incurring significant prescription OOP drug outlays.

  10. Association Between Prescription Drug Benefit and Hospital Readmission Rates

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Christine; Gandhi, Bhumi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether primary care medicine clinic (PCMC) patients with a prescription drug benefit were associated with a lower rate of hospital readmissions. Methods: This study was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study of PCMC patients who had at least 1 hospital readmission in 2011. Eligible patients were divided into 2 groups: patients without prescription drug benefits and patients with prescription drug benefits. Results: Three hundred fifty-two patients met our inclusion criteria. The number of hospital readmissions for patients with a prescription drug benefit was higher than those with no prescription drug benefit (2.453 ± 2.49 vs 1.88 ± 1.91; P = .052). The length of index admission and the length of hospital readmission in days were higher in patients with no prescription drug benefits (index admission, 5.29 ± 6.38 vs 4.59 ± 4.50; P = .428) (readmission, 5.31 ± 5.90 vs 4.48 ± 4.33, P = .166). The number of days to readmission was higher in those with drug benefits (58.12 ± 63.54 vs 53.39 ± 53.47; P = .316). When patient data were separated by CCI scores, it was noted that patients with pharmacy benefits had significantly more hospital readmissions in each CCI score category except for patients with a CCI of 6. Conclusion: Although not statistically significant, patients with prescription drug benefits had more hospital readmissions but shorter hospital lengths of stay. Significant data linking hospital readmissions and prescription insurance benefits, if found in future studies, would provide helpful guidance to health care systems. PMID:24958957

  11. How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Medicare offers prescription drug coverage for everyone ... t offer Medicare prescription drug coverage. • A Medicare Cost Plan if it doesn’t offer Medicare prescription ...

  12. 77 FR 74827 - Working Group on Access to Information on Prescription Drug Container Labels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... a stakeholder working group to develop best practices for making information on prescription drug... working group to develop best practices for making information on prescription drug container labels... to develop best practices for pharmacies on providing independent access to prescription...

  13. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  14. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  15. The First Lady Talks about Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Mrs. Reagan discusses effects of drug use among teenagers and offers suggestions to teachers, parents, and students for combating drug abuse. She stresses parent involvement and the formation of parent peer groups, as well as teachers' responsibilities. (NJ)

  16. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  17. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  18. Behavioral Analysis and Modification of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, George E.

    Some of the unique characteristics of the drug abuse field which distinguish it from the other varieties of substance abuse and research methodologies for studying determinants of drug self-administration behavior which have been developed in response to these characteristics were investigated. Data suggest that residential drug…

  19. Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What to Ask

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask » Introduction Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask Email Facebook Twitter Introduction The goal of drug abuse treatment is to stop drug use and allow ...

  20. Emergency department utilization and subsequent prescription drug overdose death

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Doyle, John J.; Richardson, Lynne D.; Li, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prescription drug overdose (PDO) deaths are a critical public health problem in the United States. This study aims to assess the association between emergency department (ED) utilization patterns in a cohort of ED patients and the risk of subsequent unintentional PDO mortality. Methods Using data from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System for 2006–2010, a nested case-control design was used to examine the relationship between ED utilization patterns in New York State residents of age 18–64 years and subsequent PDO death. Results The study sample consisted of 2732 case patients who died of PDO and 2732 control ED patients who were selected through incidence density sampling. With adjustment for demographic characteristics, and diagnoses of pain, substance abuse, and psychiatric disorders, the estimated odds ratios of PDO death relative to one ED visit or less in the previous year were 4.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.50–5.34) for those with two ED visits, 16.61 (95% CI: 14.72–18.75) for those with three ED visits, and 48.24 (95% CI: 43.23–53.83) for those with four ED visits or more. Conclusions Frequency of ED visits is strongly associated with the risk of subsequent PDO death. Intervention programs targeting frequent ED users are warranted to reduce PDO mortality. PMID:25935710

  1. Prescription Opioid Abuse: A Literature Review of the Clinical and Economic Burden in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anisha M.; Rattana, Stacy K.; Quock, Tiffany P.; Mody, Samir H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Between 2002 and 2007, the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers grew from 11.0 million to 12.5 million people in the United States. Societal costs attributable to prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the recent clinical and economic evaluations of prescription opioid abuse. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for studies published from 2002 to 2012. Articles were included if they were original research studies in English that reported the clinical and economic burden associated with prescription opioid abuse. A total of 23 studies (183 unique citations identified, 54 articles subjected to full text review) were included in this review and analysis. Findings from the review demonstrated that rates of opioid overdose-related deaths ranged from 5528 deaths in 2002 to 14,800 in 2008. Furthermore, overdose reportedly results in 830,652 years of potential life lost before age 65. Opioid abusers were generally more likely to utilize medical services, such as emergency department, physician outpatient visits, and inpatient hospital stays, relative to non-abusers. When compared to a matched control group (non-abusers), mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with private insurance ranged from $14,054 to $20,546. Similarly, the mean annual excess health care costs for opioid abusers with Medicaid ranged from $5874 to $15,183. The issue of opioid abuse has significant clinical and economic consequences for patients, health care providers, commercial and government payers, and society as a whole. (Population Health Management 2014;17:372–387) PMID:25075734

  2. Diagnosis-Based Risk Adjustment for Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Payments

    PubMed Central

    Robst, John; Levy, Jesse M.; Ingber, Melvin J.

    2007-01-01

    The 2003 Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) created Medicare Part D, a voluntary prescription drug benefit program. The benefit is a government subsidized prescription drug benefit within Medicare. This article focuses on the development of the prescription drug risk-adjustment model used to adjust payments to reflect the health status of plan enrollees. PMID:17722748

  3. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  4. Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chikoto; Ishida, Takuya; Osawa, Takashi; Naito, Takafumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Recalls of non-prescription drugs can contribute to preventing harm to human health, however, they also interrupt the supply of medicines to the market. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in non-prescription drug recalls in Japan. Class I, II, and III recalls reported from April 2009 to March 2014 were obtained from the websites of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Each drug recall was classified according to year, dosage form, therapeutic category, and reasons for the recall. The trends over the 5 year period were assessed for each class. A total of 220 recalls were reported in the 5-year study period. The numbers of drug recalls were 21, 16, 80, 58, and 45 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The drugs recalled consisted of 177 internal medications, 35 topical agents, and 8 others. Drug recalls were observed in 12 therapeutic categories of drug effects. The largest number of recalls was for Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs. Of all the drug recalls in 2011, Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs produced by one manufacturer accounted for 84%. Slightly more than half (54%) of drug recalls were due to a violation of the regulations. One manufacturer recalled many drugs because of non-compliance with the standard regulations for manufacturing drugs after 2011. In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category. PMID:27592833

  5. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  6. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  7. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    The Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972 directed the development and promulgation of a comprehensive, coordinated long-term Federal strategy for all drug abuse prevention and drug traffic control functions conducted, sponsored, or supported by the Federal Government. This second annual report of the Strategy Council builds on the…

  8. Dynamic aspects of prescription drug use in an elderly population.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B; Coulson, N E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores longitudinal patterns in outpatient prescription drug use in an elderly population. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Enrollment records and prescription drug claims were obtained for a sample of elderly Pennsylvanians (N = 27,301) who had enrolled in the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (PACE) program at any time between July 1984 and June 1987. Study Design. The study tracks monthly prescription fill rates for sampled PACE beneficiaries from their initial enrollment month through disenrollment, death, or the end of the study (whichever occurred first). We specify two-part multivariate models to assess the effect of calendar time, length of time in the PACE program, and progression to disenrollment or death both on the probability of any prescription use and on the level of use among those who filled at least one prescription claim per month. Control variables include age, gender, race, income, residence, and marital status. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. Data were extracted from administrative files maintained by the PACE program, checked for errors, and then formatted as person-month records. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS. We find a strong positive relationship between drug use and the length of time persons are PACE-enrolled. Persons whose death occurs within a year have much higher prescription utilization rates than do persons whose death is at least a year away, and the differential increases as death nears. Persons who fail to renew PACE coverage use significantly fewer prescription drugs in the year prior to disenrollment. Holding age and other factors constant, we find that average levels of prescription use actually declined over the study period. PMID:8514502

  9. Prescription of fixed dose combination drugs for diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of an antiprotozoal and an antibacterial, for treatment of diarrhoea, have been available in the Indian pharmaceutical market for about a decade. There is little evidence to substantiate this combination therapy. We evaluated 2,163 physician prescriptions for diarrhoea and found that 59 per cent of prescriptions were for FDCs. This is unethical because prescribing such combinations exposes a patient to higher risks of adverse drug reactions and also increases the chances of drug resistance. Physicians' prescribing practices in India are influenced by socioeconomic factors and the pharmaceutical industry's marketing techniques that include giving incentives to physicians to prescribe certain drugs.

  10. Prescription of fixed dose combination drugs for diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of an antiprotozoal and an antibacterial, for treatment of diarrhoea, have been available in the Indian pharmaceutical market for about a decade. There is little evidence to substantiate this combination therapy. We evaluated 2,163 physician prescriptions for diarrhoea and found that 59 per cent of prescriptions were for FDCs. This is unethical because prescribing such combinations exposes a patient to higher risks of adverse drug reactions and also increases the chances of drug resistance. Physicians' prescribing practices in India are influenced by socioeconomic factors and the pharmaceutical industry's marketing techniques that include giving incentives to physicians to prescribe certain drugs. PMID:18630234

  11. Pulse Check: National Trends in Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dana

    This Pulse Check is a report of national trends in illicit drug abuse and drug markets in the United States. The report draws on conversations with ethnographers and epidemiologists working in the drug field, law enforcement agents, and drug treatment providers across the United States. Information from each of these sources is summarized in…

  12. Drug Traffic and Abuse in Schools: NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Drug abuse in schools, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and tobacco abuse, are the topics of this report. Discussions are provided in these areas: (1) prevalence of drug abuse; (2) student attitudes and beliefs; (3) drug laws and school rules; (4) student searches and drug testing; (5) drug epidemic reaching the very young; (6) tobacco abuse; (7)…

  13. Drug Traffic and Abuse in Schools: NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Drug abuse in schools, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and tobacco abuse are the topics of this paper. The paper is divided into the following sections: (1) prevalence of drug abuse; (2) student attitudes and beliefs; (3) drug laws and school rules; (4) student searches and drug testing; (5) drug epidemic reaches very young; (6) tobacco abuse; (7)…

  14. 76 FR 68295 - Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, October 31, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-28728 Filed 11-2-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... medicines include cancer treatments, anesthesia drugs, and other drugs that are critical to the...

  15. Are You Shopping Smart for Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the new Medicare Part D program pays a good portion of their drug bill, they still face around $260 a month in out-of-pocket expenses. Says Susannah, who is 68, "The Best Buy Drugs site was enormously helpful right away." Consumers Union, the magazine's publisher, translates the drug findings ...

  16. Female Athletes: Targets for Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Increased participation in sports and greater pressures to win have made female athletes very vulnerable to drug abuse. How the physiology and socialization of females contributes to this problem is discussed. (Author/MT)

  17. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... including screening and monitoring for substance abuse and mental health problems. Use prescription drug monitoring programs to identify ... effective pain treatment. Working to improve access to mental health and substance abuse treatment through implementation of the ...

  19. Stopping Drug Abuse. ERIC Digest Series Number EA32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of stopping drug abuse as a national priority. Several aspects of the drug abuse issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) Why should educators be concerned about drug abuse by students? (2) What are school districts doing to stop drug abuse? (3) What social issues are involved? (4) How can schools plan…

  20. Ocular manifestations of drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Recent findings Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called “designer,” drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. Summary In this review we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them. PMID:24100364

  1. A Political History of Medicare and Prescription Drug Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas R; Lee, Philip R; Lipton, Helene L

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of efforts to add prescription drug coverage to the Medicare program. It identifies several important patterns in policymaking over four decades. First, prescription drug coverage has usually been tied to the fate of broader proposals for Medicare reform. Second, action has been hampered by divided government, federal budget deficits, and ideological conflict between those seeking to expand the traditional Medicare program and those preferring a greater role for private health care companies. Third, the provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 reflect earlier missed opportunities. Policymakers concluded from past episodes that participation in the new program should be voluntary, with Medicare beneficiaries and taxpayers sharing the costs. They ignored lessons from past episodes, however, about the need to match expanded benefits with adequate mechanisms for cost containment. Based on several new circumstances in 2003, the article demonstrates why there was a historic opportunity to add a Medicare prescription drug benefit and identify challenges to implementing an effective policy. PMID:15225331

  2. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Need for Correction As published August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51245), the... of FR Doc. 2011-21011, are corrected as follows: 1. On page 51247, column 3, in the preamble, under... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction...

  3. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Need for Correction As published August 18, 2001 (76 FR 51245), the... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... 18, 2011. The temporary regulations provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered...

  4. 76 FR 59898 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... INFORMATION: Need for Correction As published August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51310), the notice of proposed rulemaking... subject of FR Doc. 2011-21012, is corrected as follows: 1. On Page 51311, column 2, under the part heading... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction...

  5. 77 FR 48111 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... was published in the Federal Register on Monday, August 6, 2012 (77 FR 46653) relating to the branded...-reference to temporary regulations (REG-112805-10) which was the subject of FR Doc. 2012- 19074, is... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction...

  6. An integrated drug prescription and distribution system: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lanssiers, R; Everaert, E; De Win, M; Van De Velde, R; De Clercq, H

    2002-01-01

    Using the hospital's drug prescription and distribution system as a guide, benefits and drawbacks of a medical activity management system that is tightly integrated with the supply chain management of a hospital will be discussed from the point of view of various participating healthcare actors. PMID:15058416

  7. [Adverse drug reactions reporting is helping "non substituable" prescription!].

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Julien; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In August 2012, general practitioners of Haute- Garonne received a letter from Health insurance system, informing that prescriptions could be endorsed by "not substituable" after reporting an adverse drug reactions (ADR). Compared to an equivalent period before this letter, we observed an increase of ADRs reports for generics, mainly concerning gastrointestinal ADR and lack of efficacy. PMID:24927508

  8. Justice Implications of a Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the…

  9. Health Outcomes in Patients Using No-Prescription Online Pharmacies to Purchase Prescription Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many prescription drugs are freely available for purchase on the Internet without a legitimate prescription from a physician. Objective This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacies (NPOPs) to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model. We also studied whether users of NPOP-purchased drugs had poorer health outcomes than those who obtain the same drug through legitimate health care channels. Methods We selected tramadol as a representative drug to address our objective because it is widely prescribed as an unscheduled opioid analgesic and can easily be purchased from NPOPs. Using search engine marketing (SEM), we placed advertisements on search result pages stemming from the keyword “tramadol” and related terms and phrases. Participants, who either used the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model to obtain tramadol (traditional users, n=349) or purchased it on the Web without a prescription from their local doctor (ie, nontraditional users, n=96), were then asked to complete an online survey. Results Respondents in both groups were primarily white, female, and in their mid-forties (nontraditional users) to upper forties (traditional users). Nearly all nontraditional users indicated that their tramadol use was motivated by a need to treat pain (95%, 91/96) that they perceived was not managed appropriately through legitimate health care channels. A majority of nontraditional users (55%, 41/75) indicated they used NPOPs because they did not have access to sufficient doses of tramadol to relieve pain. In addition, 29% (22/75) of nontraditional users indicated that the NPOPs were a far cheaper alternative than seeing a physician, paying for an office visit, and filling a prescription at a local pharmacy, which is often at noninsured rates for those who lack medical insurance (37%, 35/96, of NPOP users). The remainder of participants (16%, 12/96) cited other motivations

  10. Attitudes Among a Group of College Students toward Drug-Abuse and the Drug-Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    A study of student attitudes toward drug abuse and the drug abuser was conducted, using a modified version of Marcus's "Alcoholism Questionnaire." One hundred twenty-two college students participated. Mean factor scores (MFS) were developed for the nine factors tested. Marcus's "safe operating criterion" (ignore MFS differences that are less than…

  11. State prescription drug price Web sites: how useful to consumers?

    PubMed

    Tu, Ha T; Corey, Catherine G

    2008-02-01

    To aid consumers in comparing prescription drug costs, many states have launched Web sites to publish drug prices offered by local retail pharmacies. The current push to make retail pharmacy prices accessible to consumers is part of a much broader movement to increase price transparency throughout the health-care sector. Efforts to encourage price-based shopping for hospital and physician services have encountered widespread concerns, both on grounds that prices for complex services are difficult to measure and compare accurately and that quality varies substantially across providers. Experts agree, however, that prescription drugs are much easier to shop for than other, more complex health services. However, extensive gaps in available price information--the result of relying on Medicaid data--seriously hamper the effectiveness of state drug price-comparison Web sites, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). An alternative approach--requiring pharmacies to submit price lists to the states--would improve the usefulness of price information, but pharmacies typically oppose such a mandate. Another limitation of most state Web sites is that price information is restricted to local pharmacies, when online pharmacies, both U.S. and foreign, often sell prescription drugs at substantially lower prices. To further enhance consumer shopping tools, states might consider expanding the types of information provided, including online pharmacy comparison tools, lists of deeply discounted generic drugs offered by discount retailers, and lists of local pharmacies offering price matches. PMID:18494180

  12. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  13. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  14. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  15. Annual Report 2000: Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Justice Programs.

