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Sample records for abyssinica stem bark

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol extract, fractions and compounds from the stem bark of Entada abyssinica Stend ex A. Satabie

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and isolated compounds from Entada abyssinica stem bark, plant used traditionally against gastrointestinal infections. Methods The methanol extract of E. abyssinica stem bark was pre-dissolved in a mixture of methanol and water, and then partitioned between n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate portion was fractionated by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. Antimicrobial activity was assayed by broth microdilution techniques on bacteria and yeasts. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging method. Results Four known compounds [(5S,6R,8aR)-5-(carboxymethyl)-3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-5,6,8a-trimethylnaphthalenecarboxylic acid (1), methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (2), benzene-1,2,3-triol (3) and 2,3-dihydroxypropyltriacontanoate (4)] were isolated. Compared to the methanol extract, fractionation increased the antibacterial activities of the n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, while the antifungal activities increased in ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue fractions. The isolated compounds were generally more active on bacteria (9.7 to 156.2 μg/ml) than yeasts (78.1 to 312.5 μg/ml). Apart from compound 1, the three others displayed DPPH· scavenging activity (RSa), with RSa50 values of 1.45 and 1.60 μg/ml. Conclusion The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of E. abyssinica in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections and the isolated compounds could be useful in the standardisation of antimicrobial phytomedicine from this plant. PMID:21771305

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark of Shyonaka

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Krunal; Ilanchezhian, R; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, B. R.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.; Bignoniaceae) root bark is one of the ingredients of dashamoola (a group of 10 roots), and is used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic action in a number of compound formulations in Ayurveda. Aim: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) recommends using the stem bark instead of root bark. Material and Methods: An attempt has been made to study the anti-inflammatory activity of both root bark and stem bark kashaya (decoction) experimentally. Conclusion Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark decoction. PMID:23326090

  3. Antibacterial activity of Persea cordata stem barks.

    PubMed

    Schlemper, S R; Schlemper, V; da Silva, D; Cordeiro, F; Cruz, A B; Oliveira, A E; Cechinel-Filho, V

    2001-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of extracts obtained from Persea cordata stem bark, employed in Brazil to treat infectious diseases, were studied. The ethyl acetate fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract showed activity against pathogenic bacteria which may justify the popular use of the plant. PMID:11163947

  4. Antinociceptive activity of Maytenus rigida stem bark.

    PubMed

    Dias, Kellyane S; Marques, Maxsuel S; Menezes, Igor A C; Santos, Thiago C; Silva, Aline B L; Estevam, Charles S; Sant'Ana, Antônio E G; Pizza, Cosimo; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Marçal, Rosilene M

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Maytenus rigida stem bark and its fractions were assessed for antinociceptive activity in tail-flick test in rats. The activity was located in the chloroform, ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions. Phytochemical screening revealed that catechin was the only common class of compounds present on the ethanol extract as well as on the active fractions. 4'-Methylepigallocatechin, isolated from the ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions, showed antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick test (75 mg/kg; p.o.), which was reversed by the opiate antagonist naloxone (3 mg/kg; i.p.). PMID:17587510

  5. Antifungal activity of the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B C; Pandey, Anuj; Chaurasia, Leena; Pal, Mahesh; Sharma, R P; Khare, Anakshi

    2003-12-01

    The methanol extract of stem barks of Alianthus excelsa was partitioned with chloroform. The chloroform extract showed fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium frequentence, P. notatum and Botrytis cinerea. PMID:14630175

  6. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of Mammea africana ethanol stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude Efiom; Bawo, Michael Burata; Mbagwu, Herbert Orji

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The stem bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae), (M. africana) a common plant that has been traditionally used to treat various diseases and ailments was evaluated for hepatoprotective potentials against paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract (30-90 mg/kg) was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP), antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and histopathological study of the liver. Results: Administration of the stem bark extract caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of high levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total cholesterol, direct and total bilirubin as well as elevation of serum levels of total protein, albumin and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH). Histology of the liver sections of extract and silymarin-treated animals showed reductions in the pathological features compared to the paracetamol-treated animals. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract of M. africana. Conclusion: The results show that the stem bark extract of M. africana has hepatoprotective potential which may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:27222838

  8. Antioxidant and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the Malian medicinal plants Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F. White (Ebenaceae), Lannea velutina A. Rich (Anacardiaceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel) Benth. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Maiga, Ababacar; Malterud, Karl Egil; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2006-03-01

    The African flora contains numerous medicinal plants whose biological and chemical properties are incompletely known. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of plants are subject to intensive research. In the work described here, we have investigated the antioxidant activity of the plants Diospyros abyssinica (root bark), Lannea velutina (root bark and stem bark) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (seeds). Extracts of different polarity were assayed for radical scavenging activity, using the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, and for inhibition of enzymatic lipid peroxidation mediated by soybean 15-lipoxygenase. All plants investigated showed activity, but there were large differences between plants and between extracts. In general, Diospyros abyssinica and Lannea velutina were richer in antioxidants than Crossopteryx febrifuga. Lipophilic extracts were not active as radical scavengers, but did inhibit 15-lipoxygenase. Semipolar extracts (80% aqueous ethanol and methanol) of Diospyros abyssinica and Lannea velutina showed the highest activity both as radical scavengers and lipoxygenase inhibitors, and also gave the highest extract yields. These plants therefore appear to be excellent sources of antioxidants. PMID:16213686

  9. Bark ecology of twigs vs. main stems: functional traits across eighty-five species of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Julieta A; Castorena, Matiss; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Although produced by meristems that are continuous along the stem length, marked differences in bark morphology and in microenvironment would suggest that main stem and twig bark might differ ecologically. Here, we examined: (1) how closely associated main stem and twig bark traits were, (2) how these associations varied across sites, and (3) used these associations to infer functional and ecological differences between twig and main stem bark. We measured density, water content, photosynthesis presence/absence, total, outer, inner, and relative thicknesses of main stem and twig bark from 85 species of angiosperms from six sites of contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regimes. Density and water content did not differ between main stems and twigs across species and sites. Species with thicker twig bark had disproportionately thicker main stem bark in most sites, but the slope and degree of association varied. Disproportionately thicker main stem bark for a given twig bark thickness in most fire-prone sites suggested stem protection near the ground. The savanna had the opposite trend, suggesting that selection also favors twig protection in these fire-prone habitats. A weak main stem-twig bark thickness association was observed in non fire-prone sites. The near-ubiquity of photosynthesis in twigs highlighted its likely ecological importance; variation in this activity was predicted by outer bark thickness in main stems. It seems that the ecology of twig bark can be generalized to main stem bark, but not for functions depending on the amount of bark, such as protection, storage, or photosynthesis. PMID:25842297

  10. Bioactive Constituents of the Stem Bark of Mitrephora glabra

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Lee, Dongho; Graf, Tyler N.; Phifer, Sharnelle S.; Nakanishi, Yuka; Riswan, Soedarsono; Setyowati, Fransisca M.; Saribi, Achmad M.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Kroll, David J.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Wani, Mansukh C.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2009-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the stem bark of Mitrephora glabra yielded nine compounds, comprising three ent-kaurenoids (1–3), five polyacetylenic acids/esters (4–8), and one aporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (9). The structures of the six new compounds (1–3, 5, 7, and 8) were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. All compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against a panel of cancer cell lines and a battery of microorganisms. PMID:19874044

  11. Iridoid glucosides from leaves and stem barks of Parkia javanica.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Chandra Mohanta, Bikas; Debnath, Sudhan; Ghosh, Biplab; Arima, Shiho; Sato, Noriko; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Two new iridoid glucosides, javanicosides A (1) and B (2) along with the known compounds, ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were isolated from the leaf and stem bark of Parkia javanica and the structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (MS, 1D, and 2D NMR experiments). The new compounds were identified as 8-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-6'-O-p-coumaroyl-mussaenosidic acid (1) and 7-O-E-3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-6'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylloganic acid (2). PMID:19408146

  12. Anticonvulsant properties of saponins from Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    PubMed

    Chindo, Ben A; Anuka, Joseph A; McNeil, Lilly; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Adamu, Simon S; Amos, Samson; Connelly, William K; Lees, George; Gamaniel, Karniyus S

    2009-03-30

    Preparations of Ficus platyphylla have been used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy for many years and their efficacy is widely acclaimed among the Hausa communities of northern Nigeria. The anticonvulsant properties of the saponin rich fraction (SFG) obtained from the methanol extract of F. platyphylla stem bark were studied on pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and maximal electroshock seizures in mice. Effects of SFG were also examined in murine models for neurological disease and on relevant in vitro targets for anticonvulsant drugs. SFG protected mice against pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizures; and significantly delayed the onset of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures. SFG failed to protect mice against maximal electroshock seizures at doses tested. SFG neither abolished the spontaneous discharges induced by 4-aminopyridine in a neonatal rat brain slice model of tonic-clonic epilepsy nor could it modulate chloride currents through GABA(A) receptor channel complex in cultured cortical cells. However, it was able to non-selectively suppress excitatory and inhibitory synaptic traffic, blocked sustained repetitive firing (SRF) and spontaneous action potential firing in these cultured cells. Our results provide scientific evidence that F. platyphylla stem bark may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties. SFG impaired membrane excitability; a property shared by most anticonvulsants particularly the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocking drugs, thus supporting the isolation and development of the saponin components of this plant as anticonvulsant agents. PMID:19111909

  13. Antiplasmodial compounds from Cassia siamea stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Ashidi, J S; Okpako, L C; Houghton, P J; Wright, C W

    2008-02-01

    Cassia siamea L. (Fabaceae) was identified from the southwest Nigerian ethnobotany as a remedy for febrile illness. This led to the bioassay-guided fractionation of stem bark of the plant extract, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay and multi-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (K1) for assessing the in vitro antimalarial activity. Emodin and lupeol were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by a combination of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopy, co-spotting with authentic samples and comparison with literature data. Both compounds were found to be the active principles responsible for the antiplasmodial property with IC(50) values of 5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:17705142

  14. A new coumarin from stem bark of Mesua hexapetala.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Thiruventhan; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Daud, Shaari; Mah, Siau Hui; Lim, Chan Kiang; Jong, Vivien Yi Mian; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-07-01

    A new alkylated coumarin derivative, hexapetarin (1) along with three other xanthones, trapezifolixanthone (2), cudraxanthone G (3) and 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,4-di (3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (4), and four common triterpenoids, friedelin (5), stigmasterol (6), beta-sitosterol (7) and gamma-sitosterol (8) were isolated from the stem bark of Mesua hexapetala (Clusiaceae), a plant, native to Malaysia. The structures of these compounds were elucidated and determined using spectroscopic techniques such as NMR and MS. Anti-inflammatory activity assay indicated hexapetarin (1) to possess moderate anti-inflammatory activity, while 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,4-di (3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (4) gave very good activity. PMID:26710827

  15. Neolignans and glycosides from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Du, Dan; Ding, Guang-Zhi; Si, Yi-Kang; Yu, Shi-Shan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wen-Jie; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Xu, Song; Qu, Jing; Wang, Jia-Ming; Liu, Yu-Xi

    2010-05-28

    Five new neolignans (1-4 and 9), two pairs of neolignan epimers (5-8), and two new aromatic glycosides (10 and 11) have been isolated from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, CD experiments, and chemical methods. The absolute configurations of the 3,4-diol moiety in 1 and 1,3-diol moiety in 2 were confirmed by Snatzke's method, observing the induced circular dichroism after addition of dimolybdenum tetraacetate in DMSO. Compounds 3, 4, and 11 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities with IC(50) values ranging from 1.62 to 24.4 microM, while compound 3 displayed antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 42.3 microM. PMID:20411974

  16. Antioxidant compounds from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Tong, Woei-Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah

    2016-08-01

    A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml). PMID:26999039

  17. Novel tirucallane triterpenoids from the stem bark of Toona sinensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Wen-Yuan; Xie, Ning; Chen, Lei; Feng, Feng; Qu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the stem bark of Toona sinensis was carried out by various chromatographic techniques resulting in the isolation and elucidation of two novel tirucallane triterpenoids, named (20S)-3-oxo-tirucalla-25-nor-7-en-24-oic acid (1) and (20S)-5α,8α-epidioxy-3-oxo-24-nor-6.9(11)-dien-23-oic acid (2), along with fifteen known triterpenoids (3-17), their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS experiments. Compound 2 is uncommon in nature, which possesses a peroxide bridge cross C-5 and C-8 in the triterpenoid skeleton. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines (A-549, Hela, HepG2, SGC-7901 and SW-480), among them, compound 17 displayed strongest cytotoxic activity against A-549 cells and the results indicated that its cytotoxicity against A-549 cells was mediated by the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, ROS production-inhibitory activities were also evaluated, but none of them was active. PMID:27215130

  18. Glycosides from the stem bark of Fraxinus sieboldiana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Wang, Sujuan; Liu, Mingtao; Gan, Maoluo; Li, Shuai; Yang, Yongchun; Wang, Yinghong; He, Wenyi; Shi, Jiangong

    2007-05-01

    A norditerpene glucopyranoside with a novel carbon skeleton (1), eight new aromatic glycosides (2-9), and 25 known glycosides have been isolated from a H2O-soluble portion of an ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Fraxinus sieboldiana. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Based on analysis of the NMR data of threo- and erythro-arylglycerols in different solvents, an application of Delta delta C8-C7 values to distinguish threo-arylglycerol and erythro-arylglycerol isomers was proposed. In the in vitro assays, compound 5 displayed TNF-alpha secretion inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 1.6 microM, compound 6 showed antioxidative activity inhibiting Fe+2-cystine-induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation with an IC50 value of 0.9 microM, and plantasioside (10) showed selective activity against the human colon cancer cell line (HCT-8) with an IC50 value of 3.4 microM. PMID:17461599

  19. Antimicrobial triterpenes from the stem bark of Crossopteryx febrifuga.

    PubMed

    Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Nkeng-Efouet-Alango, Pépin; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga resulted in the isolation of epimeric mixtures of 3β-urs-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid and 18-epi-3β-urs-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid (1), as well as: 3β-D-glucopyranosylurs-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid and 18-epi-3β-D-glucopyranosylurs-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid (2), together with some known compounds such as the monoglyceride of palmitic acid, as well as β-sitosterol and its glucoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by application of spectroscopic methods. The MeOH extract and compounds 1 and 2 were examined for antimicrobial activity in in vitro assays against bacteria (Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13048, Escherichia coli ATCC8739, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC11296, Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi (Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans ATCC 9002 and Cryptococcus neoformans IP 90526). The tested samples showed selective activities. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of compound 2 (MIC=8-64 μg/mL) were in some cases equal to or even higher than those of the respective reference drugs chloramphenicol (MIC=16- 64 μg/mL) and nystatin (MIC=128-256 μg/mL). PMID:26352201

  20. Characterization of milled wood lignin (MWL) in Loblolly pine stem wood, residue, and bark.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Singh, Preet M; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2011-12-28

    Milled wood lignin samples from Loblolly pine stem wood, forest residue, and bark were isolated and characterized by quantitative (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for molecular weight determination. Results from (13)C NMR show the stem wood and forest residue samples have similar functional group contents. However, the bark has fewer methoxyl groups, β-O-4 structures, dibenzodioxocin, and side chains than the other two lignins. The bark lignin has the highest amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl (h) and C-5 condensed lignin, stem wood has the lowest, and the residue lies between. (31)P NMR analysis indicates that bark lignin contains more C-5 substituted phenolics and fewer aliphatic hydroxyl groups than the lignin isolated from stem wood or residue. The molecular weight distribution analysis indicates the bark lignin has higher weight-average molecular weight (M(w)) and polydispersity index than the lignin recovered from stem wood or residue. PMID:22141335

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of Broussonetia papyrifera stem bark

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Tung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Broussonetia papyrifera is used as a traditional medicine to treat few diseases. However, the antiinflammatory effect of B. papyrifera stem bark has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of n-hexane fraction from methanol extract of B. papyrifera stem bark on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation using RAW 264.7 cells. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract was obtained from B. papyrifera stem bark and its sequential fractions (hexane, dichloromathane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) were obtained by extraction in solvents with increasing polarity and were examined in RAW 264.7 cells. Results: The secretion profiles of pro-inflammatory parameters, including nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were found to be significantly reduced in 10-80 μg/ml dose ranges of n-hexane fraction (BP-H) from methanol extract of B. papyrifera stem bark. The expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was also significantly inhibited by BP-H. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that BP-H treatment decreased LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: The results suggest that the B. papyrifera stem bark has anti-inflammatory activity which inhibits the NO production and proinflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells. B. papyrifera stem bark might act as a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases. PMID:22345865

  2. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa against enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, I P; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2008-01-01

    Hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaf and stem bark of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains E. coli CIP 105 182, Salmonella enterica CIP 105 150, Shigella dysenteriae CIP 54-51 and Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103 907. Discs of Gentamicin, a broad spectrum antibiotic were used as positive controls. The results showed that all the extracts possess antimicrobial activities. A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the leaves and that of the bark showed that for all the tested microorganisms, the hydroalcoholic extract of the bark is more active than the aqueous extract of the leaf. The hydroethanolic extract of the leaves is as effective as the aqueous extract of the stem bark prescribed by the traditional healer, suggesting it is possible to use leaves other than the roots and bark. The phytochemical screening showed that sterols and triterpenes, saponosides, tannins, reducing compounds, coumarins, anthocyanosides, flavonosides are present in both bark and leaf but in different concentrations. PMID:20161943

  3. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF PLUM BARK NECROSIS STEM PITTING-ASSOCIATED VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete RNA genome of plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV) was cloned and sequenced and was determined to be 14, 214 nts long. The genome structure revealed seven major open reading frames (ORFs), and nontranslated regions at the 5' abd 3' ends. PBNSPaV represents the si...

  4. Phragmalin limonoids from the stem barks of Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Lin; Fang, Xin; Liu, En-De; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Li, Shi-Fei; Zhang, Yu; He, Hong-Ping; Li, Shun-Lin; Di, Ying-Tong; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Seven new phragmalin limonoids, chukvelutilides I-O (1-7), were isolated from the stem barks of Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Among them, compound 1 showed moderate lethal activity against brine shrimp larvae, with an LC50 value of 84.1 µM. PMID:25153097

  5. Larvicidal activity of latex and stem bark of Euphorbia tirucalli plant on the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajeshwari; Srivastava, V K; Chandra, Ramesh; Singh, Ajay

    2002-12-01

    The methanolic, chloroform and ether extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli latex and stem bark were evaluated for larvicidal activity against laboratory-reared larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), vector of the brancroftian filariasis and worst urban nuisance mosquito. The latex extracts contain more potent larvicidal components (177.14 mg/L-326.37 mg/L) than the stem bark extracts (237.663 mg/L-513.39 mg/L). The order of toxicity (LC50) for the latex extracts was Methanol extract (177.14 mg/L) > Chloroform (200.76 mg/L) > Ether (326.37 mg/L) while the rank of order of toxicity (LC50) of stem bark extracts was Ether (237.66 mg/L) > Chloroform (343.515 mg/L) > Methanol (513.387 mg/L), Higher doses (LC90 24 h of mosquito larvae) of each extract did not cause any mortality among fishes after 24 h. The study gave a weight into the possibility of formulating suitable preparation from the latex and stem bark extracts of the plant for use in mosquito control programme. PMID:14710857

  6. Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459

  7. Antimicrobial compounds from root, stem bark and seeds of Melia volkensii.

    PubMed

    Kamau, Rahab W; Juma, Benard F; Baraza, Lilechi D

    2016-09-01

    Three compounds, toosendanin (1), kulactone (2) and scopoletin (3), were isolated from either the root bark and/or the stem bark of Melia volkensii. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data generated and by comparison with data from the literature. 1 and 2, isolated for the first time from M. volkensii, exhibited significant (p < 0.05) activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/mL, close to that of neomycin (6.25 μg/mL). The compounds also exhibited high activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC 6.25 μg/mL compared to 2.5 μg/mL for clotrimazole). Dichloromethane and methanol seed, hexane stem bark and methanol root bark extracts exhibited activities towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of the plant towards A. niger, P. falciparum and S. aureus is reported for the first time in the current work. PMID:26517430

  8. Complete Genomic Characterization of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting–associated virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Zhu, Dongzi

    2016-01-01

    Plum bark necrosis stem pitting–associated virus (PBNSPaV) causes the plum bark necrosis stem pitting–associated disease. We obtained the complete genome of a PBNSPaV isolate (PBNSPaV-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing followed by overlapping RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a completed genome of PBNSPaV identified from cherry trees. PMID:27198034

  9. Complete Genomic Characterization of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Zhu, Dongzi; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV) causes the plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated disease. We obtained the complete genome of a PBNSPaV isolate (PBNSPaV-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing followed by overlapping RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a completed genome of PBNSPaV identified from cherry trees. PMID:27198034

  10. High ice nucleation activity located in blueberry stem bark is linked to primary freeze initiation and adaptive freezing behaviour of the bark

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S.; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Controlled ice nucleation is an important mechanism in cold-hardy plant tissues for avoiding excessive supercooling of the protoplasm, for inducing extracellular freezing and/or for accommodating ice crystals in specific tissues. To understand its nature, it is necessary to characterize the ice nucleation activity (INA), defined as the ability of a tissue to induce heterogeneous ice nucleation. Few studies have addressed the precise localization of INA in wintering plant tissues in respect of its function. For this purpose, we recently revised a test tube INA assay and examined INA in various tissues of over 600 species. Extremely high levels of INA (−1 to −4 °C) in two wintering blueberry cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance were found. Their INA was much greater than in other cold-hardy species and was found to be evenly distributed along the stems of the current year's growth. Concentrations of active ice nuclei in the stem were estimated from quantitative analyses. Stem INA was localized mainly in the bark while the xylem and pith had much lower INA. Bark INA was located mostly in the cell wall fraction (cell walls and intercellular structural components). Intracellular fractions had much less INA. Some cultivar differences were identified. The results corresponded closely with the intrinsic freezing behaviour (extracellular freezing) of the bark, icicle accumulation in the bark and initial ice nucleation in the stem under dry surface conditions. Stem INA was resistant to various antimicrobial treatments. These properties and specific localization imply that high INA in blueberry stems is of intrinsic origin and contributes to the spontaneous initiation of freezing in extracellular spaces of the bark by acting as a subfreezing temperature sensor. PMID:25082142

  11. HPTLC method for the estimation of alkaloids of Cinchona officinalis stem bark and its marketed formulations.

    PubMed

    Ravishankara, M N; Shrivastava, N; Padh, H; Rajani, M

    2001-04-01

    We report a sensitive method for the estimation of quinine (Qn), cinchonine (Cn), and cinchonidine (Cnd) and a new method based on fluorescence enhancement and detection and quantification of quinidine (Qnd) from Cinchona stem bark and its formulations, using HPTLC. Standard solutions of Qn, Qnd, Cn, and Cnd were applied on precoated HPTLC plates and developed with chloroform/diethylamine (9.6:1.4 v/v). The plates were scanned and quantified at 226 nm for Qn, Cn, Cnd and for Qnd at 366 nm in fluorescence and reflectance mode ([symbol: see text] K400 filter). The method was validated for precision, accuracy and repeatability. Further, the stem bark of Cinchona officinalis and some herbal and homeopathic formulations were evaluated for their individual alkaloid content applying the developed method. PMID:11345710

  12. Acylated Triterpene Saponins from the Stem Bark of Acer nikoense (Aceraceae).

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Sasaki, Yu F; Suyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Three new acylated triterpene saponins, acernikoenosides A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Acer nikoense, together with a known sterol glucoside. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. This study provided the first example of triterpene saponins isolated from this plant. The anti-genotoxic activity of 1, 3 and 4 against ultraviolet irradiation was evaluated by comet assay. PMID:27373647

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Jackie K.; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7–22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens. PMID:27293897

  14. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. PMID:24901833

  15. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  16. Hepatoprotective constituents of Firmiana simplex stem bark against ethanol insult to primary rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Cho, Namki; Kim, Bitnarae; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethanol causes hepatic cellular damage by alterations in biological functions. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract originating from Firmiana simplex (Sterculiaceae) stem bark against the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract of F. simplex stem bark was successively fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. Column chromatography with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 was used to isolate the EtOAc fraction. Rat primary hepatocytes were cultured to study the hepatoprotective activity of isolated substances against ethanol-induced toxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the antioxidant activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) enzymes, and the GSH content were measured to examine the antioxidative property of the isolated compounds. Results: Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin (1) and tamarixetin 3-O-rhamnopyranoside (2), were isolated from the active EtOAc fraction. Compound 1 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing the intracellular ROS level and preserving antioxidative defense systems such as GR, GSH-PX, and total GSH. Conclusion: This is the first report on the hepatoprotective activities of the extract of F. simplex. The EtOAc fraction of F. simplex stem bark and its major constituent quercitrin (1) could function as hepatoprotective agents to attenuate the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25709211

  17. Repellent Constituents of essential oil from Citrus wilsonii stem barks against Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Wua, Yan; Chenb, Hai-Ping; Wei, Jian-Yu; Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Li, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Ping-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Cai, Qian

    2014-10-01

    The essential oil obtained from Citrus wilsonii Tanaka stem barks with hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be nerol acetate (44.5%), nerol (13.6%), citronellyl propionate (13.5%) and α-terpineol (3.6%). Among them, the four active constituents, predicted with a bioactivity-test, were isolated and identified as nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol. It was found that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks possessed strong repellency (86% and 92%, respectively, at 78.6 nL/cm2, after 2 and 4 h treatment) against Tribolium castaneum adults. Repellency of the four active compounds was also determined. Nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol were strongly repellent (100%, 100%, 90% and 96%, respectively, at 15.7 nL/cm2, after 2h treatment) against T. castaneum. Nerol exhibited the same level of repellency as the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks and its active compounds have the potential to be developed as natural repellents for control of T. castaneum. PMID:25522550

  18. Structure, histochemistry and phytochemical profile of the bark of the sobol and aerial stem of Tontelea micrantha (Celastraceae - Hippocrateoideae).

    PubMed

    Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Mazzottini-Dos-Santos, Hellen C; Nery, Lays A; Ferreira, Peracio R B; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Royo, Vanessa A; de Oliveira, Dario A

    2014-09-01

    The bark of the underground stem of Tontelea micrantha (Mart. ex. Schult.) A. C. Sm., a native Brazilian Cerrado species, is used in folk medicine for treating kidney ailments. The structures of the underground and the aerial stems were examined and their barks were analyzed for the presence of secondary metabolites. Bark fragments were processed according to conventional techniques in plant anatomy and their chemical compositions examined using histochemical and phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatography, and high-efficiency liquid chromatography. The underground stem is a sobol with unusual cambial activity. Laticifers that secrete terpenoids were present in the cortex and phloem of both organs and can contribute to the identification of the species in field. Druses were present in both barks, but mono-crystals were only observed in the sobol. Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids occurred in both types of bark, but carotenoids were only detected in the sobol. The similarities between these two organs indicate that the aerial stem bark has potential medicinal use and represents a plausible alternative to harvesting the sobol, which could contribute to the preservation of natural populations of this species. PMID:25211103

  19. A new benzophenanthridine alkaloid and other bioactive constituents from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum heitzii.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Helle; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Tadesse, Margey; Miles, Christopher O; Moussavi, Nastaran; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl Egil

    2016-03-01

    Heitziquinone (7), a new benzophenanthridine alkaloid, together with five known compounds; isoarnottianamide (5), rhoifoline B (6), isobauerenol (8), 6-hydroxypellitorine (9) and sylvamide (10), were isolated as minor compounds from the hexane extract of stem bark from Zanthoxylum heitzii. Four previously reported compounds (1-4) were found, as well. Compounds 5 and 7 were both found to exist as 4:1 mixtures of two atropisomers. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. Compounds 5-10 were identified for the first time in this species, and they are all rare natural compounds. Pellitorine (4), one of the main compounds from the hexane bark extract, was found to be responsible for the brine shrimp larvae toxicity (LC50 37 μM, 8 μg/ml) of the crude extract (LC50 24 μg/ml). Low cytotoxicity against a macrophage cell line was observed. PMID:26802607

  20. Antidiarrheal activity of extracts and compound from Trilepisium madagascariense stem bark

    PubMed Central

    Teke, Gerald Ngo; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Kueté, Victor; Teponno, Rémy Bertrand; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Vilarem, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the preventive and curative antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract, fractions and compound from the stem bark of Trilepisium madagascariense in rats. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract from the stem bark of T. madagascariense, its fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue) and compound (obtained from further column chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction) were evaluated for the antidiarrheal activity in rats. These test samples (at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for the extract and fractions and 2.5 mg/kg for compound) were assayed on the latent periods, purging indices and fecal frequencies in castor oil-induced diarrhea. Gastrointestinal transit and castor oil-induced enteropooling assays were conducted. Shigella-induced diarrhea was assayed. Blood chemistry and fecal Shigella load were examined. Results: The fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from the methanol extract of T. madagascariense afforded a known compound [isoliquiritigenin (1)]. Compound 1 increased the latent period of diarrhea induction (179.40 min) compared to the saline control (60.80 min). The purging indices, fecal frequencies and intestinal enteropooling decreased with an increase in the dose of test samples. The blood cell counts, sera creatinine and fecal Shigella load decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in the plant extract-treated rats compared to the saline control. Conclusion: The results of our study, being reported for the first time, provide clear evidence that the methanol extract, fractions and isoliquiritigenin from T. madagascariense stem bark possess antidiarrheal activities. PMID:20871767

  1. Protective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubucin-induced renal and testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna; Karim, Alias A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. Materials and Methods: The present study evaluated the protective effects of sequential acetone extract of Ficus racemosa bark at two doses (FR250; 250 mg kg-1 and FR500; 500 mg kg-1 p.o.) against doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity in rats. Results: Doxorubicin administration resulted in significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in total protein and glutathione concentrations, while increased (P ≤ 0.05) serum urea, creatinine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Extract pretreatment restored biochemical parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased serum creatinine levels by 22.5% and 44%, while serum urea levels were decreased by 30.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Extract pretreatment (500 mg kg-1) decreased TBARS and increased glutathione levels in the kidney and testis to control levels. These observations were substantiated by histopathological studies, wherein normal renal and testicular architecture was restored in FR500 group. Conclusion: Doxorubicin exposure results in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of F. racemosa stem bark extract offers significant renal and testicular protection by inhibiting lipidperoxidation-mediated through scavenging free radicals. PMID:23772108

  2. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of the stem bark of Synadenium grantii.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Antonio C M; Minozzo, Bruno R; Cruz, Luiza S; Oliveira, Thaís L; Machado, Willian M; Pereira, Airton V; Fernandes, Daniel; Manente, Francine A; Vellosa, José C R; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson; Beltrame, Flávio L

    2014-04-01

    Based on the fact that Synadenium grantii is used in folk medicine for the treatment of peptic ulcers and inflammatory diseases, this work describes its chemical and pharmacological properties. Pharmacological investigation of the crude bark extract showed a high antioxidant activity over several scavenger systems, such as 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)• +, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl•, O2 • - , and HOCl, as well as an enzymatic system with human myeloperoxidase and an ex vivo hemolysis system. Furthermore, the oral administration of the crude bark extract was able to reduce carrageenan-induced rat paw edema as effectively as ibuprofen. These biological activities may be associated with the presence of flavonoids and terpenes, as revealed by HPLC and NMR analyses of the crude stem bark extract. The phytochemical investigations in this study resulted in the isolation of friedelin and 3β-friedelinol for the first time, while euphol and lanosterol were also isolated. PMID:24687740

  3. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark Erythrina Orientalis and detection of antimalaria activity by ELISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjadarie, Tjitjik Srie; Saputri, Ratih Dewi; Tanjung, Mulyadi

    2016-03-01

    Erythrina orientalis has local name "Dadap". This plant has known producing alkaloids, flavonoids, pterocarpans, stilbenes, and arylbenzofurans which are active compounds.Three prenylated flavonoids, 8-prenyl-daidzein (1), alpinumisoflavone (2) and 4'-O-methyl licoflavanone (3) had been isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina Orientalis. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data,which are IR, UV, MS, and NMR 1D (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC).

  4. Shamiminol: a new aromatic glycoside from the stem bark of Bombax ceiba.

    PubMed

    Faizi, Shaheen; Zikr-Ur-Rehman, Sadia; Versiani, Muhammad Ali

    2011-12-01

    A new aromatic glycoside, shamiminol was isolated from the stem bark of Bombax ceiba along with the known constituents stigmasta-3,5-diene, lupenone, (+/-)-lyoniresinol 2a-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and opuntiol, obtained for the first time from this plant. The structure of shamiminol was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric studies as 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol 1-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1). PMID:22312733

  5. A new lignan glycoside from the stem bark of Styrax japonica S. et Z.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ran; Moon, Hyun Teak; Lee, Dong Gun; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2007-04-01

    A new lignan glycoside was isolated from the stem bark of Styrax japonica (Styracaceae). This lignan glycoside, named styraxjaponoside C (1), was identified by spectroscopic methods. In addition, six known compounds, arctiin (2), pinoresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), matairesinoside (4), methylsyringin (5), syringin (6), and egonol (7) were isolated from this plant. The structures of 1-7 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and physicochemical data. Compounds 2 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:17489357

  6. COX-2 inhibitors from stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Aminu; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens resulted in the isolation of a new cyanoglucoside and menisdaurin from methanol extract and oxepin from petroleum ether extract. The isolated compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory potentials based on the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) model. Cyanoglucoside exhibited the highest activity among the compounds with an inhibition activity of 49.34 % at 100 µM (IC50 0.46 µM) compared to the positive control, indomethacin (79.20 %, IC50 0.24 µM). PMID:26600739

  7. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    PubMed

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest. PMID:26694348

  8. Low antiplasmodial activity of alkaloids and amides from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Penali, L; Mulholland, D A; Tano, K D; Cheplogoi, P K; Randrianarivelojosia, M

    2007-06-01

    The stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (syn. Fagara rubescens) is used for treating fevers associated with malaria in the Ivory Coast. Three alkaloids: N-nornitidine, 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, and bis[6-5,6-dihydrochelerythrinyl)] ether; and two amides: zanthomamide and lemairamide, were isolated from the stem bark of this plant. These compounds were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain and the chloroquine-resistant FCM29 strain of P. falciparum. N-nornitidine was found to be inactive. 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, lemairamide and zanthomamide showed weak activity with average IC50 values ranging from 45.6 microM to 149.9 microM. Bis[6-15,6-dihydrochelerythrinyl)] ether was the most active of the tested compounds with mean IC50s of 14.9 +/- 1.4 microM in FCM29 strain and 15.3 +/- 3.4 microM in 3D7 strain (approximately 58 to approximately 1130 times less active than chloroquine respectively). The anti-Plasmodium activities of the tested alkaloids of Z. rubescens were low; and do not encourage the use of this plant as antimalarial. PMID:17645189

  9. Analgesic and free radical scavenging activities of hydromethanolic extract of Crateva adansonii stem bark

    PubMed Central

    Udeh, Nkeiruka E.; Onoja, Samuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Crateva adansonii is a moderately sized deciduous tree found throughout the tropics especially along the river banks. This study was aimed at the evaluation of the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of C. adansonii stem-bark. Methods: The analgesic activity of Crateva extract was investigated using both chemical and thermal models of nociception in rodents while the antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) photometric model. Results: The extract produced a minute concentration-dependent increase in free radical scavenging activities. The extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in the number of writhing in treated rats when compared to the negative control. The extract at 100, 200, 400 mg/kg, and pentazocine (3 mg/kg) increased the pain reaction time in the treated rats by 58.05%, 66.67%, 94.76%, and 79.40%, respectively, when compared to the negative control. Conclusion: The C. adansonii stem bark possesses analgesic activity against peripheral and central mediated pain sensation and also antioxidant properties. This study justifies the ethnomedical use of C. adansonii in pain treatment. PMID:26401412

  10. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Abu Adakole; Nwocha, Uchendu Chukwuka

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05) in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05) compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats. PMID:26396567

  11. Further drimane sesquiterpenes from Drimys brasiliensis stem barks with cytotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Fratoni, Eduarda; Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Franchi, Gilberto C; Nowill, Alexandre E; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Monache, Franco Delle; Malheiros, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) is used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer. Its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in vitro models using extracts and isolated compounds. This study investigates the cytotoxic effects of stem bark extracts of D. brasiliensis as well as isolated compounds that may be responsible for the activitys and evaluates them in leukemia cells. The stem bark extract were subjected to column chromatography, and the structures of compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods by using NMR and infrared spectroscopy and GC/MS. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in chronic myeloid (K562) and acute B lymphoblastic (Nalm6) leukemia cells using tetrazolium assay (MTT). Two new compounds were isolated 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-5α-keto-11α-enol-albicanol (1a) and the isomer 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-5α-keto-11β-enol-albicanol (1b) and 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-isodrimeninol (2). The known compounds polygonal acid (3a) and the isomer isopolygonal acid (3b), fuegin (4a) and the isomer epifuegin (4b), the mixture drimanial (5) and 1β-O-(p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl)-6α-hydroxypolygodial (6) were also isolated. The drimanes (1-4) and drimanial (5), 1β-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial (7), 1β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial (8), and polygodial (9) isolated previously were assessed in tumor cells. The IC50 values were between 3.56 and 128.91 μM. 1-β-(p-cumaroiloxi)-polygodial showed the best result with IC50 8.18 and 3.56 μM by K562 and Nalm6, respectively. The chloroform extract of the stem bark of D. brasiliensis is a great source of drimane sesquiterpenes. Our experimental data suggest that drimanes are responsible for cytotoxicity activity demonstrated by this species, especially those with the aldehyde group linked to carbons C-11 and C-12. PMID:27095358

  12. Clinical Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Stems Bark in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common problem in clinical practice. Usually they are asymptomatic and are commonly present with distressing symptoms like pain and burning sensation on urination. Antibiotics are widely used to treat UTIs; however, they have their own limitations like resistance, reinfection, and relapses. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the value of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark as a potential medicine for UTIs. Study Design. 30 patients with UTI were randomly divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. Shigru bark was given to patients of the first group (trial group) and modern medicines were prescribed to the other group of patients. At least three follow-ups are taken in both groups at the end of every week of treatment. Results. After treatment 66.67 % were cured, 13.33 % improved, 13.33% patients have no change, and 6.67% relapsed in trial group and in control group 46.67% were cured, 26.66% improved, 6.67% patients have no change, and 20% relapsed. Interpretation and Conclusion. The trial drug is significant in the management of UTI. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a long time. PMID:27437504

  13. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Methods Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Results Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly

  14. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. on Shigellae.

    PubMed

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, Ip; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2007-01-01

    Total and hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem barks of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested on strains belonging to three species of Shigellae: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. boydii collected from hospitals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The results showed that both extracts were active against Shigellae. The hydroalcoholic extract was more active than the decoction (aqueous one) prescribed by the traditional healer. Both extracts were particularly effective against S. dysenteriae, the most virulent of the three pathogenic species. The effects of the extracts have been compared to that of gentamicin. The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars. PMID:20161907

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis (Mimosaceae).

    PubMed

    Kouitcheu Mabeku, Laure B; Kouam, J; Penlap, Beng V; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Fomum, Z T; Etoa, F X

    2006-01-01

    Ethyl acetate (EA) extract of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) was analysed phytochemically and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against 17 pathogenic species isolated from patient: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus feacalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus T, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, polyphenols, coumarins, triterpenes and/or sterols and reducing sugars were detected in the (EA) extract of CG. The best MIC and MBC values for the microorganisms sensitive to the extract were 0.00078 and 0.00315 mg/ml respectively. The greater and remarkable antimicrobial activity of the (EA) extract of CG was recorded with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus T. These results provide a rationalization for the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:20162076

  16. Designing mucoadhesive discs containing stem bark extract of Ziziphus jujuba based on Iranian traditional documents

    PubMed Central

    Hamedi, Shokouhsadat; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghpour, Omid; Amin, Gholamreza; Hajighasemali, Dawood; Orafai, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective (s): Mucoadhesive disc is one of the various routes of drug delivery for curing buccal disease Materials and Methods: Every discs containing 70 mg stem bark extract of Ziziphus jujuba were formulated by using Carbopol 934, PVP k30 and gelatin as polymers. Discs were made by granulation and direct compression. Discs were standardized based on the total phenol. Properties such as in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesion, drug release, water uptake, and disintegration were carried out. Results: Discs showed excellent mucoadhesion and released high amount of the active ingredients (47%) immediately and completed after approximately the first hour. They had a good adhesion in buccal cavity. Conclusion: This study showed that the kinetics of release of the active substance from the mucoadhesive disc obeyed the zero order kinetic and didn’t follow the fick's law. The water uptake and dissolution (DS), increased with the passing of time. PMID:27114804

  17. Cytotoxic prenylated flavones from the stem and root bark of Daphne giraldii.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Wang, Di; Li, Fei-Fei; Yao, Guo-Dong; Li, Xue; Li, Ling-Zhi; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2016-08-15

    Three new prenylated flavones (1-3), along with three known analogues (4-6), were isolated from the stem and root bark of Daphne giraldii. Their structures were determined by comprehensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 2 and 3 were assigned by optical rotation comparison, CD and [Rh2(OCOCF3)4]-induced CD spectral methods. The in vitro cytotoxicity experiments carried out involving five cancer cell lines (U251, A549, HepG2, MCF-7 and Bcap37) showed that 2 markedly inhibited the proliferation of all tested cells with IC50 values ranging from 4.26 to 20.82μM. The preliminary structure-activity relationships of these flavones are discussed. In addition, compound 2 was found to effectively induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells according to a flow cytometry analysis. PMID:27400887

  18. Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bairwa, Nirmal K.; Sethiya, Neeraj K.; Mishra, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:21808535

  19. Anti-influenza (H1N1) potential of leaf and stem bark extracts of selected medicinal plants of South India

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Maria John, K.M.; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Sekar, Thangavel; Jin, Ki-Joun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Variations in antioxidant and anti-viral activities (against Influenza AP/R/8 (H1N1) virus) between the leaves and stem bark of selected medicinal plants were studied. Malin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were used for the viral infection and the antiviral activity of the extracts was studied using sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. The stem bark of the plants including Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus, Strychnos nux-vomica and Chloroxylon swietenia showed higher flavonoid contents as well as 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity when compared with their leaves. In case of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, the stem bark of S. nux-vomica and leaf extract of C. swietenia showed the highest activity. Based on the IC50 values, the stem bark extracts of Cayratia pedata (20.5 μg/mL) and S. minor (22.4 μg/mL) showed high antiviral activity. In the mean-time S. nux-vomica, C. swietenia and C. swietenia bark extracts showed cytotoxicity to the MDCK cells. When comparing the stem bark and leaves the content of gallic acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, total flavonoids (TFC) and total phenols (TPC) was higher in stem bark and hence their anti-viral activity was high. Further study based on the metabolites against H1N1 can reveal the potential of therapeutic compounds against the viral disease. PMID:26288555

  20. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, T. J. N.; Okorie, O.; Okonta, J. M.; Okonkwo, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD50of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats. PMID:21188045

  1. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Amagon, Kennedy Iliya; Agbo, John; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara

    2015-01-01

    Bridelia ferruginea is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa and has traditionally been used to treat diabetes, arthritis and boils. Despite all these uses, extensive toxicological evaluation has not been carried out. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological effects of the stem bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea in rats. The lethal dose (LD50) was determined using probit analysis and graded doses of the extract (250–4000 mg/kg) were administered to the animals via oral and intraperitoneal routes and observed for mortality, behavioral changes and signs of toxicity. Sub-chronic toxicity study was carried out at doses of 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg administered daily for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days. Blood was collected for biochemical (renal and hepatic), hematological, oxidative stress, sperm and histopathological examinations, using standard methods. LD50 of the extract was estimated as >4 000 mg/kg orally; neither significant visible signs of toxicity nor mortality were observed. There were no significant differences in the animals and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters in the treated groups compared to the control group. However, a significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of lipid peroxidation and a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count were observed in the treated animals compared with the control group. The stem-bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to be relatively safe, though it has the potential to cause lipid peroxidation and damage sperm quality and should thus be used with caution. PMID:27486366

  2. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abatan, Mathew O.

    2013-01-01

    It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

  3. Efficacy evaluation of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Jeevan Ranjan; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Samanta, Indranil; Pal, Subodh; Khan, Madhuchhanda; Patra, Nimai Charan; Sarkar, Uttam; Maji, Asit Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the effect of Bauhinia variegata L. stem bark powder as adjunct therapy in chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in goat. Materials and Methods: Mastitis was induced by intracisternal inoculation of coagulase positive S. aureus (J638) at the concentration of 2000 colony forming units. Group I animals were treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg intravenously, and Group II animals were treated with once daily oral administration of B. variegata L. stem bark powder at 6 g/kg for 7 days followed by maintenance dose at 3 g/kg for next 7 days along with repeated dose of the antibiotic at 20 mg/kg intravenously at 4 days interval. Results: No significant improvement in the clinical condition of the udder was noticed in the group treated with repeated dose of ceftriaxone alone. However, in the group treated with B. variegata L. stem bark powder along with repeated dose of ceftriaxone, no S. aureus colony was seen at 96 h and onwards in milk samples with a marked decrease in somatic cell count and milk alkaline phosphatase activity and increased lactoperoxidase activity. Further, plasma and milk concentration of ceftriaxone/ceftizoxime was increased, which indicated antibacterial, bioenhancing and antiinflammatory properties of the bark powder. The Group II animals also exhibited marked reduction in polymorphonuclear cells and fibrous tissue indicating antifibrotic property of B. variegata L. Conclusion: B. variegata L. stem bark powder can be considered as an effective adjunct therapy to intravenous ceftriaxone in S. aureus chronic mastitis in goat. PMID:25298668

  4. Ricinus communis L. stem bark extracts regulate ovarian cell functions and secretory activity and their response to Luteinising hormone.

    PubMed

    Nath, S; Kadasi, A; Grossmann, R; Sirotkin, A V; Kolesarova, A; Talukdar, A D; Choudhury, M D

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. has ethnopharmacological contraceptive reputation but its stem bark has unexplored mechanisms of action in female reproductive system. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of the plant was examined on basic porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions and its response to Luteinising hormone (LH)-the upstream hormonal regulator. Systemic treatment of methanolic and aqueous extracts stimulated cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) and also promoted cell apoptosis (caspase-3). Aqueous extract has inverted the stimulatory effect of LH on PCNA but not on caspase-3. Methanolic extract stimulated as well as inhibited progesterone release and stimulated testosterone secretion. Whereas aqueous extract inhibited both steroid releases and suppressed the stimulatory effect of LH on progesterone release and promoted the inhibitory effect of LH on testosterone release. In conclusion, the present study unveils the mechanism of action of R. communis stem bark in in vitro condition. These suggest its possible contraceptive efficacy by exerting its regulatory role over LH and on basic ovarian cell functions and secretion activity. PMID:26311247

  5. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. Methods We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae) stem bark extract ethanol extract. Results Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 μg/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 μg/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%). In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter) was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter) against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 μg/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay. Conclusions Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components

  6. Neuropharmacological effects of standardized aqueous stem bark extract of Parkia biglobossa in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Tijani Adeniyi; Okhale, Samuel Ehiabhi; Adeola, Salawu Oluwakanyinsola

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parkia biglobossa stem bark decoction is a popular medicinal plant preparation used as calming agent for tensed patients in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Parkia biglobossa (AEPB) and its active fraction AEPBF3 on anxiety, spontaneous alternation behavior, and locomotor activity. The open field apparatus was used to evaluate effects of AEPB and AEPBF3 on locomotion. The APBE and the active fraction AEPBF3 were standardized using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography to establish finger print to ascertain identity and stability of the extracts over time. Materials and Methods: The oral median lethal doses (LD50) of AEPB and AEPBF3 were evaluated using modified Lorke’s method in rats. The effect of APBE (50-200 mg/kg p.o.), APBEF3 (25 and 50 mg/kg p.o.), diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and 10 ml normal saline/kg on anxiety-like behavior, spontaneous alternation behavior, and locomotion activity were evaluated in rats on elevated plus maze (EPM), Zero-maze, Y-maze, and open field apparatus, respectively. The oral LD50 values of AEPB and AEPBF3 were estimated to be 5000 mg/kg and 3800 mg/kg body weight in rats, respectively. Results: AEPB and AEPBF3 significantly (F6, 41=2342, p<0.0001) increased time spent in the open arm of EPM and significantly (F6, 41=2323, p<0.0001) increased time spent in open arms of the Zero maze. The AEPB and AEPBF3 administration produced significant increase (F5, 35=154, p<0.0001) in spontaneous alternation behavior in rats. The AEPB extract and its fraction AEPBF3 significantly increased total locomotor activity (F6, 41=413, p<0.0001) and rearing (F6, 41=150, p<0.0001) in the open field apparatus. Conclusion: The results of the present study provided evidence for anxiolytic and nootropic effects of the AEPB and AEPBF3, thus providing scientific basis for its continuous use in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by

  7. Plant Stem Bark Extractivism in the Northeast Semiarid Region of Brazil: A New Aport to Utilitarian Redundancy Model

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Siqueira, Clarissa Fernanda Queiroz; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL) diameter at breast height (DBH), and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content. PMID:22319546

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Boswellia ovalifoliolata stem bark-extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Krishna, T. Giridhara; David, E.

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles using biological systems is an expanding research area in nanotechnology. Moreover, search for new nanoscale antimicrobials is been always attractive as they find numerous avenues for application in medicine. Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is cost effective and eco-friendly compared to those of conventional methods of nanoparticles synthesis. Herein, we present the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using the stem bark extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata, and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy. Stable ZnO nanoparticles were formed by treating 90 ml of 1 mM zinc nitrate aqueous solution with 10 ml of 10 % bark extract. The formation of B. ovalifoliolata bark-extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (BZnNPs) was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and recorded the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at 230 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis revealed that primary and secondary amine groups in combination with the proteins present in the bark extract are responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the BZnNPs. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanocrystals were determined by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrodynamic diameter (20.3 nm) and a positive zeta potential (4.8 mV) were measured using the dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of BZnNPs was evaluated (in vitro) against fungi, Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacteria using disk diffusion method which were isolated from the scales formed in drinking water PVC pipelines.

  9. Acuminatol and other antioxidative resveratrol oligomers from the stem bark of Shorea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Norhayati; Din, Laily B; Sahidin, Idin; Hashim, Siti Farah; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Zakaria, Zuriati; Yaacob, Wan A

    2012-01-01

    A new resveratrol dimer, acuminatol (1), was isolated along with five known compounds from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Shorea acuminata. Their structures and stereochemistry were determined by spectroscopic methods, which included the extensive use of 2D NMR techniques. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (RSA) and the β-carotene-linoleic acid (BCLA) assays, and compared with those of the standards of ascorbic acid (AscA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). All compounds tested exhibited good to moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (IC₅₀s 0.84 to 10.06 mM) and displayed strong inhibition of β-carotene oxidation (IC₅₀s 0.10 to 0.22 mM). The isolated compounds were evaluated on the Vero cell line and were found to be non-cytotoxic with LC₅₀ values between 161 to 830 µM. PMID:22847143

  10. Phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic glycosides from stem bark of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhenzhen; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    An investigation of the hydrophilic constituents of the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis was performed and which led to isolation and identification of twenty-one previously unreported glycosides. These included eleven phenylethanoid glycosides, magnolosides F-P, and ten phenolic glycosides, magnolosides Q-Z, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical hydrolysis methods, as well as by comparison with literature data. Most of the phenylethanoid glycosides contained an allopyranose moiety, which is rare in the plant kingdom. Magnolosides I and K as well as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol 1-O-[4-O-caffeoyl-2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 0.13, 0.27, and 0.29mM, respectively) than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 1.09mM) in vitro. Magnolosides H, E and D also showed moderate cytotoxicity against MGC-803 and HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 13.59-17.16μM and 29.53-32.46μM, respectively. PMID:27086163

  11. Crystal structure of obscurine: a natural product isolated from the stem bark of B. obscura.

    PubMed

    Lenta, Bruno N; Chouna, Rodolphe J; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-07-01

    The title compound, C24H31NO3 {systematic name: (E)-3-[(1R*,2S*,4aS*,8aR*)-2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octa-hydro-naphthalen-1-yl]-N-iso-butyl-acryl-amide}, is a natural product isolated from the stem bark of B. obscura. It is composed of an octa-hydro-naphthalene ring system substituted with an essentially planar benzodioxole ring system [r.m.s. deviation = 0.012 Å] and an extended iso-butyl-acryl-amide group. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [100]. The chains are linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving inversion-related benzodioxole ring systems, forming ribbons lying parallel to (010). There are also C-H⋯π inter-actions present within the ribbons. PMID:26279906

  12. Antioxidant Activities of Fractions of Polymeric Procyanidins from Stem Bark of Acacia confusa

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The polymeric procyanidins extracted from Acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. All fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction F9. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses suggested that the collected fractions consisted primarily of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins, with different polymer ranges and most abundant polymer size. For each fraction, catechin and epicatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and epicatechin was the major component in the extended chain. The mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of each fraction differed, ranging from 1.68 (fraction F2) to 17.31 (fraction F11). There was a relationship between antioxidant activity (IC50/DPPH and FRAP) and mDP (R2DPPH = 0.861, P = 0.006 and R2FRAP = 0.608, P = 0.038), respectively. However, the highest antioxidant activity of fraction (F9) was not coincident with the maximum mDP of fraction (F11). PMID:21541049

  13. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Stem Bark Extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Uzunuigbe, Olohirere E.; Oyedemi, Sunday O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol stem bark extracts of Jatropha curcas. The total phenol, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were evaluated to determine their effect on the antioxidant property of this plant, using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant were also assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using spectroscopic methods and results were compared with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid as standards. The concentrations of different classes of phenolic compounds were higher in methanol and ethanol extracts compared to aqueous extracts. There was correlation between total phenol, total flavonoids, total flavonol and total proanthocyanidins (r = 0.996, 0.978, 0.908, and 0.985) respectively. There was correlations between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract (r = 0.98). Findings from the present study indicated that J. curcas is a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant based products. PMID:21686161

  14. ent-Kaurane diterpenes from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum (Annonaceae) and cytotoxic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lívia M; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rocha, Suellen L A; Nepel, Angelita; Soares, Milena B P; Barison, Andersson; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2014-08-01

    This work describes a novel ent-kaurane diterpene, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al along with five known ent-kaurane diterpenes, ent-3β,19-dihydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-acetoxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid and kaurenoic acid, as well as caryophyllene oxide, humulene epoxide II, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae). Cytotoxic activities towards tumor B16-F10, HepG2, K562 and HL60 and non-tumor PBMC cell lines were evaluated for ent-kaurane diterpenes. Among them, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al was the most active compound with higher cytotoxic effect over K562 cell line (IC50 of 2.49 μg/mL) and lower over B16-F10 cell line (IC50 of 21.02 μg/mL). PMID:24969014

  15. Crystal structure of obscurine: a natural product isolated from the stem bark of B. obscura

    PubMed Central

    Lenta, Bruno N.; Chouna, Rodolphe J.; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C24H31NO3 {systematic name: (E)-3-[(1R*,2S*,4aS*,8aR*)-2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octa­hydro­naphthalen-1-yl]-N-iso­butyl­acryl­amide}, is a natural product isolated from the stem bark of B. obscura. It is composed of an octa­hydro­naphthalene ring system substituted with an essentially planar benzodioxole ring system [r.m.s. deviation = 0.012 Å] and an extended iso­butyl­acryl­amide group. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [100]. The chains are linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving inversion-related benzodioxole ring systems, forming ribbons lying parallel to (010). There are also C—H⋯π inter­actions present within the ribbons. PMID:26279906

  16. Zoosporicidal activity of polyflavonoid tannin identified in Lannea coromandelica stem bark against phytopathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces cochlioides.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Tofazzal; Ito, Toshiaki; Sakasai, Mitsuyoshi; Tahara, Satoshi

    2002-11-01

    In a survey of nonhost plant secondary metabolites regulating motility and viability of zoospores of the Aphanomyces cochlioides, we found that stem bark extracts of Lannea coromandelica remarkably inhibited motility of zoospores followed by lysis. Bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical characterization of Lannea extracts by MALDI-TOF-MS revealed that the active constituents were angular type polyflavonoid tannins. Commercial polyflavonoid tannins, Quebracho and Mimosa, also showed identical zoosporicidal activity. Against zoospores, the motility-inhibiting and lytic activities were more pronounced in Lannea extracts (MIC 0.1 microg/mL) than in Quebracho (MIC 0.5 microg/mL) and Mimosa (MIC 0.5 microg/mL). Scanning electron microscopic observation visualized that both Lannea and commercial tannins caused lysis of cell membrane followed by fragmentation of cellular materials. Naturally occurring polyflavonoid tannin merits further study as potential zoospore regulating agent or as lead compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of zoosporicidal activity of natural polyflavonoid tannins against an oomycete phytopathogen. PMID:12405764

  17. A novel antimicrobial flavonoid from the stem bark of Commiphora pedunculata (Kotschy & Peyr.) Engl.

    PubMed

    Tajuddeen, Nasir; Sallau, Muhammad S; Musa, Aliyu M; Yahaya, Sani M; Habila, James D; Ismail, Abdullahi Musa

    2016-05-01

    A new flavonoid, 2-(3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-8,8-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-8H-pyrano[3,2]chromen-4-one, together with previously reported epicatechin was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Commiphora pedunculata. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on extensive analysis of their spectral data, including 1 and 2D NMR. The compounds were active against 9 out of 12 tested microorganisms including a resistant strain; vancomycin-resistant entrococci (VRE), Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The zones of inhibition ranged between 22 and 34 mm against the microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration was as low as 6.25 μg/mL against Shigella dysentriae, Bacillus cereus and S. aureus while the minimum bactericidal concentration was as low as 50 μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, VRE and C. albicans. This is the first report of the isolation of the compound. PMID:25978097

  18. Stem bark and flower extracts of Vismia cauliflora: modulation of oxidative burst in human neutrophils' and inhibition of oxidative damage in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Berto, Alessandra; Ribeiro, Daniela; Freitas, Marisa; Chisté, Renan Campos; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2014-10-01

    Vismia cauliflora is an Amazonian plant traditionally used to treat dermatosis and inflammatory processes of the skin by indigenous population. Our research group showed that stem bark and flower extracts of V. cauliflora are efficient in vitro scavengers of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In this study, we determined the activity of stem bark and flower extracts of V. cauliflora plant on the modulation of in vitro oxidative burst in human neutrophils and their potential to inhibit the oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. The oxidative burst in activated neutrophils were monitored by specific probes to detect the oxidizing effect of superoxide anion radical (MCLA), hydrogen peroxide (amplex red) and hypochlorous acid (APF), and both extracts were efficient to neutralize the oxidative burst (IC50 from 3 to 15µg/mL). These same extracts were also effective against oxidative damage in erythrocytes by inhibiting hemoglobin oxidation (IC50=18µg/mL) and lipid peroxidation (IC50=2.7 and 7.5µg/mL, flower and stem bark, respectively). In addition, stem bark extract (100µg/mL) inhibited the depletion of glutathione by 13%. These extracts have similar phenolic composition, but flower presents quercetin (14%) in its composition. Therefore, these results reinforce the potential therapeutic of stem bark and flower extracts of V. cauliflora to heal topical skin disease and requires further research targeted effectively to develop phytopharmaceutical drug based on this plant. PMID:26461382

  19. The antisnake venom activities of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, I U; Harvey, A L

    2003-12-01

    Snake bites in rural Nigeria are commonly treated with plant extracts. We have studied the ability of one such traditionally used plant (Parkia biglobosa; [Jacq.] Benth., Mimosaceae) to reduce the effects of two snake venoms (Naja nigricollis, and Echis ocellatus) in several experimental models. A water-methanol extract of P. biglobosa stem bark significantly (p<0.001) protected the chick biventer cervicis (cbc) muscle preparation from N. nigricollis venom-induced inhibition of neurally evoked twitches when it was added to the bath 3-5 min before or after the venom. The extract also reduced the loss of responses to acetylcholine (Ach), carbachol and KCl, which are normally blocked by N. nigricollis venom, and significantly reduced the contractures of the preparation induced by venom. P. biglobosa extract (75, 150 and 300 microg/ml) significantly (p<0.05) protected C2C12 murine muscle cells in culture against the cytotoxic effects of N. nigricollis and E. ocellatus venoms. The extract protected egg embryos exposed to lethal concentrations of E. ocellatus venom for more than 12 h and completely blocked the haemorrhagic activity of the venom at concentrations of 5 and 10 microg/1.5 microl. P. biglobosa extract (400 mg/kg) did not protect mice injected i.p. with 5 and 2.5 mg/kg of E. ocellatus and N. nigricollis venoms, respectively. It, however, protected 40% of the mice from death caused by E. ocellatus venom after the extract and venom were pre-incubated for 30 min before injecting the mixture. PMID:14757207

  20. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus

    PubMed Central

    Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean

  1. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    SciTech Connect

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-27

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  2. Anti-Microbial Evaluation of a Herbal Dental Remedy Stem Bark of Nuclea latifolia-Family Rubiaceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Falodun; Igwe, A.; Osahon, Obasuyi

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Nuclea latifolia used as a dentrifice by the local populace. The crude powdered sample was evaluated for the chemical and antimicrobial effects. The methanolic and chloroform extracts were subjected to different organisms of clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus varidans, Staphylococcus aerues, Penicillum nonatum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were also obtained. The results of the study revealed significant antibacterial effect of the extracts. The study thus justifies the ethno medicinal use of the plant as a dental remedy.