    This annual report reflects changes to the National Institute of Justice's Drug Use Forecasting program. After several years of development and testing, the restructured program was fully implemented in 2000 as Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM). Probability-based sampling was adopted, the interview instrument (questionnaire) was enhanced to…

  16. Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jadidi, Nadjme

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe), individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals' views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies. PMID:25247105

  17. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  18. Selected Materials on Drug Abuse and Misuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigo County Public Library, Terre Haute, IN.

    The Vigo County Public Library has a Center for Drug Information which contains pamphlets, leaflets, newsletters, realia kits, films, records, cassettes, slides, educational aids and other materials on drug use, abuse and education. The materials in this list were selected for their relevance to the needs of local groups and organizations in…

  19. Number Of Medicaid Prescriptions Grew, Drug Spending Was Steady In Medicaid Expansion States.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hefei; Borders, Tyrone F; Druss, Benjamin G

    2016-09-01

    Expansions of eligibility for Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act may have increased the number of Medicaid drug prescriptions. However, the expansions did not drive Medicaid spending on prescription drugs overall in 2014. PMID:27605639

  20. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423.464 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.464 Coordination...

  1. 42 CFR 410.30 - Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive... Other Health Services § 410.30 Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy. (a) Scope. Payment may be made for prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy that have been approved...

  2. On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Niels

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs. PMID:22899231

  3. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution §...

  4. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  5. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and Drug... appears to have an abuse potential....

  6. Links between nutrition, drug abuse, and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew; Ali, Syed; Gaetani, Franco

    2006-08-01

    Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse may increase risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by augmenting cell damage, excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. We have reviewed here the following points: effects of drugs of abuse on nutrition and brain metabolism; effects of nutrition on actions of the drugs of abuse; drug abuse and probability of developing metabolic syndrome; role of genetic vulnerability in nutrition/drug abuse and brain damage; and the role of neuroprotective supplements in drug abuse. Nutrition education is an essential component of substance abuse treatment programs and can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. The strategies available, in particular the nutritional approach to protect the drug abusers from the metabolic syndrome and other diseases are discussed.

  7. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Williams, J R; Hensel, P J

    1995-01-01

    Starting consumers off on the "path to purchase" by encouraging them to seek more information is a major goal of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for prescription medications. But the authors found that a consumer's attitude toward DTC advertising can determine which of several paths he or she is likely to take. The attitudes of older adults are especially significant for pharmaceutical marketers because these consumers are heavy users of the drugs being advertised.

  8. Medical cost offsets from prescription drug utilization among Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Roebuck, M Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This brief commentary extends earlier work on the value of adherence to derive medical cost offset estimates from prescription drug utilization. Among seniors with chronic vascular disease, 1% increases in condition-specific medication use were associated with significant (P  less than  0.001) reductions in gross nonpharmacy medical costs in the amounts of 0.63% for dyslipidemia, 0.77% for congestive heart failure, 0.83% for diabetes, and 1.17% for hypertension. PMID:25278321

  9. Drug abuse and the neurovascular unit.

    PubMed

    Egleton, Richard D; Abbruscato, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse continues to create a major international epidemic affecting society. A great majority of past drug abuse research has focused mostly on the mechanisms of addiction and the specific effects of substance use disorders on brain circuits and pathways that modulate reward, motivation, craving, and decision making. Few studies have focused on the neurobiology of acute and chronic substance abuse as it relates to the neurovascular unit (brain endothelial cell, neuron, astrocyte, microglia, and pericyte). Increasing research indicates that all cellular components of the neurovascular unit play a pivotal role in both the process of addiction and how drug abuse affects the brain response to diseases. This review will focus on the specific effects of opioids, amphetamines, alcohol, and nicotine on the neurovascular unit and its role in addiction and adaption to brain diseases. Elucidation of the role of the neurovascular unit on the neurobiology associated with drug addiction will help to facilitate the development of better therapeutic approaches for drug-dependent individuals.

  10. Our prescription drugs kill us in large numbers.

    PubMed

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Our prescription drugs are the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer in the United States and Europe. Around half of those who die have taken their drugs correctly; the other half die because of errors, such as too high a dose or use of a drug despite contraindications. Our drug agencies are not particularly helpful, as they rely on fake fixes, which are a long list of warnings, precautions, and contraindications for each drug, although they know that no doctor can possibly master all of these. Major reasons for the many drug deaths are impotent drug regulation, widespread crime that includes corruption of the scientific evidence about drugs and bribery of doctors, and lies in drug marketing, which is as harmful as tobacco marketing and, therefore, should be banned. We should take far fewer drugs, and patients should carefully study the package inserts of the drugs their doctors prescribe for them and independent information sources about drugs such as Cochrane reviews, which will make it easier for them to say "no thanks". PMID:25355584

  11. Our prescription drugs kill us in large numbers.

    PubMed

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Our prescription drugs are the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer in the United States and Europe. Around half of those who die have taken their drugs correctly; the other half die because of errors, such as too high a dose or use of a drug despite contraindications. Our drug agencies are not particularly helpful, as they rely on fake fixes, which are a long list of warnings, precautions, and contraindications for each drug, although they know that no doctor can possibly master all of these. Major reasons for the many drug deaths are impotent drug regulation, widespread crime that includes corruption of the scientific evidence about drugs and bribery of doctors, and lies in drug marketing, which is as harmful as tobacco marketing and, therefore, should be banned. We should take far fewer drugs, and patients should carefully study the package inserts of the drugs their doctors prescribe for them and independent information sources about drugs such as Cochrane reviews, which will make it easier for them to say "no thanks".

  12. 21 CFR 200.200 - Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and... Prescription Drug Consumer Price Listing § 200.200 Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to consumers. (a) Prescription drug reminder advertisements...

  13. Mixed News on Drug Abuse Among Lesbian, Gay Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... News on: Drug Abuse Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Mental Disorders Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Drug Abuse Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Mental Disorders About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  14. PREDOSE: A Semantic Web Platform for Drug Abuse Epidemiology using Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Delroy; Smith, Gary A.; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit P.; Dave, Drashti; Chen, Lu; Anand, Gaurish; Carlson, Robert; Watkins, Kera Z.; Falck, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The role of social media in biomedical knowledge mining, including clinical, medical and healthcare informatics, prescription drug abuse epidemiology and drug pharmacology, has become increasingly significant in recent years. Social media offers opportunities for people to share opinions and experiences freely in online communities, which may contribute information beyond the knowledge of domain professionals. This paper describes the development of a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE (PREscription Drug abuse Online Surveillance and Epidemiology), which is designed to facilitate the epidemiologic study of prescription (and related) drug abuse practices using social media. PREDOSE uses web forum posts and domain knowledge, modeled in a manually created Drug Abuse Ontology (DAO) (pronounced dow), to facilitate the extraction of semantic information from User Generated Content (UGC). A combination of lexical, pattern-based and semantics-based techniques is used together with the domain knowledge to extract fine-grained semantic information from UGC. In a previous study, PREDOSE was used to obtain the datasets from which new knowledge in drug abuse research was derived. Here, we report on various platform enhancements, including an updated DAO, new components for relationship and triple extraction, and tools for content analysis, trend detection and emerging patterns exploration, which enhance the capabilities of the PREDOSE platform. Given these enhancements, PREDOSE is now more equipped to impact drug abuse research by alleviating traditional labor-intensive content analysis tasks. Methods Using custom web crawlers that scrape UGC from publicly available web forums, PREDOSE first automates the collection of web-based social media content for subsequent semantic annotation. The annotation scheme is modeled in the DAO, and includes domain specific knowledge such as prescription (and related) drugs, methods of preparation, side effects, routes of

  15. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-01

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  16. Non-pharmacological factors in drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Hartnoll, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the relevance of laboratory models of drug abuse to drug taking in human societies, and discusses their significance relative to other explanatory frameworks. It argues that self-administration models are poor predictors of the prevalence of drug taking, and offer an inadequate basis for both explanation and intervention. Non-pharmacological factors that may be of greater importance derive from social perspectives (notably economic and market factors, socio-economic conditions, and cultural and subcultural processes) and psychological approaches (individual, social learning, cognitive and developmental). It is concluded that drug abuse should be understood within the same framework of explanation as other human behaviour and sentiment, having major cultural, social and cognitive dimensions as well as the strictly behavioural and pharmacological.

  17. Drug Dependence and Abuse: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This selected list of references is designed to provide an introduction to both scientific and popular drug abuse literature. Criteria for selection are presented and include: (1) 1969 or 1970 books by recognized and authoritative writers, (2) current and responsible research, (3) classic books, articles and studies, and (4) factual popular…

  18. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.; Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary S.; Huber, Diane L.; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I.; Reedy, Amanda R.; Jang, MiJin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. Method: 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual…

  19. Interpersonal style differences among drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Calsyn, D A; Roszell, D K; Anderson, L S

    1988-09-01

    Interpersonal style differences among drug abusers were explored using Ryan's (1977) typological system of FIRO-B interpretation. One hundred eleven male veteran drug abusers were administered the FIRO-B, along with a battery of psychological tests and a structured interview. The drug abusers were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. The categories within each FIRO-B dimension (inclusion, control, and affection) were collapsed into three larger subtypes based on general patterns of "expressed" and "wanted" scores within each dimension. The construct validity of the Ryan schema was tested by comparing the three larger groups for each dimension on a series of preselected variables for which differences would be hypothesized from FIRO theory. The results of these analyses were consistent with Ryan's (1977) and Schutz's (1978) theories about interpersonal orientation. The findings of the study provide information about the commonality and heterogeneity of interpersonal style among drug abusers. The findings also support the construct validity of Ryan's typological schema for the FIRO-B.

  20. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  1. Descriptive and Functional Classifications of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Albert S.; Stauss, Fred F.

    1977-01-01

    Polydrug (non-opiate-drug) abusers have previously been classified by a variety of typologies that can be characterized as either descriptive, functional, or a combination of both. This investigation proposes two objective scoring systems that classify polydrug users on a streetwise/straight dimension and on a self-medication/recreational-use…

  2. Facts About Drug Abuse: Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, William E.; And Others

    Following an introductory survey of the course, this modular drug abuse trainer's manual contains all course-specified materials. These materials are: the course goals and objectives; time/activity sheets; trainer guidelines, process notes, and exercise instructions; detailed lectures and supplementary information. The time/activity sheets contain…

  3. When 'drugs' become 'drugs': issues of pharmaceutical abuse in France from the 1960s to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, media frenzies about drug addiction have focused mainly on illicit drugs taken by rebellious or marginalised addicts, relegating iatrogenic drug abuse, and policies and problems linked to psychotropic pharmaceuticals available by prescription or over-the-counter to the shadows. In this article I go beyond the division between illicit drugs and medicines still configuring both public representations and historiography: using archival materials from the 1960s-1990s in France, I highlight some blind spots in drug history. Firstly I demonstrate the role of pharmaceutical abuse in the career of addicts, and then examine regulation policies, which are the dark side, however complementary, of drug policies and prohibition. Finally, I analyse the role of physicians and pharmacists in this control, and discuss the various professional debates relating to the legal supply of psychoactive drugs. In all these issues, the frame of the Cold War context will also be highlighted. PMID:26054215

  4. Medical Readings on Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    Summaries are presented of over 150 articles in the recent medical and psychiatric literature. Topics covered are: effects of drugs, tobacco, alcohol, drugs used in medicine, vapor sniffing, marijuana, barbiturates, tranquilizers, amphetamines, methamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, other hallucinogens, heroin and the opiates, psychiatric…

  5. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  6. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  7. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  8. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  9. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  10. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  11. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  12. Survey of City/County Drug Abuse Activities 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Abuse Council, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This monograph is the second of a two-part report delineating state and local government activities and programs in the area of drug abuse. Presented here are the efforts of cities and counties to control drug abuse, accompanied by comparisons with state actions where appropriate. A survey instrument was developed by the Drug Abuse Council, Inc.…

  13. Co-Prescription Trends in a Large Cohort of Subjects Predict Substantial Drug-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jeffrey J.; Daly, Thomas M.; Liu, Xiong; Goldstein, Keith; Johnston, Joseph A.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical prescribing and drug-drug interaction data underlie recommendations on drug combinations that should be avoided or closely monitored by prescribers. Because the number of patients taking multiple medications is increasing, a comprehensive view of prescribing patterns in patients is important to better assess real world pharmaceutical response and evaluate the potential for multi-drug interactions. We obtained self-reported prescription data from NHANES surveys between 1999 and 2010, and confirm the previously reported finding of increasing drug use in the elderly. We studied co-prescription drug trends by focusing on the 2009-2010 survey, which contains prescription data on 690 drugs used by 10,537 subjects. We found that medication profiles were unique for individuals aged 65 years or more, with ≥98 unique drug regimens encountered per 100 subjects taking 3 or more medications. When drugs were viewed by therapeutic class, it was found that the most commonly prescribed drugs were not the most commonly co-prescribed drugs for any of the 16 drug classes investigated. We cross-referenced these medication lists with drug interaction data from Drugs.com to evaluate the potential for drug interactions. The number of drug alerts rose proportionally with the number of co-prescribed medications, rising from 3.3 alerts for individuals prescribed 5 medications to 11.7 alerts for individuals prescribed 10 medications. We found 22% of elderly subjects taking both a substrate and inhibitor of a given cytochrome P450 enzyme, and 4% taking multiple inhibitors of the same enzyme simultaneously. By examining drug pairs prescribed in 0.1% of the population or more, we found low agreement between co-prescription rate and co-discussion in the literature. These data show that prescribing trends in treatment could drive a large extent of individual variability in drug response, and that current pairwise approaches to assessing drug-drug interactions may be inadequate for

  14. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  15. Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Haum, A; Perbix, W; Häck, H J; Stark, G B; Spilker, G; Doehn, M

    1995-05-01

    Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU stay, and suicide attempt. The 70 patients with positive blood alcohol levels on admission had a significantly higher fatality rate (31.5 per cent) in comparison with the 18.1 per cent fatality rate of patients with a negative blood alcohol level. Both groups had nearly identical mean TBSA and mean age. Chronic alcohol abuse was noted in 59 patients. These patients were found to have a higher fatality rate (31.4 per cent, 22/70) compared with that of patients without a history of chronic alcohol abuse who had an overall fatality rate of 18.1 per cent (28/155). No significant difference was found between non-intoxicated and acutely intoxicated alcoholics (31.4 vs 29.3 per cent). Our conclusion is that intake of alcohol before burn injury represents an independent risk factor. The second study was a prospective study of 16 consecutively admitted burn patients, who were evaluated for both drug and alcohol intake. Five patients had positive drug levels and five had positive alcohol levels. Five patients had a history of chronic drug and/or alcohol abuse. This incidence of alcohol and drug abuse supports the findings of our retrospective study.

  16. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  17. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  18. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  19. Pulse Check: Trends in Drug Abuse, Mid-Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meth, Marcia; Chalmers, Rebecca; Bassin, Gail

    This report serves as a source of information on drug abuse and drug markets. It aims to describe drug-abusing populations; emerging drugs; new routes of administration; varying use patterns; changing demand for treatment; drug-related criminal activity; and shifts in supply and distribution patterns. It is not designed to be used as a law…

  20. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  1. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  2. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  3. How Parents of Teens Store and Monitor Prescription Drugs in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S.; Grube, Joel W.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills…

  4. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription...

  5. The Role of Traumatic Event History in Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs among a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Building on previous research with adolescents that examined demographic variables and other forms of substance abuse in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), the current study examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as…

  6. Implementation Of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs Associated With Reductions In Opioid-Related Death Rates.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Stephen W; Fry, Carrie E; Jones, Timothy F; Buntin, Melinda B

    2016-07-01

    Over the past two decades the number of opioid pain relievers sold in the United States rose dramatically. This rise in sales was accompanied by an increase in opioid-related overdose deaths. In response, forty-nine states (all but Missouri) created prescription drug monitoring programs to detect high-risk prescribing and patient behaviors. Our objectives were to determine whether the implementation or particular characteristics of the programs were effective in reducing opioid-related overdose deaths. In adjusted analyses we found that a state's implementation of a program was associated with an average reduction of 1.12 opioid-related overdose deaths per 100,000 population in the year after implementation. Additionally, states whose programs had robust characteristics-including monitoring greater numbers of drugs with abuse potential and updating their data at least weekly-had greater reductions in deaths, compared to states whose programs did not have these characteristics. We estimate that if Missouri adopted a prescription drug monitoring program and other states enhanced their programs with robust features, there would be more than 600 fewer overdose deaths nationwide in 2016, preventing approximately two deaths each day. PMID:27335101

  7. The Literature on Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary D.; Brooks, Bonnie S.

    This is a bibliographical compilation of much of the literature pertinent to the current drug emphasis which has appeared since c. 1960. It is divided into two general sections: (1) books and pamphlets; and (2) articles. In all, there are 13 books and pamphlets on LSD, three on marihuana, and 52 of a more general nature. Articles are more…

  8. Oral Fluid Testing for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bosker, Wendy M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) is an exciting alternative matrix for monitoring drugs of abuse in workplace, clinical toxicology, criminal justice, and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) programs. During the last 5 years, scientific and technological advances in OF collection, point-of-collection testing devices, and screening and confirmation methods were achieved. Guidelines were proposed for workplace OF testing by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DUID testing by the European Union’s Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) program, and standardization of DUID research. Although OF testing is now commonplace in many monitoring programs, the greatest current limitation is the scarcity of controlled drug administration studies available to guide interpretation. CONTENT This review outlines OF testing advantages and limitations, and the progress in OF that has occurred during the last 5 years in collection, screening, confirmation, and interpretation of cannabinoids, opioids, amphetamines, cocaine, and benzodiazepines. We examine controlled drug administration studies, immunoassay and chromatographic methods, collection devices, point-of-collection testing device performance, and recent applications of OF testing. SUMMARY Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration approval of OF testing was delayed because questions about drug OF disposition were not yet resolved, and collection device performance and testing assays required improvement. Here, we document the many advances achieved in the use of OF. Additional research is needed to identify new bio-markers, determine drug detection windows, characterize OF adulteration techniques, and evaluate analyte stability. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that OF offers multiple advantages as an alternative matrix for drug monitoring and has an important role in DUID, treatment, workplace, and criminal justice programs. PMID:19745062

  9. Improving Patient Understanding of Prescription Drug Label Instructions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C.; Federman, Alex D.; Bass, Pat F.; Jackson, Robert H.; Middlebrooks, Mark; Parker, Ruth M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Patient misunderstanding of instructions on prescription drug labels is common and a likely cause of medication error and less effective treatment. Objective To test whether the use of more explicit language to describe dose and frequency of use for prescribed drugs could improve comprehension, especially among patients with limited literacy. Design Cross-sectional study using in-person, structured interviews. Patients Three hundred and fifty-nine adults waiting for an appointment in two hospital-based primary care clinics and one federally qualified health center in Shreveport, Louisiana; Chicago, Illinois; and New York, New York, respectively. Measurement Correct understanding of each of ten label instructions as determined by a blinded panel review of patients’ verbatim responses. Results Patient understanding of prescription label instructions ranged from 53% for the least understood to 89% for the most commonly understood label. Patients were significantly more likely to understand instructions with explicit times periods (i.e., morning) or precise times of day compared to instructions stating times per day (i.e., twice) or hourly intervals (89%, 77%, 61%, and 53%, respectively,  < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, dosage instructions with specific times or time periods were significantly more likely to be understood compared to instructions stating times per day (time periods — adjusted relative risk ratio (ARR) 0.42, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.34–0.52; specific times — ARR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49–0.74). Low and marginal literacy remained statistically significant independent predictors of misinterpreting instructions (low - ARR 2.70, 95% CI 1.81–4.03; marginal -ARR 1.66, 95% CI 1.18–2.32). Conclusions Use of precise wording on prescription drug label instructions can improve patient comprehension. However, patients with limited literacy were more likely to misinterpret instructions despite use of more explicit language. PMID

  10. Prevalence and Patterns of Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Ketamine Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Hathazi, Dodi S.; Alarcon, Erica; Tortu, Stephanie; Clatts, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological monitoring data has indicated sharp increases in prescription drug misuse. Despite these increases, little is known about the context or patterns associated with prescription drug misuse, particularly among youth or young injection drug users (IDUs). A three-city study of 213 young IDUs found prescription drug misuse to be pervasive, specifically the use of opioids and benzodiazepines. Particular practices not commonly associated with prescription drugs were reported, such as sniffing, smoking, and injection. Associated health risks included initiation into injection drug use, polydrug use, drug overdose, and drug dependency. A greater awareness of the potential health risks associated with prescription drug misuse should be incorporated into services that target IDUs, including street outreach, syringe exchanges, and drug treatment. PMID:18612374

  11. [Prescription of generic drugs to privately insured persons].

    PubMed

    Wild, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The system-related differences between private health insurance and statutory health insurance in Germany could lead to divergent prescriptions of medication. The study shows that doctors whose privately insured patients have been prescribed the same medication over a long period of time will frequently continue to prescribe the original medication even after its patent protection has expired. By contrast, patients in the statutory health insurance system will usually be switched to generic drugs. However, physicians prescribing medication to a privately insured person for the first time will frequently select generics in the first place. PMID:23236709

  12. Drugs and Drug Abuse: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook.

    For a relatively new field of research and interest, the bibliographic control of drug literature (indexing and recording for retrieval) is remarkable. Public and private agencies have taken the initiative in compiling catalogs, bibliographies and indexes which, although often duplicatory, nonetheless ensure access to the many aspects of the drug…

  13. Drug Abuse Education Program. Drug Abuse Education, Grades 5,7,9. Bibliography Included.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    A drug abuse education program was implemented in grades five, seven, and nine in the Baltimore City Public Schools. Unit plans outline the curriculum content and learning activities for each of the three grades. The major objective in grade five is to familiarize pupils with various medically used drugs and to develop an understanding that they…

  14. The histopathology of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Milroy, Christopher Mark; Parai, Jacqueline Louise

    2011-10-01

    The use of drugs for recreational purposes is widespread. The drugs used can be divided into groups including stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, etc.), opiates and opioids (heroin, oxycodone, methadone, fentanyl, etc.), sedatives (benzodiazepines and related substances) and miscellaneous drugs, including ketamine and cannabis (marijuana). These drugs can have profound effects on all organ systems in the body. The method of administration, whether by injection or inhalation, can cause localized and systemic effects, including the transmission of infection and granulomata at the site of injection and in the lungs. Suppurative abscesses from injection can result in systemic amyloidosis. Stimulants have profound effects on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, with enlarged hearts with fibrosis seen microscopically and cerebral infarction and haemorrhage. Crack cocaine use is also associated with changes in the pulmonary system, including carbon pigmented intra-alveolar macrophages, emphysema and pulmonary arterial changes. Cannabis use is associated with brown pigmented macrophages in the lung as well as changes in the respiratory tract epithelium. Opiates/opioids are associated with inhalational pneumonitis and hypoxic brain damage due to their respiratory depressant effects. Heroin use has been associated with focal segmental glomerulonephritis (heroin-associated nephropathy: HAN). 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) use is associated with changes in the cardiovascular system. Its use can lead to hyperpyrexia, which results in systemic changes. Ketamine abuse has been associated with cystitis. Drugs of abuse may affect testicular function. In analysing the effects of drugs at autopsy a systematic approach to sampling of histology is required.

  15. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  16. Relationships between prescription and non-prescription drug use in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Poole, C; Jones, D; Veitch, B

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores, at an epidemiological level, the relationship between categories of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescribed (Rx) drugs in a community-resident elderly population. A total of 2818, randomly selected, older adults were interviewed at home about their use of prescribed and non-prescribed medication and other health-related factors. For comparative purposes OTC drugs were classified into 16 therapeutic groups-identical to those used by other researchers; prescribed drugs were classified into 45 British National Formulary (BNF) therapeutic sub-categories. Analyses revealed significant association between certain BNF categories and OTC categories, which may have a clinical explanation. These include a 3-fold increase (P<0.01) of OTC laxative use by those prescribed an antidepressant, and a 4-fold increase (P<0.001) in OTC antacid use among those prescribed oral corticosteroids. Our findings may indicate an attempt by older people to control side effects of prescription medicines with OTC preparations. This study, in part, supports the call by the Royal College of Physicians for further research to determine the effect of interactions (be they pharmacological, behavioural or otherwise) between OTC and prescribed medicines.

  17. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukaddam, Nidal; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit.

  18. Drug Abuse. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Souver, F. Gerald; Plunkett, Thomas G.

    This booklet is concerned with providing information on drug abuse. A brief history of drug traffic and today's problem begin the pamphlet. The second part discusses the identification of drugs including opium, heroin, and marihuana. The next section is concerned with non-narcotic drug abuse, including Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) mascaline,…

  19. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161012.html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And ... 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For some teens with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and ...

  20. Clinical implications of drug abuse epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schulden, Jeffrey D; Lopez, Marsha F; Compton, Wilson M

    2012-06-01

    Research on the epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders provides continued critical insights into the distribution and determinants of drug use and drug use disorders in the United States. This research serves as a foundation for understanding the etiology of these disorders, helping to disentangle the complex interrelationship of developmental, genetic, and environmental risk and protective factors. Building on an understanding of this research in substance abuse epidemiology, it is important for clinicians to understand the unique trends in drug use in the overall communities that they serve and the unique risk factors for given individuals. The generally high prevalence of substance use disorders, along with their high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders and with the HIV epidemic, make prevention, evaluation, and referral for treatment for drug abuse an important part of routine clinical practice in a range of clinical settings, including primary care, psychiatric, and emergency department settings. Ongoing efforts to ensure insurance coverage parity for the treatment of mental health and substance use disorders offer the promise of continued improvements in the integration and availability of such services in the broader US health care system.

  1. 78 FR 53152 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...,000''. Dated: August 22, 2013. Leslie Kux, Assistant Commissioner for Policy. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014... Administration is correcting a notice entitled ``Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014''...

  2. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required... Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. (a) Sulfites are chemical substances that.... Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

  3. Synthetic cannabinoids as drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Ashton, John C

    2012-06-01

    In the last decade a number of products have appeared in various countries that contain synthetic cannabinoids. This article reviews the history of the sale of these drugs, and the evidence that they contain synthetic cannabinoids. The biochemistry of the synthetic cannabinoids identified thus far is discussed, including a discussion of chemical structures and biochemical targets. The cannabinoid receptor targets for these drugs are discussed, as well as other possible targets such as serotonin receptors. Evidence for the abuse potential of these drugs is reviewed. The toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids and cannabinoid products is reviewed and compared to that of the phytocannabinoid Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). As cannabinoids are a structurally diverse class of drugs, it is concluded that synthetic cannabinoids should be classified by biological activity rather than by structure, and that if this isn't done, novel synthetic cannabinoids will continue to emerge that fall outside of current regulatory classification models.

  4. A Review on Renal Toxicity Profile of Common Abusive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varun Parkash; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse has become a major social problem of the modern world and majority of these abusive drugs or their metabolites are excreted through the kidneys and, thus, the renal complications of these drugs are very common. Morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine and alcohol are the most commonly abused drugs, and their use is associated with various types of renal toxicity. The renal complications include a wide range of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases leading to acute or chronic renal failure. The present review discusses the renal toxicity profile and possible mechanisms of commonly abused drugs including morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine and alcohol. PMID:23946695

  5. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  6. Intracranial Self-Stimulation to Evaluate Abuse Potential of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. PMID:24973197

  7. Drug use and abuse: the ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Almond, B

    1992-01-01

    Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use. PMID:1638919

  8. Drug abuse treatment as AIDS prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, D S; Navaline, H; Woody, G E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic among drug users enters its third decade in the United States, it is important to consider the role playing by substance abuse treatment in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: The authors review the research literature, examining findings from studies with behavioral and serologic measures on the association among treatment participation, HIV risk reduction, and HIV infection. RESULTS: Numerous studies have now documented that significantly lower rates of drug use and related risk behaviors are practiced by injecting drug users (IDUs) who are in treatment. Importantly, these behavioral differences, based primarily on self-report, are consistent with studies that have examined HIV seroprevalence and seroincidence among drug users. CONCLUSION: The underlying mechanism of action suggested by the collective findings of the available literature is rather simple-- individuals who enter and remain in treatment reduce their drug use, when leads to fewer instances of drug-related risk behavior. This lower rate of exposure results in fewer infections with HIV. The protective effects of treatment, however, can only be achieved when programs are accessible and responsive to the changing needs of drug users. Future research needs to be directed at developing a better understanding of the factors that enhance treatment entry and retention. PMID:9722815

  9. Perceived Drug Use Functions and Risk Reduction Practices Among High-Risk Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Karol; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs has become the fastest growing drug problem in the United States, particularly among young adults. This study examines the reasons young polydrug users misuse prescription drugs, and explores how young users employ risk reduction strategies to minimize adverse consequences. The sample was recruited during 2008 and 2009 in Los Angeles and New York, and comprised 45 nonmedical users of prescription drugs, aged 16 to 25. Data from a semistructured interview were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Participants reported nonmedical use of prescription drugs to change mood, to facilitate activity, and to monitor the intake of other substances. Commonly employed risk reduction strategies included calculating pill timing, dosage, and access, and monitoring frequency of use, particularly when combining different substances. Most study participants often planned drug use to occur within socially acceptable parameters, such that prescription drug misuse was a normalized feature of their everyday lives. PMID:25477621

  10. New Medicare-approved prescription drug discount card.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2004-05-28

    Patients who are on Medicare and have income under 135% of Federal poverty level and are not on Medicaid probably should obtain one of the new Medicare discount cards that became available on June 1, 2004, because all these cards include $600 annual credit for prescription-drug purchases for persons within that income limit. Unfortunately this program is complex, no one yet knows how it will work in practice, and after choosing a card one is locked in and cannot change cards until November 15. The most difficult part of the choice of which card to get may involve how it interacts with other programs, including ADAP, and pharmaceutical company patient assistance programs. PMID:15241856

  11. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  12. The Role of Education in Drug Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sandra C.

    A 1984 survey of teachers and principals revealed that the respondents considered the use of drugs and alcohol to be the worst type of discipline problem they had experienced. While the significance of the drug and alcohol abuse problem in schools supports the existence of drug abuse prevention programs in the schools, several practical reasons…

  13. Drug Abuse Treatment in Prisons. Treatment Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Advanced Studies, Washington, DC.

    This report, based on a 1979 national survey of drug abuse treatment programs in the prisons of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, presents data on 160 operational programs. Descriptive information on the identification of drug-dependent inmates and the provision of drug abuse treatment by state adult correctional institutions is…

  14. 78 FR 8446 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research; Prescription Drug Labeling Improvement and Enhancement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... prescription drug labeling in 1979 (44 FR 37434, June 26, 1979). However, over the ensuing 25 years, labeling... content and format requirements for labeling to make it easier to access, read, and use (71 FR 3922.... \\2\\ See Sec. 201.56(c). The Agency adopted this approach because research conducted during the...

  15. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  16. The Controlled Study of the Ecology of Child Abuse and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, R. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The article reports on an ongoing, controlled study of factors related to the occurrence of child abuse, family factors related to heroin addiction, and the overall relationship between child abuse and drug abuse in 240 families. Journal availability: see EC 111 256. (DLS)

  17. Drug abuse in Nigeria: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Pela, O A; Ebie, J C

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the available literature on the epidemiology of drug abuse in Nigeria. Depending on the definition used, substances which are abused include antibiotics, antidiarrhoeals, laxatives, pain-relieving drugs, sedatives, amphetamines and cannabis. This review is, however, limited to studies on substances which alter behaviour or mood. These drugs include cannabis, sedative-hypnotics, amphetamines and alcohol. For some classes of drugs there has been a noticeable shift in patterns of drug abuse, for example, from abuse of methaqualone to barbiturates. The abuse of volatile solvents and other substances has also been noted. The review shows that there is no age limit among drug abusers. Studies on the influence of social class have been contradictory. Factors which indicate a predisposition to initial drug use have been similar to those reported in other cultures. Although the studies agreed on the classes of drugs abused and the changing patterns of drug abuse, there has been no uniform reporting system. This situation is attributed to financial constraints. Large-scale surveys which should incorporate most of the core items in any epidemiological study on substance abuse have been suggested. PMID:6985029

  18. 21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs § 300.50 Fixed-combination...