  3. Cylindroxanthones A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Ersam, Taslim; Fatmawati, Sri; Siripong, Pongpun; Aree, Thammarat; Tip-pyang, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Three new xanthones, cylindroxanthones A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The molecular structure of 1 was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These three xanthones were evaluated regarding their cytotoxicity against KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7, and Hep G2 cancer cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 value of 2.36 μM. PMID:26611370

  4. Structure and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds isolated from the edible fruits and stem bark of Harpephyllum caffrum.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Roshila; Koorbanally, Neil A; Shahidul Islam, Md; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant activity in edible fruits is an important characteristic in the choice of fruits for human consumption, and has profound influence on nutrition and health. Two pharmacologically active triterpenoids, β-sitosterol and lupeol, and the powerful flavan-3-ol antioxidant, (+)-catechin, were isolated from the edible fruits of Harpephyllum caffrum while a mixture of cardanols, an alkyl p-coumaric acid ester, and (+)-catechin were isolated from the stem bark. This is the first report of these compounds being isolated from this plant. The antioxidant capacity of (+)-catechin was higher than the other isolated compounds as well as the known antioxidant, ascorbic acid. PMID:25310809

  5. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  6. Isolation and identification of an antiparasitic triterpenoid estersaponin from the stem bark of Pittosporum mannii (Pittosporaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nyongbela, Kennedy D; Lannang, Alain M; Ayimele, Godfred A; Ngemenya, Moses N; Bickle, Quentin; Efange, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen for antiparasitic properties of Pittosporum mannii Hook (Pittosporaceae) through in vitro bioassay tests and to identify the bioactive compound(s). Methods The stem bark of Pittosporum mannii was harvested in Bali Nyonga in January 2007. The CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts were tested in vitro for antiparasitic activity. NF54 (an airport strain of unknown origin and sensitive to all known drugs) and K1 (a clone originating from Thailand and resistant to chloroquine/pyrimethamine) strains were used for the antiplasmodial screening while Leishmania donovani MHOM-ET-67/L82 was used for antileishmanial testing. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker AMX-500 spectrometer using CDCl3 as solvent. EIMS were recorded on a double-focusing mass spectrometer (Varian MAT 311A) while HREIMS were recorded on a JEOL HX 110 mass spectrometer. Results The MeOH extract was active on both the chloroquine-resistant (K1) strain (IC50=4.3 µg/mL) and on the macrophages of Leishmania donovani (IC50=8.6 µg/mL). The CH2Cl2 extract was considered inactive on both parasites (IC50>5.0 µg/mL and 21.7 µg/mL respectively). Compound 1, a constituent that precipitated from the MeOH extract, showed pronounced activity on both Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani parasites (IC50=1.02 and 1.80 µg/mL respectively) with artemisinin and miltefosine included as reference drugs. Its structure was identified as 1-O-[apha-L-(Rhamnopyranosyl]-23-acetoxyimberbic acid 29-methyl ester, a pentacyclic triterpenoid estersaponin. Conclusions The present study constitutes the first report on the antiparasitic activity of this plant and provides some support for the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of malaria. The plant has therefore been identified as a potential source for the discovery of antiparasitic lead compounds.

  7. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    N’Guessan, Benoit Banga; Dosso, Kassim; Gnangoran, Boua Narcisse; Amoateng, Patrick; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Yapo, Angoue Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane) produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:25883517

  8. Antifungal activity and acute toxicity of stem bark extracts of Drypetes gossweileri S. Moore-euphorbiaceae from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngouana, Vincent; Fokou, Patrick Valère Tsouh; Foudjo, Brice Ulrich Saha; Ngouela, Silvère Augustin; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Zollo, Paul Henri Amvam

    2011-01-01

    Drypetes gossweilleri S. Moore is a plant used in traditional medicine in Cameroon. The antifungal properties of its stem-bark crude extract and fractions DG(1), DG(2), DG(3), DG(4), DG(5), DG(6), DG(7), DG(8) and DG(9) were assayed by agar and broth dilution methods on solid and liquid media against C. Krusei, C. albicans, C. glabrata, T. mentagerophytes, M. langeroinii, M. gypeum, M. audouini, T. rubrum, T. soudanense, T. terrestre, A. flavus and A. niger. The results revealed a substantial antifungal effect with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging respectively from 24.11µg/ml to 1562µg/ml for yeasts and from 3125µg/ml to 12500µg/ml for filamentous fungi. Among the fractions, fraction DG4 exerted the highest antifungal activity. Moreover, no toxic effect was noticed in male and female albinos Wistar rats treated per os with the crude stem bark's extract of Drypetes gossweileri at a dose up to 12g/kg of body weight. The phytochemical screening of the crude extract and fractions showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, anthocyanines, anthraquinones, sterols, lipids and essential oils. Therefore, Drypetes gossweileri may be safe as phytomedecine for the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:22468013

  9. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  10. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    PubMed

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  11. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Pradhan, Paresh; Borah, Sudarshana; Mahato, Kabita; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2013-01-01

    Stem bark of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. was extracted in methanol to evaluate their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic activity was determined on Wistar albino rats by hot plate method, tail flick assay, and tail immersion method using Morphine sulphate as standard drug at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight and the results were expressed as mean increase in latency after drug administration ± SEM. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema using diclofenac sodium as standard drug at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight and expressed in terms of mean increase in paw volume ± SEM. Stem bark extract was given at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight. Both standard drugs and extract were administered orally to the animals. Control received distilled water orally. Results showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. had potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23984409

  12. Evaluation of the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Morinda lucida stem bark extract in streptozotocin intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Domekouo, Ulrich L F; Longo, Frida; Tarkang, Protus A; Tchinda, Alembert T; Tsabang, Nole; Donfagsiteli, Nehemie T; Tamze, Victorine; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Agbor, Gabriel A

    2016-05-01

    The present research evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida stem bark (50 and 500mg/kg) and glibenclamide (25mg/kg, standard drug) in acute (Oral glucose tolerance test) and sub-acute (Streptozotocin 60mg/kg, i.p. diabetic model) administration. A group of healthy rats constituted the normal control. The sub-acute experiment lasted 28 days during which water, food intake and weight gain were measured and biochemical parameters analyzed in both plasma and erythrocytes at the end of the experiment. The chemical substances present in M. lucida bark extract were determined. In the Oral glucose tolerance test, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant for both M. lucida extracts and glibenclamide. However, in the diabetic rats acute administration of 500mg/kg extract had better blood sugar lowering effect than glibenclamide, which was better than 50mg/kg extract. Streptozotocin diabetic animal model was characterized by a decrease in weight gain, erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities and an increase in water and food consumption, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma glucose, creatinine and urea concentrations, and transaminases activities. M. lucida extract and glibenclamide significantly prevented the alteration of these parameters, thus indicating a corrective effect on diabetes and its complications. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of M. lucida to treat diabetes. Its antioxidant properties may serve to curb oxidative stress and hence prevent the diabetic complications related to oxidative stress. Chemical substances, which may be accountable for the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida were detected in the aqueous extract of M. lucida bark. PMID:27166555

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) stem bark aqueous extracts against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rise of antibiotic resistance among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have caused concerns for the treatment of MRSA infections. Hence, search for an alternative therapy for these infections is inevitable. Folk Indian medicine refers to the use of leaf and stem bark powder of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) in treatment of skin infections, but no scientific report establishes its antibacterial activity. Methods Direct aqueous extracts and sequential aqueous extracts of the stem bark of T. alternifolia (using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as other solvents) were prepared by soxhlet extraction. The antibiotic sensitivity profiles of the clinical isolates were determined against 18 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The methicillin resistance among S. aureus (MRSA) was confirmed by PCR amplification of mecA gene. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extracts. The micro-dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against the test organism. To further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the extract, cell cytotoxicity was checked on Vero cells by MTT assay. Chemical profiling of the extract was done by HPTLC method. Results The aqueous extracts of T. alternifolia stem bark exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, particularly against clinical isolates of MRSA and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extract against the isolates ranged from 600–800 μg/ml. The extract did not exhibit cytotoxic activity against Vero cells even at the concentration of 4 mg/ml. The chemical profiling revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and steroids. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts did not exhibit antibacterial activity. Conclusion Our results offer a scientific basis for

  14. Bougainvinones A-H, Peltogynoids from the Stem Bark of Purple Bougainvillea spectabilis and Their Cytotoxic Activity.

    PubMed

    Do, Lien T M; Aree, Thammarat; Siripong, Pongpun; Pham, Tuyen N K; Nguyen, Phung K P; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2016-04-22

    Eight new peltogynoids, named bougainvinones A-H (1-8), were obtained from the stem bark of Bougainvillea spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of physical data (1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS) and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses. The peltogynoids, a rare type of modified flavonoids, are reported for the first time from this species of the genus Bougainvillea. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against five cancer cell lines including KB, Hela S-3, HT-29, MCF-7, and HepG2. Among them, compound 7 showed cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the 7.4-9.7 μM range, and compounds 2 and 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with IC50 values of 6.6 and 9.0 μM. PMID:26963142

  15. New Coumarin Derivatives and Other Constituents from the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum avicennae: Effects on Neutrophil Pro-Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jih-Jung; Yang, Chieh-Kai; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Kuo, Wen-Lung; Lim, Yun-Ping; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Cheng, Ming-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Three new coumarin derivatives, 8-formylalloxanthoxyletin (1), avicennone (2), and (Z)-avicennone (3), have been isolated from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum avicennae (Z. avicennae), together with 15 known compounds (4–18). The structures of these new compounds were determined through spectroscopic and MS analyses. Compounds 1, 4, 9, 12, and 15 exhibited inhibition (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ≤7.65 µg/mL) of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils in response to formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). Compounds 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC50 values ≤8.17 µg/mL. This investigation reveals bioactive isolates (especially 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 12 and 15) could be further developed as potential candidates for the treatment or prevention of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:25938967

  16. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dimo, Théophile; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods: Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results: M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions: The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity. PMID:20927244

  17. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha

    PubMed Central

    Adefuye, Anthonio O.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA) and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF) eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW). Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (Rf values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42) on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3), 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7), and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials. PMID:23661993

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B1); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B2). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R2 = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R2 = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Conclusions Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms. PMID

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of a methanol extract from Vitellaria paradoxa stem bark

    PubMed Central

    Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Tsala, David Emery; Zogo Essono Bodo, J.C; Carine, Azanfack Name; Heroyne, Lissia Toussoumna; Oben, Eyong Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitellaria paradoxa is a traditional medicinal plant of Cameroon. Several studies on this plant have focused on the cosmetic profile of its fruits. The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory potency of stem barks extract of this plant. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of V. paradoxa (VPME) stem barks on inflammatory response in rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory effects of VPME were evaluated in acute and chronic (28 days) inflammation induced in Wistar albino rats. The effects on hyperalgesia and locomotors activity were also quantified. The relative weight of lymphoid organs was obtained as well as some hematological parameters. Results: In the carrageenan-induced inflammation, VPME (75 mg/kg) exhibited a significant (66.67%) inhibition after 1 h. On the complete Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, VPME showed a significant protective effect with 8.12% inflammation against 25.00% for the control group after 2 days of the treatment. The extract (75 and 150 mg/kg) significantly reduced the score of arthritis with a maximum obtained on day 19th of the experimentation. There was a significant increase in the reaction time of rats on the hot plate as well as the exploratory activities of the animals in the open field. This extract significantly prevented weight, hemoglobin and red blood cells losses, and spleen hypertrophy. A protective action against skin destruction and cartilage erosion was evident. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the extract revealed the presence of catechins. Conclusions: These findings suggested that V. paradoxa may contribute to the reduction of the inflammatory response. PMID:26692752

  20. Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Illicium difengpi Stem Bark and Its Constituent Compounds Towards Two Grain Storage Insects

    PubMed Central

    Sha Chu, Sha; Fang Wang, Cheng; Shan Du, Shu; Liang Liu, Shao; Long Liu, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool (12.93%), and germacrene D (5.35%). Bioactivities-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of two compounds: safrole and linalool. Safrole showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species and (LD50 = 8.54 for S. zeamais; 4.67 µg/adult for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than linalool (LD50 = 24.88 for S. zeamais; 8.12 µg/adult for T. castaneum). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 13.83 and 6.33 µg/adult, respectively. Linalool also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 10.02 for S. zeamais; 9.34 mg/L for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than safrole (LD50 = 32.96 and 38.25 mg/L), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 14.62 and 16.22 mg/L, respectively. These results suggest that the essential oil of I. difengpi stem bark and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests. PMID:22236213

  1. A new steroidal glycoside and fatty acid esters from the stem bark of Tectona grandis Linn.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeba; Ali, M; Bagri, Priyanka

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the bark of Tectona grandis Linn. afforded a new steroidal glycoside identified as beta-sitosterol-beta-D-[4'-linolenyl-6'-(tridecan-4'''-one-1'''-oxy)] glucuranopyranoside and three new fatty esters, 7'-hydroxy-n-octacosanoyl n-decanoate, 20'-hydroxy eicosanyl linolenate and 18'-hydroxy n-hexacosanyl n-decanoate, along with the known compounds n-docosane, lup-20(29)-en-3beta-ol, betulinic acid and stigmast-5-en-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Their stereostructures have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions. PMID:20552529

  2. A New Aromatic Compound from the Stem Bark of Terminalia catappa.

    PubMed

    Pertuit, David; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Dutartre, Patrick; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2015-06-01

    A new aromatic compound 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-(4-sulfo)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), in addition to two triterpenoid saponins (chebuloside II, arjunoglucoside II), two triterpenes (arjunolic acid and 3-betulinic acid) and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside have been isolated from the barks of Terminalia catappa. Their structures have been established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques (1D/2D NMR) and MS. Their cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory activity, together with the antioxidant capacity of compound 1 were also evaluated. PMID:26197537

  3. Comparison of the essential oils of leaves and stem bark from two different populations of Drimys winteri a Chilean herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Orlando; Christen, Phlippe; Cretton, Silvian; Barrero, Alejandro F; Lara, Armando; Herrador, M Mar

    2011-06-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of stem bark and leaves of Drimys winteri J.R. et G. Foster var. chilensis /DC A. Gray (Winteraceae) from Chiloe Island (ID) and Continental Chile (Santiago) (CD) were studied by GC and GC/MS. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted the main chemical groups in the stem bark oils, with alpha-santalene, trans-beta-bergamotene and curcumenes as the major components. Monoterpenes constituted the main chemical groups in the leaves of Island plants with alpha-pinene (23.1%) beta-pinene (43.6%) and linalool (10.5%) as the main components whereas sesquiterpenes (germacrene D 17.6%) and phenylpropanoids (safrole 20.8%) are the most abundant in the leaves of Continental plants. PMID:21815431

  4. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão) in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marco Antonio; Palazzo de Mello, João Carlos; Kaneshima, Edílson Nobuyoshi; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2013-01-01

    Stryphnodendron adstringens has a high tannin content and is used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial and in the treatment of leucorrhea, gonorrhea, wound healing, and gastritis. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of the heptamer prodelphinidin (F2) from the stem bark of S. adstringens in rodents. In the acute toxicity test, the mice that received oral doses exhibited reversible effects, with an LD50 of 3.015 mg · kg(-1). In the chronic toxicity test at 90 days, Wistar rats were treated with different doses of F2 (10, 100, and 200 mg · kg(-1)). In the biochemical, hematological, and histopathological examinations and open-field test, the different dose groups did not exhibit significant differences compared with controls. The present results indicate that F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens caused no toxicity with acute and chronic oral treatment in rodents at the doses administered. PMID:23970938

  5. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão) in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marco Antonio; Palazzo de Mello, João Carlos; Kaneshima, Edílson Nobuyoshi; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Stryphnodendron adstringens has a high tannin content and is used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial and in the treatment of leucorrhea, gonorrhea, wound healing, and gastritis. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of the heptamer prodelphinidin (F2) from the stem bark of S. adstringens in rodents. In the acute toxicity test, the mice that received oral doses exhibited reversible effects, with an LD50 of 3.015 mg · kg−1. In the chronic toxicity test at 90 days, Wistar rats were treated with different doses of F2 (10, 100, and 200 mg · kg−1). In the biochemical, hematological, and histopathological examinations and open-field test, the different dose groups did not exhibit significant differences compared with controls. The present results indicate that F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens caused no toxicity with acute and chronic oral treatment in rodents at the doses administered. PMID:23970938

  6. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Mbaebie, BO; Edeoga, HO; Afolayan, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:23569880

  7. Effects of triterpenes from the stem bark of Dysoxylum cauliflorum on a non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma cell line (NSCLC-N6).

    PubMed

    Benosman, A; Richomme, P; Roussakis, C; Sévenet, T; Hadi, A H; Bruneton, J

    2000-01-01

    Six triterpenoids and one sesquiterpene were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Dysoxylum cauliflorum. Their structures were determined from 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectral data. Only compound 1 was cytostatic. Kinetic studies with ethyl eichlerianoate 1 demonstrated that this growth arrest was irreversible and cytofluorimetric analysis with compound 1 showed a complete block of NSCLC-N6 cells in the G1 phase. These events were related to a terminal maturation induction. PMID:10928118

  8. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered. PMID:20521992

  9. Identification and quantification of furanocoumarins in stem bark and wood of eight Algerian varieties of Ficus carica by RP-HPLC-DAD and RP-HPLC-DAD-MS.

    PubMed

    Rouaiguia-Bouakkaz, Samia; Amira-Guebailia, Habiba; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2013-04-01

    Furanocoumarins are the major phytoalexins of Ficus carica and are effective natural drug candidates for treatment of several types of cancer and skin disease. The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify linear furanocoumarins, mainly psoralen and bergapten, in wood and bark of stems from eight Algerian varieties of fig and to establish the differences in the content of these metabolites in the eight local samples. Psoralen and bergapten contents in the stem bark and wood (in microg/g DW) varied respectively from 146.6 to 1110.3 and from 395.7 to 1671.8 for psoralen, and from 114.3 to 524.0 and from 144.2 to 718.6 for bergapten. This study fills a gap in our knowledge of furanocoumarin distribution in different parts of the fig tree. Psoralen and bergapten concentrations were higher in the wood than in the stem bark. Most of the dark fruited fig trees produce these two coumarins more than the green ones. PMID:23738460

  10. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. (芒果 Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125–500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125–500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated

  11. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-04-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. ( Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125-500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125-500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated group

  12. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). Conclusion MECZ possesses

  13. Antiarol cinnamate and africanoside, a cinnamoyl triterpene and a hydroperoxy-cardenolide from the stem bark of Antiaris africana.

    PubMed

    Vouffo, Bertin; Dongo, Etienne; Facey, Petrea; Thorn, Andrea; Sheldrick, George; Maier, Armin; Fiebig, Heinz Herbert; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2010-10-01

    From the methanol extract of the stem bark of the African tree Antiaris africana Engler, two new bioactive metabolites were isolated, namely, the α-amyrin derivative 1β,11α-dihydroxy-3β-cinnamoyl-α-amyrin (antiarol cinnamate, 1) and a cardiac glycoside, 3β-O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-14β-hydroperoxy-5β-hydroxy-19-oxo-17β-card-20(22)-enolide (africanoside, 2a), together with the known compounds β-amyrin and its acetate, β-sitosterol and its 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, friedelin, ursolic and oleanolic acid, 19-norperiplogenin, strophanthidol, strophanthidinic acid, periplogenin (3a), 3-epiperiplogenin, strophanthidin (3b) and 3,3'-dimethoxy-4'-O-β-D-xylopyronosyl-ellagic acid. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data and by chemical methods, while 3a was additionally confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The aglycone moiety possessing a hydroperoxy group was found for the first time in cardenolides. Compounds 1 and 2a showed no activity against bacteria, fungi, and microalgae; however, the crude extract exhibited a high toxicity against Artemia salina and a selective antitumor activity against human tumor cell lines. Africanoside (2a) effected a concentration-dependent inhibition of tumor cell growth with a mean IC(50) value of 5.3 nM. PMID:20533166

  14. Anti-tumour promoting activity and antioxidant properties of girinimbine isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii S.

    PubMed

    Kok, Yih Yih; Mooi, Lim Yang; Ahmad, Kartini; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Mat, Nashriyah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ali, Abdul Manaf

    2012-01-01

    Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii was tested for the in vitro anti-tumour promoting and antioxidant activities. Anti-tumour promoting activity was determined by assaying the capability of this compound to inhibit the expression of early antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EA-EBV) in Raji cells that was induced by the tumour promoter, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The concentration of this compound that gave an inhibition rate at fifty percent was 6.0 µg/mL and was not cytotoxic to the cells. Immunoblotting analysis of the expression of EA-EBV showed that girinimbine was able to suppress restricted early antigen (EA-R). However, diffused early antigen (EA-D) was partially suppressed when used at 32.0 µg/mL. Girinimbine exhibited a very strong antioxidant activity as compared to a-tocopherol and was able to inhibit superoxide generation in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiated premyelocytic HL-60 cells more than 95%, when treated with the compound at 5.3 and 26.3 µg/mL, respectively. However girinimbine failed to scavenge the stable diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical. PMID:22522395

  15. In Vitro Effect of Aqueous Extract and Fraction IV Portion of Ximenia americana Stem Bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA

    PubMed Central

    Maikai, Victor Ambrose; Maikai, Beatty Viv; Kobo, Patricia Ishyaku

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease affecting mainly livestock and humans in tropical Africa. Chemically synthesized drugs and medicinal plants have been used in the treatment and control of this disease. In this study, the in vitro effect of aqueous extracts and fraction IV extract of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA was investigated. The extracts were incubated with the parasites in vitro at 300 mg/mL aqueous extract and 25 mg/mL fraction IV portion for 30, 60, and 120 mins. The DNA of the trypanosomes was isolated and digested using ECOR1 enzyme and subsequently PCR was carried out. Results showed that aqueous extract and fraction IV portion immobilized 55% and 90% of the trypanosomes after 30-minute incubation. Subsequent isolation of the parasite DNA and agarose gel electrophoresis did not reveal that cell death was as a result of DNA fragmentation. This suggests that cell death was by another mechanism of action. PMID:24587898

  16. Evaluation of the Acetone and Aqueous Extracts of Mature Stem Bark of Sclerocarya birrea for Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tanih, Nicoline F.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    We assayed the antimicrobial activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea on some selected bacteria and fungi species including; Streptococcus pyogenes, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, Trichosporon mucoides, and Candida krusei using both agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Based on the levels of activity, the acetone extract was examined for total polyphenolic content, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Total phenols of the extract were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. All the bacteria and fungi species were susceptible to the plant extracts. The acetone extract was the most active for the bacterial species with MIC (0.156–0.625 mg/mL) while the aqueous extract was the most active for the fungi species with MIC (0.3125–1.25 mg/mL). The polyphenolic compounds were found as 27.2 mg/g tannic acid equivalent, 25.2 mg/g quercetin equivalent, 9.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent for phenols, flavonoid and flavonols respectively. The acetone extract exhibited a remarkable ability to scavenge radicals, strong reducing ability and a potential source of natural antioxidants. Both the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may provide a target for drug discovery. PMID:22675390

  17. Mallotus philippinensis bark extracts promote preferential migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improve wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Furumoto, Tadashi; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Inami, Yuta; Toyoshima, Misaki; Fujita, Kosuke; Zaiki, Kaori; Sahara, Shunya; Akita, Mariko; Kitamura, Keiko; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2014-02-15

    In the present study, we report the effects of the ethanol extract from Mallotus philippinensis bark (EMPB) on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation, migration, and wound healing in vitro and in a mouse model. Chemotaxis assays demonstrated that EMPB acted an MSC chemoattractant and that the main chemotactic activity of EMPB may be due to the effects of cinnamtannin B-1. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in EMPB-injected mice indicated that EMPB enhanced the mobilization of endogenous MSCs into blood circulation. Bioluminescent whole-animal imaging of luciferase-expressing MSCs revealed that EMPB augmented the homing of MSCs to wounds. In addition, the efficacy of EMPB on migration of MSCs was higher than that of other skin cell types, and EMPB treatment improved of wound healing in a diabetic mouse model. The histopathological characteristics demonstrated that the effects of EMPB treatment resembled MSC-induced tissue repair. Taken together, these results suggested that EMPB activated the mobilization and homing of MSCs to wounds and that enhancement of MSC migration may improve wound healing. PMID:24182990

  18. Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Alafia multiflora Stem Barks in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Tsala, David Emery; Bouba, Armand Abdou; Hritcu, Lucian

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of Alafia multiflora Stapf (AM) stem barks (150 and 300 mg/kg, 7 days administration) on rats and mice, using experimental paradigms of anxiety and depression. In the open field, the aqueous extract increased significantly the number of center square crossed and the time spent at the center of the field as well as the rearing time, while the grooming time was reduced significantly. In the elevated plus maze, the aqueous extract increased the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms. All these effects were also completely reversed by flumazenil, an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors and pindolol a β-adrenoceptors blocker/5-HT 1A/1B receptor antagonist. The time spent in the light compartment, the latency time, and the number of the light-dark transitions increased significantly in the light/dark exploration test after the treatment with AM. The extract was able to reduce significantly the immobility time and increase swimming as well as climbing duration. Taken together, the present work evidenced anxiolytic effects of the aqueous extract of AM that might involve an action on benzodiazepine-type receptors and an antidepressant effect where noradrenergic mechanisms will probably play a role. PMID:23125853

  19. Willow Bark

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions. Avoid use. Surgery: Willow bark might slow blood clotting. There is a concern it could cause extra ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Willow bark might slow blood ...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and topical products of the stem bark of Spathodea campanulata for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ofori-Kwakye, K; Kwapong, A A; Adu, F

    2009-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the aqueous, ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether Soxhlet extracts of sundried stem bark of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) was investigated by testing the extracts against B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extract was determined against the four bacteria strains and C. albicans using the broth dilution method. Four topical products were prepared by incorporating the methanol extract of S. campanulata (20 % w/w) into aqueous cream, soft paraffin, emulsifying ointment and simple ointment bases and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial efficacy. The effect of storage time on the activity of the methanol extract of S. campanulata and S. campanulata extract incorporated in aqueous cream base was also investigated. The methanol and ethanol extracts showed good activity while the aqueous and petroleum ether extracts exhibited little activity. The methanol extract showed the best antibacterial activity. The MIC of the methanol extract of S. campanulata was: C. albicans (45 - 50 mg/ml), B. subtilis and E. coli (50 - 55 mg/ml), P. aeruginosa (60 - 65 mg/ml), S. aureus (145 - 150 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of S. campanulata in the topical bases was in the order: aqueous cream > emulsifying ointment > simple ointment > white soft paraffin. Antimicrobial activity of S. campanulata in aqueous cream decreased (p < 0.05) upon storage at room temperature for 6-months. The antifungal activity of the methanol extract of S. campanulata was reduced (p < 0.05) upon storage while antibacterial activity was largely unaffected. PMID:20209009

  1. Antihyperalgesic effects of an aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.: role of mangiferin isolated from the extract.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; García, Mary Elena; Delgado-Hernández, René

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of a Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) and mangiferin (MG) on pain-related acute behaviors in the formalin 5% test. Rats received repeated oral MSBE (125-500 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days before formalin injection. Other four groups with the same treatments were performed in order to study the effect of MSBE on the formalin-induced long-term secondary mechano-hyperalgesia at 7 days after the injury by means of the pin-prick method. Additional groups received a single oral MSBE dose (250 mg/kg) plus ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, repeated oral MG doses (12.5-50 mg/kg) during 7 days were administered. MSBE decreased licking/biting and flinching behaviors only in phase II and reduced the long-term formalin injury-induced secondary chronic mechano-hyperalgesia. The combination of MSBE plus ascorbic acid produced a reinforcement of this effect for flinching behavior, advising that antioxidant mechanisms are involved, at least in part, in these actions. Chronic administration of MG reproduced the effects of MSBE. For the first time, the antihyperalgesic effects of MSBE and MG in formalin 5% test, a recommended concentration for studying the antinociceptive activity of nitric oxide-related and N-methyl-d-aspartate-related compounds, were reported. These results could represent an important contribution to explain the analgesic ethnobotanical effects recognized to M. indica and other species containing MG. PMID:24849742

  2. Assessment of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. stem bark fractions in mice.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, C C; Silva, C R; Menezes, A C S; Pérez, C N; Chen-Chen, L

    2013-01-01

    Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don., popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari", "cascudo", and "saputá", is a shrub of the Celastraceae family that is unique to the Brazilian Cerrado region. In folk medicine, this plant has been mainly used to treat skin cancer and gastric ulcers. In the present study, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic extracts) were evaluated using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Our results showed that none of the S. crassifolia fractions led to a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) (P > 0.05), suggesting the absence of genotoxicity. In the antigenotoxicity assessment, a significant decrease in the MNPCE frequency was observed in all fractions of this plant (P < 0.05), demonstrating its protective action against genotoxicity induced by mitomycin C (MMC), which was used as the positive control. Only the hexane fraction of S. crassifolia significantly decreased the poly- and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE) in all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating its cytotoxic activity. In association with MMC, both ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic fractions significantly increased the PCE/NCE ratio in almost all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating the protective action of S. crassifolia against the cytotoxic effect of the positive control. In contrast, the hexane fraction presented a significant decrease in the PCE/NCE ratio in all treatments (P < 0.05), demonstrating an increase in this plant's cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23884760

  3. Estrogenic activity of isoflavonoids from the stem bark of the tropical tree Amphimas pterocarpoides, a source of traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Tchoumtchoua, Job; Makropoulou, Maria; Ateba, Sylvain Benjamin; Boulaka, Athina; Halabalaki, Maria; Lambrinidis, George; Meligova, Aggeliki K; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Mikros, Emmanuel; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Mitsiou, Dimitra J; Njamen, Dieudonne; Alexis, Michael N