  19. 21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs § 300.50 Fixed-combination...

  20. 21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs § 300.50 Fixed-combination...

  1. 21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs § 300.50 Fixed-combination...

  2. 21 CFR 300.50 - Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fixed-combination prescription drugs for humans. 300.50 Section 300.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE GENERAL Combination Drugs § 300.50 Fixed-combination...

  3. Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12 months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors. PMID:25135798

  4. Attitudes Among a Group of College Students Toward Drug Abuse and The Drug Abuser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    1973-01-01

    College students tend to view alcoholism and drug abuse in an equally conflicting fashion. Other findings also seem to lead to the suggestion that education programs dealing with these pathologies would probably be more effective if combined rather than separate. (Author)

  5. An Experimental Analysis of Reaction to Filmed Drug Abuse Information. Drug Abuse Information Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.; McEwen, William J.

    Message strategies relating to information about social problems such as drug abuse have been based on the assumption that exposure to relevant information via mass media will result in behavior modification. There is need, however, for scientific inquiry into methods of information acquisition and perceptual response to information. A two-part…

  6. 42 CFR 423.56 - Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage. 423.56 Section 423.56 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT...

  7. An Exploration of the Relationship between the Use of Methamphetamine and Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamonica, Aukje K.; Boeri, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This study examines patterns of use of prescription drugs and methamphetamine. We drew our sample from a study about 130 active and inactive methamphetamine users and focused on 16 participants with a recent history of methamphetamine and prescription drug use. We collected in-depth interviews to explore relationships in use trajectory patterns.…

  8. Prescription Drug Misuse among University Staff and Students: A Survey of Motives, Nature and Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Katy; Bennett, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To determine the prevalence and nature of prescription drug misuse among university staff and students in the UK. Methods: In 2009, an online questionnaire regarding non-medical use of prescription drugs was completed by 1614 students and 489 staff registered at a large university in Wales. The sample data were weighted to match the…

  9. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  10. 42 CFR 423.56 - Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... status of prescription drug coverage. 423.56 Section 423.56 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Eligibility and Enrollment. § 423.56 Procedures to determine and document...

  11. 42 CFR 423.112 - Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... areas. 423.112 Section 423.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 423.112 Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas....

  12. 77 FR 19425 - Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... AFFAIRS Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar... purposes of calculating VA's charges for prescription drugs that were not administered during treatment but... administered during treatment for: (1) A nonservice-connected disability for which the veteran is entitled...

  13. Are Direct to Consumer Advertisements of Prescription Drugs Educational?: Comparing 1992 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Timothy Jon; Jarosch, Jeff; Pacholok, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the educational value of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements from 58 popular magazines published in 1992 and 2002. We find that the number of DTC prescription drug ads increased nine-fold from 1992 to 2002, while the advertisements for other health care products increased only slightly. We examine changes in…

  14. Total and Out-of-Pocket Expenditures for Prescription Drugs among Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambamoorthi, Usha; Shea, Dennis; Crystal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The burden of prescription drug costs on Medicare beneficiaries has become a critical policy issue in improving the Medicare program, yet few studies have provided detailed and current information on that burden. The present study estimates total and out-of-pocket expenditures for prescription drugs and the burden of these costs in…

  15. Medicare program: Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Benefit programs: final marketing provisions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-09-18

    This final rule revises the Medicare Advantage (MA) program (Part C) and Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Program (Part D). The regulation contains new regulatory provisions regarding marketing processes for both programs. The revisions to the Part C and Part D programs are based on lessons we have learned since 2006, the initial year of the prescription drug program and the revised MA program.

  16. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Hall, James A; Sarrazin, Mary S Vaughan; Huber, Diane L; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I; Reedy, Amanda R; Jang, Mijin

    2009-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. METHOD: 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual (TAU), or to a fourth condition of TAU only. All were assessed at intake and followed at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: Clients in all four conditions significantly decreased substance use by 3 months after intake and maintained most gains over time. However, the addition of ICM to TAU did not improve substance use outcomes. CONCLUSION: Overall, the addition of case management did not significantly improve drug treatment as hypothesized by both researchers and clinicians. Some results were mixed, possibly due to the heterogeneous sample, wide range of case management activities, or difficulty retaining participants over time.

  17. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hall, James A.; Sarrazin, Mary S. Vaughan; Huber, Diane L.; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I.; Reedy, Amanda R.; Jang, MiJin

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. Method 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual (TAU), or to a fourth condition of TAU only. All were assessed at intake and followed at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Clients in all four conditions significantly decreased substance use by 3 months after intake and maintained most gains over time. However, the addition of ICM to TAU did not improve substance use outcomes. Conclusion Overall, the addition of case management did not significantly improve drug treatment as hypothesized by both researchers and clinicians. Some results were mixed, possibly due to the heterogeneous sample, wide range of case management activities, or difficulty retaining participants over time. PMID:22065018

  18. Trends in drug abuse in the mid-1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Jekel, J. F.; Allen, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the causes of, and some of the health and social concerns from, the growing illicit drug problem in the 1980s. It suggests that two recent developments, the decentralization of much drug production and modification to chemical laboratories in homes, and the application of increasingly innovative marketing techniques, have brought us to a new and more hazardous era of drug abuse. The new designer drugs and the new developments in cocaine abuse reveal these to be of major concern to the medical and public health professions, as well as a major worry to the public. In the absence of effective elimination of illegal drugs from the environment, attention must focus on alternative ways to reduce drug abuse. Education regarding the nature of the hazards of these drugs must increase, but there are no simple methods for reducing drug use. We must be prepared to fight growing drug abuse for some time to come. PMID:3564548

  19. Characteristics of high-frequency consumers of prescription psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    Chambers, C D; White, O Z

    1980-01-01

    Two cohorts of white middle-class housewives who reported themselves as high-frequency consumers of prescription sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants have been studied and their characteristics have been reported. One group of these women are residents of a Midwestern state, and the other in a Southern state. These women can best be described as follows: Most reported their primary physician as being a general practitioner (60%), and most reported they had consulted two or more separate physicians during the last year (78%). More than a third (36%) had seen at least three different physicians. Interestingly, while most of these women were consulting general practitioners and/or internists, almost a third were presenting them with general psychological complaints. The self-reported high-frequency users most frequently used the relaxants/minor tranquilizers (64%), followed by sedatives (41%), stimulants (31%), and major tranquilizers (7%). Almost half of all these high-frequency medicine consumers were also regular drinkers (47%), and some 13 to 17% could be considered as heavy drinkers. The majority of the relaxant/minor tranquilizer users had been taking the medications daily or several times a week for at least six months. Less than half of these users, however, felt their "condition" had gotten "better." The majority of the sedative users had also been taking the medications daily or several times a week for at least six months. Less than a third of these users felt the condition that precipitated the prescription had improved during this period of use. Of major importance, only a minority of these long-term high-frequency users of sedatives and relaxants/minor tranquilizers believe these drugs to be habit-forming or to have any potential for physical or psychological harm. Although the stimulant-users were also found to be high-frequency consumers, stimulant-users were found to have been using these drugs for a shorter period of time. There also appears to

  20. Medical consequences of drug abuse and co-occurring infections: research at the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Jag H; Treisman, Glenn; McCance-Katz, Elinore; Tedaldi, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Substance abuse still remains one of the major problems in the world today, with millions of people abusing legal and illegal drugs. In addition, a billion people may also be infected with one or more infections. Both drugs of abuse and infections are associated with enormous burden of social, economic, and health consequences. This article briefly discusses a few medical consequences of drugs of abuse and infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, psychiatric complications in hepatitis C infection, pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions among medications used in the treatment of addiction and infections, and new drugs in development for the treatment of infections. Research is encouraged to study interactions between infections, drugs of abuse, and underlying pathophysiologic and molecular/genetic mechanisms of these interactions.

  1. Mental Health and Rape History in Relation to Non-medical Use of Prescription Drugs in a National Sample of Women

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and correlates of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), with particular emphasis on lifetime history of rape and PTSD as risk associates. Interviews conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology, resulting in a nationally representative sample of 3,001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18–86 years) residing in households with a telephone. Demographic characteristics, rape history, general health/mental health, and substance abuse variables were assessed. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, in the past year, participants had misused a prescription drug. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted for each theoretically derived predictor set. Significant predictors from each set then entered into final multivariable logistic regression to determine significant predictors of past-year NMUPD. NMUPD was endorsed by 5.5% of the sample (n=164). Final multivariable model showed that lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder, other forms of substance use/abuse, and a history of drug or alcohol facilitated rape were significantly associated with increased likelihood of NMUPD. Risk reduction efforts targeting non-medical prescription drug use among women who have experienced traumatic events and/or abuse substances are warranted. Trauma-focused interventions for drug or alcohol facilitated rape victims should include treatment or prevention modules that specifically address NMUPD. PMID:19375238

  2. Mental health and rape history in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs in a national sample of women.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2009-08-01

    The current study examined prevalence and correlates of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), with particular emphasis on lifetime history of rape and PTSD as risk associates. Interviews conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology, resulting in a nationally representative sample of 3001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18-86 years) residing in households with a telephone. Demographic characteristics, rape history, general health/mental health, and substance abuse variables were assessed. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, in the past year, participants had misused a prescription drug. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted for each theoretically derived predictor set. Significant predictors from each set then entered into final multivariable logistic regression to determine significant predictors of past-year NMUPD. NMUPD was endorsed by 5.5% of the sample (n=164). Final multivariable model showed that Lifetime Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, other forms of substance use/abuse, and a history of drug or alcohol facilitated rape were significantly associated with increased likelihood of NMUPD. Risk reduction efforts targeting non-medical prescription drug use among women who have experienced traumatic events and/or abuse substances are warranted. Trauma-focused interventions for drug or alcohol facilitated rape victims should include treatment or prevention modules that specifically address NMUPD.

  3. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  4. Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.

    PubMed

    Alperstein, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers.

  5. Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.

    PubMed

    Alperstein, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers. PMID:25120044

  6. Alcohol Abuse: Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Alcohol Abuse | Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery Why do I need to tell my doctor that I am in recovery? The decision to stop using alcohol or other drugs is very important to your ...

  7. Assessment of AIDS Risk among Treatment Seeking Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, John L.; And Others

    Intravenous (IV) drug abusers are at risk for contracting transmittable diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of risk behaviors for acquiring and transmitting AIDS and hepatitis B among treatment-seeking drug abusers (N=168). Subjects participated in a…

  8. Drug Abuse and School Children: A Survey and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to survey the nature of the drug abuse problem among younger students; and (2) to determine whether profiles from abuse research on older student groups apply to a younger student sample. Subjects were 676 fifth graders in a semi-urban area. Incidence data on drug use and availability were gathered through…

  9. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  10. Drug Abuse Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  11. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area. This includes scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports.…

  12. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area. This includes scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports.…

  13. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  14. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  15. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  16. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  17. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  18. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses intoxicants to excess is subject to removal (5 U.S.C. 7352). The Relocation Commission recognizes...

  19. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  20. A Practical Approach to Rural Drug Abuse Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozelle, George R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews characteristics of rural drug abuse and general considerations for rural service delivery. Describes the Prevention Project, a rural drug abuse program in Florida, and explains its development, philosophy, and teaching techniques, including a basic educational module for use with rural youth. Includes recommendations for similar programs.…

  1. Drug Abuse Training as Part of a Family Medicine Clerkship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confusione, Michael; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A program incorporating experiential and didactic experience in identification and treatment of drug abuse into third-year clerkship curriculum is described. Experiential training is in a methadone maintenance clinic. Students are evaluated on their knowledge, attitudes, and level of participation in the drug abuse treatment. (MSE)

  2. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  3. A bill to reduce prescription drug misuse and abuse.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Tom [D-NM

    2013-11-06

    05/14/2014 Committee on United States Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Rahall, Nick J., II [D-WV-3

    2013-02-13

    04/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Prescription Drug Insurance Coverage and Patient Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kesselheim, Aaron S.; Huybrechts, Krista F.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Fulchino, Lisa A.; Isaman, Danielle L.; Kowal, Mary K.; Brennan, Troyen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous reviews have shown that changes in prescription drug insurance benefits can impact medication use and adherence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies addressing the association between prescription drug coverage and health outcomes. Studies were included if: (1) they involved collecting empirical data surrounding an expansion or restriction of prescription drug coverage and (2) reported on clinical outcomes. Twenty-three studies demonstrated that broader prescription drug insurance reduces use of other health care services, and positively affects outcomes. Coverage gaps or caps on drug insurance generally led to worse outcomes. States should consider implementing the expansions in drug coverage offered by the Affordable Care Act to improve the health of low-income patients receiving state-based health insurance. PMID:25521879

  6. [Drugs of abuse acute intoxication in paediatric emergencies].

    PubMed

    García-Algar, O; Papaseit, E; Velasco, M; López, N; Martínez, L; Luaces, C; Vall, O

    2011-06-01

    Documented cases show that acute drugs of abuse intoxication in children usually is the Fritz clinical evidence of a chronic exposure. Published clinical reports of drugs of abuse acute poisonings in children are reviewed, above all those with an underlying chronic exposure to the same or another substance. Biological matrices and exposure biomarkers useful in toxicology analysis in Paediatrics are reviewed. In toxicology, biomarkers refer to original parental substances and its metabolites and matrices refer to body substances where biomarkers are detected. In these matrices acute and chronic (previous days, weeks or months) exposures can be detected. Hair analysis has become the gold standard of drugs of abuse chronic exposure. Recommendation includes to confirm previous chronic exposure to drugs of abuse by hair analysis of children and their parents. This protocol must be applied in all cases with suspicion of acute drugs of abuse intoxication, parental consumption and/or children living in a risk environment.

  7. 78 FR 15019 - Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice, request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing...

  8. 21 CFR 201.57 - Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). 201.57 Section... requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). The requirements in this section apply only to prescription drug products described...

  9. 21 CFR 201.57 - Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). 201.57 Section... requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). The requirements in this section apply only to prescription drug products described...

  10. 21 CFR 201.57 - Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). 201.57 Section... requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). The requirements in this section apply only to prescription drug products described...

  11. Soft tissue infections in parenteral drug abusers.

    PubMed Central

    Orangio, G R; Pitlick, S D; Della Latta, P; Mandel, L J; Marino, C; Guarneri, J J; Giron, J A; Margolis, I B

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-four parenteral drug abusers admitted with soft tissue infections underwent bacteriologic and immunologic evaluation. Staphylococcus aureus and beta hemolytic streptococci were the most common organisms recovered. Enteric gram negative aerobes and oral flora were common and enteric anaerobes rare. Absolute lymphopenia and elevations in the IgA, IgG and IgM fractions of the immunoglobulins were common as were false positive VDRL examinations. Cutaneous anergy was found in 83% of the group and 70% of a simultaneously noninfected addict group. Staphylococcal carriage was frequent. Because of variation in the flora between this and other reported groups, ongoing bacteriologic surveillance could be a useful guide to initial antibiotic therapy. Differences in the pattern of immune reaction in this group when compared to different addict groups suggest a difference in antigenic stimulation, possibly as a result of differences in bacteriologic exposure. PMID:6691735

  12. A Computational Drug-Target Network for Yuanhu Zhitong Prescription

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peng; Zhang, Fangbo; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Songsong

    2013-01-01

    Yuanhu Zhitong prescription (YZP) is a typical and relatively simple traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), widely used in the clinical treatment of headache, gastralgia, and dysmenorrhea. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of action of YZP is not clear. In this study, based on the previous chemical and metabolite analysis, a complex approach including the prediction of the structure of metabolite, high-throughput in silico screening, and network reconstruction and analysis was developed to obtain a computational drug-target network for YZP. This was followed by a functional and pathway analysis by ClueGO to determine some of the pharmacologic activities. Further, two new pharmacologic actions, antidepressant and antianxiety, of YZP were validated by animal experiments using zebrafish and mice models. The forced swimming test and the tail suspension test demonstrated that YZP at the doses of 4 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg had better antidepressive activity when compared with the control group. The anxiolytic activity experiment showed that YZP at the doses of 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, and 200 mg/L had significant decrease in diving compared to controls. These results not only shed light on the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of YZP for curing diseases, but also provide some evidence for exploring the classic TCM formulas for new clinical application. PMID:23762151

  13. Symbolic boundaries, subcultural capital and prescription drug misuse across youth cultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C; Trimarco, James; LeClair, Amy; Pawson, Mark; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2015-03-01

    Prescription drug misuse among young adults has surged over the past decade. Yet the contexts surrounding this misuse remain unclear, particularly the subcultural contexts. Many young urban adults participate in youth cultures. This article describes the subcultural contexts of prescription drug misuse in youth subcultures. Drawing on ethnographic data collected over 12 months from different youth cultural scenes, the authors describe the subcultural bases of prescription drug misuse. The symbolic boundaries and subcultural capital inherent in these scenes shape the ways youth think about drugs and behave accordingly. While young adults are often lumped together by theorists, ethnographic data show considerable variation across these subcultures with regard to what may enable or inhibit prescription drug misuse. The broader subcultural ethos in each scene, as well as attitudes towards other types of drugs, frame the ways that prescription drugs are perceived and used in each of these settings. The findings highlight the role of symbolic boundaries and subcultural capital in shaping routine practices of drug use among young adults. These data show that education campaigns about prescription drug misuse should take into account the variability in youth cultural scenes to maximise the efficacy of these messages aimed at young adults.

  14. Symbolic Boundaries, Subcultural Capital, and Prescription Drug Misuse across Youth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Trimarco, James; LeClair, Amy; Pawson, Mark; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse among young adults has surged over the past decade. Yet, the contexts surrounding this misuse remain unclear, particularly subcultural contexts. Many urban young adults participate in youth cultures. This paper describes the subcultural contexts of prescription drug misuse within youth subcultures. Drawing on ethnographic data collected over 12 months from different youth cultural scenes, the authors describe the subcultural bases of prescription drug misuse. The symbolic boundaries and subcultural capital inherent in these scenes shape the ways youth think about drugs and behave accordingly. While young adults are often lumped together, ethnographic data show considerable variation across these subcultures with regard to what may enable or inhibit prescription drug misuse. The broader subcultural ethos in each scene, as well as attitudes towards other types of drugs, frame the ways that prescription drugs are perceived and used within each of these scenes. In this regard, the findings highlight the role of symbolic boundaries and subcultural capital in drug use among young adults by shaping their routine practices. These data highlight that education campaigns about prescription drug misuse should account for the variability in youth cultural scenes to maximize the efficacy of these messages aimed at young adults. PMID:25529457

  15. Understanding Nonprescription and Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Fleary, Sasha A.; Heffer, Robert W.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (N = 465; Mage = 18.57, SD = 0.86) completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults. PMID:24826368

  16. A behavioral economic analysis of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pickover, Alison M; Messina, Bryan G; Correia, Christopher J; Garza, Kimberly B; Murphy, James G

    2016-02-01

    The nonmedical use of prescription drugs is a widely recognized public health issue, and young adults are particularly vulnerable to their use. Behavioral economic drug purchase tasks capture an individual's strength of desire and motivation for a particular drug. We examined young adult prescription drug purchase and consumption patterns using hypothetical behavioral economic purchase tasks for prescription sedatives/tranquilizers, stimulants, and opiate pain relievers. We also examined relations between demand, use frequency, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms, and sex differences in these relations. Undergraduate students who endorsed past-year prescription drug use (N = 393) completed an online questionnaire for course credit. Measures assessed substance use frequency and DSM-5 SUD symptoms. Hypothetical purchase tasks for sedatives, stimulants, and pain relievers assessed participants' consumption and expenditure patterns for these substances across 25 prices. Past-year prescription sedative, stimulant, and pain reliever use was endorsed by 138, 258, and 189 participants, respectively. Among these users, consumption for their respective substance decreased as a function of ascending price, as expected. Demand indices for a prescription drug were associated with each other and with use frequency and SUD symptoms, with variability across substances but largely not by sex. In addition, demand for prescription pain relievers differentially predicted symptoms independent of use, with differences for females and males. In conclusion, hypothetical consumption and expenditure patterns for prescription drugs were generally well described by behavioral economic demand curves, and the observed associations with use and SUD symptoms provide support for the utility of prescription drug purchase tasks. PMID:26502300

  17. A behavioral economic analysis of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pickover, Alison M; Messina, Bryan G; Correia, Christopher J; Garza, Kimberly B; Murphy, James G

    2016-02-01

    The nonmedical use of prescription drugs is a widely recognized public health issue, and young adults are particularly vulnerable to their use. Behavioral economic drug purchase tasks capture an individual's strength of desire and motivation for a particular drug. We examined young adult prescription drug purchase and consumption patterns using hypothetical behavioral economic purchase tasks for prescription sedatives/tranquilizers, stimulants, and opiate pain relievers. We also examined relations between demand, use frequency, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms, and sex differences in these relations. Undergraduate students who endorsed past-year prescription drug use (N = 393) completed an online questionnaire for course credit. Measures assessed substance use frequency and DSM-5 SUD symptoms. Hypothetical purchase tasks for sedatives, stimulants, and pain relievers assessed participants' consumption and expenditure patterns for these substances across 25 prices. Past-year prescription sedative, stimulant, and pain reliever use was endorsed by 138, 258, and 189 participants, respectively. Among these users, consumption for their respective substance decreased as a function of ascending price, as expected. Demand indices for a prescription drug were associated with each other and with use frequency and SUD symptoms, with variability across substances but largely not by sex. In addition, demand for prescription pain relievers differentially predicted symptoms independent of use, with differences for females and males. In conclusion, hypothetical consumption and expenditure patterns for prescription drugs were generally well described by behavioral economic demand curves, and the observed associations with use and SUD symptoms provide support for the utility of prescription drug purchase tasks.

  18. 76 FR 2691 - Prescription Drug Products Containing Acetaminophen; Actions To Reduce Liver Injury From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... acetaminophen drugs (final rule, 74 FR 19385, April 29, 2009; and technical amendment, 74 FR 61512, November 25, 2009). \\5\\ Meeting of the Non-Prescription Drug Advisory Committee with members from the Anesthetic and... Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee, and the Anesthetic and Life Support Drugs Advisory Committee...

  19. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. 250.101 Section 250.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-enforcement officials, health officials, individual physicians, parents, and others as well as from Food...

  20. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. 250.101 Section 250.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-enforcement officials, health officials, individual physicians, parents, and others as well as from Food...

  1. 76 FR 29765 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening of the comment period. ] SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  2. 76 FR 1182 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... supply chain. On September 27, 2007, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) (Pub... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  3. Rural drug users: factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.

  4. Benefits and Limits of Abuse-Deterrent Painkillers.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Hollie; Hanson, Karmen

    2016-02-01

    Abuse of opioid prescription products, meant to reduce pain, has been making headlines in recent years as a growing problem not only in rural and urban areas, but also across population groups. Policymakers looking for effective ways to reduce such abuse are employing various strategies, including setting up prescription drug monitoring programs. Another approach gaining attention involves encouraging or requiring the use of prescription drug formulas that can help deter abuse of opioid painkiller products.

  5. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  6. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  7. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  8. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  9. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  10. Dermatologists and anabolic-androgenic drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Scott, M J; Scott, M J

    1989-07-01

    The use of huge self-administered dosages of anabolic-androgenic steroids by athletes and body builders is widespread in the United States, increasing at a rapid rate among athletes of both sexes and involving an ever-expanding age group. Athletes are very wary of revealing steroid use to their physicians, so a high index of suspicion is a prerequisite in diagnosing the use of these agents. Since many of the side effects of steroids are manifested in the skin, dermatologists are in a unique and favorable position to detect their use, if they are aware of such clinical signs. Once alerted to this possibility during a dermatologic examination, the dermatologist has an excellent opportunity to make users aware of the potential hazards and dangers of taking such drugs. Counselling these athletes can do much to stem the tide against the rising problem of drug abuse. It is a worthwhile service to sports in general as well as to the patient's personal health. Many of our conclusions are based on our personal experience with elite and Olympic athletes in almost every sport, body builders, and junior high school, high school, and college students and athletes.

  11. Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, 1982. Prepared for the President Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…

  12. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  13. 42 CFR 423.104 - Requirements related to qualified prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT... the annual out-of-pocket threshold, and after the annual out-of-pocket threshold. (2) Interaction...

  14. What kind of patients and physicians value direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Gönül, F F; Carter, F; Wind, J

    2000-06-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs can enhance the physician-patient relationship, as well as benefiting its sponsor. However, overall benefits can only occur if the patients value the information enough to discuss it with their physicians and the physicians are not predisposed against the DTC information. We investigate the impact of demographics and exposure to marketing on consumers' and physicians' receptiveness to DTC advertising of prescription drugs, using data from two nationwide surveys. We find that consumers who have an ongoing need for health care, that is, those with children or with a chronic condition requiring medication, value prescription drug advertising more highly, while older consumers, consumers who have been sick recently, or more educated consumers are more likely to trust their physicians instead. We find that more experienced physicians, physicians who see more patients, or those who have more exposure to pharmaceutical advertisements are more accepting of DTC advertising of prescription drugs.

  15. Recent trends of drug abuse and drug-associated deaths in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heesun; Park, Meejung; Hahn, Eunyoung; Choi, Haeyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lim, Miae

    2004-10-01

    Methamphetamine is the most abused drug in Korea followed by cannabis and opiates. Recent characteristics of the drug problem in Korea include increased drug smuggling from abroad, drug trafficking by organized gangs, varieties of drug smuggling, foreigners engaged in drug smuggling, and spread among drug abusers and areas. New drugs such as MDMA, Yaba, and LSD are found in greater proportion in the seizure records, indicating diversification of smuggled drugs in Korea. In addition, there is a growing tendency for the abuse of common medicines among young people in Korea because they are easily available. Methamphetamine is so seriously abused that fatalities from its overdose have occurred; since 1985, 20 such fatalities have been reported. Many deaths from the abuse of noncontrolled substances, especially dextromethorphan, zipeprol, and carisoprodol, which are taken for their hallucinogenic effects, were also reported. Recently, there was even a fatality related to smuggling of cocaine by body-packing.

  16. Drug Abuse in the Military: An Adolescent Misbehavior Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beary, John F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes drug abuse in the military. Survey data of military personnel (N=15,268) revealed that single, enlisted males under age 25 were the population most at risk. Alcohol and cannabis were the most common substances of abuse. Some work impairment and dependence were reported but were not typical. (Author/JAC)

  17. Student Assistance Programs: An Important Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.; DuPont, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a new approach to school-based drug abuse prevention called Student Assistance Programs (SAP). SAP offers various approaches tailored to particular settings and includes students, teachers, parents, and community representatives who define and resolve student problems including substance abuse. SAP facilitates the use of 12-step…

  18. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Main Findings 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This survey, monitoring levels of substance abuse in the United States, serves as a tool for researchers and policymakers to better understand and control substance abuse problems. It provides information on 25,500 participants' use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the civilian, noninstutionalized population. Trends for the years,…

  19. Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Patrick C.; And Others

    This participant manual is designed to provide an overview of federal laws and regulations pertaining to the confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records. The relationship of federal laws to state laws and regulations is also discussed. The materials, useful for persons involved in the fields of substance abuse treatment or…

  20. 75 FR 69093 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Reopening of the Comment... for the notice of public meeting that published in the Federal Register of March 16, 2010 (75 FR 12555...) requires public review of the recommendations for the human drug review program after negotiations with...

  1. Watching the monitors: "PAID" prescriptions, fiscal intermediaries and drug-utilization review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J P

    1977-02-01

    Prescription monitoring evolved from the need of drug firms to obtain marketing information. Today, extensive monitoring is also done by fiscal intermediaries who administer prepaid drug benefit plans, both private and governmental, particularly Medicaid. The most important such agent is PAID Prescriptions. Under various contracts, PAID monitors physician, pharmacy, and patient behavior related to prescriptions and uses review processes that evaluate certain kinds of behavior for appropriateness. The criteria of appropriateness are essentially those that save money. PAID negotiates a program fee with the insurer (public or private) and applies constraints so that prescription and administrative costs do not overrun that fee. PAID and other monitors have contemplated expansion into the realm of defining and encouraging appropriate prescribing under the concept of "drugutilization review." The actual practices of PAID, particularly the background of fiscal enforcement, may impede the development of an actual drug-utilization review process.

  2. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  3. Drug Scene Syllabus, A Manual on Drugs and Volatile Chemical of Potential Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert B.; And Others

    A brief historical review of attempts to control the abuse of drugs introduces a series of tables listing pertinent information about drugs of potential abuse. Each table provides the common commercial and slang names for the drugs, their medical and legal classification, their potential for emotional and physical dependence, whether the user…

  4. Adolescent Drug Abuse and Alcoholism: Directions for the School and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie J.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extent of adolescent drug abuse and alcoholism, psychological factors that lead to drug abuse and drinking, and treatment approaches that have been used with young people. Focuses on drug-abusing family systems and the roles of the school and the community in combatting drug abuse. (Author/GC)

  5. 75 FR 3239 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Rapid Assessment for Drug Abuse and... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive...

  6. 75 FR 16815 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Mechanism for Time-Sensitive Drug Abuse... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, 6101 Executive...

  7. Treatment of Drug Abuse: An Overview. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series 34, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This report presents a brief review of the development of methods and programs for treatment of drug abusers in the United States. In order to limit the scope of the report, discussion of the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is excluded. The report focuses primarily on the treatment of opiate dependence, since most of the experience on…

  8. Drug Abuse Education and Prevention Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    In a national poll conducted in 1988, 83 percent of the American people felt that the nation's drug problem was "out of control." In 1988, Congress, responding to the public mandate, passed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. Title III of the Act specifically addressed these issues by authorizing two anti-drug programs for youth. These two programs…

  9. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  10. Off-Label Prescription of Psychopharmacological Drugs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients. The main findings were that 32.3% of all prescriptions were off-label, and 41.6% of subjects received at least 1 off-label prescription. The most frequent off-label category was low age, 72.2%, meaning that the drug was not approved for the age group of the patient. The off-label rates for each drug class were as follows: melatonin, 100%; antipsychotic agents, 95.6%; benzodiazepines, 72.5%; antidepressants, 51.1%; and ADHD medication, 2.7%. Prescription of 2 or more psychopharmacological drugs per patient was common (31.5%). The group of subjects with 4 or more prescriptions (n = 36) was characterized by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug is common. These findings support the need for extending the evidence base for psychopharmacologic treatment in children and adolescents.

  11. Off-Label Prescription of Psychopharmacological Drugs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients. The main findings were that 32.3% of all prescriptions were off-label, and 41.6% of subjects received at least 1 off-label prescription. The most frequent off-label category was low age, 72.2%, meaning that the drug was not approved for the age group of the patient. The off-label rates for each drug class were as follows: melatonin, 100%; antipsychotic agents, 95.6%; benzodiazepines, 72.5%; antidepressants, 51.1%; and ADHD medication, 2.7%. Prescription of 2 or more psychopharmacological drugs per patient was common (31.5%). The group of subjects with 4 or more prescriptions (n = 36) was characterized by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug is common. These findings support the need for extending the evidence base for psychopharmacologic treatment in children and adolescents. PMID:27529772

  12. Prescription drugs in nursing homes: managing costs and quality in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Dan; Ramchand, Rajeev; Abramson, Richard; Tumlinson, Anne

    2002-11-12

    This brief provides a description of prescription drug use in nursing homes and a summary of current policy issues in this area. The brief first profiles the nursing home pharmaceutical market, outlining the major trends in demographics and drug utilization, the supply chain by which drugs go from manufacturers to pharmacies to nursing home residents, and the alternative arrangements by which prescription drugs in nursing homes are financed. The brief then provides a synopsis of current policy issues, focusing in turn on cost containment and quality improvement initiatives.

  13. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  14. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  15. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Dependence (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Substance Abuse or Dependence Zloupotreba opojnih ... ili ovisnost - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Substance Abuse or Dependence 物质滥用或依赖 - ...