    2016-04-01

    Various preparations of the African tree Amphimas pterocarpoides Harms are traditionally used to treat endocrine- related adverse health conditions. In the ovariectomized rat, the enriched in phenolics fraction of the methanol extract of stem bark of A. pterocarpoides acted as vaginotrophic agent of considerably weaker uterotrophic activity compared to estradiol. Evaluation of the fraction and 11 isoflavonoids isolated therefrom using Ishikawa cells and estrogen receptor (ER) isotype-specific reporter cells suggested that the estrogenic activity of the fraction could be attributed primarily to daidzein and dihydroglycitein and secondarily to glycitein. The potency-based selectivity of daidzein, dihydroglycitein and glycitein for gene expression through ERβ versus ERα, expressed relative to estradiol, was 37, 27 and 20, respectively. However, the rank order of relative-to-estradiol potencies of induction of alkaline phosphatase in Ishikawa cells, a reliable marker of estrogenic activity, was daidzein>dihydroglycitein>glycitein. The considerably higher estrogenic activity of dihydroglycitein compared to glycitein could be attributed to the partial agonist/antagonist activity of dihydroglycitein through ERβ. Calculation of theoretical free energies of binding predicted the partial agonism/antagonism of dihydroglycitein through ERβ. The fraction and the isolated isoflavonoids promoted lactogenic differentiation of HC11 mammary epithelial cells at least as effectively as premenopausal levels of estradiol. This data suggests that the estrogenic activity of the fraction likely depends on the metabolism of glycitein to dihydroglycitein; that the fraction could exert vaginotrophic activity likely without challenging endocrine cancer risk more than estrogen-alone supplementation; and that the fraction's safety for the reproductive track warrants a more detailed evaluation. PMID:26706281

  4. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid contents of the stem bark ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus

    PubMed Central

    Olugbami, JO; Gbadegesin, MA

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants with free radical scavenging activities can be relevant as chemopreventive agents against the numerous diseases associated with free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Some phytoconstituents possess antioxidant activities in biological systems. On this basis, we evaluated the antioxidant potential, and determined the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpus [EESAL]. Antioxidant assays carried out include: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, phosphomolybdate, β-carotene bleaching, ferric reducing, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Results of DPPH assay showed no significant difference (p < 0.001) between EESAL and butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], while EESAL exhibited a significantly (p < 0.001) higher activity than BHT [butylated hydroxytoluene]. Phosphomolybdate method recorded a total antioxidant capacity of 190.00 ± 70.53 µg butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg dry extract, while β-carotene bleaching assay gave percent antioxidant activities of both EESAL and BHT as 81.46±1.62 and 80.90±1.39 respectively. Ferric reducing abilities of both EESAL and ascorbic acid increased in a concentration-dependent manner with EESAL displaying a significantly (p < 0.001) higher reductive activity than vitamin C. EESAL displayed a significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as compared with BHT at the lowest concentration with no significant difference at the highest concentration. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of EESAL were obtained as 608.10 ± 2.12 µg GAE/mg and 78.96 ± 3.37 µg QE/mg respectively. Taken together, the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of EESAL is likely due to its high phenolic content with complementary effects of the flavonoid components. PMID:26681826

  5. Aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) protects against generalized seizures in pentylenetetrazole and electro-convulsive models in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ching, F P; Omogbai, E K I; Otokiti, I O

    2009-01-01

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 - 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Stereospermum kunthianum extract (200 - 400mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably protected (76.9% and 84.6 % respectively) the rats against electroshock-induced seizures. However, the extract (200- 400mg/kg) when administered orally showed a comparatively less effect (33.3% and 55.6% respectively) to the intraperitoneally administered extract in the maximal electroshock test. The extract (100-400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed (p<0.05) the onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures but only slightly prolonged the time of death of the mice. Although the findings in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it appears that the aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum produces its antiseizure effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The results indicate that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity in rodents and therefore tend to suggest that the shrub may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of childhood convulsions. It can be concluded that the aqueous stem bark extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and therefore lend pharmacological credence to the traditionally claimed use in the treatment of childhood convulsions. PMID:20606775

  6. Assessment of the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the alcoholic stem bark extract/fractions of Mimusops elengi Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Savaliya, Mihir; Biswas, Subhankar; Nayak, Pawan G; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Manjunath Setty, M; Gourishetti, Karthik; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2016-08-01

    Various parts of Mimusops elengi Linn. (Sapotaceae) have been used widely in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and wounds. The study was conducted to explore the use of stem bark of M. elengi on pharmacological grounds and to evaluate the scientific basis of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity. Extract/fractions were prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using SRB assay. Most effective fractions were subjected to fluorescence microscopy based acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Hoechst 33342 staining to determine apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation assay. Comet and micronuclei assay were performed to assess genotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis was also performed. In vivo anti-tumor potential was evaluated by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice. The alcoholic stem bark extract of M. elengi along with four fractions showed potential in vitro cytotoxicity in SRB assay. Of these, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were selected for further studies. The fractions revealed apoptosis inducing potential in AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining, which was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay. Genotoxic potential was revealed by comet and micronuclei assay. Fractions also exhibited specific cell cycle inhibition in G0/G1 phase. In EAC model, ethyl acetate fraction along with the standard (cisplatin) effectively reduced the increase in body weight compared to control and improved mean survival time. Both fractions were able to restore the altered hematological and biochemical parameters. Hence, M. elengi stem bark may be a possible therapeutic candidate having cytotoxic and anti-tumor potential. PMID:25701190

  7. Globulixanthone F, a new polyoxygenated xanthone with an isoprenoid group and two antimicrobial biflavonoids from the stem bark of Symphonia globulifera.

    PubMed

    Mkounga, Pierre; Fomum, Zacharias T; Meyer, Michèle; Bodo, Bernard; Nkengfack, Augustin E

    2009-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the stem bark of Symphonia globulifera has yielded three known xanthones, ugaxanthone (1), mbarraxanthone (2) and gentisein (3), two biflavonoid derivatives named GB2 (4) and manniflavanone GB3 (5), and one new polyoxygenated xanthone with an isoprenoid group, named globulixanthone F (6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods. The spectral data of 1 and 2 are reported here for the first time, as well as the antimicrobial activity of globulixanthone F against a range of microorganisms. We also report the total synthesis of the xanthone skeleton. PMID:19634326

  8. Characterization of Constituents and Anthelmintic Properties of Hagenia abyssinica

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Henrieke; Reider, Katrin; Franke, Katrin; Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Keiser, Jennifer; Dagne, Ermias; Arnold, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The dried female flowers of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel. (Rosaceae) are traditionally used as an anthelmintic remedy in Ethiopia and formerly were incorporated into the European Pharmacopoeia. One-, two- and tricyclic phloroglucinol derivatives (kosins) were suggested to be the active principles. However, polar constituents may also contribute to the activity. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the polar constituents. We isolated typical Rosaceae constituents such as quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside and rutin. Polar kosin glycosides or derivatives could not be detected. The anthelmintic activity of fractions of different polarity were tested against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica and the intestinal fluke Echinostoma caproni. The anthelmintic activity decreased with increasing polarity of the tested fractions. ESI-MS investigations indicated the predominant occurrence of kosins in the active fractions. Using the anthelmintic active extracts of Hagenia abyssinica we developed a simple, inexpensive bioassay against the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which can be used as an initial screening procedure for anthelmintic properties of crude extracts of plants or fungi. The anthelmintic activity of test extracts against the model organism was determined in a microtiter plate assay by enumeration of living and dead nematodes under a microscope. PMID:22896828

  9. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    PubMed

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.0001 for the temporal profile and r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.008 for the spatial profile), indicating that phloem water content depends on the total amount of sugar to be transferred. Changes in phloem water content were unrelated to changes in bark thickness. Maximum changes in phloem water content calculated from dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P < 0.0001, in both cases). Changes in bark thickness corresponded with both short- and long-term changes in relative humidity, in both winter and summer. Under controlled conditions at > 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude

  10. Selective Cytotoxicity and Pro-apoptotic Activity of Stem Bark of Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. in Cancerous Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Shilpee; Devkar, Raviraj Anand; Bhere, Deepak; Setty, Manganahalli Manjunath; Pai, Karkala Sreedhara Ranganath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. is a widely available shrub in India used traditionally in various ailments, including cancer. However, the anticancer activity of the bioactive fractions has not been validated scientifically. Objective: To investigate the anticancer potential of stem bark of W. tinctoria and establish its phytochemical basis. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract and subsequent fractions, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous were prepared by standard methods. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined in MCF-7 (breast) and HeLa (cervical) adenocarcinoma cells, and V79 (nontumor fibroblast) cells and apoptogenic activity in MCF-7 cells by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. Additionally, the antioxidant potential was evaluated using suitable methods. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis was performed for identification of active phytoconstituents. Results: Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were most potent with IC50 values of 37.78 and 29.69 μg/ml in HeLa and 31.56 and 32.63 μg/ml in MCF-7 cells respectively in the sulforhodamine B assay. Comparable results were obtained in HeLa cells in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and interestingly, the fractions were found to be safe to noncancerous fibroblast cells. Both fractions induced significant (P < 0.05) apoptotic morphological changes observed by AO/EB staining. Moreover, extract/fractions exhibited excellent inhibition of lipid peroxidation with the ethyl acetate fraction being most active (IC50:23.40 μg/ml). HPTLC confirmed the presence of two anti-cancer triterpenoids, lupeol, and β-sitosterol in active fractions. Conclusion: Extract/fractions of W. tinctoria exhibit selective cytotoxicity against cancerous cells that is mediated by apoptosis. Fractions are less toxic to noncancerous cells; hence, they can be developed as safer chemopreventive agents. SUMMARY Petroleum ether

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Simarouba amara Aublet (Simaroubaceae) stem bark against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Hélida M L; Vasconcelos, Carlos F B; Rolim, Larissa A; Neto, Pedro J Rolim; Neto, Jacinto da C Silva; Filho, Reginaldo C da Silva; Fernandes, Mariana P; Costa-Silva, João H; Araújo, Alice V; Wanderley, Almir G

    2014-01-01

    Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE) on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. SAAE was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). Groups I (vehicle-corn oil), II (control-CCl4), III, IV, V and VI were pretreated during 10 consecutive days, once a day p.o, with Legalon® 50 mg/kg b.w, SAAE at doses 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The hepatotoxicity was induced on 11th day with 2 mL/kg of 20% CCl4 solution. 24 h after injury, the blood samples were collected and their livers were removed to biochemical and immunohistochemical analyzes. The SAAE decreased the levels of liver markers and lipid peroxidation in all doses and increased the catalase levels at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical results suggested hepatocyte proliferation in all doses. These results may be related to catechins present in SAAE. Thus, SAAE prevented the oxidative damage at the same time that increased regenerative and reparative capacities of the liver. PMID:25365298

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Cissus populnea on Ferrous Sulphate- and Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat's Testes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Akomolafe, Seun F; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Tade, Oluwatosin G

    2013-01-01

    Cissus populnea are plants associated with a myriad of medicinal uses in different parts of the world and are good sources of carotenoids, triterpenoids, and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of water extractible phytochemicals from stem bark of C. populnea on FeSO(4) and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes were investigated in vitro. The results revealed that the extract was able to scavenge DPPH radical, chelate Fe(2+) and also had a high reducing power. Furthermore, the incubation of the testes tissue homogenate in the presence of FeSO(4) and SNP, respectively, caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the testes. However, the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. populnea caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of both Fe(2+) (EC(50) = 0.027 mg/mL) and SNP- (EC(50) = 0.22 mg/mL) induced lipid peroxidation in the rat testes homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. The water extractible phytochemicals from C. populnea protect the testes from oxidative stress and this could be attributed to their high antioxidant activity: DPPH-scavenging ability, Fe(2+)-chelating and -reducing power. Therefore, oxidatively stress in testes could be potentially managed/prevented by this plant. PMID:23401792

  13. Antioxidant and prophylactic effects of Delonix elata L., stem bark extracts, and flavonoid isolated quercetin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Krishnappa, Pradeepa; Venkatarangaiah, Krishna; Venkatesh; Shivamogga Rajanna, Santosh Kumar; Kashi Prakash Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Delonix elata L. (Ceasalpinaceae), is widely used by the traditional medical practitioners of Karnataka, India, to cure jaundice, and bronchial and rheumatic problems. The objective of this study was to screen the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the stem bark extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Among different stem bark extracts tested, the ethanol extract (DSE) has shown significant in vitro antioxidant property in radicals scavenging, metal chelating, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. HPLC analysis of the DSE revealed the presence of known antioxidant molecules, namely, gallic acid, ellagic acid, coumaric acid, quercetin, and rutin. Bioassay-guided fractionation of DSE has resulted in the isolation and characterization of quercetin. DSE and quercetin have shown significant prophylactic effects by restoring the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, serum bilirubin, and total protein) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST). These results were proved to be hepatoprotective at par with silymarin and well supported by the histological observations of liver sections with distinct hepatic cells, and mild degree of fatty change and necrosis. The results indicated that the DSE and quercetin were significant for prophylactic activity against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. This activity could be attributed to the antioxidant constituents in the DSE and hence justified the ethnomedicinal claims. PMID:24987689

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Cissus populnea on Ferrous Sulphate- and Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat's Testes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Akomolafe, Seun F.; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A.; Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Tade, Oluwatosin G.

    2013-01-01

    Cissus populnea are plants associated with a myriad of medicinal uses in different parts of the world and are good sources of carotenoids, triterpenoids, and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of water extractible phytochemicals from stem bark of C. populnea on FeSO4 and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes were investigated in vitro. The results revealed that the extract was able to scavenge DPPH radical, chelate Fe2+ and also had a high reducing power. Furthermore, the incubation of the testes tissue homogenate in the presence of FeSO4 and SNP, respectively, caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the testes. However, the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. populnea caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of both Fe2+ (EC50 = 0.027 mg/mL) and SNP- (EC50 = 0.22 mg/mL) induced lipid peroxidation in the rat testes homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. The water extractible phytochemicals from C. populnea protect the testes from oxidative stress and this could be attributed to their high antioxidant activity: DPPH-scavenging ability, Fe2+-chelating and -reducing power. Therefore, oxidatively stress in testes could be potentially managed/prevented by this plant. PMID:23401792

  15. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results. PMID:25558854

  16. Antioxidant and Prophylactic Effects of Delonix elata L., Stem Bark Extracts, and Flavonoid Isolated Quercetin against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Venkatarangaiah, Krishna; Venkatesh; Shivamogga Rajanna, Santosh Kumar; Kashi Prakash Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Delonix elata L. (Ceasalpinaceae), is widely used by the traditional medical practitioners of Karnataka, India, to cure jaundice, and bronchial and rheumatic problems. The objective of this study was to screen the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the stem bark extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Among different stem bark extracts tested, the ethanol extract (DSE) has shown significant in vitro antioxidant property in radicals scavenging, metal chelating, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. HPLC analysis of the DSE revealed the presence of known antioxidant molecules, namely, gallic acid, ellagic acid, coumaric acid, quercetin, and rutin. Bioassay-guided fractionation of DSE has resulted in the isolation and characterization of quercetin. DSE and quercetin have shown significant prophylactic effects by restoring the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, serum bilirubin, and total protein) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST). These results were proved to be hepatoprotective at par with silymarin and well supported by the histological observations of liver sections with distinct hepatic cells, and mild degree of fatty change and necrosis. The results indicated that the DSE and quercetin were significant for prophylactic activity against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. This activity could be attributed to the antioxidant constituents in the DSE and hence justified the ethnomedicinal claims. PMID:24987689

  17. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Results Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione

  18. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:26959323

  19. Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Oyedemi, SO; Adewusi, EA; Aiyegoro, OA; Akinpelu, DA

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. Results The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. Conclusions It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage. PMID:23569792

  20. Hypericum lanceolatum (Hypericaceae) as a potential source of new anti-malarial agents: a bioassay-guided fractionation of the stem bark

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major public health threat in Africa, and traditional medicine continues to play a key role in its control especially in rural areas. A bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out in order to evaluate the anti-malarial potential and the safety of the methanol extract of the Hypericum lanceolatum stem bark. Methods The anti-plasmodial activity was assayed by the lactate dehydrogenase method (pLDH) against the multidrug-resistant W2mef laboratory strain, and a field isolate (SHF4) of Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the LLC-MK2 monkey kidney epithelial cells. Results Five compounds were isolated from the most active and least cytotoxic ethylacetate sub-extract: betulinic acid (HLT1), 2,2',5,6'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (HLT2), 5-hydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (HLT3), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyxanthone (HLT4) and HLT0 (yet to be identified). Three of the tested compounds presented significant anti-plasmodial activities (with 50% inhibitory concentration, IC50 < 5 μM), with 5-hydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone exerting the highest activity, followed by HLT0 and betulinic acid. All the compounds with significant anti-plasmodial activity were non-cytotoxic, except betulinic acid which showed a 50% cytotoxic concentration, CC50 of 25 μg/mL. Conclusions These findings justify the use of H. lanceolatum stem bark as anti-malarial by traditional healers of Western Cameroon, and could constitute a good basis for further studies towards development of new drug candidates or phytomedicines for malaria. PMID:21682873

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from stem bark of Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston: an important medicinal plant and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikala, A.; Linga Rao, M.; Savithramma, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.

    2014-11-01

    The use of different parts of plants for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered as a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. Herein, we report on rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous stem bark extract of Cochlospermum religiosum a medicinal plant. The reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The UV-Visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 445 nm, XRD showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure and the SEM images showed that the spherical-shaped silver nanoparticles were observed and the size range was found to be 20-35 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrate, polyphenols, and protein molecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of silver nanoparticles. These phytosynthesized SNPs were tested for their antimicrobial activity and it analyzed by measuring the inhibitory zone. Cochlospermum religiosum aqueous stem bark extract of SNPs showed highest toxicity to Staphylococcus followed by Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli and Bacillus and lowest toxicity towards Proteus. Whereas in fungal species highest inhibition zone against Aspergillus flavus followed by Rhizopus, Fusarium, and Curvularia, and minimum inhibition zone was observed against Aspergillus niger species. The outcome of this study could be useful for the development of value added products from indigenous medicinal plants of India for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  2. Effect of triterpenes and triterpene saponins from the stem bark of Kalopanax pictus on the transactivational activities of three PPAR subtypes.

    PubMed

    Quang, Tran Hong; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Minh, Chau Van; Kiem, Phan Van; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tai, Bui Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Song, Seok Bean; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-11-29

    Kalopanax pictus (Araliaceae) is a deciduous tree that grows in East Asian countries. Its stem bark and leaves have been used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatic arthritis, neurotic pain, and diabetes mellitus. A phytochemical study on a methanol extract of the stem bark of K. pictus resulted in the isolation of three new compounds, 6β,16α-dihydroxy-hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (1), 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6β,16α-dihydroxy-oleanolic acid (2), and 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), along with eight known compounds (4-11). Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESITOFMS). Compounds 1-6 and 8-10 upregulated PPARs transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, with EC(50) values in the range 0.20-15.5 μM. Moreover, the specific PPAR transactivational effects of compounds 1-6 and 8-10 on separate PPAR subtypes, PPARα, -γ, and -β(δ) were further investigated. Compounds 4, 5, 8, and 10 showed significant PPARα transactivational activity, with EC(50) values of 7.8, 8.0, 10.3, and 17.3 μM, respectively. Compounds 2, 4, 6, and 8-10 exhibited PPARγ dose-dependent transactivational activity, with EC(50) values of 14.7, 15.5, 14.8, 10.9, 17.1, and 16.3 μM, whereas compounds 8 and 10 significantly upregulated PPARβ(δ) transcriptional activity, with EC(50) values of 15.7 and 17.7 μM, respectively. PMID:21996602

  3. Constituents of essential oils from the leaves, stem barks and resins of Canarium parvum Leen., and Canarium tramdenanum Dai et Yakovl. (Burseracea) grown in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thang, Tran D; Dai, Do N; Luong, Ngo X; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaf, stem bark and resins of Canarium parvum Leen., and Canarium tramdenanum Dai et Yakovl. (Burseracea) grown in Vietnam are being reported. The hydrodistilled oils were analysed for their chemical constituents by means of gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main compounds of C. parvum were β-caryophyllene (18.7%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.9%), (Z)-β-ocimene (11.9%), germacrene D (8.8%) and α-humulene (8.4%) in the leaf; β-caryophyllene (30.4%), α-copaene (20.5%) and (E)-β-ocimene (7.7%) in the stem. However, germacrene D (23.2%), α-amorphene (14.9%), α-copaene (9.8%) and β-elemene (8.6%) were present in the resin. The leaf of C. tramdenanum comprises β-caryophyllene (16.8%), α-phellandrene (15.9%), γ-elemene (13.1%) and limonene (11.8%), while limonene (25.7%), α-phellandrene (21.7%), α-pinene (12.3%) and β-caryophyllene (10.9%) were present in the stem. However, δ-elemene (14.6%) and bulnesol (16.0%) are the main constituents in the resin. PMID:24443833

  4. Ethnomedicinal uses of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel. among rural communities of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopian communities highly depend on local plant resources to secure their subsistence and health. Local tree resources are exploited and used intensively for medicinal purposes. This study provides insight into the medicinal importance of Hagenia abyssinica as well as the degree of threat on its population. An ethnobotanical study was carried out to document medicinal uses of Hagenia abyssinica by rural communities of North and Southeastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted using an integrated approach of group discussions, observation, a local market survey and interviews. A total of 90 people were interviewed among whom elderly and traditional healers were the key informants. Societies in the study sites still depend on Hagenia abyssinica for medicine. All plant parts are used to treat different aliments. Tree identification, collection and utilization were different among the studied communities. In spite of its significance, interest in utilizing flowers of Hagenia abyssinica as an anthelmintic seems to be diminishing, notably among young people. This is partly because the medicine can be harmful when it is taken in large quantities. Nowadays, the widely used Hagenia abyssinica is endangered primarily due to various anthropogenic impacts. This in turn may become a threat for the associated knowledge. It is recommended to assist communities in documenting their traditional knowledge. Measures for conserving species are urgently needed. PMID:20701760

  5. Studies on Guizotia abyssinica L. oil: biodiesel synthesis and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Rakesh; Sharma, Meeta; Khan, Arif Ali

    2009-09-01

    Guizotia abyssinica seeds, a common bird feedstock, have been explored for the potential of biodiesel synthesis. The oil was extracted from the seeds by solvent extraction and composition of G. abyssinica oil was examined. The reaction parameters for biodiesel synthesis have been optimized. Temperature, oil: methanol ratio, catalyst type and catalyst concentration were found to have significant role on ester conversion. According to this study, the maximum yield of ester (98.7%) can be obtained with optimized sodium methoxide catalyst dosage (0.6%) at an operational temperature of 65 degrees C. Methyl ester of G. abyssinica oil was also studied for its oxidation stability and low temperature properties. Further, the synthesized product was blended in diesel at 5-20% ratios and evaluated for physico-chemical properties. PMID:19386491

  6. Studies on the antibacterial activity of Khaya senegalensis [(Desr.) A. Juss)] stem bark extract on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi [(ex Kauffmann and Edwards) Le Minor and Popoff

    PubMed Central

    Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi; Agarry, Oluwabunmi Olaitan; Garba, Samuel Alimi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the stem bark extracts of Khaya senegalensis (K. senegalensis) against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi. Methods The plant components were extracted using methanol, ethanol and water. The phytochemical screening of the stem bark extracts were carried out using a standard method. The antibacterial assay of the stem bark extracts against Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) using the agar well diffusion method with different concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg/mL and the corresponding concentrations of the control was carried out and the result compared with a standard antibiotic, amoxicillin as the control. Results The results obtained from the phytochemical screening of the three plant bark extracts of K. senegalensis showed 10 plant secondary metabolites including saponins, tannins, reducing sugars, aldehyde, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside and anthroquinones. The ethanol and aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activities against S. Typhi at concentration of 50 mg/mL with the zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI) of 14 mm and 15 mm respectively. The ethanol and aqueous extracts also showed zone diameter of inhibition of 23 mm and 25 mm respectively at 250 mg/mL and 27 mm each at 500 mg/mL. The ethanol and aqueous stem bark extracts gave the highest ZDI at 500 mg/mL while 100 mg/mL gave the least ZDI for ethanol extract and 50 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. This was followed by 400 mg/mL that gave 24 mm ZDI of the aqueous extract and 27 mm of the ethanol extract. The methanol extract showed intermediate susceptibility evidenced by ZDI of 10 mm at 100 mg/mL concentration. The methanol extract also showed antibacterial activity of 24 mm ZDI against the test organism at a higher concentration of 250 mg/mL and 26 mm at 500 mg/mL concentration. The methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts displayed antibacterial activities against S. Typhi with

  7. Screening of Vietnamese medicinal plants for NF-κB signaling inhibitors: Assessing the activity of flavonoids from the stem bark of Oroxylum indicum

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi Van Anh; Malainer, Clemens; Schwaiger, Stefan; Hung, Tran; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Seventeen plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders were screened for NF-κB inhibitory activity. Oroxylum indicum, which exhibited activity, was investigated in detail. Materials and methods Forty plant extracts from 17 species were prepared by maceration using dichloromethane and methanol and were tested (10 µg/mL) to evaluate their ability to inhibit NF-κB activation using TNF-α-stimulated HEK-293 cells stably transfected with a NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter. The active extract of Oroxylum indicum was subsequently fractionated by different chromatographic techniques. After isolation, all single compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and assessed for NF-κB inhibitory effects. Results The dichloromethane extracts obtained from Chromolaena odorata leaves and the stem bark of Oroxylum indicum showed distinct inhibitory effects on NF-κB activation at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. The active extract of Oroxylum indicum was subjected to further phytochemical studies resulting in identification of four flavonoid aglyca and six flavonoid glycosides. Pharmacological evaluation of the obtained compounds identified oroxylin A as the most active substance (IC50=3.9 µM, 95% CI: 3.5–4.4 µM), while chrysin and hispidulin showed lower activity with IC50=7.2 µM (95% CI: 6.0–8.8 µM) and 9.0 µM (95% CI: 7.9–10.2 µM), respectively. Interestingly, in this study the activity of baicalein (IC50=28.1 µM, 95% CI: 24.6–32.0 µM) was weak. The isolated glycosides showed no inhibitory activity when tested at a concentration of 30 µM. Quantification of the four active flavonoids in extracts and plant materials suggested that oroxylin A contributes to the NF-κB inhibitory activity of the stem barks of Oroxylum indicum to a greater extent than baicalein which was thought to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of this plant. Conclusions The screening

  8. In vitro and in vivo antidermatophytic activity of the dichloromethane-methanol (1:1 v/v) extract from the stem bark of Polyscias fulva Hiern (Araliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last decades, the number of people suffering from dermatophytoses has seriously increased, mainly due to the development of resistant strains of microorganisms to a range of formally efficient antibiotics. Polyscias fulva, a medium size tree which grows in the West Region of Cameroon is traditionally used for local application against dermatoses and orally against venereal infections. The dichloromethane-methanol (1:1 v/v) extract from the stem bark of Polyscias fulva was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration of its stem bark powder in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v). The extract obtained was successively partitioned in hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed using standard methods. In vitro antidermatophytic activity was assayed by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The degree of dermal irritation of the crude extract was determined in guinea pigs using the occluded dermal irritation test method. The in vivo antidermatophytic activity of the extract-oil formulation (1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w concentrations) was evaluated using Trichophyton mentagrophytes-induced dermatophytosis in a guinea pigs model. Results Phytochemical screening indicated that, the crude extract, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and residue fractions contain in general saponins, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones and phenols while the hexane fraction contains only alkaloids. The ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and residue fractions displayed higher antifungal activities (MIC = 0.125-0.5 mg.mL-1) against eight dermatophytes as compared to the crude extract (MIC = 0.5-1 mg.mL-1). This latter appeared to have slight perceptible erythema effects on guinea pigs as the primary irritation index (PII) was calculated to be 0.54. In vivo, the antidermatophytic activities of the extract-oil formulations were dose-dependent. Griseofulvin-oil 5% at 0.01 g/kg and formulated extract-oil (5

  9. Anthelmintic effects of Oroxylum indicum stem bark extract on juvenile and adult stages of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), an in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, traditional usage of herbal medicines is a common practice to treat various parasitic infections. In India, bark decoction of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz. (Bignoniaceae) is used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections. This study investigated the anthelmintic efficacy of methanolic bark extract of O. indicum on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Utilizing a mini-questionnaire, first, we collected information about the pattern of anthelmintic use of this plant. Later, in vitro efficacy of extract was tested at 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml on both the artificially excysted juveniles and adult H. diminuta worms. Herein, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also utilized to determine the possible effects of extract on tegumental surfaces of juvenile and adult cestode. In vivo, extract was tested at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in H. diminuta albino rat model, against juvenile and adult cestode. Praziquantel (PZQ) served as reference drug in anthelmintic assays. The acute toxicity of extract was determined as per the OECD guidelines. The field questionnaire data revealed that 78 % of people in the area use O. indicum stem bark against intestinal helminths, and of these, 75 % of people also believed it highly efficacious anthelmintic remedy. In vitro testing of extract revealed significant effects on juvenile worms, and 30 mg/ml of extract caused mortality of juveniles at the initial period (0.25 ± 0.00 h). Conversely, PZQ (1 mg/ml) showed paralysis and mortality of juvenile cestodes in 0.44 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.06 h, respectively. As determined by SEM, in vitro exposure to extract showed substantial effects on both juveniles and adult worms in the form of wrinkled scolex, distorted tegument and eroded microtriches. In vivo study revealed better efficacy of extract against juveniles than adult stages of parasite. Treatment of rats with 1000 mg/kg of extract caused 79.3 % reduction in EPG counts

  10. Mechanisms of anticonvulsant and sedative actions of the ethanolic stem-bark extract of Ficus sur Forssk (Moraceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Olayemi, Sunday O; Yemitan, Omoniyi K; Ekpemandudiri, Ngozi K

    2013-11-01

    Ficus sur Forssk (Moraceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of epilepsy, pain and inflammations. Anticonvulsant activity was investigated using picrotoxin (PTX), strychnine (SCN), isoniazid (INZ), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid NMDA models of convulsion. The phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and anthraquinone. Oral administration of Ficus sur, 1 h before intraperitoneal injection of chemical convulsants significantly (p < 0.05) delayed the onset and prolonged the duration of convulsions in PTX, SCN, INZ, PTZ and NMDA-induced seizures. However, the anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract of Ficus sur was significantly reversed following intraperitoneal pre-treatment with flumazenil (GABA receptor antagonist), cyproheptadine (5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and L-NNA (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) in picrotoxin-induced convulsion. The data obtained suggest that ethanol extract of Ficus sur possessed significant anticonvulsant effect, thereby confirming the traditional uses of Ficus sur in the treatment of epilepsies; mechanisms of which could involve interaction with GABAergic, glycinergic, serotonergic and glutaminergic system barks. PMID:24511736

  11. Modulation of liver function, antioxidant responses, insulin resistance and glucose transport by Oroxylum indicum stem bark in STZ induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jyotsna; Kakkar, Poonam

    2013-12-01

    A decoction of stem bark of Oroxylum indicum Vent. (OI) is taken (2-3 times/day) by the tribal people of Sikkim, India to treat diabetes but scientific validation of its overall potential is lacking. Present study was aimed to assess in vitro antihyperglycemic activity of standardized OI extract using inhibition of α-glucosidase, BSA glycation and enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Antidiabetic and antioxidant modulatory effects of OI extract along with the blood biomarkers of toxic response were studied in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In vitro analysis showed strong antioxidant capacity of OI -and potential to inhibit BSA glycation and α-glucosidase activity which was comparable to standard counterparts. Extract also improved insulin sensitivity in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In vivo effects of OI extract (oral 250 mg/kg b.wt.) on STZ induced type II diabetic rats normalized the antioxidant status (p≤0.01). Analysis of blood biomarkers of toxic response indicated its safety. Lowering of total cholesterol and HDL levels (p≤0.05) and restoration of glycated Hb (p≤0.01) were also found in OI treated diabetic rats. HOMA-IR, QUICKI analysis along with area under the curve analysis showed the capacity of OI extract to enhance the insulin sensitivity significantly (p≤0.01) which was confirmed by increased GLUT-4 translocation in skeletal muscles. PMID:24140466

  12. Effects of the Methanolic Extract of Vitellaria paradoxa Stem Bark Against Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Asongalem, Acha Emmanuel; Oben, Eyong Kenneth; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-10-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn (Sapotaceae) is a perennial three which naturally grows in the northern part of Cameroon. It has been traditionally used in the Cameroonian folk medicine for treating inflammation and pain. In the present study, we evaluate the possible anti-amnesic and antioxidative effects of the methanolic extract of V. paradoxa stem bark in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model of scopolamine. Rats received a single injection of scopolamine (1.5 mg/kg) before behavioral testing and were treated with the methanolic extract (25 and 50 mg/kg), daily, for eight continuous days. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using the total content of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The scopolamine-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of exploratory time and discrimination index within the novel object recognition test, decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task, and increase of working memory errors, reference memory errors, and time taken to consume all five baits within radial arm-maze task. Administration of the methanolic extract significantly improved these parameters, suggesting positive effects on memory formation processes and antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that the methanolic extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus. PMID:26620052

  13. Carbon isotopic composition of forest soil respiration in the decade following bark beetle and stem girdling disturbances in the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Gregory E; Chan, Allison M; Trahan, Nicole A; Moore, David J P; Bowling, David R

    2016-07-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks are widespread in western North American forests, reducing primary productivity and transpiration, leading to forest mortality across large areas and altering ecosystem carbon cycling. Here the carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C) of soil respiration (δJ ) was monitored in the decade after disturbance for forests affected naturally by mountain pine beetle infestation and artificially by stem girdling. The seasonal mean δJ changed along both chronosequences. We found (a) enrichment of δJ relative to controls (<1 ‰) in near-surface soils in the first 2 years after disturbance; (b) depletion (1‰ or no change) during years 3-7; and (c) a second period of enrichment (1-2‰) in years 8-10. Results were consistent with isotopic patterns associated with the gradual death and decomposition of rhizosphere organisms, fine roots, conifer needles and woody roots and debris over the course of a decade after mortality. Finally, δJ was progressively more (13) C-depleted deeper in the soil than near the surface, while the bulk soil followed the well-established pattern of (13) C-enrichment at depth. Overall, differences in δJ between mortality classes (<1‰) and soil depths (<3‰) were smaller than variability within a class or depth over a season (up to 6‰). PMID:26824577

  14. Inhibition of nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by stem bark of Ulmus pumila L.

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Taewoo; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Hong, Sunghyun; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Songmun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to isolate and identify a potent inhibitory compound against nitric oxide (NO) production from the stem bark of Ulmus pumila L. Ethyl acetate fraction of hot water extract registered a higher level of total phenolics (756.93 mg GAE/g) and also showed strong DPPH (IC50 at 5.6 μg/mL) and ABTS (TEAC value 0.9703) radical scavenging activities than other fractions. Crude extract and its fractions significantly decreased nitrite accumulation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicating that they potentially inhibited the NO production in a concentration dependent manner. Based on higher inhibitory activity, the ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and yielded seven fractions and all these fractions registered appreciable levels of inhibitory activity on NO production. The most effective fraction F1 was further purified and subjected to 1H, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry analysis and the compound was identified as icariside E4. The results suggest that the U. pumila extract and the isolated compound icariside E4 effectively inhibited the NO production and may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. PMID:25313277

  15. An Automated Instrument for the Measurement of Bark Microrelief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stan, J. T.; Jarvis, M.; Levia, D. F.