  16. Detection of drugs of abuse by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    West, Matthew J; Went, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy can provide rapid, sensitive, non-destructive analysis of a variety of drug types (e.g. amphetamines, alkaloids, designer drugs, and date rape drugs). This review concentrates on developments in the past 15 years. It considers identification and quantification of drugs of abuse in different types of forensic evidence, including bulk street drugs as well as traces found in drinks, on fibres/clothing, in fingerprints, on fingernails, on bank notes, and in body fluids. PMID:21960539

  17. Analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater from two Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Yargeau, Viviane; Taylor, Bryanne; Li, Hongxia; Rodayan, Angela; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2014-07-15

    Several drugs of abuse, including amphetamines, cocaine and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine and several opioid prescription drugs were detected in wastewater from two Canadian cities, a small community (75,000 population) and a large urban center (1.6 million population). The objective of this study was to evaluate community use of these drugs in two cities with large differences in population size and demographics. In addition, we evaluated the use of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) as a monitoring tool for drugs of abuse. Heroin was not detected at either location, probably because this illicit drug is metabolized to morphine prior to excretion. Acetylcodeine and acetylmorphine were also not detected. Estimates of community consumption from wastewater analysis indicated that the most widely used drug was cocaine at a median level of consumption in the larger city of approximately 38 doses per day per 1000 people. Consumption of the substituted amphetamine, ephedrine, as well as methamphetamine was also higher in the larger city, at 21 and 1.8 doses per day per 1000 people, respectively. Use of amphetamine, MDMA and tramadol were similar in both centers, but use of oxycodone was greater in the smaller city. Use of MDMA (ecstasy) peaked on weekends. Ketamine was detected in wastewater from the larger city; the first report of abuse of this veterinary anesthetic in a North American city. POCIS sampling rates were determined for the first time for 7 of the target compounds. Comparing the time weighted average concentrations estimated from POCIS data to the concentrations obtained from 24-h composite samples, the data were generally comparable, except for some compounds which were not detected in POCIS deployed in the untreated wastewater, probably because of biofouling or accumulation of debris on the cages containing the POCIS. This study indicates that the size and demographics of population centers can influence the patterns of abuse of

  18. Survey of abuses against injecting drug users in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sara LM; Triwahyuono, Agus; Alexander, Risa

    2009-01-01

    In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGKAR (also known in English as the Indonesian Harm Reduction Network), a nongovernmental organization (NGO) based in Jakarta, surveyed 1106 injecting drug users in 13 cities about their experiences of police abuse. Of those interviewed, 667 or 60% reported physical abuse by police. These findings indicate the importance of continuing efforts to promote police reform and harm reduction in Indonesia. PMID:19852845

  19. When drugs in the same controlled substance schedule differ in real-world abuse, should they be differentiated in labeling?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nabarun; Henningfield, Jack E; Ertischek, Michelle D; Schnoll, Sidney H

    2011-12-01

    The prescription drugs regulated in the most restrictive controlled substance schedule for those with an approved therapeutic use vary widely in their real world risk of abuse and harm. Opioid analgesics have the highest rates of abuse, overdose death, drug abuse treatment needs and societal costs in comparison to other Schedule II drugs. Stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) account for substantially lower rates of abuse, harm, and public health impact. The scheduling of drugs is determined by the World Health Organization, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and other regulatory agencies, through a quasi-public process that relies heavily on pre-marketing studies that are conducted in highly controlled clinical settings. We propose that it is increasingly in the interest of science-based regulation and public health to recognize and communicate differences among drugs based on their real-world abuse and public health harm using surveillance data. Appropriate differentiation through labeling of drugs that will likely remain in the same schedule could provide powerful incentives for drug development and research, would aid prescriber/patient decision making by informing them of real differences across drugs within a schedule, and may also contribute to public health efforts to reduce drug abuse. There are risks of course, that include inadvertent perceptions that drugs labeled to be lower in risk are not taken as seriously as others in the same category. Challenges such as these, however, can be overcome and should not serve as barriers to objective communications regarding a drug's actual risks.

  20. Drug discrimination: A versatile tool for characterization of CNS safety pharmacology and potential for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Michael D B

    2016-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies for assessment of psychoactive properties of drugs in safety pharmacology and drug abuse and drug dependence potential evaluation have traditionally been focused on testing novel compounds against standard drugs for which drug abuse has been documented, e.g. opioids, CNS stimulants, cannabinoids etc. (e.g. Swedberg & Giarola, 2015), and results are interpreted such that the extent to which the test drug causes discriminative effects similar to those of the standard training drug, the test drug would be further characterized as a potential drug of abuse. Regulatory guidance for preclinical assessment of abuse liability by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, 2006), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2010), the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH, 2009), and the Japanese Ministry of Health Education and Welfare (MHLW, 1994) detail that compounds with central nervous system (CNS) activity, whether by design or not, need abuse and dependence liability assessment. Therefore, drugs with peripheral targets and a potential to enter the CNS, as parent or metabolite, are also within scope (see Swedberg, 2013, for a recent review and strategy). Compounds with novel mechanisms of action present a special challenge due to unknown abuse potential, and should be carefully assessed against defined risk criteria. Apart from compounds sharing mechanisms of action with known drugs of abuse, compounds intended for indications currently treated with drugs with potential for abuse and or dependence are also within scope, regardless of mechanism of action. Examples of such compounds are analgesics, anxiolytics, cognition enhancers, appetite control drugs, sleep control drugs and drugs for psychiatric indications. Recent results (Swedberg et al., 2014; Swedberg & Raboisson, 2014; Swedberg, 2015) on the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists demonstrate that compounds causing hallucinatory effects in humans did not exhibit

  1. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  2. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, S R

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives. PMID:1955823

  3. Summary of Findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This report presents information from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) on rates of use, numbers of users, and other measures related to illicit drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, and other forms of tobacco. This report includes separate chapters that summarize the findings of the survey on five topics: use of illicit drugs; use of…

  4. [Efficiency in the prescription of drugs. Impact of a health policy: automatic change to prescription by active ingredient].

    PubMed

    López de Landache, Isabel Elizondo; Braceras Izaguirre, Leire; Echeto García, Ainara; Gardeazabal Romillo, Maria José; Acevedo Heranz, Paloma

    2013-11-01

    In the Basque Country in June 2010 were changed in the electronic prescription system the treatments prescribed by a brand by active ingredients, all the patients who had prescribed these molecules: atorvastatin, clopidogrel, weekly risedronate and losartan-hydrochlorothiazide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of this change automated done in June 2010. Retrospective study of the prescriptions made in the Basque Country of the selected active ingredients. The use of generics of these molecules from May to December 2010 increased from 64 points to 87. Particularly clopidogrel increased from 6.25% in generic prescriptions to 93.76%, losartan + hydrochlorothiazide from 17.94% to 93.83%, 18.92% for atorvastatin acid and 96.03% risedronic 1.76% to 65.97%. If we make the estimation of the amount of active ingredient in generic containers that have been dispensed from June to December 2010. If they had dispensed brand drugs you get this quantity of total savings: 8 104 762.22 euros. This work suggests that a program to promote use of generics increased efficiency in the use of drugs. To promote the use of generic drugs is an efficiency measure implemented in the NHS and in the neighboring countries, in recent figures are reached 40% in securities of U.S.A packaging and around 65% in the Basque Country the consume in early 2010 was much lower than these figures stand at 20% and at the end of the year stood at 27% thanks to the measures taken. PMID:24404717

  5. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  6. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24793872

  7. Management of human resources associated with misuse of prescription drugs: analysis of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Ross, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs is increasingly prevalent in the United States, but limited research is available on prescription drugs misuse in the workforce. We investigated whether absenteeism and turnover are associated with having problems linked to prescription drug misuse among employees. We also further explored the moderating effects of employee drug policy and testing on the relation between having problems linked to misuse of prescription pain relievers (PPRs) and absenteeism and turnover. This is a cross-sectional study (n = 2,249) using the 2007 U.S. national survey data ("National Survey on Drug Use and Health"). The multivariate logistic analysis results illustrate, after controlling confounding factors (gender, age, tobacco use, and heroin use), absenteeism and turnover linked to having problems of PPRs misuse. Our findings suggest the moderating effects of employee drug policy on the association between absenteeism and turnover and having problems linked to misuse of PPRs. Also, drug testing was found to moderate the link between having negative outcomes of misuse of PPRs and absenteeism. Having problems associated with misuse of PPRs is linked to absenteeism and turnover. A drug policy program including drug testing may play a significant role in reducing absenteeism and turnover in relation to having problems linked to misuse of PPRs.

  8. The Drug Facts Box: Improving the communication of prescription drug information

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Communication about prescription drugs ought to be a paragon of public science communication. Unfortunately, it is not. Consumers see $4 billion of direct-to-consumer advertising annually, which typically fails to present data about how well drugs work. The professional label—the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mechanism to get physicians information needed for appropriate prescribing—may also fail to present benefit data. FDA labeling guidance, in fact, suggests that industry omit benefit data for new drugs in an existing class and for drugs approved on the basis of unfamiliar outcomes (such as depression rating scales). The medical literature is also problematic: there is selective reporting of favorable trials, favorable outcomes within trials, and “spinning” unfavorable results to maximize benefit and minimize harm. In contrast, publicly available FDA reviews always include the phase 3 trial data on benefit and harm, which are the basis of drug approval. However, these reviews are practically inaccessible: lengthy, poorly organized, and weakly summarized. To improve accessibility, we developed the Drug Facts Box: a one-page summary of benefit and harm data for each indication of a drug. A series of studies—including national randomized trials—demonstrates that most consumers understand the Drug Facts Box and that it improves decision-making. Despite calls from their own Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Congress (in the Affordable Care Act) to consider implementing boxes, the FDA announced it needs at least 3–5 y more to make a decision. Given its potential public health impact, physicians and the public should not have to wait that long for better drug information. PMID:23942130

  9. The Drug Facts Box: Improving the communication of prescription drug information.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven

    2013-08-20

    Communication about prescription drugs ought to be a paragon of public science communication. Unfortunately, it is not. Consumers see $4 billion of direct-to-consumer advertising annually, which typically fails to present data about how well drugs work. The professional label--the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mechanism to get physicians information needed for appropriate prescribing--may also fail to present benefit data. FDA labeling guidance, in fact, suggests that industry omit benefit data for new drugs in an existing class and for drugs approved on the basis of unfamiliar outcomes (such as depression rating scales). The medical literature is also problematic: there is selective reporting of favorable trials, favorable outcomes within trials, and "spinning" unfavorable results to maximize benefit and minimize harm. In contrast, publicly available FDA reviews always include the phase 3 trial data on benefit and harm, which are the basis of drug approval. However, these reviews are practically inaccessible: lengthy, poorly organized, and weakly summarized. To improve accessibility, we developed the Drug Facts Box: a one-page summary of benefit and harm data for each indication of a drug. A series of studies--including national randomized trials--demonstrates that most consumers understand the Drug Facts Box and that it improves decision-making. Despite calls from their own Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Congress (in the Affordable Care Act) to consider implementing boxes, the FDA announced it needs at least 3-5 y more to make a decision. Given its potential public health impact, physicians and the public should not have to wait that long for better drug information. PMID:23942130

  10. A Decade of Controversy: Balancing Policy With Evidence in the Regulation of Prescription Drug Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Grande, David; Tarn, Derjung M.; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has remained controversial since regulations were liberalized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997. We reviewed empirical evidence addressing the claims made in the policy debate for and against DTCA. This advertising has some benefits, but significant risks are evident as well, magnified by the prominence of DTCA in population-level health communications. To minimize potential harm and maximize the benefits of DTCA for population health, the quality and quantity of information should be improved to enable consumers to better self-identify whether treatment is indicated, more realistically appraise the benefits, and better attend to the risks associated with prescription drugs. We propose guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:19910354

  11. The Role of Opioid Prescription in Incident Opioid Abuse and Dependence Among Individuals with Chronic Non-Cancer Pain: The Role of Opioid Prescription

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, Mark J.; Martin, Bradley C.; Russo, Joan E.; Devries, Andrea; Braden, Jennifer Brennan; Sullivan, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increasing rates of opioid use disorders (abuse and dependence) among patients prescribed opioids are a significant public health concern. We investigated the association between exposure to prescription opioids and incident opioid use disorders (OUDs) among individuals with a new episode of a chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) condition. Methods We utilized claims data from the HealthCore Database for 2000–2005. The dataset included all individuals aged 18 and over with a new CNCP episode (no diagnosis in the prior 6 months), and no opioid use or OUD in the prior 6 months (n=568,640). We constructed a single multinomial variable describing prescription opioid days supply (none, acute, and chronic) and average daily dose (none, low dose, medium dose, and high dose), and examined the association between this variable and an incident OUD diagnosis. Results Patients with CNCP prescribed opioids had significantly higher rates of OUDs compared to those not prescribed opioids. Effects varied by average daily dose and days supply: low dose, acute (odds ratio (OR)=3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 2.32, 3.95); low dose, chronic (OR=14.92, 95% CI=10.38, 21.46); medium dose, acute (OR=2.80, 95% CI=2.12, 3.71); medium dose, chronic (OR=28.69, 95% CI=20.02, 41.13); high dose, acute (OR=3.10 95% CI=1.67, 5.77); and high dose, chronic (OR=122.45, 95% CI=72.79, 205.99). Conclusion Among individuals with a new CNCP episode, prescription opioid exposure was a strong risk factor for incident OUDs; magnitudes of effects were large. Duration of opioid therapy was more important than daily dose in determining OUD risk. PMID:24281273

  12. Low Literacy Impairs Comprehension of Prescription Drug Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C; Wolf, Michael S; Bass, Pat F; Middlebrooks, Mark; Kennen, Estela; Baker, David W; Bennett, Charles L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Bocchini, Anna; Savory, Stephanie; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients' literacy and their ability to understand medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue. OBJECTIVE To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret commonly used prescription medication warning labels. DESIGN In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment. SETTING Public hospital, primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS A total of 251 adult patients waiting for an appointment at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport (LSUHSC-S) Primary Care Clinic. MEASUREMENTS Correct interpretation, as determined by expert panel review of patients' verbatim responses, for each of 8 commonly used prescription medication warning labels. RESULTS Approximately one-third of patients (n=74) were reading at or below the 6th-grade level (low literacy). Patient comprehension of warning labels was associated with one's literacy level. Multistep instructions proved difficult for patients across all literacy levels. After controlling for relevant potential confounding variables, patients with low literacy were 3.4 times less likely to interpret prescription medication warning labels correctly (95% confidence interval: 2.3 to 4.9). CONCLUSIONS Patients with low literacy had difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels. Patients of all literacy levels had better understanding of warning labels that contained single-step versus multiple-step instructions. Warning labels should be developed with consumer participation, especially with lower literate populations, to ensure comprehension of short, concise messages created with familiar words and recognizable icons. PMID:16881945

  13. Vaccines against drugs of abuse: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious problem worldwide. One therapy being investigated is vaccines against drugs of abuse. The antibodies elicited against the drug can take up the drug and prevent it from reaching the reward centers in the brain. Few such vaccines have entered clinical trials, but research is going on apace. Many studies are very promising and more clinical trials should be coming out in the near future. PMID:24982760

  14. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium permanganate preparations as... or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.108 Potassium permanganate preparations as... women resulting from the misuse of potassium permanganate in an effort to induce abortion. Reports...

  15. 76 FR 77543 - Quantitative Summary of the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs: A Literature Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Quantitative Summary of the Benefits and Risks of... ``Quantitative Summary of the Benefits and Risks of Prescription Drugs: A Literature Review'' (literature review... FDA is announcing the availability of a draft report entitled ``Quantitative Summary of the...

  16. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium permanganate preparations as... or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.108 Potassium permanganate preparations as... women resulting from the misuse of potassium permanganate in an effort to induce abortion. Reports...

  17. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID). Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67) and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14). Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID) being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline) and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities. PMID:19995453

  18. 75 FR 14175 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Substance Abuse Treatment Referral..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda,...

  19. [Drug abuse/dependence and developmental disorder: clinical features of drug abusers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review Western studies on the prevalence of comorbid attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in individuals with drug abuse/dependence, and the associations of drug abuse/dependence with AD/HD. Additionally, we introduce our studies on the associations between adulthood drug abuse/dependence and the childhood AD/HD tendency in Japan, using a self-rating questionnaire to assess childhood AD/HD tendencies, the Japanese version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Our studies suggested that, while adulthood drug abuse/dependence may be closely associated with the childhood AD/HD tendency, as many Western studies have indicated, the abused substances most commonly chosen by drug abusers with a childhood AD/HD tendency were not methamphetamines but organic solvents, unlike in several Western studies. Our results did not support the findings of some Western studies: "preferences to choose a stimulant as "self-medication" to directly improve AD/HD symptoms. However, organic solvents appeared to be chosen as "self-medication" to cope with secondary/peripheral symptoms derived from AD/HD.