    2009-05-01

    Bark microrelief is of importance to the physiological ecology of forested ecosystems because it has been documented to influence the distribution of corticolous lichens, stemflow generation, and forest biogeochemical cycles. Hitherto no instrument existed to characterize the inherent variability of bark microrelief with high spatial resolution. Our newly-designed bark microrelief instrument, the LaserBarkTM, consists of a hinged ring, laser rangefinder, and motor linked to a standard laptop. The LaserBarkTM produces trunk cross- sections at a 0.33 degree horizontal resolution and detects bark ridge-to furrow heights at < 1 mm resolution. The LaserBarkTM was validated by comparing measurements of bark microrelief between the instrument and digital calipers. The mean absolute error of the instrument was 0.83 mm. Our bark microrelief instrument can supply critical requisite information of bark microstructure that be used by researchers to interpret the distribution of lichens and bryophytes on tree surfaces, relate stemflow yield and chemistry to bark microrelief, and provide detailed measurements of the changes of bark microrelief with stem dehydration. In short, the LaserBarkTM can be used to gain a more holistic understanding of the functional ecology of forest ecosystems.

  16. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. PMID:22797325

  17. First report about pharmaceutical properties and phytochemicals analysis of Rosa abyssinica R. Br. ex Lindl. (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Fawzy; Alrumman, Sulaiman Abdullah

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of seven solvent extracts from leaves and hips of Saudi Arabian weed Rosa abyssinica against a variety of human pathogenic bacteria and Candida species have been evaluated using well diffusion methods. Phytochemicals present in the leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica has been characterized using Gas Chromatogram Mass spectrometry analysis. The extracts comparative efficacy against tested microbes gained from the fresh and dry leaves exhibited more prominent activity than fresh and dry hips. The methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, acetone and diethyl ether extracts have a greater lethal effect on pathogenic microbes than hot water extracts, while cold-water extracts showed no activity. Twenty-four phytochemicals have been characterized from ethanol extract of the leaves of Rosa abyssinica and fifteen from hips by GC-MS. The major compounds detected in the leaves were squalene (38.21%), ethane, 1,1-diethoxy- (9.65%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.55%), furfural (5.50%) and 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (5.19%). The major compounds in the hips were 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (51.27%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.18%), 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (7.42%), 2,5-furandione, dihydro-3-methylene- (6.79%) and furfural (5.99%). Current findings indicate that extract from leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica and the bioactive components present could be used as pharmaceutical agents. PMID:26639478

  18. The carbon isotopic composition of soil respiration in the decade following disturbance by bark beetle or stem girdling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A.; Maurer, G. E.; Bowling, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle have caused large-scale tree mortality in western North America, which can lead to fundamental changes in carbon cycling. When a tree is infested, the flow of photosynthate is disrupted. This causes the roots and their symbionts to die, eliminating the autotrophic component of soil respiration. Mycorrhizal fungi are enriched in 13C compared to plant tissues. As the dead fungal biomass is consumed by soil heterotrophs, the δ13C of CO2 in heterotrophic soil respiration may become more enriched as the fungal biomass is consumed. We investigated this response by measuring soil respiration in chronosequences of stem-girdled plots at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site, and beetle-killed plots at the Fraser Experimental Forest, both in Colorado. Stem girdling was used to simulate beetle attack because it kills trees by a similar mechanism. Plots at Niwot Ridge included live trees and 7 years of girdled plots extending back to 2002. Plots at Fraser included live trees and three age classes of beetle-killed trees, within a similar chronosequence. We used manual soil-gas sampling at three depths, during the summers of 2011 and 2012, to determine if there is an isotopic effect associated with disturbance. Consistent with our expectations, in 2011, we found an enrichment in δ13C of approximately 1‰ in the two years following girdling which was absent in subsequent years. Although this pattern was also evident in 2012, the enrichment in δ13C during the same time period was about half that in 2011. At both Niwot and Fraser, in 2011, seasonal mean δ13C decreased by about 1‰ at all depths 3-4 years after disturbance, but returned to values close to control plots in the following 4-6 years. While we found a similar pattern at Fraser in 2012, we measured an enrichment of 1-1.5‰ at the OA interface at Niwot 8-10 years after disturbance, which was not found in 2011. It is possible this is due to the decomposition of woody biomass. At both

  19. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    PubMed Central

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus–host interaction was conducted by the same assay. Results: CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. Conclusion: The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. SUMMARY Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes

  20. Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark essential oil as possible mutagen-protective food ingredient against heterocyclic amines from cooked food.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Damiano; Guerrini, Alessandra; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; Maietti, Silvia; Poppi, Irene; Tacchini, Massimo; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2013-08-15

    The Amazonian Croton lechleri stem bark essential oil was tested for its anti-mutagenic potential by performing the Ames test against heterocyclic amines (HCAs), in continuing research on applicative functional profile of this phytocomplex as food ingredient (Rossi et al., 2011). Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was used with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The anti-mutagenic properties was assayed with the following HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), the imidazoles 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-aminodipirydo-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2). All HCAs with S9 induced mutagenicity at 10(-10) mol/plate. Without S9, IQ and MeIQ showed mutagenicity at 10(-8) mol/plate, MeIQx and Glu-P-1 at 10(-5) mol/plate, while Glu-P-2 was inactive. In presence of HACs (10(-9) mol/plate), C. lechleri essential oil was tested for mutagen-protective properties (concentration range: 0.01-0.10 mg/plate) taking the Highest Uneffective Dose (HUD) as threshold reference. With S9 mix, C. lechleri essential oil displayed a significant reduction of revertants at 0.05 mg/plate, from 21% to 34%. The essential oil showed mutagen-protective efficacy against IQ and MeIQ tested as direct mutagens (10(-7) mol/plate), with a revertants percentage reduction of 39% and 40%, respectively. No anti-mutagen capacity was noted for MeIQx and Glu-P-1 (10(-5) mol/plate). Since HACs are known as possible colon and liver cancer inducers, C. lechleri essential oil was tested for its cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative capacity against LoVo and HepG2 cancer cell lines showing IC50 of 74.95±0.05 μg/ml (LoVo) and 82.28±0.03 μg/ml (HepG2), displaying a promising role of this essential oil as a functional food ingredient with interesting mutagen preventing properties. PMID:23561129

  1. Weaning off Bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine bark is the primary potting component used in container nursery production. Shifts in the forest products industry and economy have resulted in a drastic decline in pine bark availability and increase in pine bark price. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Application Technology Research Unit, Oregon ...

  2. Fuel values of stems and branches in post oak and red maple

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In red maple (Acer rubrum), there was n.s.d. in higher heating value (HHV) between stem wood and branch wood or between stem bark and branch bark. In post oak (Quercus stellata) the HHV of stem bark was significantly higher than that of branch bark, but there was n.s.d. between stem wood and branch wood. For both species the wood had a significantly higher HHV than the bark. 1 reference.

  3. Ethnobotany, chemical constituents and biological activities of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae).

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Ali, N A A; Kilian, N; Franke, K; Arnold, N; Kuhnt, C; Schmidt, J; Lindequist, U

    2016-04-01

    Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Hydnoraceae), a holoparasitic herb, is for the first time recorded for Abyan governorate of South Yemen. Flowers of this species were studied for their ethnobotanical, biological and chemical properties for the first time. In South Yemen, they are traditionally used as wild food and to cure stomach diseases, gastric ulcer and cancer. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of terpenes, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids. The volatile components of the air-dried powdered flowers were identified using a static headspace GC/MS analysis as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, sabinene, α-terpinene, (+)-D-limonene and γ-terpinene. These volatile compounds that characterize the odor and taste of the flowers were detected for the first time in a species of the family Hydnoraceae. The flowers were extracted by n-hexane, dichlormethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. With exception of the water extract all extracts demonstrated activities against Gram-positive bacteria as well as remarkable radical scavenging activities in DPPH assay. Ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts exhibited good antifungal activities. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against FL cells, measured in neutral red assay, was only weak (IC50 > 500 μg/mL). The results justify the traditional use of the flowers of Hydnora abyssinica in South Yemen. PMID:27209704

  4. Microscopic and UPLC-UV-MS analyses of authentic and commercial yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) bark samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yohimbine is the major alkaloid found in the stem-bark of yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe (Rubiaceae), an evergreen tree native to Africa. A number of yohimbe products are sold in USA as dietary supplements. Hand-sections of the stem-bark were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by ligh...

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in tree bark

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanson, M.H.; Hites, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in tree bark vary with proximity to a source. Higher total PCB bark/air ratios in areas near contamination show that bark may retain PCB from prior periods of high atmospheric concentrations. Bark is enriched in the more chlorinated PCB homologues relative to air. Congener-specific analyses show that, when compared with air, bark favorably accumulates the less volatile congeners. Lipophilicity is not a good indicator of bark PCB concentrations, but vapor pressure is.

  6. Genetic stability of micropropagated plants of Crambe abyssinica Hochst using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Werner, E T; Soares, T C B; Gontijo, A B P L; Souza Neto, J D; do Amaral, J A T

    2015-01-01

    Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a non-edible annual herb, which was first cultivated to extract oil for industry, and now has great potential for biodiesel production. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the genetic stability of micropropagated plants of the C. abyssinica Hochst cultivar 'FMS brilhante' using polymerase chain reaction techniques based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The aim was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of these plants with low genetic variation as compared to the donor plant. For micropropagation, shoot tips from in vitro germinated seedlings were used as explants and were initially cultivated for 90 days on MS medium with 5.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), which at 90 days, led to the highest number of shoots per explant (NSE) (12.20 shoots) being detected. After 120 days, the interaction between BAP concentration and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was tested, and the highest NSE was observed following exposure to 0.0/0.5 μM BAP/NAA (11.40 shoots) and 1.0/0.0 μM BAP/NAA (11.00 shoots). The highest proportion of rooting phase were observed following exposure to 0.5 μM NAA (30%). The 13 ISSR primers used to analyze genetic stability produced 91 amplification products, of which only eight bands were polymorphic and 83 were monomorphic for all 10 regenerated crambe plants, compared to the donor plant explant. These results indicate that crambe shoot tips are a highly reliable explant that can be used to micropropagate genetically true-to-type plants or to maintain genetic stability, as verified using ISSR markers. PMID:26662443

  7. Neolignans with a Rare 2-Oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one Motif from the Stem Bark of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongji; Liu, Tingting; Sa, Rongjian; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Wu, Zhaodi; Luo, Zengwei; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Yonghui; Yao, Guangmin

    2015-07-24

    Two pairs of racemic spirodienone neolignans with a rare 2-oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one motif, named (±)-subaveniumins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum subavenium. The chiral separation of the (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers was accomplished via high-performance liquid chromatography on a chiral column. Their structures were elucidated using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroic spectra. The (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against NO production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide, with IC50 values of 17.9, 5.6, 15.1, and 4.3 μM, respectively. PMID:26087384

  8. The origins of tannins and flavonoids in black-wattle barks and heartwoods, and their associated `non-tannin' components

    PubMed Central

    Saayman, H. M.; Roux, D. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. The distributions of flavonoid, carbohydrate, amino acid and imino acid components in the leaves, twig bark, stem bark, root bark and heartwoods of the black-wattle tree were compared by paper chromatography after their isolation from specific portions of the tree. 2. Wattle leaves contain mainly myricitrin, (+)-gallocatechin, an unknown myricetin glycoside and leuco-delphinidin tannins, together with smaller amounts of (+)-catechin, quercitrin and other flavonol glycosides. These are prominent in the twig bark, but decline progressively with age in the stem bark and are absent from root bark. 3. The non-phenolic components of the mature stem bark were shown to be (+)-pinitol, sucrose, glucose, fructose, l(−)-pipecolic acid, trans-4-hydroxy-l(−)-pipecolic acid, α-alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, l(−)-proline, serine, a `steroid' alcohol and a long-chain β-diketone. 4. Wattle bark and heartwood `tannins' consist of the analogues of closely related prototypes with common origins in the vascular tissues of the bark. Leaf `tannins' are superimposed on the bark components mainly during the initial stages of bark growth. 5. Origins of the pipecolic acids and the transformations of carbohydrates in the sap- and heart-woods are discussed. PMID:5881667

  9. Effect of acetone extract from stem bark of Acacia species (A. dealbata, A. ferruginea and A. leucophloea) on antioxidant enzymes status in hydrogen peroxide-induced HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Hong, Sunghyun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Songmun; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2015-01-01

    Acacia species are multipurpose trees, widely used in the traditional systems of medicine to treat various ailments. The major objective of the present study was to determine the gene expression of enzymatic antioxidants by acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase containing copper–zinc (CuZnSOD)/manganese (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in HepG2 cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed that the H2O2 (200 μM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells pre-treated with acetone extracts of all the three Acacia species significantly (P > 0.05) up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in a concentration dependent manner (25, 50 and 75 μg/mL). In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the acetone extract of Acacia species effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases. PMID:26586994

  10. Bark thickness across the angiosperms: more than just fire.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Julieta A

    2016-07-01

    Global variation in total bark thickness (TBT) is traditionally attributed to fire. However, bark is multifunctional, as reflected by its inner living and outer dead regions, meaning that, in addition to fire protection, other factors probably contribute to TBT variation. To address how fire, climate, and plant size contribute to variation in TBT, inner bark thickness (IBT) and outer bark thickness (OBT), I sampled 640 species spanning all major angiosperm clades and 18 sites with contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regime. Stem size was by far the main driver of variation in thickness, with environment being less important. IBT was closely correlated with stem diameter, probably for metabolic reasons, and, controlling for size, was thicker in drier and hotter environments, even fire-free ones, probably reflecting its water and photosynthate storage role. OBT was less closely correlated with size, and was thicker in drier, seasonal sites experiencing frequent fires. IBT and OBT covaried loosely and both contributed to overall TBT variation. Thickness variation was higher within than across sites and was evolutionarily labile. Given high within-site diversity and the multiple selective factors acting on TBT, continued study of the different drivers of variation in bark thickness is crucial to understand bark ecology. PMID:26890029

  11. Inhibition of secretary PLA₂--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25801252

  12. Bottlenecks in erucic acid accumulation in genetically engineered ultrahigh erucic acid Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rui; Lager, Ida; Li, Xueyuan; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Erucic acid is a valuable industrial fatty acid with many applications. The main producers of this acid are today high erucic rapeseed (Brassica napus) and mustard (Brassica juncea), which have 45%-50% of erucic acid in their seed oils. Crambe abyssinica is an alternative promising producer of this acid as it has 55%-60% of erucic acid in its oil. Through genetic modification (GM) of three genes, we have previously increased the level of erucic acid to 71% (68 mol%) in Crambe seed oil. In this study, we further investigated different aspects of oil biosynthesis in the developing GM Crambe seeds in comparison with wild-type (Wt) Crambe, rapeseed and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). We show that Crambe seeds have very low phosphatidylcholine-diacylglycerol interconversion, suggesting it to be the main reason why erucic acid is limited in the membrane lipids during oil biosynthesis. We further show that GM Crambe seeds have slower seed development than Wt, accompanied by slower oil accumulation during the first 20 days after flowering (DAF). Despite low accumulation of erucic acid during early stages of GM seed development, nearly 86 mol% of all fatty acids accumulated between 27 and 50 DAF was erucic acid, when 40% of the total oil is laid down. Likely bottlenecks in the accumulation of erucic acid during early stages of GM Crambe seed development are discussed. PMID:24119222

  13. Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica)

    PubMed Central

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Tesfaye, Misteru; Teshome, Abel; Bjorkman, Anne D; Andrew, Rose L; Scascitelli, Moira; Black, Scott; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop–wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's ‘atypical’ domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system. PMID:26029260

  14. The standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. inhibits toxic PLA2 - NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Sudarshan, Shivalingaiah; Dongol, Yashad; More, Sunil S

    2016-05-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess diverse medicinal properties, which also includes anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic snake venom phospholipases A2s are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom. The in vitro sPLA2, in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema inhibition effect were carried out as described. Also the effect of substrate and calcium concentration was carried out. M. indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIb-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 7.6 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ∼40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of M. indica extract on the NN-XIb-PLA2. Further, the inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inhibiting activities of M. indica. As the inhibition is independent of substrate and calcium and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extract mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with the PLA2 enzyme. The aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate their anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies on the role and mechanism of the principal constituents present in the extract, responsible for the anti-PLA2 activity will be interesting to develop them into potent antisnake component and also as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:27275129

  15. The value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets for Thai goats.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak

    2010-12-01

    The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity. PMID:20563643

  16. Echoes of Bark Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenkel, Nicky; Hemstreet, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Two former staff members reflect on their feelings about the August 1995 closing of Bark Lake Leadership Centre (Ontario, Canada), which for 49 years had offered outdoor adventure and environmental education courses to youth and adults. They discuss their experiences as both students and teachers at the center, which helped shape their careers in…

  17. Amate Bark Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  18. (BOREAS) BOREAS TE-8 Aspen Bark Chemistry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Spencer, Shannon L.; Rock, Barrett N.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-8 team collected pigment density data from aspen bark and leaves from four sites within the BOREAS SSA from 24-May-1994 to 16-Jun-1994 (IFC-1), 19-Jul-1994 to 08-Aug- 1994 (IFC-2), and 30-Aug-1994 to 19-Sep-1994 (IFC-3). One to nine trees from each site were sampled during the three IFCs. Each tree was sampled in five different locations for bark pigment properties: basal stem section, which was any bark sample taken below one-half the tree height; upper stem section, which was any bark sample taken from the main stem above one-half the tree height; bark taken from branches up to 3 years old; a 2-year-old branch segment, and a 1-year-old branch segment. Additionally, a limited number of leaves were collected. Bark samples were removed from the stem of the tree, placed in ziplock bags, and transported to UNH, where they were processed and analyzed by a spectrophotometer. In each data file, samples are identified by Site, Date, Tree#, and Sample Location (see I st paragraph above. Pigment density values are normalized to mg/m2. Density values for the following pigments are provided: Chi a, Chi b, Total Chi (Chi a+b), Carotenoids, Chi a to b ratio, and the Total Chi to carotenoids ratio. The data are stored in ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. Expression profiling of Crambe abyssinica under arsenate stress identifies genes and gene networks involved in arsenic metabolism and detoxification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Arsenic contamination is widespread throughout the world and this toxic metalloid is known to cause cancers of organs such as liver, kidney, skin, and lung in human. In spite of a recent surge in arsenic related studies, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of arsenic uptake, detoxification, and sequestration in plants. Crambe abyssinica, commonly known as 'abyssinian mustard', is a non-food, high biomass oil seed crop that is naturally tolerant to heavy metals. Moreover, it accumulates significantly higher levels of arsenic as compared to other species of the Brassicaceae family. Thus, C. abyssinica has great potential to be utilized as an ideal inedible crop for phytoremediation of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the mechanism of arsenic metabolism in higher plants, including C. abyssinica, remains elusive. Results To identify the differentially expressed transcripts and the pathways involved in arsenic metabolism and detoxification, C. abyssinica plants were subjected to arsenate stress and a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization (SSH) approach was employed. A total of 105 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced which were found to represent 38 genes. Those genes encode proteins functioning as antioxidants, metal transporters, reductases, enzymes involved in the protein degradation pathway, and several novel uncharacterized proteins. The transcripts corresponding to the subtracted cDNAs showed strong upregulation by arsenate stress as confirmed by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusions Our study revealed novel insights into the plant defense mechanisms and the regulation of genes and gene networks in response to arsenate toxicity. The differential expression of transcripts encoding glutathione-S-transferases, antioxidants, sulfur metabolism, heat-shock proteins, metal transporters, and enzymes in the ubiquitination pathway of protein degradation as well as several unknown novel proteins serve as

  20. BOREAS TE-8 Aspen Bark Spectral Reflectance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Spencer, Shannon L.; Rock, Barrett N.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-08 team collected in-lab spectral reflectance data for aspen bark and leaves from three sites within the BOREAS SSA from 24-May-1994 to 16-Jun-1994 (IFC 1), 19-Jul-1994 to 08-Aug-1994 (IFC 2), and 30-Aug-1994 to 19-Sep-1994 (IFC 3). One to nine trees from each site were sampled during the three IFCs. Each tree was sampled in five different locations for bark spectral properties: BS, US, BR, BT, and BO. Additionally, a limited number of LV were collected. Bark samples were removed from the stem of the tree and placed in ziplock bags for transport to UNH, where they were scanned with a spectroradiometer in a controlled environment. Each sample was scanned twice: the first set of measurements was made with the bark surface moistened, and the second set was made with the bark surface air-dried for a period of 30 minutes. These data represent continuous spectra of bark reflectance. Each sample was scanned three times, rotating the sample when possible. The reported values for each sample are an average over the three scans. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Relationships of inside and outside bark diameters for young-growth mixed-conifer species in the Sierra Nevada. Forest Service research note (final). [Firs, cedars, pines

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L.

    1984-09-01

    The linear relationship of inside to outside bark diameter at breast height provides a basis for estimating diameter inside bark from diameter outside bark. Estimates of diameter inside bark and past diameter outside bark are useful in predicting growth and yield. During field seasons 1979-1982, data were obtained from stem analysis of 931 trees in young-growth stands of the mixed-conifer type on the westside Sierra Nevada of California. Species included were coast Douglas-fir, California white fir, incense-cedar, sugar pine, ponderosa pine, and Jeffrey pine. This note provides equations for estimating inside bark diameters, double bark thickness, and past outside bark diameters for each of the species studied.

  2. (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a new gastrointestinal smooth muscle L-type calcium channel inhibitor, which underlies the spasmolytic properties of Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Balemba, Onesmo B.; Lösch, Sofie; Patterson, Savannah; McMillan, John S.; Hofmann, Thomas; Mawe, Gary M.; Stark, Timo D.

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia buchananii Baker stem bark extract (GBB) is a traditional medication of diarrhea and dysentery in sub-Saharan Africa. It is believed that GBB causes gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether GBB has spasmolytic actions and identify compounds underlying these actions. Calcium (Ca2+) imaging was used to analyze the effect of GBB on Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves in guinea pig gallbladder and distal colon smooth muscle. Intracellular microelectrode recording was used to determine the effect of GBB, six fractions of GBB, M1–5 and M7, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a compound isolated from M3 on action potentials in gallbladder smooth muscle. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of GBB, M3, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on action potentials in the circular muscle of mouse and guinea pig distal colons, and the effect of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on slow waves in porcine ileum. GBB inhibited Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves. GBB, M3 and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials. L-type Ca2+ channel activator Bay K 8644 increased the discharge of action potentials in mouse colon but did not trigger or increase action potentials in the presence of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials in the presence of Bay K 8644. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone reduced the amplitude but did not alter the frequency of slow waves in the porcine ileum. In conclusion, GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone relax smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels, thus have potential for use as therapies of gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasms, and arrhythmias. PMID:26081368

  3. (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone, a new gastrointestinal smooth muscle L-type calcium channel inhibitor, which underlies the spasmolytic properties of Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Balemba, Onesmo B; Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Patterson, Savannah; McMillan, John S; Mawe, Gary M; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia buchananii Baker stem bark extract (GBB) is a traditional medication of diarrhea and dysentery in sub-Saharan Africa. It is believed that GBB causes gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether GBB has spasmolytic actions and identify compounds underlying these actions. Calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging was used to analyze the effect of GBB on Ca(2+) flashes and Ca(2+) waves in guinea pig gallbladder and distal colon smooth muscle. Intracellular microelectrode recording was used to determine the effect of GBB, six fractions of GBB, M1-5 and M7, and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone, a compound isolated from M3 on action potentials in gallbladder smooth muscle. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of GBB, M3, and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone on action potentials in the circular muscle of mouse and guinea pig distal colons, and the effect of GBB and (2R,3S,2''R,3'' R)-manniflavanone on slow waves in porcine ileum. GBB inhibited Ca(2+) flashes and Ca(2+) waves. GBB, M3 and (2R,3 S,2''R,3''R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials. L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 increased the discharge of action potentials in mouse colon but did not trigger or increase action potentials in the presence of GBB and (2R,3S,2''R,3'' R)-manniflavanone. GBB and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials in the presence of Bay K 8644. GBB and (2R,3 S,2''R,3''R)-manniflavanone reduced the amplitude but did not alter the frequency of slow waves in the porcine ileum. In conclusion, GBB and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone relax smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca(2+) channels, thus have potential for use as therapies of gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasms, and arrhythmias. PMID:26081368

  4. Trypanocidal and antileukaemic effects of the essential oils of Hagenia abyssinica, Leonotis ocymifolia, Moringa stenopetala, and their main individual constituents.

    PubMed

    Nibret, E; Wink, M

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils from three Ethiopian medicinal plants; Hagenia abyssinica (Rosaceae), Leonotis ocymifolia (Lamiaceae), and Moringa stenopetala (Moringaceae) were investigated for their chemical composition, trypanocidal, and cytotoxic activities. Twenty components were identified from the essential oil of H. abyssinica female flowers, ledol (58.57%) being the principal volatile oil component. Sixty-eight components were identified from the essential oil of L. ocymifolia aerial part, caryophyllene oxide (12.06%) being the major component. The essential oil of M. stenopetala seeds was dominated by isothiocyanates; benzyl isothiocyanate (54.30%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (16.37%) were the major components. The trypanocidal (Trypanosoma b. brucei) and antileukaemic (HL-60) effects of the three essential oils were studied. The oil of M. stenopetala seeds and its main compound, benzyl isothiocyanate showed the most potent trypanocidal activities with IC(50) values of 5.03 μg/ml and 1.20 μg/ml, respectively. The oils of H. abyssinica and L. ocymifolia exhibited trypanocidal activities with IC(50) values of 42.30 μg/ml and 15.41 μg/ml, respectively. Individual components (28 compounds) of the essential oils bearing different functional groups were also studied for their structure-activity relationships using trypanosomes and human leukaemia cells. Cinnamaldehyde (IC(50)=2.93 μg/ml) (a representative for aldehydes), nerolidol (IC(50)=15.78 μg/ml) (an alcohol), cedrene (IC(50)=4.07 μg/ml) (a hydrocarbon), benzyl isothiocyanate (IC(50)=1.20 μg/ml) (a representative for mustard oils), 1,8-cineole (IC(50)=83.15 μg/ml) (an ether), safrole (IC(50)=18.40 μg/ml) (aromatics with allyl and/or methoxy side chains), carvone (IC(50)=12.94μg/ml) (a ketone), styrene oxide (IC(50)=3.76 μg/ml) (an epoxide) and carvacrol (IC(50)=11.25 μg/ml) (a phenol) showed the most potent trypanocidal activities from their respective groups. Of all essential oil components tested, carvone

  5. Evaluation of in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of crude extracts of Artemisia abyssinica against aTrypanosoma congolense isolate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background African trypanosomiasis is a major disease of economic and public health importance affecting agricultural and human development. The search for alternative compounds against African trypanosomiasis is justified by various limitations of existing chemotherapeutic agents. This study was aimed at screening the hydromethanolic and dichloromethane (DCM) crude extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia abyssinica for in vivo antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma congolense isolate in mice. Methods The aerial parts of the plant were extracted by maceration technique using dichloromethane and 80% methanol to obtain the corresponding crude extracts. The plant extracts at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were administered intraperitoneally daily for 7 days to mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Diminazene aceturate and distilled water were used as positive and as negative controls respectively. The level of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume, differential leukocyte counts and mean survival period were monitored. Results The study showed that the DCM extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and the hydromethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg reduced parasitaemia (p < 0.05), ameliorated anaemia (p < 0.05), prevented body weight loss (p < 0.05) and resulted in significant increase in neutrophil levels (p < 0.05) and marked decrease in lymphocyte levels (p < 0.05) compared to the negative control. Conclusions This study established that aerial parts of A. abyssinica have antitrypanosomal potential and can be considered a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of tropical diseases caused by trypanosomes. PMID:24684992

  6. STEM?!?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.

  7. Reduced Silver Nanoparticle Phytotoxicity in Crambe abyssinica with Enhanced Glutathione Production by Overexpressing Bacterial γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuanxin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2015-08-18

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used in consumer products, and their release has raised serious concerns about the risk of their exposure to the environment and to human health. However, biochemical mechanisms by which plants counteract NP toxicity are largely unknown. We have previously engineered Crambe abyssinica plants expressing the bacterial γ-glutamylecysteine synthase (γ-ECS) for enhancing glutathione (GSH) levels. In this study, we investigated if enhanced levels of GSH and its derivatives can protect plants from Ag NPs and AgNO3 (Ag(+) ions). Our results showed that transgenic lines, when exposed to Ag NPs and Ag(+) ions, were significantly more tolerant, attaining a 28%-46% higher biomass and 34-49% more chlorophyll content, as well as maintaining 35-46% higher transpiration rates as compared to those of wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic γ-ECS lines showed 2-6-fold Ag accumulation in shoot tissue and slightly lower or no difference in root tissue relative to levels in WT plants. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in γ-ECS lines were also 27.3-32.5% lower than those in WT Crambe. These results indicate that GSH and related peptides protect plants from Ag nanotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first direct report of Ag NP detoxification by GSH in transgenic plants, and these results will be highly useful in developing strategies to counteract the phytotoxicty of metal-based nanoparticles in crop plants. PMID:26186015

  8. Cork Oak Vulnerability to Fire: The Role of Bark Harvesting, Tree Characteristics and Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Catry, Filipe X.; Moreira, Francisco; Pausas, Juli G.; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Rego, Francisco; Cardillo, Enrique; Curt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees) that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France), covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting) were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals) and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3–4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle) would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems. PMID:22787521

  9. Interpreting stem diameter changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölttä, T.; Sevanto, S.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-12-01

    Detecting phloem transport in stem diameter changes Teemu Hölttä1, Sanna Sevanto2, Eero Nikinmaa1 1Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland 2Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Introduction The volume of living cells and xylem conduits vary according to pressures they are subjected to. Our proposition is that the behavior of the inner bark diameter variation which cannot be explained by changes in xylem water status arise from changes in the osmotic concentration of the phloem and cambial growth. Materials and methods Simultaneous xylem and stem diameter measurements were conducted between June 28th to October 4th 2006 in Southern Finland on a 47-year old, 15 meter tall, Scots pine tree (DBH 15 cm) at heights of 1.5 and 10 meters. The difference between the measured inner bark diameter and the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter change with a simple model (assuming there was no change in the osmotic concentration of the phloem) is hypothesized to give the changes in the osmotic concentration of the inner bark. The simple model calculates the radial water exchange between the xylem and phloem driven by the water potential changes in the xylem. Results and Discussion The major signal in the inner bark diameter was the transpiration rate as assumed, but also a signal arising from the change in the osmotic concentration (Fig 1a). The predicted osmotic concentration of the phloem typically increased during the afternoon due to the loading of photosynthesized sugars to the phloem. Inner bark osmotic concentration followed the photosynthesis rate with a 3 and 4 hour time-lag at the top and base, respectively (Fig 1b). The connection between photosynthesis and the predicted change in phloem osmotic concentration was stronger in the upper part of the tree compared to lower part. The changes in the predicted osmotic concentration were not similar every day, indicating that

  10. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  11. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts) were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine. PMID:26579202

  12. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts) were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine. PMID:26579202

  13. Barking up the Right Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

  14. Understanding Boswellia papyrifera tree secondary metabolites through bark spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers are concerned whether to tap or rest Boswellia Papyrifera trees. Tapping for the production of frankincense is known to deplete carbon reserves from the tree leading to production of less viable seeds, tree carbon starvation and ultimately tree mortality. Decision makers use traditional experience without considering the amount of metabolites stored or depleted from the stem-bark of the tree. This research was designed to come up with a non-destructive B. papyrifera tree metabolite estimation technique relevant for management using spectroscopy. The concentration of biochemicals (metabolites) found in the tree bark was estimated through spectral analysis. Initially, a random sample of 33 trees was selected, the spectra of bark measured with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer. Bark samples were air dried and ground. Then, 10 g of sample was soaked in Petroleum ether to extract crude metabolites. Further chemical analysis was conducted to quantify and isolate pure metabolite compounds such as incensole acetate and boswellic acid. The crude metabolites, which relate to frankincense produce, were compared to plant properties (such as diameter and crown area) and reflectance spectra of the bark. Moreover, the extract was compared to the ASD spectra using partial least square regression technique (PLSR) and continuum removed spectral analysis. The continuum removed spectral analysis were performed, on two wavelength regions (1275-1663 and 1836-2217) identified through PLSR, using absorption features such as band depth, area, position, asymmetry and the width to characterize and find relationship with the bark extracts. The results show that tree properties such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and the crown area of untapped and healthy trees were strongly correlated to the amount of stored crude metabolites. In addition, the PLSR technique applied to the first derivative transformation of the reflectance spectrum was found to estimate the

  15. Evaluation of the effects of 80% methanolic leaf extract of Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) fisch. & Mey. on glucose handling in normal, glucose loaded and diabetic rodents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The leaves of Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) Fisch. & Mey. (Resedaceae), a plant widely distributed in East African countries, have been used for management of diabetes mellitus in Ethiopian folklore medicine. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study was undertaken to investigate antidiabetic effects of the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of C. abyssinica extract in rodents. Materials and method Male Animals were randomly divided into five groups for each diabetic, normoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) studies. Group 1 served as controls and administered 2% Tween-80 in distilled water, (TW80); Group 2 received 5 mg/kg glibenclamide (GL5); Groups 3, 4 and 5 were given 100 (CA100), 200 (CA200) and 300 (CA300) mg/kg, respectively, of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. abyssinica. Blood samples were then collected at different time points to determine blood glucose levels (BGL). Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s post hoc test and p < 0.05was considered as statistically significant. Results In normal mice, CA200 and GL5 induced hypoglycemia starting from the 2nd h but the hypoglycemic effect of CA300 was delayed and appeared at the 4th h (p < 0.05 in all cases). In diabetic mice, BGL was significantly reduced by CA100 (p < 0.05) and CA300 (p < 0.01) starting from the 3rd h, whereas CA200 (p < 0.001) and GL5 (p < 0.05) attained this effect as early as the 2nd h. In OGTT, TW80 (p < 0.01) and CA100 (p < 0.01) brought down BGL significantly at 120 min, while CA200 (p < 0.001) and GL5 (p < 0.001) achieved this effect at 60 min indicating the oral glucose load improving activity of the extract. By contrast, CA300 was observed to have no effect on OGTT. Acute toxicity study revealed the safety of the extract even at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. Preliminary phytochemical study demonstrated the presence of various secondary metabolites, including, among others

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in crude extract and bark powder of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2011-08-10

    Steroidal saponins in commercial stem syrup and in extract of a bark of Yucca schidigera were identified with high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry and quantitated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Fragmentation patterns of yucca saponins were generated using collision-induced dissociation and compared with fragmentation of authentic standards as well as with published spectrometric information. In addition to detection of twelve saponins known to occur in Y. schidigera, collected fragmentation data led to tentative identifications of seven new saponins. A quantitation method for all 19 detected compounds was developed and validated. Samples derived from the syrup and the bark of yucca were quantitatively measured and compared. Obtained results indicate that yucca bark accumulates polar, bidesmosidic saponins, while in the stem steroidal glycosides with middle- and short-length saccharide chains are predominant. The newly developed method provides an opportunity to evaluate the composition of yucca products available on the market. PMID:21721553

  17. Sulfur capture in combination bark boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Someshwar, A.V.; Jain, A.K. )

    1993-07-01

    A review of sulfur dioxide emission data for eight combination bark boilers in conjunction with the sulfur contents of the fuels reveals significant sulfur capture ranging from 10% to over 80% within the solid ash phase. Wood ash characteristics similar to activated carbon as well as the significant wood ash alkali oxide and carbonate fractions are believed responsible for the sulfur capture. Sulfur emissions from combination bark-fossil fuel firing are correlated to the sulfur input per ton of bark or wood residue fired.

  18. Photosynthetic bark: Use of chlorophyll absorption continuum index to estimate Boswellia papyrifera bark chlorophyll content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans; Schlerf, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Quantification of chlorophyll content provides useful insight into the physiological performance of plants. Several leaf chlorophyll estimation techniques, using hyperspectral instruments, are available. However, to our knowledge, a non-destructive bark chlorophyll estimation technique is not available. We set out to assess Boswellia papyrifera tree bark chlorophyll content and to provide an appropriate bark chlorophyll estimation technique using hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. In contrast to the leaves, the bark of B. papyrifera has several outer layers masking the inner photosynthetic bark layer. Thus, our interest includes understanding how much light energy is transmitted to the photosynthetic inner bark and to what extent the inner photosynthetic bark chlorophyll activity could be remotely sensed during both the wet and the dry season. In this study, chlorophyll estimation using the chlorophyll absorption continuum index (CACI) yielded a higher R2 (0.87) than others indices and methods, such as the use of single band, simple ratios, normalized differences, and conventional red edge position (REP) based estimation techniques. The chlorophyll absorption continuum index approach considers the increase or widening in area of the chlorophyll absorption region, attributed to high concentrations of chlorophyll causing spectral shifts in both the yellow and the red edge. During the wet season B. papyrifera trees contain more bark layers than during the dry season. Having less bark layers during the dry season (leaf off condition) is an advantage for the plants as then their inner photosynthetic bark is more exposed to light, enabling them to trap light energy. It is concluded that B. papyrifera bark chlorophyll content can be reliably estimated using the chlorophyll absorption continuum index analysis. Further research on the use of bark signatures is recommended, in order to discriminate the deciduous B. papyrifera from other species during the dry season.

  19. Locating POPs Sources with Tree Bark.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-12-01

    Locating sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the atmosphere can sometimes be difficult. We suggest that tree bark makes an excellent passive atmospheric sampler and that spatial analysis of tree bark POPs concentrations can often pinpoint their sources. This is an effective strategy because tree bark is lipophilic and readily adsorbs and collects POPs from the atmosphere. As such, tree bark is an ideal sampler to find POPs sources globally, regionally, or locally. This article summarizes some work on this subject with an emphasis on kriged maps and a simple power-law model, both of which have been used to locate sources. Three of the four examples led directly to the pollutant's manufacturing plant. PMID:25629888

  20. Toxicity and anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous of extract of the bark of Sacoglottis gabonensis.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Chukwunyere O; Eneme, Tafarki A; Onyeyili, Patrick A; Ogugbuaja, Victor O

    2008-02-01

    The water extract of the stem bark of Sacoglottis gabonensis was evaluated for its preliminary acute toxicity and anthelmintic efficacy against gastro-intestinal nematodes of small ruminants and mice in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Intra-peritoneal administration of doses ranging from 400 to 3200 mg/kg of the aqueous stem bark extract produced varying degrees of toxicity manifested as depression, drowsiness and unsteady gait, paralysis of the hind limbs, dyspnoea, coma and death. The pathological lesions noted at necropsy were mainly congestion and edema of the lungs, bronchi and bronchioles and hepatomegally with focal necrosis of liver cells. The severity of the clinical symptoms and pathological lesions were dose-related. In the in vitro study, the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced the hatching of strongyline nematode eggs from naturally infected small ruminants. The 100 mg/ml concentration of the extract produced the highest (94.4%) inhibition on nematode egg hatch and the result was comparable to similar effect produced by either levamisole (100% at 15 mg/ml) or albendazole (99.7% at 6.25 mg/ml). In rats experimentally infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus, treatment with the S. gabonensis stem bark aqueous extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced adult worm burden and completely inhibited faecal egg output 5 days post treatment. PMID:17850987

  1. Modification of the semitransparent Prunus serrula bark film: Making rubber out of bark

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Zaremba, C.; Stucky, G.D.; Schneider, E.; Wudl, F. |

    1998-11-01

    The authors report an extensive structural and mechanical characterization of the semitransparent bark of Prunus serrula. Variations in the properties were observed. Mechanical properties along the fiber axis of these films are strongly related to the cell dimensions. Several trends can be seen with increasing cell length: tensile strength and Young`s modulus increase; ductility decreases. Perpendicular to the fiber axis, similar radial dimensions of the bark cells contributes to similar mechanical properties. Plasticization not only shrinks the dimension of the bulk films along the tangential axis, which is unique, but also dramatically changes the mechanical properties. The authors have shown, for the first time, that the mechanical properties of the Prunus serrula bark can be effectively tailored with different plasticization and modification agents. The plastic bark can be successfully converted to rubberlike material either temporally or permanently, or it can be strengthened by tensile deformation of the plasticized bark.

  2. Quantum non-barking dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  3. 4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper Building. Processed bark was loaded into trucks for disposal at a pit on site. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Log Peeling Operation, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. The bark, the howl and the bark-howl: Identity cues in dingoes' multicomponent calls.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Charrier, Isabelle; Clarke, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    Dingoes (genus Canis) produce a stereotyped bark-howl vocalisation, which is a unimodal complex signal formed by the concatenation of two call types (a bark and a howl). Bark-howls may function as alarm signals, although there has been no empirical investigation of this vocalisation's structure or function. We quantified the content and efficacy of the bark and howl segments separately and when combined, using 140 calls from 10 individuals. We found that both segments are individually distinctive, although howl segments are more accurately classified, suggesting a higher level of individuality. Furthermore, howls convey signature characteristics that are conserved across different contexts of production, and thus may act as 'identity signals'. The individual distinctiveness of full bark-howls increases above that of isolated segments, which may be a result of selection on improved signal discriminability. Propagation tests revealed that bark-howls are best described as medium-range signals, with both segments potentially allowing for individual discrimination up to 200m regardless of environmental conditions. We discuss our findings regarding the fitness benefits of encoding identity cues in a potential alarm call and propose additional hypotheses for the function(s) of bark and howl segments. PMID:27343622

  5. Can we relate respiration rates of bark and wood with tissue nitrogen concentrations and branch-level CO2 fluxes across woody species?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; Wright, I.; Cernusak, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Respiration from above-ground woody tissue is generally responsible for 5-15% of ecosystem respiration (~ 30% of total above-ground respiration). The CO2 respired by branches comes from both the sapwood and the living layers within the bark, but because there is considerable movement of respired CO2 within woody tissues (e.g. in the transpiration stream), and because the bark can present a considerable barrier to CO2 diffusion, it can be difficult to interpret measured CO2 efflux from intact branches in relation to the respiration rates of the component tissues, and to relative mass allocation to each. In this study we investigated these issues in 15 evergreen tree and shrub species native to the Sydney area in eastern Australia. We measured CO2 efflux and light-dependent refixation of respired CO2 in photosynthetic bark from the exterior surfaces of branches (0.5-1.5 cm in diameter), and measured the tissue-specific respiration rates of the bark and wood from those same branches. We also measured the nitrogen content and tissue density of the wood and bark to determine: 1) Among species, what is the relationship between %N and tissue respiration? 2) How is photosynthetic refixation of CO2 related to respiration and %N in the bark and underlying wood? and 3) What is the relationship between branch CO2 efflux and the respiration rates of the underlying wood and bark that make up the branch? Across the 15 species %N was a better predictor of respiration in wood than in bark. CO2 efflux measured from the exterior of the stem in the dark was positively correlated with photosynthetic refixation and explained ~40% of the variation in rates of refixation. Refixation rates were not strongly related to bark or wood %N. Differences among species in CO2 efflux rates were not well explained by differences in bark or wood %N and there was a stronger relationship between bark respiration and CO2 efflux than between wood respiration and CO2 efflux. These results suggest that the

  6. Proteomic analysis reveals suppression of bark chitinases and proteinase inhibitors in citrus plants affected by the citrus sudden death disease.

    PubMed

    Cantú, M D; Mariano, A G; Palma, M S; Carrilho, E; Wulff, N A

    2008-10-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a disease of unknown etiology that greatly affects sweet oranges grafted on Rangpur lime rootstock, the most important rootstock in Brazilian citriculture. We performed a proteomic analysis to generate information related to this plant pathogen interaction. Protein profiles from healthy, CSD-affected and CSD-tolerant stem barks, were generated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein spots were well distributed over a pI range of 3.26 to 9.97 and a molecular weight (MW) range from 7.1 to 120 kDa. The patterns of expressed proteins on 2-DE gels made it possible to distinguish healthy barks from CSD-affected barks. Protein spots with MW around 30 kDa and pI values ranging from 4.5 to 5.2 were down-regulated in the CSD-affected root-stock bark. This set of protein spots was identified as chitinases. Another set of proteins, ranging in pI from 6.1 to 9.6 with an MW of about 20 kDa, were also suppressed in CSD-affected rootstock bark; these were identified as miraculin-like proteins, potential trypsin inhibitors. Down-regulation of chitinases and proteinase inhibitors in CSD-affected plants is relevant since chitinases are well-known pathogenesis-related protein, and their activity against plant pathogens is largely accepted. PMID:18943454

  7. MRI links stem water content to stem diameter variations in transpiring trees.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Veerle; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Copini, Paul; Jahnke, Siegfried; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-04-01

    In trees, stem diameter variations are related to changes in stem water content, because internally stored water is depleted and replenished over a day. To confirm this relationship, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was combined with point dendrometer measurements in three actively transpiring oak (Quercus robur L.) trees. Two of these oak trees were girdled to study the stem increment above the girdling zone. MRI images and micrographs of stem cross-sections revealed a close link between the water distribution and the anatomical features of the stem. Stem tissues with the highest amount of water were physiologically the most active ones, being the youngest differentiating xylem cells, the cambium and the youngest differentiating and conductive phloem cells. Daily changes in stem diameter corresponded well with the simultaneously MRI-measured amount of water, confirming their strong interdependence. MRI images also revealed that the amount of water in the elastic bark tissues, excluding cambium and the youngest phloem, contributed most to the daily stem diameter changes. After bark removal, an additional increase in stem diameter was measured above the girdle. This increase was attributed not only to the cambial production of new cells, but also to swelling of existing bark cells. In conclusion, the comparison of MRI and dendrometer measurements confirmed previous interpretations and applications of dendrometers and illustrates the additional and complementary information MRI can reveal regarding water relations in plants. PMID:22268159

  8. Erythroivorensin: A novel anti-inflammatory diterpene from the root-bark of Erythrophleum ivorense (A Chev.).

    PubMed

    Armah, Francis A; Annan, Kofi; Mensah, Abraham Y; Amponsah, Isaac K; Tocher, Derek A; Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-09-01

    The stem- and root-bark of Erythrophleum ivorense (A Chev., family, Fabaceae) are routinely employed in the West African traditional medicine to treat inflammation and a variety of other disease conditions. Although the chemistry and pharmacology of cassaine-type diterpene alkaloids isolated from the stem-bark of the plant are fairly established, the root-bark has not yet been investigated. In the present study, the crude aqueous-alcohol extract of the root-bark was demonstrated to display a time- and dose (30-300 mg/kg p.o.)-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in chicks. Comprehensive chromatographic analysis coupled with spectroscopic and X-ray study further allowed the assignment of one of the major anti-inflammatory constituents as a novel cassaine-type diterpene, erythroivorensin. The other major constituents were known anti-inflammatory compounds: a triterpene, betulinic acid and a flavonoid, eriodictyol. The dose (10-100mg/kg p.o.)-dependent anti-inflammatory effects of the three compounds were either comparable or more significant than the positive control, diclofenac. PMID:26057191

  9. Amending pine bark with alternative substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to a number of factors, pine bark supplies have significantly decreased over the past few years. While alternative substrates are being evaluated, many growers are asking if these alternative substrates can be used to stretch existing PB supplies. In this study, two alternative substrates, “Cl...

  10. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa bark.

    PubMed

    Sticher, O; Lahloub, M F

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of acteoside and coniferin from Paulownia tomentosa bark along with the previously reported phenolic glucoside syringin is described. The structure of both, acteoside and coniferin, have been assigned by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17396961

  11. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  12. Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, J; Cheney, D L; Seyfarth, R M

    2000-01-01

    We studied the development of infant baboons' (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) responses to conspecific 'barks' in a free-ranging population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. These barks grade from tonal, harmonically rich calls into calls with a more noisy, harsh structure. Typically, tonal variants are given when the signaller is at risk of losing contact with the group or a particular individual ('contact barks'), whereas harsh variants are given in response to predators ('alarm barks'). We conducted focal observations and playback experiments in which we presented variants of barks recorded from resident adult females. By six months of age, infants reliably discriminated between typical alarm and contact barks and they responded more strongly to intermediate alarm calls than to typical contact barks. Infants of six months and older also recognized their mothers by voice. The ability to discriminate between different call variants developed with increasing age. At two and a half months of age, infants failed to respond at all, whereas at four months they responded irrespective of the call type that was presented. At six months, infants showed adult-like responses by responding strongly to alarm barks but ignoring contact barks. We concluded that infants gradually learn to attach the appropriate meaning to alarm and contact barks. PMID:11413649

  13. Radiocesium concentrations in the bark, sapwood and heartwood of three tree species collected at Fukushima forests half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Kagawa, Akira; Tonosaki, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) distribution in tree stems of Japanese cedar (aged 40-56 y), red pine (42 y), and oak (42 y) grown in Fukushima Prefecture were investigated approximately half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Japanese cedar, red pine, and oak were selected from five sites, one site, and one site, respectively. Three trees at each site were felled, and bark, sapwood (the outer layer of wood in the stem), and heartwood (the inner layer of wood in the stem) separately collected to study radiocesium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiocesium deposition densities at the five sites were within the range of 16-1020 kBq m(-2). The radiocesium was distributed in bark, sapwood, and heartwood in three tree species, indicating that very rapid translocation of radiocesium into the wood. The concentration of radiocesium in oak (deciduous angiosperm) bark was higher than that in the bark of Japanese cedar and red pine (evergreen gymnosperms). Both sapwood and heartwood contained radiocesium, and the values were much lower than that in the bark samples. The results suggest that radiocesium contamination half a year after the accident was mainly attributable to the direct radioactive deposition. The radiocesium concentrations in the Japanese cedar samples taken from five sites rose with the density of radiocesium accumulation on the ground surface. To predict the future dynamics of radiocesium in tree stems, the present results taken half a year after the accident are important, and continuous study of radiocesium in tree stems is necessary. PMID:23531497

  14. Toxicological and hematological effect of Terminalia arjuna bark extract on a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Suely, A; Zabed, H; Ahmed, A B A; Mohamad, J; Nasiruddin, M; Sahu, J N; Ganesan, P

    2016-04-01

    Increasing demand for eco-friendly botanical piscicides and pesticides as replacements for harmful synthetic chemicals has led to investigation of new sources of plant materials. Stem bark of Terminalia arjuna, which has been used as a popular folk medicine since ancient time, was examined for its piscicidal activity. This study aims to determine toxicity of ethanol extract of T. arjuna bark on fresh water stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis), along with evaluation of changes in hematological parameters of the fishes exposed to a lethal concentration. The percent mortality of fishes varied significantly in response to concentrations of the extract and exposure times (between exposure time F = 36.57, p < 0.001; between concentrations F = 39.93, p < 0.001). The lethal concentrations (LC50) of ethanol extract were found to be 12.7, 8.94, 5.63 and 4.71 mg/l for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. During acute toxicity test, blood samples of treatment fishes showed significant decreases in the red blood cells count, hematocrit content, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and plasma protein level when compared to those of the control group, while there were significant increases in the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cells count and plasma glucose concentration. These results suggest that T. arjuna bark extract could be considered as a potent piscicide due to its toxic effect on fish, particularly fish hematology. PMID:26501361

  15. Enclosed bark as a pollen trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Ferguson, C.W.; Lamarch, V.C., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Counts were made of pollen in traps formed by enclosed bark in two remnants of bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., from the White Mountains of east-central California. The traps, dated by tree-rings at A.D. 350 and 1300 B.C., contained a major complex of pine-sagebrush pollen and traces of other species, representing the equivalent of the present vegetation.

  16. Metals Bioaccumulation Mechanism in Neem Bark.

    PubMed

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Boddu, Veera M; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ghadge, S V; Sarkar, Biplab; Brahmane, M P; Choudhary, K; Kathiravan, V; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as Hg(2+) < Cd(2+) < Pb(2+) ≅ Cu(2+). Surface properties of the biomaterial were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques for their sorption mechanism. Whewellite (C2CaO4 · H2O) was identified in the biomaterial, which indicated that calcium ions are electrovalently bonded with carboxylate ions facilitating the ion exchange mechanism with metal ions. Bioaccumulation of metal ions was also studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the presence of functional groups implicated in adsorbing metal ions. Biomaterial did not adsorb anionic As(III), As(V) and Cr(VI), because of their electrostatic repulsion with carboxylic functional groups. Neem bark can be used as bioindicators, bioaccumulators and biomonitors while determining environmental pressures. Metal bioaccumulative properties and structural investigation of plant bark has potential in providing quantitative information on the metal contamination in the surrounding environment. PMID:26193837

  17. The 'WHY?' files: the case of the barking dog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this program, students are invited to actively join the tree house detectives as they investigate the 'Case of the Barking Dogs.' The tree house detectives accept the challenge of determining why dogs in the surrounding neighborhoods have unexpectedly started barking early in the morning and late at night. Using scientific inquiry, our detectives discover what is causing the neighborhood dogs to bark. In determining the 'why,' the detectives learn about sound: what it is, how it is transmitted, how people and animals hear, and NASA's research on noise. While solving the case, the tree house detectives learn that determining the source of the barking requires the use of logic and 'sound' reasoning.

  18. Use of tree bark to monitor radionuclide pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    The outer surface bark of many trees is an excellent monitoring source of fallout radionuclides. The accumulation and retention of these pollutants is evident by the presence of /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 144/Ce and /sup 155/Eu in the outer layer of bark from many trees surveyed during this study. The accumulation and retention of these and other radionuclides suggest that tree bark is an ecosystem monitoring resource that should be exploited for these and possible other environmental pollutants. Therefore, the emphasis of this study was a broad survey of the detectability of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in and on tree bark rather than a narrow quantitative study.

  19. The biophysical controls on tree defense against attacking bark beetles in managed pine forests of the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, K. A.; Miniat, C. F.; Denham, S. O.; Ritger, H. M.; Williams, C.; Guldin, J. M.; Bragg, D.; Coyle, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bark beetles are highly damaging pests capable of destroying large areas of southern pine forests, with significant consequences for regional timber supply and forest ecosystem carbon dynamics. A number of recent studies have shown that following bark beetle outbreak, significant effects on ecosystem carbon and water cycling can occur. Relatively few studies have explored how ecosystem carbon and water cycling interact with other factors to control the hazard or risk of bark beetle outbreaks; these interactions, and their representation in conceptual model frameworks, are the focus of this study. Pine trees defend against bark beetle attacks through the exudation of of resin - a viscous compound that deters attacking beetles through a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms. Constitutive resin flow (CRF, representing resin produced before attack) is assumed to be directly proportional to the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) according to the Growth-Differentiation Balance theory (GDB). Thus, predictions for tree mortality and bark beetle dynamics under different management and climate regimes may be more accurate if a model framework describing the biophysical controls on resin production (e.g., GDB) were employed. Here, we synthesize measurements of resin flow, bark beetle dynamics, and ecosystem C flux from three managed loblolly pine forests in the Southeastern U.S.: the Duke Forest in Durham, NC; the Savannah River DOE site near Aiken, SC; and the Crossett Experimental Forest in southern Arkansas. We also explore the relationship between CRF and induced resin flow (IRF, representing the de novo synthesis of resin following stem wounding) in the latter two sites, where IRF was promoted by a novel tree baiting approach and prescribed fire, respectively. We assimilate observations within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 1) test whether observations conform to the GDB hypothesis, and 2) explore effects

  20. Cough and Arabinogalactan Polysaccharide from the Bark of Terminalia Arjuna.

    PubMed

    Sivová, V; Bera, K; Ray, B; Nosáľ, S; Nosáľová, G

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigated the antitussive activity of the medicinal tree Terminalia arjuna. We used the stem bark for extraction and preparation of water extracted isolate and its two fractions: acetone-soluble (TA-S) and acetone precipitated (TA-P) fraction. The presence of a pectic arabinogalactan was confirmed in TA-P fraction by chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. The antitussive activity of samples was assessed after oral administration in a dose of 50 mg.kg(-1) in healthy guinea pigs, in which cough was elicited by inhalation of citric acid (0.3 mol/L) in body plethysmograph. The water extracted isolate showed a significant ability to decrease the number of cough efforts by 64.2 %; the antitussive activity on par with that of codeine phosphate. The TA-P fraction showed the antitussive activity of 54.8 %. In contrast, TA-S fraction had only a mild antitussive activity. No changes in in vivo airway resistance were noted. We conclude that arabinogalactan is an essential component of Terminalia arjuna that underlies its antitussive action. PMID:27334729

  1. Changes in aspen bark stored in outdoor piles

    SciTech Connect

    Zoch, E.L.; Rusch, J.J.; Springer, E.L.