  20. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug...

  1. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug...

  2. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug...

  3. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug...

  4. Prescription Drug Promotion from 2001-2014: Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Aikin, Kathryn J.; Chung-Davies, Eunice; Wade, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The volume of prescription drug promotion over time is often measured by assessing changes in ad spending. However, this method obscures the fact that some types of advertising are more expensive than others. Another way to measure the changes in prescription drug promotion over time is to assess the number of promotional pieces submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Form FDA 2253 collects information such as the date submitted and the type of material submitted. We analyzed data from Forms FDA 2253 received from 2001–2014. We examined the frequency of submissions by audience (consumer and healthcare professional) and type of promotional material. There was a noted increase in prescription drug promotion submissions across all media in the early 2000s. Although non-Internet promotion submissions have since plateaued, Internet promotion continued to increase. These results can help public health advocates and regulators focus attention and resources. PMID:27149513

  5. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  6. Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

  7. Drug Abuse and the Brain: A Viewer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This guide provides a detailed look at the biological basis of drug addiction, examining how the brain and its reward system work and how drug abuse can cause fundamental changes in the way the brain works. It is a resource for clinicians and practitioners. The first section of the guide provides an outline of the following basic concepts…

  8. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  9. Drug Abuse Prevention for You and Your Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Novelli and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written for adolescents, focuses on the individual's role and responsibility, both to themselves and their friends, in preventing drug abuse problems. Short statements define the influence of peer pressure on prevention, friendship, and intervention. The results of a ninth grade student survey list 22 reasons for using drugs,…

  10. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Two. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  11. Treatment of drug abusers in Malaysia: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two forms of treatment for heroin abusers in Malaysia--traditional medicine and institutional--and to evaluate which form of treatment the drug abusers consider more effective. The study involved interviewing 100 male drug abusers in Malaysia who had had treatment from an institution and from a traditional healer. The data revealed that traditional medicine was better for some abusers, but institutional treatment was better for others, depending upon an individual's own needs and personality. Advantages and disadvantages of both forms of treatment were given by those interviewed. The data can be used as guidelines for the development of a more flexible, individualized program within an institutional setting in Malaysia. PMID:6642801

  12. Treatment of drug abusers in Malaysia: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two forms of treatment for heroin abusers in Malaysia--traditional medicine and institutional--and to evaluate which form of treatment the drug abusers consider more effective. The study involved interviewing 100 male drug abusers in Malaysia who had had treatment from an institution and from a traditional healer. The data revealed that traditional medicine was better for some abusers, but institutional treatment was better for others, depending upon an individual's own needs and personality. Advantages and disadvantages of both forms of treatment were given by those interviewed. The data can be used as guidelines for the development of a more flexible, individualized program within an institutional setting in Malaysia.

  13. Childhood Sexual Abuse Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Treatment Outcomes among Adults in Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…

  14. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

    2012-09-01

    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288

  15. Comparing employer-sponsored and federal exchange plans: wide variations in cost sharing for prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Buttorff, Christine; Andersen, Martin S; Riggs, Kevin R; Alexander, G Caleb

    2015-03-01

    Just under seven million Americans acquired private insurance through the new health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces, in 2014. The exchange plans are required to cover essential health benefits, including prescription drugs. However, the generosity of prescription drug coverage in the plans has not been well described. Our primary objective was to examine the variability in drug coverage in the exchanges across plan types (health maintenance organization or preferred provider organization) and metal tiers (bronze, silver, gold, and platinum). Our secondary objective was to compare the exchange coverage to employer-sponsored coverage. Analyzing prescription drug benefit design data for the federally facilitated exchanges, we found wide variation in enrollees' out-of-pocket costs for generic, preferred brand-name, nonpreferred brand-name, and specialty drugs, not only across metal tiers but also within those tiers across plan types. Compared to employer-sponsored plans, exchange plans generally had lower premiums but provided less generous drug coverage. However, for low-income enrollees who are eligible for cost-sharing subsidies, the exchange plans may be more comparable to employer-based coverage. Policies and programs to assist consumers in matching their prescription drug needs with a plan's benefit design may improve the financial protection for the newly insured. PMID:25732498

  16. Disease Information in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Print Ads.

    PubMed

    Aikin, Kathryn J; Sullivan, Helen W; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements sometimes include information about the disease condition in addition to information about the advertised product. Although the intent of such information is to educate about the disease condition, in some cases consumers may mistakenly assume that the drug will address all of the potential consequences of the condition mentioned in the ad. We investigated the effects of adding disease information to DTC prescription drug print ads on consumer product perceptions and understanding. Participants (4,064 adults) viewed 1 of 15 DTC print ads for fictitious prescription drugs indicated to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia, or lymphoma that varied in disease information presence, type, and format. Participants answered questions that assessed risk and benefit memory, perception, and behavioral intention. Results indicate that exposure to disease information as part of DTC prescription drug ads can promote the impression that the drug addresses consequences of the condition that are not part of the drug's indication. PMID:26717304

  17. GHB: a new and novel drug of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, K L; Balster, R L

    2001-06-01

    There has been increasing attention in the United States to problems of abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), with some evidence for problems in other parts of the world as well. In vitro and animal research show that, while GHB shares some properties with abused central nervous system depressant drugs, it has unique aspects of its pharmacology as well, including actions at a specific neural receptor which probably mediates many of its effects. Abuse potential assessment of GHB using standard animal models has not yielded a picture of a highly abusable substance, but little human testing has yet been done. Very little systematic data exist on tolerance and dependence with GHB, but both have been seen in human users. Quantitative data on the prevalence of GHB abuse is incomplete, but various qualitative measures indicate that a mini-epidemic of abuse began in the late 1980s and continues to the present. GHB is often included with the group of 'club drugs', and can be used as an intoxicant. It also has been used as a growth promoter and sleep aid and has been implicated in cases of 'date rape', usually in combination with alcohol. Undoubtedly the easy availability of GHB and some of its precursors has contributed to its popularity. Recent changes in the control status of GHB in the US may reduce its availability with as yet unknown consequences for the scope of the public health problem. Drug abuse experts need to familiarize themselves with GHB as possibly representing a new type of drug abuse problem with some unique properties. PMID:11297827

  18. Motivations for Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Considering Social and Developmental Contexts

    PubMed Central

    LeClair, Amy; Kelly, Brian C.; Pawson, Mark; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims As part of a larger study on prescription drug misuse among young adults active in urban nightlife scenes, we examined participants’ motivations for misuse. Prescription painkillers, stimulants and sedatives were the primary substances of interest. Methods Participants were recruited from nightlife venues in New York using time-space sampling. Subjects completed a mixed-methods assessment at project research offices. The data presented here are from a subsample of 70 qualitative interviews conducted during the baseline assessment. Findings We identified experimentation and a “work hard, play hard” ethos as key motivations for misusing prescription drugs and argue that these motivations are specific, though not necessarily unique, to the participants’ social location as young adults. These findings highlight the role of life stage and social context in the misuse of prescription drugs. Conclusion Future studies of prescription drug misuse should pay attention to the larger social contexts in which users are embedded and, therefore, make decisions about how and why to misuse. Moving beyond the very broad concepts of “recreation” and “self-medication” presently established in the research, policies targeting young adults may want to tailor intervention efforts based on motivations. PMID:26709337

  19. FDA approval of comparative claims for prescription drugs--the Moxam case.

    PubMed

    Marcus, D

    1983-01-01

    FDA allowance of comparative claims as part of the approved labeling for new prescription drugs creates special problems. Claims contained in prescription drug labeling are viewed by physicians as embodying not just the normal puffery of the manufacturer, but the considered views of government agency charged with protecting public health. Thus, labeling claims for prescription drugs have an impact and significance that promotional claims for other products do not. In the Moxam case--a dispute between Upjohn and Lilly over the FDA's approval of a comparative claim for a new Lilly antibiotic--the agency recognized this fundamental reality. Faced with the prospect of having to provide a procedure to permit competitors to challenge approval of comparative claims, the FDA has moved toward a policy of not permitting such claims in labeling, while allowing them in advertising.

  20. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  1. 16mm Films on Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Abuse. Product Information Supplement No.6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Prod Rep, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Sixty-two films on drug abuse, 33 on smoking abuse, and 28 on alcohol abuse are listed showing title, distributor, suggested grade level, technical information, description of content, cost, and availability. (MLF)

  2. The Impact of the Medicare Part D Prescription Benefit on Generic Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, James X.; Yin, Wesley; Sun, Shawn X.

    2008-01-01

    Background Little information exists regarding the impact of Medicare Part D on generic drug use. Objective To examine changes in the use of generic prescriptions attributable to Part D among a sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Design, participants, and measurements Difference-in-difference analysis of pharmacy claims of Part D enrollees and non-enrollees aged 67–79 years from 2005 to 2006. The final sample represented approximately 2.4 million unique subjects. Analyses were conducted separately for major therapeutic classes, limited to subjects filling at least one prescription within the class during 2005 and 2006, and adjusted for subject characteristics, prescription characteristics, socio-demographic characteristics measured through zipcode-linked Census data, baseline differences between Part D and non-Part D enrollees, and secular trends in generic use. Results Generic drugs accounted for 58% of total prescriptions. Among the entire group of beneficiaries, there was a trend of increased generic drug use in 13 out of 15 drug classes examined. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the growth rate of generic drug use was lower among Part D enrollees than among non-enrollees; enrollees were slightly less likely to fill prescriptions for generic drugs vs. brand-name drugs in 2006 compared to 2005 (odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.94–0.95). Conclusions Despite secular trends of increased utilization of generic drugs among both Part D enrollees and non-enrollees, the net impact of Part D among these beneficiaries was a modest decrease in the use of generic drugs. This finding, which is consistent with economic theory but contrary to several recent reports, highlights the complexity of assessing the impact of Part D on overall consumer welfare. PMID:18661190

  3. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... which it is possible to determine the complete manufacturing history of the package of the drug. (7) A... labeling claims for the drug by the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC),...

  4. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... which it is possible to determine the complete manufacturing history of the package of the drug. (7) A... labeling claims for the drug by the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC),...

  5. Mechanisms of Action and Persistent Neuroplasticity by Drugs of Abuse.

    PubMed

    Korpi, Esa R; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Farooq, Usman; Vashchinkina, Elena; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Nutt, David J; Hyytiä, Petri; Dawe, Gavin S

    2015-10-01

    Adaptation of the nervous system to different chemical and physiologic conditions is important for the homeostasis of brain processes and for learning and remembering appropriate responses to challenges. Although processes such as tolerance and dependence to various drugs of abuse have been known for a long time, it was recently discovered that even a single pharmacologically relevant dose of various drugs of abuse induces neuroplasticity in selected neuronal populations, such as the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area, which persist long after the drug has been excreted. Prolonged (self-) administration of drugs induces gene expression, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and structural changes in many brain cell populations. These region-specific changes correlate with addiction, drug intake, and conditioned drugs effects, such as cue- or stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. In rodents, adolescent drug exposure often causes significantly more behavioral changes later in adulthood than a corresponding exposure in adults. Clinically the most impairing and devastating effects on the brain are produced by alcohol during fetal development. In adult recreational drug users or in medicated patients, it has been difficult to find persistent functional or behavioral changes, suggesting that heavy exposure to drugs of abuse is needed for neurotoxicity and for persistent emotional and cognitive alterations. This review describes recent advances in this important area of research, which harbors the aim of translating this knowledge to better treatments for addictions and related neuropsychiatric illnesses. PMID:26403687

  6. Insurance Coverage of Prescription Drugs and the Rural Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Curt; Schur, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Rural impacts of a Medicare drug benefit will ultimately depend on the number of elderly who are currently without drug coverage, new demand by those currently without coverage, the nature of the new benefit relative to current benefits, and benefit design. Purpose: To enhance understanding of drug coverage among rural elderly Medicare…

  7. An Exploration of the Relationship between the Use of Methamphetamine and Prescription Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lamonica, Aukje K.; Boeri, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This study examines patterns of use of prescription drugs and methamphetamine. We drew our sample from a study about 130 active and inactive methamphetamine users and focused on 16 participants with a recent history of methamphetamine and prescription drug use. We collected in-depth interviews to explore relationships in use trajectory patterns. The qualitative methods we used in this study followed the constant comparison process developed by grounded theory methods and analytical ethnography, which is based on familiarity with the social setting and developing propositions while conducting a research study. We used a triangulation of methods and analysis and included qualitative data, such as participant observation notes and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative data that we collected in drug history matrices. Five themes emerged from the coding of the interview transcripts: (1) sequential polydrug use; (2) concurrent polydrug use (3) temporary substitution of preferred drug; (4) consequential-based use; and (5) switching from using methamphetamine to using prescription drugs. The trajectory patterns of methamphetamine and prescription drug use complicates treatment significantly. PMID:23285312

  8. Understanding the Rural–Urban Differences in Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use and Abuse in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Brady, Joanne E.; Havens, Jennifer R.; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription opioid misuse remains a growing public problem in need of action and is concentrated in areas of US states with large rural populations such as Kentucky, West Virginia, Alaska, and Oklahoma. We developed hypotheses regarding the influence of 4 factors: (1) greater opioid prescription in rural areas, creating availability from which illegal markets can arise; (2) an out-migration of young adults; (3) greater rural social and kinship network connections, which may facilitate drug diversion and distribution; and (4) economic stressors that may create vulnerability to drug use more generally. A systematic consideration of the contexts that create differences in availability, access, and preferences is critical to understanding how drug use context varies across geography. PMID:24328642

  9. A prescription for unemployment? Recessions and the demand for mental health drugs.

    PubMed

    Bradford, W David; Lastrapes, William D

    2014-11-01

    We estimate the relationship between mental health drug prescriptions and the level of labor market activity in the USA. Based on monthly data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey of physicians and aggregated by US census regions, we find that the number of mental health drug prescriptions (those aimed at alleviating depression and anxiety) rises by about 10% when employment falls by 1% and when unemployment rises by 100 basis points, but only for patients in the Northeast region. This paper is one of the first to look at compensatory health behavior in response to the business cycle.

  10. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  11. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse. PMID:25988826

  12. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication.

    PubMed

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse.

  13. Drug Abuse: A Handbook for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittenberg, Erica

    Designed for parents of adolescents, this handbook provides drug information and suggestions for parental action regarding children's drug use. The first of seven chapters places adolescent drug use in its social context. Chapter 2 describes home prevention strategies. Chapter 3 focuses on the reasons children take drugs. Chapter 4 describes…

  14. Resource Book for Drug Abuse Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The bulk of this book is divided into 3 major sections: (1) teaching about drugs; (2) facts about drugs; and (3) supplementary reports which deal with legal aspects, prevention, drug use-student value correlations, motivation, etc. The section concerned with teaching about drugs provides concrete suggestions for elementary and secondary educators,…

  15. Changing world patterns of drug abuse, 1945-1974.

    PubMed

    Ball, J C; Graff, H; Chien, K

    1975-07-01

    New patterns of drug abuse have rapidly appeared in the Western world since the Second World War. These patterns are characterized by the rapid introduction and spread of manufactured substances adopted from medicine. Interest has been sustained among illicit users by the search for new mood altering drugs. Both recreational use and multiple drug patterns are becoming increasingly predominant. Western youth has taken the forefront in the new patterns, especially in the rise of marijuana. Sex differentials are rapidly decreasing as more females are smoking. In the United States, hallucinogens have also been abused in large amounts. This reveals an important difference from Europe, where hallucinogen abuse has been low, but amphetamine abuse has been as high or higher than in the United States. Spread has been rapid throughout the populations studied, both from the colleges to the secondary schools, and from country to country, based on current rapid methods of communication and transportation. These data are important in formulating hypotheses for study and control of both epidemic and endemic drug abuse.

  16. A qualitative exploration of prescription opioid injection among street-based drug users in Toronto: behaviours, preferences and drug availability

    PubMed Central

    Firestone, Michelle; Fischer, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    Background There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as well as the social and environmental context surrounding the use of these drugs among young and old street-based drug injection drug users (IDUs). Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 PO injectors. Topics covered included drug use history, types of drugs used, how drugs were purchased and transitions to PO use. Interviews were taped and transcribed. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Results Five prominent themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Combination of crack and prescription opioids, 2) First injection experience and transition to prescription opioids, 3) Drug preferences and availability, 4) Housing and income and 5) Obtaining drugs. There was consensus that OxyContin and crack were the most commonly available drugs on the streets of Toronto. Drug use preferences and behaviours were influenced by the availability of drugs, the desired effect, ease of administration and expectations around the purity of the drugs. Distinct experiences were observed among younger users as compared to older users. In particular, the initiation of injection drug use and experimentation with POs among younger users was influenced by their experiences on the street, their peers and general curiosity. Conclusion Given the current profile of street-based drug market in Toronto and the emergence of crack and POs as two predominant illicit drug groups, understanding drug use patterns and socio-economic factors among younger and older users in this population has important implications for preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:18928556

  17. Behavior therapy in drug abuse treatment: review and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; McCaul, M E

    1985-01-01

    The goal of drug abuse treatment is to decrease the dominance of drug-related behaviors while enhancing the dominance of alternative socially acceptable behaviors. The behavioral techniques of extinction, satiation, and punishment can be used to suppress undesirable behaviors, and reinforcement can be used to enhance desirable behaviors. Methadone maintenance offers unique advantages for treatment of opiate abuse since methadone satiates the drug abuser, thereby reducing the reinforcing efficacy of illicit opiate drugs, while also serving as a reinforcer whose delivery in the treatment setting can be used in contingent arrangements. Short-term efficacy has been demonstrated in studies that used contingent treatment termination or contingent dose decreases as punishing events and contingent dose increases or contingent take-home privileges as reinforcing events to promote reductions in drug use and cooperation with clinic rules. Systematic use of dose adjustments and take-home privileges may be a useful adjunct to methadone maintenance treatment, having a positive impact both on client outcomes and clinic operation. Rehabilitation efforts might also benefit if delivery of reinforcers available at the clinic is contingent upon participation in skills training and therapy programs or community activities outside the drug abuse clinic. PMID:3929125

  18. Trends and pattern of drug abuse deaths in Maryland teenagers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Xiang; Levine, Berry; Li, Guohua; Zielke, H Ronald; Fowler, David R

    2011-07-01

    The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Maryland recorded a total of 149 drug abuse deaths of teenagers aged 13-19 years between 1991 and 2006. Of these deaths, 96 (64.4%) were caused by the use of narcotic drugs only, 29 (19.5%) by both narcotics and cocaine, four (2.7%) by both narcotics and methylenedioxymethamphetamine, six (4.0%) by cocaine only, and 14 (9.4%) by volatile substances (e.g., butane, Freon, nitrous oxide, and propane). The annual death rate from drug abuse for teenagers increased from 1.4 deaths per 100,000 population in 1991 to 2.7 deaths per 100,000 population in 2006 (chi-square test for time trend, p<0.01). The increase in teenager drug abuse deaths occurred in 1999 and since has remained at a higher rate. Further analysis revealed that the increase in drug abuse deaths was attributable to a large degree to narcotic drugs, particularly heroin/morphine and methadone, and was confined to teenagers residing in the suburban and rural areas. PMID:21392003

  19. Trends and pattern of drug abuse deaths in Maryland teenagers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Xiang; Levine, Berry; Li, Guohua; Zielke, H Ronald; Fowler, David R

    2011-07-01

    The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Maryland recorded a total of 149 drug abuse deaths of teenagers aged 13-19 years between 1991 and 2006. Of these deaths, 96 (64.4%) were caused by the use of narcotic drugs only, 29 (19.5%) by both narcotics and cocaine, four (2.7%) by both narcotics and methylenedioxymethamphetamine, six (4.0%) by cocaine only, and 14 (9.4%) by volatile substances (e.g., butane, Freon, nitrous oxide, and propane). The annual death rate from drug abuse for teenagers increased from 1.4 deaths per 100,000 population in 1991 to 2.7 deaths per 100,000 population in 2006 (chi-square test for time trend, p<0.01). The increase in teenager drug abuse deaths occurred in 1999 and since has remained at a higher rate. Further analysis revealed that the increase in drug abuse deaths was attributable to a large degree to narcotic drugs, particularly heroin/morphine and methadone, and was confined to teenagers residing in the suburban and rural areas.

  20. Drug abuse in China: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Fang, Yuxia; Wang, Xi

    2008-06-01

    Following British importation of opium to China in 1760s, the use and production of the drug in China increased dramatically. This situation was aggravated after the failure of Opium Wars that occurred between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China with the aim of forcing China to import British Opium; this war made China open the door to a free flowing opium trade, with disastrous social and public health consequences. The subsequent rise of the new China created drug-free atmosphere by strict legislation and punishment, in which drug use greatly decreased. However, in the context of governmental reform and the open-door policies of the 1980s, drug abuse has re-emerged as a major public health problem. Today, drug abuse is highly linked to the spread of HIV/AIDS and to drug-related crimes in China. To combat the severe drug problem facing the nation, the Chinese government has adopted the Methadone Maintenance Treatment program, a multi-faceted therapeutic approach that aims to reduce the health and social problem induced by drug epidemics. In addition, traditional Chinese medicine, including herbal therapy and acupuncture, both found to be effective in the prevention of relapse and causes few side effects, making them useful for the treatment of opiate addiction. With continuous application of these therapies and managements that have been proved to be effective in harm reduction in the western countries, we believe that drug abuse and its related problems in China will be brought under control.

  1. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes. PMID:24447983

  2. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes.

  3. Drug abuse and dependency during pregnancy: anaesthetic issues.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, J; Christmas, T; Paech, M J; Orr, B

    2007-12-01

    Drug abuse is a significant social problem that can lead to serious obstetric complications, some of which may be confused with pregnancy-related disease states. Substance abuse poses a number of challenges with respect to the management of pain and the conduct of anaesthesia in the peripartum period. This review was based on information from a literature search of epidemiological, research and review papers on substance abuse during pregnancy, obtained for the purpose of preparing a background paper for the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy, Commonwealth Government of Australia. Given that almost 80% of substance-abusing parturients require anaesthetic services in the perinatal period, early antenatal referral for anaesthetic review is recommended. To optimise the care of these vulnerable patients, obstetricians, general practitioners and midwives should attempt to identify substance-abusing parturients and refer them to an anaesthetist. A careful anaesthetic evaluation with non-judgemental questioning is essential, with management tailored to individual patient needs and the urgency of obstetric intervention for vaginal delivery or caesarean section. Opioid-dependent women, in particular, benefit from antenatal pain management planning. Patients recovering from drug addiction should also have a well-documented analgesic strategy. A multidisciplinary approach will involve obstetricians, anaesthetists and staff of the Drug and Alcohol Service. In acute admissions of women by whom antenatal care was not accessed, a high index of suspicion for illicit drug use should arise. Because illicit substance use is so prevalent, if untoward reactions occur during an otherwise uneventful anaesthetic, the possibility of drug abuse should be considered.

  4. The ecology of prescription opioid abuse in the USA: geographic variation in patients’ use of multiple prescribers (“doctor shopping”)

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Douglas C.; Carlson, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study estimates the prevalence in US counties of opioid patients who use large numbers of prescribers, the amounts of opioids they obtain, and the extent to which their prevalence is predicted by ecological attributes of counties, including general medical exposure to opioids. Methods Finite mixture models were used to estimate the size of an outlier subpopulation of patients with suspiciously large numbers of prescribers (probable doctor shoppers), using a sample of 146 million opioid prescriptions dispensed during 2008. Ordinary least squares regression models of county-level shopper rates included independent variables measuring ecological attributes of counties, including rates of patients prescribed opioids, socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population, supply of physicians, and measures of healthcare service utilization. Results The prevalence of shoppers varied widely by county, with rates ranging between 0.6 and 2.5 per 1000 residents. Shopper prevalence was strongly correlated with opioid prescribing for the general population, accounting for 30% of observed county variation in shopper prevalence, after adjusting for physician supply, emergency department visits, in-patient hospital days, poverty rates, percent of county residents living in urban areas, and racial/ethnic composition of resident populations. Approximately 30% of shoppers obtained prescriptions in multiple states. Conclusions The correlation between prevalence of doctor shoppers and opioid patients in a county could indicate either that easy access to legitimate medical treatment raises the risk of abuse or that drug abusers take advantage of greater opportunities in places where access is easy. Approaches to preventing excessive use of different prescribers are discussed. PMID:25111716

  5. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components...

  6. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components...

  7. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Alternate Drug Delivery Dosage Forms for Drug Abuse Studies. Date: January 7, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Agenda: To...

  8. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components...

  9. 78 FR 23772 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Drugged Driving: Future Research... of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550,...

  10. Developing an Occupational Drug Abuse Program: Considerations and Approaches. Services Research Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Mae; Prentice, Robert

    This monograph, developed as a guide for companies interested in establishing drug abuse programs, begins with a brief summary of studies assessing the extent and costs of employee drug use. The next section addresses some practical and conceptual issues about establishing a drug abuse program. Suggestions for implementing a drug abuse program are…

  11. Inequity in publicly funded physician care: what is the role of private prescription drug insurance?

    PubMed

    Allin, Sara; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2009-10-01

    This study examines the impact that private financing of prescription drugs in Canada has on equity in the utilization of publicly financed physician services. The complementary nature of prescription drugs and physician service use alongside the reliance on private finance for drugs may induce an income gradient in the use of physicians. We use established econometric methods based on concentration curves to measure equity in physician utilization and its contributors in the province of Ontario. We find that individuals with prescription drug insurance make more physician visits than do those without insurance, and the effect on utilization is stronger for the likelihood of a visit than the conditional number of visits, and stronger for individuals with at least one chronic condition than those with no conditions. Results of the equity analyses reveal that the most important contributors to the pro-rich inequity in physician utilization are income and private prescription drug insurance, while public insurance, which covers older people and those on social assistance, has a pro-poor effect. These findings highlight that inequity in access to and use of publicly funded services may arise from the interaction with privately financed health services that are complements to the use of public services.

  12. [Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abuser].

    PubMed

    Rataj, O; Martinkovičová, L; Šetina, M

    2013-10-01

    Infective endocarditis can be divided from practical point of view into native valve endocarditis and prosthetic valve endocarditis. With regard to aquired endocarditis, endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers can be separetly differentiated. Echocardiography and microbio-logical cultures are essential for dia-gnosis. Treatment consists of antibio-tic therapy and often surgical procedure is required. We present a case report of an intravenous drug abuser with a tricuspid valve endocarditis, successfully treated with antibio-tic therapy and a following surgical valve repair. PMID:24164370

  13. Predictability of Prescription Drug Expenditures for Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, Marian V.; Doshi, Jalpa; Stuart, Bruce C.; Briesacher, Becky

    2003-01-01

    MCBS data are used to analyze the predictability of drug expenditures by Medicare beneficiaries. Predictors include demographic characteristics and measures of health status, the majority derived using CMS' diagnosis cost group/hierarchical condition category (DCG/HCC) risk-adjustment methodology. In prospective models, demographic variables explained 5 percent of the variation in drug expenditures. Adding health status measures raised this figure between 10 and 24 percent of the variation depending on the model configuration. Adding lagged drug expenditures more than doubled predictive power to 55 percent. These results are discussed in the context of forecasting, and risk adjustment for the proposed new Medicare drug benefit. PMID:15124376

  14. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    PubMed

    Southwell, Brian G; Rupert, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  15. Direct-to-consumer promotion of prescription drugs. Economic implications for patients, payers and providers.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S D

    2001-01-01

    Spending on outpatient prescription drugs in the US is accelerating rapidly. Although numerous factors are driving this trend, attention has recently focused on the role played by the marketing, promotion and advertising of pharmaceuticals, in particular direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. In 1997, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a 'guidance' on such mass media promotion. The guidance altered existing FDA rules and effectively permitted pharmaceutical companies to promote prescription drugs on television and radio without giving detailed or even summary information on indications, efficacy or potential adverse effects. Since then, television commercials, in particular, and print advertisements in consumer magazines and newspapers have proliferated rapidly. Pharmaceutical companies spent $US1.8 billion on DTC advertising in 1999, a 40% increase over 1998. This spending in 1999 was heavily concentrated on about 50 drugs. Evidence is growing that DTC promotion of prescription drugs is: (i) alerting consumers to the existence of new drugs and the conditions they treat; (ii) increasing consumer demand for many drugs; (iii) contributing increasingly to the recent sharp increase in the number of prescriptions being dispensed; (iv) raising sales revenues; and, thus, (v) contributing to the higher pharmaceutical costs of health insurers, government and consumers. The public policy issues surrounding DTC advertisements centre on the following questions: (i) are the advertisements leading to the inappropriate clinical use of some drugs? (ii) are the advertisements inducing both consumers and physicians to choose more costly new brand-name drugs over less expensive, but equally effective, older brand or generic drugs? (iii) do television advertisements for prescription drugs contain a balanced amount of information on benefits versus potential adverse effects? and (iv) will the revenue benefits generated by DTC advertising cause pharmaceutical companies to

  16. Direct-to-consumer promotion of prescription drugs. Economic implications for patients, payers and providers.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S D

    2001-01-01

    Spending on outpatient prescription drugs in the US is accelerating rapidly. Although numerous factors are driving this trend, attention has recently focused on the role played by the marketing, promotion and advertising of pharmaceuticals, in particular direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. In 1997, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a 'guidance' on such mass media promotion. The guidance altered existing FDA rules and effectively permitted pharmaceutical companies to promote prescription drugs on television and radio without giving detailed or even summary information on indications, efficacy or potential adverse effects. Since then, television commercials, in particular, and print advertisements in consumer magazines and newspapers have proliferated rapidly. Pharmaceutical companies spent $US1.8 billion on DTC advertising in 1999, a 40% increase over 1998. This spending in 1999 was heavily concentrated on about 50 drugs. Evidence is growing that DTC promotion of prescription drugs is: (i) alerting consumers to the existence of new drugs and the conditions they treat; (ii) increasing consumer demand for many drugs; (iii) contributing increasingly to the recent sharp increase in the number of prescriptions being dispensed; (iv) raising sales revenues; and, thus, (v) contributing to the higher pharmaceutical costs of health insurers, government and consumers. The public policy issues surrounding DTC advertisements centre on the following questions: (i) are the advertisements leading to the inappropriate clinical use of some drugs? (ii) are the advertisements inducing both consumers and physicians to choose more costly new brand-name drugs over less expensive, but equally effective, older brand or generic drugs? (iii) do television advertisements for prescription drugs contain a balanced amount of information on benefits versus potential adverse effects? and (iv) will the revenue benefits generated by DTC advertising cause pharmaceutical companies to

  17. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention. PMID:2331555

  18. Perception of prescription drug risks: a survey of patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, B J; Elswood, J; Calin, A

    1990-04-01

    The ways in which patients perceive the risks of prescription drugs are likely to influence treatment preferences and compliance decisions. But very little is known about the perceived frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR), their perceived causation and attitudes towards the safety regulation of prescription drugs. A sample of 1,034 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) completed a postal questionnaire on the risks of medicines in general and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) in particular. Serious ADR were perceived to be more frequent with NSAID than prescription drugs generally, and those who had experienced a previous ADR (47%) judged ADR to be more frequent (p less than 0.001). When asked to rate the likelihood that each of 7 reasons were causative of ADR, the most likely reason was perceived to be inadequate information to the patient about the drug, and secondly inadequate patient followup by the prescribing doctor. Responses to a hypothetical AS drug risk scenario indicated high safety expectations for antirheumatic agents; 61% thought that the government should take a drug off the market if there is any evidence of fatal ADR. The results of this survey suggest the need for greater patient information and education on the risks and benefits of medicines to modify perceptions and false expectations. PMID:2348431

  19. FDA Approvals of Brand-Name Prescription Drugs in 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The drugs included in this review were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015 and are grouped into the following categories: New Pharmaceuticals: New Molecular Entities and New Biologic License ApplicationsNew Combinations and New IndicationsNew Dosage Forms and New FormulationsNew Biosimilars, Vaccines, Viral Therapies, and Blood Products

  20. FDA Approvals of Brand-Name Prescription Drugs in 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The drugs included in this review were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015 and are grouped into the following categories: New Pharmaceuticals: New Molecular Entities and New Biologic License ApplicationsNew Combinations and New IndicationsNew Dosage Forms and New FormulationsNew Biosimilars, Vaccines, Viral Therapies, and Blood Products PMID:27668042