    1982-06-01

    Increasing use of bark for fuel has led to questions as to the losses and other changes that occur during outdoor pile storage. The possibility of spontaneous ignition in bark piles is of special concern. This study examined the storage characteristics of aspen bark. Two aspen bark piles, 40 feet by 40 feet by 20 feet high, were built in October of 1974 and 1975 at a northern Wisconsin mill site. The 1974 pile contained bark which came directly from a ring debarker; the 1975 pile was built using bark that had been put through a hammermill after it came from the ring debarker. Temperatures were observed at the centers of the piles using thermistors placed at 5, 10 and 15 feet above the base. Bark substance losses (ovendry material) were determined by placing bark samples contained in nylon mesh bags at each of these locations in each pile and retrieving them after 1 year of storage. Maximum pile tempreatures were attained in about 3 weeks and were about 160 degrees F for both piles. Bark substance losses varied with height above the base of the pile, being greatest at the 15-foot level (about 25%) and least at the 5-foot level (about 5%). Moisture content also varied with the height and was greatest at the 15-foot level. The pH of the bark decreased during storage from an initial value of 4.6 to final values ranging between 2.6 and 3.3. Bark particle size did not significantly affect pile temperatures, weight losses or changes in pH and moisture content. (Refs. 8).

  2. Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Pongamia pinnata Bark.

    PubMed

    Bhandirge, S K; Tripathi, A S; Bhandirge, R K; Chinchmalatpure, T P; Desai, H G; Chandewar, A V

    2015-06-01

    Present study evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (PP). Evaluation of wound healing activity, 2 wound models were used I. e., incision and excision wounds were perform in this study on Albino wistar rats (150-200 g). The rats were been treated with 10% and 5% ointment base formulation at dose 15 µl/wound topically. The parameters studied were breaking strength in case of incision wounds, epithelization period and wound area in case of excision wound. The ethanolic extract treated group showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the wound breaking strength in incision type of wound model and significant increase in epithelization period and reduction in percentage of wound area in excision type of wound model as compared to control group. Extract treated groups showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement in all the wound healing parameters of incision and excision wound models as compared to control. This study justify the traditional use of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata stem bark shows wound healing property. PMID:25607746

  3. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  4. Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Hans J; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl E; Wangensteen, Helle; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Paulsen, Berit S; Massamba, Daniel; Duchon, Stephane; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii) is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis]), a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis), and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis). The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female), but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides. PMID:25525826

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  6. Increasing hardwood fiber supplies through improved bark utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, D.W.; Harder, M.L.

    1980-09-01

    A promising approach to meeting increased demands for hardwood fiber is through the greater use of logging residues. A method of harvesting and more completely utilizing mixed hardwood stands is discussed. Most species that are difficult to debark contain fiberlike elements in the inner bark. Procedures are suggested for reducing the size of the chipped bark fraction and thus allowing removal of only bark that is low in fiber. The pulping of barks that are high in fiber will result in greater per-acre fiber production. Increases in per-acre pulp production are estimated at 50-90% for the suggested approach. Modest pulp strength increases are anticipated through the use of bark fibers.

  7. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

  8. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  9. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies... into publicly owned treatment works from the barking of logs by plants in SIC major group 24, and...

  10. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies... into publicly owned treatment works from the barking of logs by plants in SIC major group 24, and...

  11. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies... into publicly owned treatment works from the barking of logs by plants in SIC major group 24, and...

  12. Proceedings organic and fuel uses for bark and wood residues, No. P-80-27

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings begin with an introduction by Richard Allison. Papers on organic uses of bark are concerned with the future of the horticultural bark industry, accelerated composting of hardwood bark for use as a growing medium, use of hardwood bark in strip mine reclamation, and physical properties and sizing of bark for horticultural uses. Papers on fuel uses of bark discuss use of wood chips to supplement lignite as boiler fuel, gasification of mill residues with a downdraft gasifier, economics of burning wood, pelletized wood and bark residues for residential fuel, and utilization and disposal of wood ash. (Refs. 41).

  13. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  14. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  15. Process for the production of a fertilizer from bark

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlberg, A.O.

    1981-01-20

    The production of a fertilizer from tree bark is improved by a process of the type wherein crushed waste bark is treated together with waste molasses under elevated pressure and at a temperature of 75 to 140/sup 0/C. For a time of 10 min to 2 h. Said time is dependent on the treatment temperature, and the improvement comprises adding yeast to the waste molasses, and maintaining its temperature at 30 to 40/sup 0/C for 35 to 45 hours, whereby its ph value decreases to 3-4, before it is mixed with the ground waste bark.

  16. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  17. Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

    2008-08-15

    Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

  18. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J.; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-01-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf ‘M.27’ to the semi-invigorating rootstock ‘M.116’. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified. PMID:26826217

  19. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-03-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf 'M.27' to the semi-invigorating rootstock 'M.116'. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified. PMID:26826217

  20. FireStem2D – A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires

    PubMed Central

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S.; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W.; Dickinson, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes. PMID:23894599

  1. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  2. Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry as well as histology were studied. Results: The administration of ME from the G. arborea bark at 300–5000 mg/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the clinical signs. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of ME was 5000 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the general condition, growth, organ weights, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry values, or gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. Conclusion: ME of G. arborea was found safe in acute and repeated dose toxicity studies when tested in mice and rats. PMID:22778509

  3. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  4. An experimental demonstration of stem damage as a predictor of fire-caused mortality for ponderosa pine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.; Schwartz, M.

    2004-01-01

    We subjected 159 small ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) to treatments designed to test the relative importance of stem damage as a predictor of postfire mortality. The treatments consisted of a group with the basal bark artificially thinned, a second group with fuels removed from the base of the stem, and an untreated control. Following prescribed burning, crown scorch severity was equivalent among the groups. Postfire mortality was significantly less frequent in the fuels removal group than in the bark removal and control groups. No model of mortality for the fuels removal group was possible, because dead trees constituted <4% of subject trees. Mortality in the bark removal group was best predicted by crown scorch and stem scorch severity, whereas death in the control group was predicted by crown scorch severity and bark thickness. The relative lack of mortality in the fuels removal group and the increased sensitivity to stem damage in the bark removal group suggest that stem damage is a critical determinant of postfire mortality for small ponderosa pine.

  5. Rates of pyrolysis and combustion of bark by thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Yin

    1996-10-01

    Bark has been considered a viable renewable energy resource. This paper focuses on our experimental and modeling efforts on the bark combustion kinetics. Combustion and pyrolysis experiments have been conducted by lowering a sample-containing basket into a preheated, 2.5{double_prime} fluidized sand bed. This fluidized bed provides both rapid heating and quenching to the samples. Fluidized sand bed provides a very effective heat transfer medium between the gas (air or nitrogen) and the sand. Rapid quenching has been accomplished by raising the basket into a water-cooled, reversed-nitrogen flow section. The basket is made of a 40 mesh stainless steel screen. Combustion and pyrolysis of 10 mm diameter bark particles have been performed in the temperature ranges 500 to 800{degrees}C, and 750 to 850{degrees}C, respectively. The gas velocity has been in the range of 5.4 to 10.8 cm/s. Weight loss of bark after the experiments has been used as an index of conversion in the kinetic study. The combustion/pyrolysis model contains three dynamic equations: bark pyrolysis, char combustion, and heat transfer to bark particles. It has been assumed that the volatiles disengagement from char is governed by temperature-dependent desorption in an exponential form. By fitting the model to the experimental data, the seven parameters in the model have been recovered. These parameters include the four Arrhenius parameters for pyrolysis and combustion, total volatile at infinite temperature and temperature sensitivity in the volatile desorption equation, and heat of pyrolysis. Good agreement with the experimental data for pyrolysis and combustion demonstrates that the present model is capable of depicting the bark weight remaining in the bed at any time during combustion or pyrolysis. In addition, the kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis and heat of pyrolysis are in good accord with those in the literature.

  6. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  7. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers.

    PubMed

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  8. Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Willow bark extract has been used for thousands of years as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic. In spite of its long history of use, relatively few human and animal studies have been published that confirm anecdotal observations. A small number of clinical studies have been conducted that support the use of willow bark extracts in chronic lower back and joint pain and osteoarthritis. Willow bark extracts also are widely used in sports performance and weight loss products presumably because of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, although no human studies have been published that specifically and directly document beneficial effects. In recent years, various in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of willow bark extract is associated with down regulation of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-kappa B. Although willow bark extracts are generally standardized to salicin, other ingredients in the extracts including other salicylates as well as polyphenols, and flavonoids may also play prominent roles in the therapeutic actions. Adverse effects appear to be minimal as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. The primary cause for concern may relate to allergic reactions in salicylate-sensitive individuals. PMID:25997859

  9. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    PubMed

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater. PMID:27179811

  10. Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

    1999-01-01

    Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

  11. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  12. Determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tree bark

    SciTech Connect

    Douce, D.S.; Clench, M.R.; Cooke, M.

    1995-12-31

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are released into the environment from a variety of sources, including the combustion of diesel, gasoline and other organic fuels. The most important source or nitro`PAHs, is believed to be the emissions from diesel fuelled vehicles. Monitoring of this class of compound is important due to their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Sturaro et al have shown that tree bark acts as a passive absorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). They proposed that the use of a natural and passive sampler such as tree bark might lead to a less complex overall analytical strategy for environmental measurements. It was decided to modify the method proposed by Sturaro et al, in an attempt to monitor nitro-PAH levels absorbed into the tree bark from diesel emissions.

  13. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments... Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, DN 2932; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public... electronic bark control collars. The complaint names as respondent Sunbeam Products, Inc. d/b/a...

  14. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  15. Relative density, equilibrium moisture content, and dimensional stability of western hemlock bark

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.W.; Kellogg, R.M.; Warren, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    The measurement of western hemlock bark samples from three coastal sites in British Columbia revealed that inner bark relative density (0.382) is less than that of the adjacent sapwood (0.413) and markedly less than that of outer bark (0.463). The equilibrium moisture content of the inner and outer bark are equivalent at both 70 and 30% relative humidity, and slightly higher than that of the sapwood. The generally higher shrinkage of bark compared with wood is the result of bark cell collapse during drying. In the outer bark, some collapse or crushing takes place in the standing tree. This compacting of tissue reduces the shrinkage of outer bark relative to the inner bark. The actual shrinkage per unit change in moisture content of the inner bark is the same as that for the sapwood. The outer bark appears to be more dimensionally stable. The longitudinal shrinkage of both inner (2.9%) and outer (2.2%) bark is markedly greater than that of the sapwood (0.1-0.2%). (Refs. 10).

  16. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of... importation of certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... the United States after importation of certain electronic bark control collars that infringe claims...

  17. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  18. Scanning proton microprobe analysis applied to wood and bark samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lövestam, N. E. G.; Johansson, E.-M.; Johansson, S. A. E.; Pallon, J.

    1990-04-01

    In this study the feasibility of applying scanning micro-PIXE to analysis of wood and bark samples is demonstrated. Elemental mapping of the analysed sections show the patterns of Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Some of these patterns can be related to the annual tree ring structure. It is observed that the variation of elements having an environmental character can be rather large within a single tree ring, thus illuminating possible difficulties when using tree ring sections as a pollution monitor. The variations in elemental concentrations when crossing from bark to wood are also shown to be smooth for some elements but rather abrupt for others.

  19. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization. PMID:26314028

  20. Recovery of copper through decontamination of synthetic solutions using modified barks

    SciTech Connect

    Gaballah, I.; Goy, D.; Allain, E.; Kilbertus, G.; Thauront, J.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination of synthetic acetate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate solutions containing 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm of copper using chemically treated barks has been studied. Metal percentage removal from solutions depends on the pH, the initial concentration, and, to some extent, the anion. It varies from 40 through 99 pct of the initial metallic ion`s content in the solution. The average retention capacity of the treated bark is about 43 mg of Cu/g of dry modified bark (0.68 mmole/g of dry bark). Extraction of copper cations from the saturated modified bark was made possible with dilute acid. Regeneration of bark for reuse as an ion exchanger was possible. Bark loaded with copper was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Copper was uniformly distributed in the bulk of the bark. No copper segregation was observed. It seems that copper was bound to the acidic (phenolic) sides of the bark. Anions were not detected on the copper-loaded bark with either SEM electron probe microanalysis or IR spectroscopy. Incineration of the bark loaded with copper resulted in ashes containing about 77 pct of copper oxides while pyrolysis of the same sample led to ashes containing 10 pct of metallic copper and about 85 pct carbon.

  1. Recovery of copper through decontamination of synthetic solutions using modified barks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Goy, D.; Allain, E.; Kilbertus, G.; Thauront, J.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination of synthetic acetate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate solutions containing 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm of copper using chemically treated barks has been studied. Metal percentage removal from solutions depends on the pH, the initial concentration, and, to some extent, the anion. It varies from 40 through 99 pct of the initial metallic ion’s content in the solution. The average retention capacity of the treated bark is about 43 mg of Cu/g of dry modified bark (0.68 mmole/g of dry bark). Extraction of copper cations from the saturated modified bark was made possible with dilute acid. Regeneration of bark for reuse as an ion exchanger was possible. Bark loaded with copper was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Copper was uniformly distributed in the bulk of the bark. No copper segregation was observed. It seems that copper was bound to the acidic (phenolic) sites of the bark. Anions were not detected on the copper-loaded bark with either SEM electron probe microanalysis or IR spectroscopy. Incineration of the bark loaded with copper resulted in ashes containing about 77 pct of copper oxides, while pyrolysis of the same sample led to ashes containing 10 pct of metallic copper and about 85 pct carbon.

  2. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) bark composition and degradation by fungi: potential substrate for bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Valentín, Lara; Kluczek-Turpeinen, Beata; Willför, Stefan; Hemming, Jarl; Hatakka, Annele; Steffen, Kari; Tuomela, Marja

    2010-04-01

    The composition of Scots pine bark, its degradation, and the production of hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzymes were evaluated during 90 days of incubation with Phanerochaete velutina and Stropharia rugosoannulata. The aim was to evaluate if pine bark can be a suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation applications. The original pine bark contained 45% lignin, 25% cellulose, and 15% hemicellulose. Resin acids were the most predominant lipophilic extractives, followed by sitosterol and unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acids. Both fungi degraded all main components of bark, specially cellulose (79% loss by P. velutina). During cultivation on pine bark, fungi also degraded sitosterol, produced malic acid, and oxidated unsaturated fatty acids. The most predominant enzymes produced by both fungi were cellulase and manganese peroxidase. The results indicate that Scots pine bark supports enzyme production and provides nutrients to fungi, thus pine bark may be suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation. PMID:20005699

  3. The use of tree bark as long term biomonitor of (137)Cs deposition.

    PubMed

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Incze, Reka; Kovacs, Tibor; Žunić, Zora S

    2016-03-01

    Airborne (137)Cs originated from the nuclear tests in the atmosphere and from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was retained by the trees biomass and nowadays it can still be found in various concentrations in tree barks from Romania and other European countries. This study brings the first results of (137)Cs presence in tree bark from Romania on different considerations: (i) data dispersion in spruce and oak bark from NW, SW and central Romania, and the spatial variability of (137)Cs within oak and spruce bark from a natural protected forest area from Balvanyos area (Covasna County), known to be highly affected by the Chernobyl nuclear release; (ii) comparison of (137)Cs content in different tree bark species (oak, spruce, poplar and cherry); (iii) differences in (137)Cs concentrations with the bark depth layers and around the tree trunk; and (iv) comparison of mean (137)Cs values in spruce/oak bark from Romania with data from other European countries. PMID:26771244

  4. A sesquiterpene drimane with antinociceptive activity from Drimys winteri bark.

    PubMed

    Malheiros, A; Filho, V C; Schmitt, C B; Santos ARS; Scheidt, C; Calixto, J B; Monache, F D; Yunes, R A

    2001-05-01

    Along with three known drimanes, polygodial. 1-beta-(p-methoxycinnamoyl) polygodial and mukaadial, the sesquiterpene drimane named drimanial was isolated from the bark of Drimys winteri (Winteraceae). Its structure was elucidated based on spectroscopic evidence. Drimanial exhibited antinociceptive action against acetic acid induced pain, being about 3-fold less active than polygodial. PMID:11336250

  5. Antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of Zizyphus lotus root barks.

    PubMed

    Borgi, W; Ghedira, K; Chouchane, N

    2007-01-01

    The root barks of Zizyphus lotus were extracted with water, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol to determine their antiinflammatory and analgesic activities. Aqueous extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally (i.p.) showed a significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory and analgesic activity. PMID:17107758

  6. The proteomics of nitrogen remobilization in poplar bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal nitrogen (N) cycling in temperate deciduous trees involves the accumulation of bark storage proteins (BSPs), a class of vegetative storage proteins in phloem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. BSPs are anabolized using recycled N in the form of amino acids after autumn leaf senescence and lat...

  7. Two new tetracyclic triterpenoids from the barks of Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ling-Tian; Chen, Pian; Zhang, Yan; Lei, Xin-Xiang; Ye, Xiao-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Two new tetracyclic triterpenoids, together with 21 known compounds, were isolated from the barks of Melia azedarach. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by the means of HRESIMS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and X-ray crystallography analysis. PMID:26727712

  8. Rates of pyrolysis and combustion of bark by thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Yin

    1996-12-31

    Wood supplies approximately 3 percent of the U.S. energy consumption. Bark represents about 10-15% of the weight of the trunk cut in the forest. Wood combustion phenomena has been extensively reviewed. Recent technological development is reflected in an article by Barsin et al., and a report published by the Electric Power Research Institute. Fundamental understanding of wood pyrolysis has also grown substantially in the last two decades. Shafizadeh reviewed the wood pyrolysis and combustion kinetics based on weight loss profiles. About the same time, Hajaligol et al. reported the kinetics of the individual product species for rapid pyrolysis of cellulose, Boroson et al. observed that heterogeneous cracking ofwood pyrolysis tars takes place over flesh wood char surface. Pyrolysis kinetics of different lignocellulosic materials have been investigated by Bilbao et al. Heat and mass transfer limitations are inevitable during burning of large particles, and have been the target of a number of modeling efforts. Due to its lower physical strength and less uniform structure than interior wood, bark is usually burned along with wood waste as a fuel, particularly by sawmills and pulp mills. Bark has the heating value of 9,000 to 10,000 Btu/lb, which is higher than that of wood. The objective of this paper is to experimentally acquire information about the bark kinetics during pyrolysis and combustion conditions. A kinetic model is also developed for the comparison.

  9. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  10. The Bark Myxomycetes--Their Collection, Culture and Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a technique for isolating slime molds from tree bark and outlines projects for working with slime molds in the laboratory. Diagrams of 26 of the more common British species and a key to the Orders of Myxomcetes are given. (CS)

  11. Ursane Triterpenoids from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five ursane type triterpene glucosyl esters including a new one, 2a,3ß-dihydroxyurs-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) were isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, along with two known phenolic compounds. It is the first report of ursane type of triterpenoids from this spi...

  12. Relationship between tree bark surface temperature and selected meteorological elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Středa, Tomáš; Litschmann, Tomáš; Středová, Hana

    2015-12-01

    The results were obtained by measurements in 2014 and 2015 in an apple orchard in Starý Lískovec and Těšetice (South Moravia, Czech Republic, Central Europe) into fertile planting of apple trees. The results show that the bark surface temperature during the year slightly differs from the surrounding air temperature. In addition, it is in average a few tenths of a °C higher in the period before the onset of the vegetation and several tenths of a degree lower during vegetation. Causes of these differences appear to be associated with the flow of sap as well as with foliage. Although it can be reasonably assumed that the temperature of the bark surface on the south side will be significantly affected by the global radiation, our measurements did not demonstrate this dependency. It appears that the wind speed had significantly larger influence on the temperature differences in the non-vegetation period as at speeds over 3.5 m s-1, the drop of temperature is so significant that the bark surface is colder than the surrounding air. Comparison of the development of sums of daily and hourly effective temperatures above 10 °C has shown that where daily values do not show significant differences, hourly values differed so prominently that the calculated date of emergence of adult codling moth in the bark surface was approximately one week earlier than with the use of data for air temperatures.

  13. Aspen height, stem-girth and survivorship in an area of high ungulate use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    An increase in ungulate population size potentially exposes aspen suckers, saplings, and trees to increased use. This study examined how stem height and girth influenced the selection of stems by ungulates for browsing, rubbing, and gnawing, and reconstructed the history of ungulate use for the study area. Transects were run through each of three aspen clones growing in southwestern Montana to determine height, circumference, and the surface area from which bark was totally and partially removed by rubbing and gnawing. Stems 20-250 cm tall were browsed. Stems 2-13 cm diameter were preferentially selected for rubbing and gnawing. The area of totally removed bark on dead saplings was twice the area of removed bark on live stems of similar diameter, suggesting that bark removal played a major role in the death of some stems. Based on an analysis of stem height and age, ungulate browsing was inferred to have increased from a light-to-moderate level to an intense level in 1991. The depth of scars was used to date scarring events. An increase in rubbing and gnawing was determined to have occurred about 1985. We concluded that elk were primarily responsible for the observed impacts. The combined effect of rubbing, gnawing, and browsing affects a broader span of ages compared to the effect of browsing alone. If prescribed fire is used to rejuvenate aspen stands, the resulting young stems should be protected from heavy browsing, rubbing and gnawing until they reach about 13 cm diameter and have grown out of the browse zone.

  14. Potency of Massoia Bark in Combating Immunosuppressed-related Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hertiani, Triana; Pratiwi, Sylvia Utami Tunjung; Yuswanto, Agustinus; Permanasari, Prisci

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of our search for new potential natural resources to eradicate infection, we have revealed the prominent potency of massoia bark (Massoia aromatica Becc, Lauraceae) in combating immunosuppressed-related infection. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared by macerating the pulverized dried bark in ethanol 95%, followed by solvent evaporation. The oil was extracted from the dried bark by steam-hydrodistillation of which preparative thin-layer chromatography was performed on the oil to isolate the active constituent, C-10 massoia lactone (ML). Anti-biofilm assay against Candida albicans was conducted on polystyrene 96 wells microtiter plates, followed by a confocal laser scanning microscope observation to get three-dimensional profiles of the affected biofilms. Effects on the hyphae development inoculated on RPMI-1640 agar plates were observed for 7 days. Influences of samples on mice macrophage phagocytosis were examined by an in vitro technique. Samples concentration tested were in the range of 2.0–0.0625 mg/mL and done in triplicate. Results: Massoia bark extracts (oil and solid phase) and ML exhibited promising activities as anti-biofilm against C. albicans at IC50 0.074% v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL, respectively. The ML did not inhibit the hyphae development at the concentration tested; however, the extracts showed inhibition at 62.5 μg/mL. Macrophage phagocytosis stimulation was correlated to the ML content. Conclusion: Massoia bark is potential to be developed as anti-infective in immunosuppressed condition of which the C10 ML (C10H16O2) plays a major role in exerting activity. SUMMARY Massoia bark extracts (oily and solid phase) and C-10 Massoia lactone exhibited promising activities as antibiofilm against Candida albicans at IC50 are 0.074 %v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL respectively. The major constituent, C-10 Massoia lactone (C10H16O2) plays major role in exerting anticandida activity and potentially acts as an

  15. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  16. Effects of long-term, elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2002-12-01

    Long-term outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on secondary metabolites (phenolics and terpenoids) and the main soluble sugars (sucrose, raffinose and glucose) in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings. Saplings were exposed to a constant 50% increase in erythemal UV irradiance (UV-B(CIE); based on the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) erythemal action spectrum) and a small increase in UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) for three growing seasons in an irradiation field in central Finland. Two control groups were used: saplings exposed to ambient radiation and saplings exposed to slightly increased UV-A radiation. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term elevated UV radiation. Saplings in the elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and the UV-A radiation control treatment had significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics, such as salidroside, 3,4'-dihydroxypropiophenone-3-glucoside, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compared with saplings in ambient radiation. In contrast, the radiation treatments had no effect on the non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids, papyriferic acid and deacetylpapyriferic acid. We conclude that plant parts, in addition to leaves, accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure. PMID:12464579

  17. Host selection behavior of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) attackingPinus ponderosa, with special emphasis on the western pine beetle,Dendroctonus brevicomis.

    PubMed

    Moeck, H A; Wood, D L; Lindahl, K Q

    1981-01-01

    Detection of weakened hosts from a distance by bark beetles through olfaction was investigated in field experiments. No significant numbers of Scolytidae were attracted to anaerobically treated pine bolts, stem disks, or sugar and ponderosa pine bark including phloem. Treatment of living trees with cacodylic acid induced attacks byDendroctonus brevicomis, D. ponderosae, Ips latidens, Gnathotrichus retusus, andPityophthorus scalptor, beginning two weeks after treatment. There was no significant difference between landing rates ofD. brevicomis andD. ponderosae on screened treated trees and screened controls. There was a significant increase in landing rates ofG. retusus andI. latidens, because both species had penetrated the screen and produced pheromones. Tree frilling alone did not increase the landing rate of bark beetles. Freezing of the lower trunk with dry ice did not increase significantly the landing rate ofD. brevicomis, D. ponderosae, G. retusus, orI. latidens on screened trees, whereas unscreened frozen trees were attacked by all four species. There was no significantly higher landing rate byD. brevicomis, D. ponderosae, I. paraconfusus, I. latidens, G. retusus, orHylurgops subcostulatus on screened trees evidencing symptoms of severe infection by the root pathogenVerticicladiella wagenerii, than on symptornless trees. These experiments show thatD. brevicomis, D. ponderosae, I. paraconfusus, I. latidens, andG. retusus land, apparently indiscriminately, on healthy and stressed hosts. Thus, in these species host discrimination must occur after landing and prior to sustained feeding. PMID:24420427

  18. The transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-09-01

    We report on the behavior of radiocesium in tree bark and its transfer into the stemflows of chestnut trees in a forest in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In stems that were present at the time of the accident, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was found to be approximately 10 times that of the wood. The average (137)Cs concentration of the dissolved fraction (<0.45 μm) in the stemflow was measured to be around 10 Bq/L. The (137)Cs concentration ratio [present at the time of the accident (Bq/kg) in the bark/the dissolved fraction in the stemflow (Bq/L)] was approximately 10(3). A strong positive correlation was observed between the radiocesium concentration and the electrical conductivity of the dissolved fraction of the stemflow; this result suggests that radiocesium and electrolytes have the same elution mechanism from the tree. The size fractionation analysis of the <0.45 μm fraction through ultrafiltration revealed that the radiocesium was present as an almost dissolved species. Some of the particles in the particulate fraction (>0.45 μm) of the stemflow were strongly adsorbed radiocesium. PMID:26718985

  19. Constituents of twig bark of pear cultivars (Pyrus species).

    PubMed

    Tomosaka, Hideyuki; Tamimoto, Hideaki; Tsukagoshi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Ooka, Hisako; Ota, Michiya

    2012-08-01

    Organic solvent extracts from fresh twig bark of Japanese pear cultivars (Pyrus serotina) Shinko and Nijisseiki, and European pear cultivar (P. communis) Le Lectier were obtained by maceration with n-hexane and EtOAc, and analyzed in GC-EIMS experiments. In these two Japanese cultivars, the lupeol, betulin, epifriedelinol, friedelin and arbutin contents of Nijisseiki were higher than those of Shinko. In the case of the lupane-type triterpenes, lupeol and betulin, the lupeol content of Japanese pears Shinko and Nijisseiki was higher than that of European pear Le Lectier. The betulin content of Le Lectier was higher than those of Shinko and Nijisseiki. Friedelane-type triterpenes, epifriedelinol and friedelin, were not detected in twig bark of Le Lectier. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the constituents of these three pear cultivars were observed. PMID:22978211

  20. Vacuum pyrolysis of bark residues and primary sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Pakdel, H.; Couture, G.; Roy, C. )

    1994-07-01

    Black spruce bark residues and primary sludges derived from the operation of the Daishowa pulp and paper plant in Quebec City, PQ, were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed. The bark residues yielded 30.6% oil and 34.1% charcoal, and the primary sludges gave 40.1% oil and 30.1% charcoal on a feedstock air-dry basis. The oil phases recovered from the two pyrolysis experiments were fractionated into eight fractions; they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both pyrolysis oil samples had a high content of phenolic compounds. These oils contained various fine chemicals that have possible commercial potential. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as long- and short-chain carboxylic acids, are also present in both pyrolysis oils.

  1. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Siavash; Zolfaghari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods. PMID:24083233

  2. [Chemical constituents from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus L].

    PubMed

    Zhang, E J; Kang, Q S; Zhang, Z

    1993-01-01

    Seven constituents (I-VII) were isolated from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus and identified as nonanedioic acid (I), suberic acid (II), 1-octarcosanol (III), beta-sitosterol (IV), 1,22-docosanediol (V), betulin (VI) and erythrotriol (VII). VII was obtained from the plant for the first time, I, II, III and VI were isolated from Malvaceae plants for the first time. PMID:8323683

  3. A new bixanthone derivative from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixiu; Jiang, Yuyang; Li, Jiong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    A new bixanthone derivative, garciobioxanthone (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia, together with 11 known compounds. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR and other spectroscopic analysis. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the references. PMID:24079308

  4. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  5. New sucrose derivatives from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    PubMed

    De Tommasi, N; Piacente, S; De Simone, F; Pizza, C

    1993-01-01

    Two new bitter principles were isolated from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata (Polygalaceae) and identified as beta-D-(3,4-disinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)g lucopyranoside and beta-D-(3-sinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)gluco pyranoside. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1H nmr (1D, 2D COSY, 2D HOHAHA), 13C-nmr, and fabms spectra. PMID:8450315

  6. Neuropharmacological activities of Taxus wallichiana bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hitender; Garg, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The bark of Taxus wallichiana is widely used for preparing a decoction and consumed as a tea by several tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent. The sedative, motor coordination, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. wallichiana bark and its ethylacetate fraction were evaluated in mice models of behavior analysis. Materials and Methods: The effects were evaluated on diazepam-induced sleeping time, elevated plus maze and light and dark box, and on the forced swimming test. General locomotor activity and motor coordination effects were evaluated in the actophotmeter and rota-rod tests respectively. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Dunnett's test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 were considered as significant. Results: Both the hydroalcoholic extract and ethylacetate fraction showed a marked decrease in latency of sleep onset, prolonged the diazepam-induced sleeping time, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity; whereas ethylacetate fraction produced anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Conclusions: Both hydroalcoholic extract and its ethylacetate fraction of the bark of T. wallichiana have bioactive principles, which induce neuropharmacological changes. PMID:26069368

  7. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  8. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P < 0.0001), but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  9. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S M; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC(50) of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC(50): 22.42 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC(50): 55.65 mg/l) in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:11050667

  10. Ion Beam Analyses Of Bark And Wood In Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2011-06-01

    A large number of wood and bark samples have been analysed utilizing particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. Samples of common tree species like Scots Pine, Norway Spruce and birch were collected from a large number of sites in Southern and Southwestern Finland. Some of the samples were from a heavily polluted area in the vicinity of a copper-nickel smelter. The samples were dry ashed at 550 °C for the removal of the organic matrix in order to increase the analytical sensitivity of the method. The sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of 50 for wood and slightly less for bark. The ashed samples were pressed into pellets and irradiated as thick targets with a millimetre-sized proton beam. By including the ashing procedure in the method, the statistical dispersion due to elemental heterogeneities in wood material could be reduced. As a by-product, information about the elemental composition of ashes was obtained. By comparing the concentration of an element in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash of the same tree useful information from environmental point of view was obtained. The obtained ratio of the ashes was used to distinguish between elemental contributions from anthropogenic atmospheric sources and natural geochemical sources, like soil and bedrock.

  11. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9. PMID:20657499

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P < 0.0001), but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  13. Comparative Freezing Patterns in Stems of Cherry and Azalea 1

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Frank G.; Lumis, Glen P.; Olien, C. Robert

    1972-01-01

    Ice formation in stems, as determined by means of an electrophoretic mobility technique, occurs much more rapidly in azalea than in sour cherry. The difference is more marked in the bark than in the wood. Disrupting the structure of the tissues completely eliminates differences in freezing patterns, although gross anatomical differences do not appear to account for differences in species response. Microscopic examination of frozen stems indicated that little redistribution of water occurred during freezing in azalea, and the tissues were disrupted as these crystals developed. In cherry, on the other hand, water diffused to nucleating centers where crystal growth was not opposed, giving rise to “glaciers.” PMID:16658210

  14. Bioaccessibility in vitro of nutraceuticals from bark of selected Salix species.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sugier, Danuta; Dziki, Dariusz; Sugier, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  15. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow (Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale. PMID:26253347

  16. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  17. Bioaccessibility In Vitro of Nutraceuticals from Bark of Selected Salix Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  18. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

  19. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidative and Antidiabetic Activity of Bark of Holarrhena Pubescens Wall

    PubMed Central

    Jamarkattel, Nirmala; Shrestha, Aasmin; Lamsal, Nisha Kiran; Shakya, Sangam; Rajbhandari, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the study are to screen out various phytochemicals and to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the stem bark of Holarrhena pubescens Wall (Holarrhena antidysenterica). Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity where ascorbic acid was taken as positive control. The antioxidant property was later exploited and the methanolic extract of plant was tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic mice. The extract was tested for its hypoglycemic activity at two-dose levels, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively where Glipizide 5 mg/kg was taken as standard reference drug. All results are presented as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation). Significant differences between experimental groups were determined by Student’s t-test. Results: The methanolic and water extract showed strong antioxidant activity with inhibition of more than 90% DPPH free radicals at the concentration of 100μg/mL. The hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract on glucose tolerance test were significant (p <0.05) for the effects of 500 mg/kg after 120 min of treatment and (p <0.01) for 250 mg/kg of extract after half hour of treatment compared to control. Conclusion: The presence of flavonoides, phenolic compounds suggested that they may be partially responsible for antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. PMID:25386454

  1. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  2. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  3. Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several plants traditionally used in treatment of a variety of infections in South Africa are reported in ethnobotanical surveys. Many of these plants including Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata lack scientific reports to support their medicinal importance. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the stems of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. The total phenol, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin, Tannic acid and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extracts of this plant were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. Results The quantity of the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins detected differ significantly in the various extracts. The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated. The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent. The ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by the acetone extract while the aqueous extract was the least active. Reacting with ABTS, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were (0.0429 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for aqueous, (0.0317 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for acetone and (0.0306 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for ethanol extracts while they inhibited DPPH radical with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.0646 ± 0.02 mg/ml (aqueous), 0.0482 ± 0.02 mg/ml (acetone) and 0.0422 ± 0.03 mg/ml (ethanol). Conclusions A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents of the extracts indicated that phenolic compounds were the dominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the plant. This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant

  4. Target guided isolation, in-vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activity and molecular docking studies of some flavonoids from Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. is traditionally important plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. The present research exertion was undertaken to isolate and characterized the flavonoids from the extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated flavonoids on in-vitro models of type-II diabetes. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro experimentation inveterate by the molecular docking studies of the isolated flavonoids on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Methods Isolation of the flavonoids from the methanolic extract of stem bark of A. Lebbeck Benth was executed by the Silica gel (Si) column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then subjected to purification to obtain three important flavonoids. The isolated flavonoids were then structurally elucidated with the assist of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. In-vitro experimentation was performed with evaluation of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH inhibition capacity. Molecular docking study was performed with GLIDE docking software. Results Three flavonoids, (1) 5-deoxyflavone (geraldone), (2) luteolin and (3) Isookanin were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the methanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck Benth bark. (ALD). All the compounds revealed to inhibit the α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes in in-vitro investigation correlating to reduce the plasma glucose level. Molecular docking study radically corroborates the binding affinity and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Conclusion The present research exertion demonstrates the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of the important isolated flavonoids with inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH which is further supported by molecular docking analysis. PMID:24886138

  5. Extending pine bark supplies with wholetree and clean chip residual substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited supplies of pine bark (PB) due to a number of reasons over the past several years has caused concern among many nursery producers. This study was developed to evaluate varying ratios of pine bark (PB) with clean chip residual (CCR) or WholeTree substrate (WT), in order to assist growers with...

  6. Co-occurence of Two Invasive Species: The Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was first detected a century ago and now occurs in most of the continental United States. The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was discovered in the United States in 2003 and is now...

  7. Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark and its active component emodin.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Vujčić, Valerija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Kremer, Dario; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2015-12-01

    In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 μg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 μg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 μg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution. PMID:26399165

  8. Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, C.S.; Sullivan, B.K.; Malone, J.H.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

  9. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  10. Nutrient Availability from Douglas Fir Bark in Response to Substrate pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to determine the influence of substrate pH on nutrient availability in douglas fir bark (DFB). Douglas fir bark was amended with either calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] at 13 rates to generate substrates with low to high pH. A non-amended control ...

  11. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    PubMed

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration. PMID:26178179

  12. Gniditrin is the main diterpenoid constituent in the bark of Daphne mezereum L.

    PubMed

    Görick, C; Melzig, M F

    2013-07-01

    The bark of Daphne mezereum L. is known as toxic drug due to the presence of diterpene esters. The phytochemical analysis of the bark used for preparation of homeopathic mother tinctures showed that gniditrin was the main diterpene constituent, only in the fruits of D. mezereum mezerein could be detected. The complete NMR data of gniditrin are published for the first time. PMID:23923651

  13. Contemporary use of bark for medicine by two Salishan native elders of southeast Vancouver Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Turner, N J; Hebda, R J

    1990-04-01

    Elders of the Saanich and Cowichan Coast Salish people of southern Vancouver Island treat, or have treated in the recent past, many ailments with bark preparations. Interviews with two elder Salishan women revealed that: respiratory ailments were treated with bark of Abies grandis, Arbutus menziesii, Cornus nuttallii, Prunus emarginata, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Quercus garryana; digestive tract ailments with the bark of Abies grandis, Alnus rubra, Arbutus menziesii, Malus fusca. Oemleria cerasiformis, Populus tremuloides, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Rhamnus purshianus and Rubus spectabilis; gynaecological problems with bark of Abies grandis, Arbutus menziesii, Populus tremuloides, Prunus emarginata, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Sambucus racemosa; and dermatological complaints with the bark of Mahonia spp., Rubus spectabilis, and Symphoricarpos albus. Tree barks have also been used to treat fevers, diabetes, kidney problems, sore eyes, and haemorrhaging, and also as general tonics. Two recipes for general-purpose multi-bark medicines are provided. In most cases, infusions or decoctions of barks are used. The medicines are drunk or applied externally as a wash. PMID:2345461

  14. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    PubMed Central

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Dicko, Mamoudou H.; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine. PMID:25767723

  15. The layer-flame method of bark burning

    SciTech Connect

    Fincker, F.Z.; Rundygin, Y.A.; Kubyshkin, I.B.

    1995-11-01

    At the present time many countries including Russia have at their disposal a considerable number of abled boiler installations designed for an utilization of different biomasses and wastes of the timber industry (such as peat, bark, sawdust, chips and so on). The traditional technology of burning with the application of layer or flame processes, especially in case of unstable heat-technical characteristics of a fuel to be used does not guarantee a reliable and economical performance of a boiler installation. For example, dampness of bark used in enterprises of the pulp and paper industry as an energetic fuel may vary from 50 till 70 per cent during a short period of time. Operation of the boiler installation is also complicated by variable composition of a fuel. Fuel particles may be either very small or very coarse, that is, they may differ from one another, according to their sizes, by thousand times. To flatten the heat-technical and fractional characteristics of a fuel there is used a difficult and cumbersome equipment the performance of which is complicated by the possibility that some of coarse metallic or mineral fractions can penetrate together with a fuel into the process. There is needed a search for new ways of updating the efficiency of energetic application of such fuels. Investigations of this problem are being carried out in a few directions including different variations of thermal treatment of the described material (pyrolysis, gasification and so on). A lot of works is connected with the exploration of boiler installations equipped with diverse modifications of the fluid bed furnaces. However, as a result of their having proven to be too expensive, difficult to create, unreliable and for they also take too much electricity on their own needs, these furnaces have not yet found wider spreading as for the burning of such hard-combustible fuels as bark and other highly damp wastes of timber industry.

  16. Anticomplement monoterpenoid glucosides from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-24

    Six new (1-6) and 19 known monoterpenoid glucosides were isolated from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa. The monoterpenoid glucosides 1, 2, 7, 10-19, and 22 exhibited anticomplement effects with CH50 and AP50 values ranging from 0.14 to 2.67 mM and 0.25 to 3.67 mM, respectively. In a mechanistic study, suffrupaeoniflorin A (1) interacted with C1q, C3, C5, and C9, while galloylpaeoniflorin (12) and galloyloxypaeoniflorin (19) acted on C1q, C3, and C5 components in the complement activation cascade. PMID:24377852

  17. Bioactive constituents of the bark of Parkia biglobosa.

    PubMed

    Tringali, C; Spatafora, C; Longo, O D

    2000-04-01

    In the frame of a systematic analysis of African plants used for the 'cure salée', from the bark of Parkia biglobosa, a long-chain ester of trans-ferulic acid (1) has been isolated together with an unseparable mixture of long-chain cis-ferulates (2a-e). In addition, lupeol, 4-O-methyl-epi-gallocatechin, epi-gallocatechin, epi-catechin 3-O-gallate, and epi-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate were isolated. PMID:10727806

  18. Two new phenylbutanoids from inner bark of Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2008-02-01

    Two phenylbutanoids, 7-{3R-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl] beta-glucopyranosid-O-6-yl} 4-O-beta-glucopyranosylvanillin and 3-beta-glucopyranosyloxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butanone were isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of the inner bark of Betula pendula. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments: selective 1D TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and DQF-COSY. PMID:18098157

  19. Procyanidin xylosides from the bark of Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2012-04-01

    A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature. PMID:22273040

  20. Hot water extraction and steam explosion as pretreatments for ethanol production from spruce bark.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Katariina; Inkinen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Jaana; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Siika-aho, Matti

    2012-08-01

    Spruce bark is a source of interesting polyphenolic compounds and also a potential but little studied feedstock for sugar route biorefinery processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of spruce bark sugars to ethanol were studied after three different pretreatments: steam explosion (SE), hot water extraction (HWE) at 80 °C, and sequential hot water extraction and steam explosion (HWE+SE), and the recovery of different components was determined during the pretreatments. The best steam explosion conditions were 5 min at 190 °C without acid catalyst based on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the material. However, when pectinase was included in the enzyme mixture, the hydrolysis rate and yield of HWE bark was as good as that of SE and HWE+SE barks. Ethanol was produced efficiently with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the pretreated and hydrolysed materials suggesting the suitability of spruce bark to various lignocellulosic ethanol process concepts. PMID:22613888

  1. Biotransformation of pink water TNT on the surface of a low-cost adsorbent pine bark.

    PubMed

    Chusova, O; Nõlvak, H; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Truu, M; Oopkaup, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-09-01

    This two-week anaerobic batch study evaluated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal efficiency from industrial pink water by (1) adsorption on low-cost adsorbent pine bark, and (2) adsorption coupled with TNT biotransformation by specialised microbial communities. Samples of the supernatant and acetonitrile extracts of pine bark were analysed by HPLC, while the composition of the bacterial community of the experimental batches, inocula and pine bark were profiled by high-throughput sequencing the V6 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Integrated adsorption and biotransformation proved to be the most efficient method for TNT removal from pink water. The type of applied inoculum had a profound effect on TNT removal efficiencies and microbial community structures, which were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The analysis of acetonitrile extracts of pine bark supported the hypothesis that the microbial community indigenous to pine bark has the ability to degrade TNT. PMID:26142875

  2. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    PubMed

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  3. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of bark leachate.

    PubMed

    Frigon, J C; Cimpoia, R; Guiot, S R

    2003-01-01

    Bark leachate is generated from sawmill operations such as log storage sites and contains polymeric tannins, carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic and resin compounds. The present study was aimed at assessing the performance of a sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment, for both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal, under various combinations of operational conditions, in the continuous mode. After anaerobic treatment in a five litres upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, the leachate was directed into two parallel aerobic reactors, either an activated sludge unit or a fixed film submerged filter (packed with polyethylene Flexirings), both of a volume of one litre and oxygenated by air diffusion. For a leachate of 22 gCOD/l, an overall COD removal of 96-98% was achieved at an hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 4 days for the anaerobic reactor and one day for either aerobic systems. The phenol concentration generally increased after anaerobic treatment but was below the detection limit (50 ppb) after aerobic polishing. Radiorespirometric microcosms with 14C-labelled phenol confirmed that phenol was mineralized in the aerobic reactors. The performances of both aerobic systems were similar for COD and phenol removal. Thus, a sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment was able to effectively address the contamination of a bark leachate discharge, including phenols. PMID:14640219

  4. Characterisation of Polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna Bark Extract.

    PubMed

    Saha, Anumita; Pawar, V M; Jayaraman, Sujatha

    2012-07-01

    The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea. PMID:23626389

  5. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  6. Phototactic Behavior of the Armand Pine Bark Weevil, Pissodes punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Luo, Chang W.; Kuang, Rong P.; Li, Hong W.; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Ying J.

    2013-01-01

    The Armand pine bark weevil, Pissodes punctatus Langor et Zhang (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a destructive bark weevil on the Armand pine, Pinus armandii Franch (Pinales: Pinaceae), an important timbering tree in southern China. This study examined the phototactic behavior ïéP. punctatus through observation of behavioral characteristics, response to nine monochromatic lights (ranging from 340 nm to 689 nm with about 40-nm step), and response to five intensities (ranging from 1 lux to 200 lux) of the most attractive light. The results demonstrated that P. punctatus was most active in the day, and kept still at night (or in a dark room). P. punctatus could be attracted to eight of nine monochromatic lights, the exception being red light (649 nm), which implied broad sensitivity to the spectrum of light. P. punctatus was most sensitive to violet (415 nm), ultraviolet (340 nm), and green (504 nm) light, suggesting there might be at least three types of photoreceptors in the compound eyes of this weevil. Furthermore, low intensities elicited an increased phototactic response, and high intensities a decreased phototactic response, under both violet and UV light. Thus, P. punctatus were found to be phototactic insects, and the phototactic behavior of P. punctatus is both a color and intensity preference. The information provided here provides a basis for the improvement of trapping devices for detection and survey of P. punctatus, as well as a basis for the development of alternate control strategies for this important pest of Armand pine and other pine trees. PMID:23879189

  7. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  8. Characterisation of Polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Anumita; Pawar, V. M.; Jayaraman, Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (−)-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea. PMID:23626389

  9. Polysaccharides with immunomodulating properties from the bark of Parkia biglobosa.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; El-Zoubair, Elnour; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-01-30

    The bark of Parkia biglobosa is used in traditional medicine to cure a wide range of illnesses. Polysaccharides were extracted from the bark with 50% ethanol-water, 50°C and 100°C water, and seven active fractions obtained by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The complement fixation and macrophage stimulating activities of the different fractions were determined. The acidic fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were the most active in the complement fixation assay, but the other fractions were also potent compared to the positive control BPII from Biophytum petersianum. Fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were also the most potent fractions in stimulating macrophages to release nitric oxide. Structural studies showed that PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were pectic type polysaccharides, containing arabinogalactan type II structures. The observed differences in biological activities among the seven purified polysaccharide sub-fractions are probably due to differences in monosaccharide compositions, linkage types and molecular sizes. PMID:24299798

  10. Localized stem chilling alters carbon processes in the adjacent stem and in source leaves.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, Veerle; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Steppe, Kathy

    2011-11-01

    Transport phloem is no longer associated with impermeable pipes, but is instead considered as a leaky system in which loss and retrieval mechanisms occur. Local stem chilling is often used to study these phenomena. In this study, 5-cm- lengths of stems of 3-year-old oak trees (Quercus robur L.) were locally chilled for 1 week to investigate whether observations at stem and leaf level can be explained by the leakage-retrieval mechanism. The chilling experiment was repeated three times across the growing season. Measurements were made of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate concentrations in leaves and bark, stem growth and maximum daily stem shrinkage. Across the growing season, a feedback inhibition in leaf photosynthesis was observed, causing increased dark respiration and starch concentration. This inhibition was attributed to the total phloem resistance which locally increased due to the cold temperatures. It is hypothesized that this higher phloem resistance increased the phloem pressure above the cold block up to the source leaves, inducing feedback inhibition. In addition, an increase in radial stem growth and carbohydrate concentration was observed above the cold block, while the opposite occurred below the block. These observations indicate that net lateral leakage of carbohydrates from the phloem was enhanced above the cold block and that translocation towards regions below the block decreased. This behaviour is probably also attributable to the higher phloem resistance. The chilling effects on radial stem growth and carbohydrate concentration were significant in the middle of the growing season, while they were not at the beginning and near the end of the growing season. Furthermore, maximum daily shrinkages were larger above the cold block during all chilling experiments, indicating an increased resistance in the xylem vessels, also generated by low temperatures. In conclusion, localized stem chilling altered multiple carbon processes in the source leaves

  11. STEM Education

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-01-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.’s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:26778893

  12. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  13. Physiological resistance of grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) to Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda) venom.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Ashlee H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-10-01

    Predators feeding on toxic prey may evolve physiological resistance to the preys' toxins. Grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) are voracious predators of scorpions in North American deserts. Two species of grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus and Onychomys arenicola) are broadly sympatric with two species of potentially lethal bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda and Centruroides vittatus) in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, respectively. Bark scorpions produce toxins that selectively bind sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) ion channels in vertebrate nerve and muscle tissue. We previously reported that grasshopper mice showed no effects of bark scorpion envenomation following natural stings. Here we conducted a series of toxicity tests to determine whether grasshopper mice have evolved resistance to bark scorpion neurotoxins. Five populations of grasshopper mice, either sympatric with or allopatric to bark scorpions, were injected with bark scorpion venom; LD50s were estimated for each population. All five populations of grasshopper mice demonstrated levels of venom resistance greater than that reported for non-resistant Mus musculus. Moreover, venom resistance in the mice showed intra- and interspecific variability that covaried with bark scorpion sympatry and allopatry, patterns consistent with the hypothesis that venom resistance in grasshopper mice is an adaptive response to feeding on their neurotoxic prey. PMID:18687353

  14. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  15. Enhancing the hydrophobicity of mangrove bark by esterification for oil adsorption.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman Bin; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Orji, Kalu Uka

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills generally cause worldwide concern due to their detrimental effects on the environment and the economy. An assortment of commercial systems has been developed to control these spills, including the use of agricultural wastes as sorbents. This work deals with raw and modified mangrove barks (Rhizophora apiculata), an industrial lignocellulosic waste, as a low cost adsorbent for oil-product-spill cleanup in the aquatic environment. Mangrove bark was modified using fatty acids (oleic acid and palmitic acid) to improve its adsorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of the modified bark was studied and compared with that of the raw bark. Kinetic tests were conducted with a series of contact times. The influence of particle size, oil dosage, pH and temperature on oil sorption capacity was investigated. The results showed that oleic acid treated bark has a higher sorption capacity (2,860.00 ± 2.00 mg/g) than untreated bark for Tapis crude oil. A correlation between surface functional groups, morphology and surface area of the adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy images and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Isotherm study was conducted using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The result showed that adsorption of crude oil on treated mangrove bark could be best described by the Langmuir model. PMID:25325547

  16. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  17. Hexachlorocyclohexanes in tree bark across Chinese agricultural regions: spatial distribution and enantiomeric signatures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Xu, Chao; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-10-21

    The environmental issue caused by atmospheric hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) has been a worldwide concern due to their long-range transport potential. Tree bark is an excellent passive sampler for monitoring atmospheric pollutants. In this study, bark samples from agricultural regions across China were collected and analyzed to elucidate the contamination status of atmospheric HCHs and the enantiomeric composition of chiral α-HCH. Average contents of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, and ∑HCHs in bark were 1.16, 2.51, 1.67, 0.368, and 5.71 ng/g (dry basis), respectively. Jing-Jin-Tang region was identified as the "hot-spot" of bark HCHs in China. Their residues were likely from the combined sources of historical applications of technical HCHs and lindane through long-distance transport. HCH contents were found inversely correlated with annual precipitation and temperature, but positively correlated with PM10 or PM2.5 due to the bioaccumulation of both vapor- and particle-phase HCHs by tree bark. Most bark samples preferentially accumulated (+)-α-HCH, and the enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of α-HCH were positively correlated with α-HCH concentrations and the elevations of sampling locations. Compared to atmospheric analysis, tree bark analysis and enantiomeric signatures provide valuable time-integrated information on the spatial distribution and transport pathways of atmospheric HCHs on the national scale in China. PMID:25252210

  18. Enhanced sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by modified pine bark.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungui; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2010-10-01

    To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark exhibited high affinities with PAHs, and sorption was dominated by partitioning. The relatively nonlinear sorption isotherms of modified bark were attributed to the specific interaction between sorbate and aromatic core of sorbent. Comparison with lipid and suberin, lignin was the most powerful sorption medium, but which was almost completely suppressed by coexisting polysaccharide. After consuming polysaccharide by acid hydrolysis, sorption of pine bark fractions was notably increased (4-17 folds); and sorption of pyrene just decreased 16-34% with phenanthrene as a competitor. These observations suggest that pine bark is of great potential for PAHs removal and can be significantly promoted by acid hydrolysis for environmental application. PMID:20576561

  19. Enhanced sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by modified pine bark.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungui; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2010-10-01

    To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark exhibited high affinities with PAHs, and sorption was dominated by partitioning. The relatively nonlinear sorption isotherms of modified bark were attributed to the specific interaction between sorbate and aromatic core of sorbent. Comparison with lipid and suberin, lignin was the most powerful sorption medium, but which was almost completely suppressed by coexisting polysaccharide. After consuming polysaccharide by acid hydrolysis, sorption of pine bark fractions was notably increased (4-17 folds); and sorption of pyrene just decreased 16-34% with phenanthrene as a competitor. These observations suggest that pine bark is of great potential for PAHs removal and can be significantly promoted by acid hydrolysis for environmental application. PMID:20578284

  20. Antrocarines A-F, antiplasmodial ergostane steroids from the stem bark of Antrocaryon klaineanum.

    PubMed

    Douanla, Pascal D; Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Tchinda, Alembert T; Cieckiewicz, Ewa; Frédérich, Michel; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Tsabang, Nole; Yeboah, Samuel; Nkengfack, Augustin E; Tchuendem, Marguerite Hortence K

    2015-09-01

    During a study on the chemistry and biological activity of Antrocaryon klaineanum Pierre, six new sterols including 4,24(28)-ergostadiene-6α,7α-diol (1), 6α-methoxy-4,24(28)-ergostadiene-7α,20S-diol (2), 6α-methoxy-4,24(28)-ergostadien-7α-ol (3), 20S-hydroxy-24(28)-ergosten-3-one (4), 7α-hydroxy-4,24(28)-ergostadien-3-one (5), and 24(28)-ergostene-3β,6α-diol (6) were characterized by physical and spectroscopic means. The known steroids 7 and 8 were also isolated. The crude extract and the isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 2, 3, and 8 showed potent activity while that of the crude extract was moderate. PMID:26232555

  1. Protective effect of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark extract on cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ojo, Adebola Busola; Olarewaju, Olaide Ibiwumi

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium has been considered a risk factor for humans as it accumulates in body tissues, such as the liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, and reproductive organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) against cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. The study was performed on twenty (20) male rats divided into four groups: control group, cadmium group (4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), cadmium + extract (200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage) and cadmium + extract (400 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage). Changes in the kidney biochemical markers, namely glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, and creatinine were determined in serum. Histological examinations were monitored. Exposure to Cd lowered the activities of kidney antioxidants, while it increased LPO levels. Levels of all disrupted parameters were alleviated by co-administration of IG extract. The malondialdehyde concentration of the rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared with the untreated cadmium rats. Yet the creatinine concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05) when the cadmium animals treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract were compared with the cadmium control. Furthermore, histological alterations in the kidney were observed in cadmium untreated rats and these were ameliorated in cadmium treated rats by co-administration of IG extract. IG showed apparent protective and curative effect on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26109902

  2. Analgesic activity and acute toxicity study of Semecarpus anacardium stem bark extracts using mice

    PubMed Central

    Lingaraju, G. M.; Hoskeri, H. Joy; Krishna, V.; Babu, P. Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Background: The analgesic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Semecarpus anacardium was investigated by tail flicking and writhing method using acetyl salicylic acid as the standard reference. Materials and Methods: The staircase method was adopted for the determination of the acute toxicity. LD50 of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 700 mg/kg; however, the LD50 for the methanol extract was 500 mg/kg. After 1 h of oral administration of the extracts, 0.6% acetic acid was administered intraperitoneally and the analgesic activity was evaluated. Results: The number of writhing observed in the control group was 73.33 writhes. The methanol extract showed a significant analgesic activity, with 28.33 writhes, than the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract. But, all the extracts showed proved to be less potent than the standard drug which showed 2.33 writhes. Animals pretreated with saline did not show a signify cant effect on the latent period of tail-flick response. The analgesic effect of the petroleum ether extract was comparatively less evident. The maximum possible analgesia (MPA) increased up to 9.1% which remained elevated above the basal levels throughout the observation period. The MPA calculated for the chloroform extract increased to 14.03%. However, the analgesic effect of the methanol extract was also observed at 0.5 h following oral administration and the effect remained significant throughout the 3 h observation period, and was increased to 20.43%. Conclusion: Consistent analgesic activity of all the three S. anacardium extracts was observed by both the methods. The methanol extract was more potent than the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts but was less effective than the standard drug. This investigation supported the ethnomedicinal claims of S. anacardium. PMID:21731397

  3. The phytochemical content and antimicrobial activities of Malaysian Calophyllum canum (stem bark).

    PubMed

    Alkhamaiseh, Suhaib Ibrahim; Taher, Muhammad; Ahmad, Farediah; Qaralleh, Haitham; Althunibat, Osama Yousef; Susanti, Deny; Ichwan, Solachuddin-Jauhari Arief

    2012-07-01

    Recently there was huge increase in using of 'herbal products'. These can be defined as plants, parts of plants or extracts from plants that are used for curing disease. However, Calophyllum species is a tropical plant and it has been used in traditional medicine, the limitation in safety and effectiveness information could lead to serious health problems. Providing information for communities by evaluating the phytochemical contents, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities will improve the therapeutic values. Three main Calophyllum canum fractions (none - high polar) were tested to find out the phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol content, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating iron ions. Also were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition, cytotoxic activity was assayed against lung cancer A549 cell line. The methanol fraction showed no bioactivity but achieved the highest amount of phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid contents, also it showed a significant result as antioxidant, reducing power and chelating agent. The n-hexane fraction achieved the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 12.5 μg. mL(-1) against B. cereus while the MIC value for DCM fraction was 25 μg. mL(-1). The DCM fraction was more active against S. aureus where the result was 50 μg. mL(-1) while the n-hexane fraction was 100 μg. mL(-1). The three main fractions have shown no activity against gram negative bacterial and fungal. The n-hexane and DCM fractions have shown cytotoxicity against lung cancer cell line; the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 22 ± 2.64 and 32 ± 3.78 μg. mL(-1) respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the results, C. canum fractions proved to be effective against gram positive bacterial and anti-proliferation activity. Also it showed antioxidant activity as well. The results provided beneficial information for communities as well as can help to search for alternative drugs, and will contribute to establish safe and effective use of phytomedicines in the treatment of diseases. PMID:22713941

  4. Protective effect of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark extract on cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ojo, Adebola Busola; Olarewaju, Olaide Ibiwumi

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been considered a risk factor for humans as it accumulates in body tissues, such as the liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, and reproductive organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) against cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. The study was performed on twenty (20) male rats divided into four groups: control group, cadmium group (4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), cadmium + extract (200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage) and cadmium + extract (400 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage). Changes in the kidney biochemical markers, namely glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, and creatinine were determined in serum. Histological examinations were monitored. Exposure to Cd lowered the activities of kidney antioxidants, while it increased LPO levels. Levels of all disrupted parameters were alleviated by co-administration of IG extract. The malondialdehyde concentration of the rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared with the untreated cadmium rats. Yet the creatinine concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05) when the cadmium animals treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract were compared with the cadmium control. Furthermore, histological alterations in the kidney were observed in cadmium untreated rats and these were ameliorated in cadmium treated rats by co-administration of IG extract. IG showed apparent protective and curative effect on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26109902

  5. Monoterpene indole alkaloids from the stem bark of Mitragyna diversifolia and their acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xing-Fen; Wang, Jun-Song; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Luo, Jun; Wang, Hong-Ying; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2013-12-01

    Five monoterpene indole alkaloids, mitradiversifoline, with a unique rearranged skeleton, specionoxeine-N(4)-oxide, 7-hydroxyisopaynantheine, 3-dehydropaynantheine, and 3-isopaynantheine-N(4)-oxide, and 10 known ones, were isolated from Mitragyna diversifolia. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activities, and four showed moderate activities, with IC50 values of 4.1, 5.2, 10.2, and 10.3 μM, respectively. PMID:24169379

  6. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... stem cells? What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before ... two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells . ...

  7. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  8. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Boswellia ovalifoliolata bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Bandari Uma; Shrivastava, Shweta; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-09-01

    Paracetamol (PCM) hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress; natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of an alcoholic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) bark against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity. BO extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Administration of PCM caused a significant increase in the release of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. Significant enhancement in hepatic lipid peroxidation and marked depletion in reduced glutathione were observed after parac intoxication with severe alterations in liver histology. BO treatment was able to mitigate hepatic damage induced by acute intoxication of PCM and showed a pronounced protective effect against lipid peroxidation, deviated serum enzymatic variables, and maintained glutathione status toward control. The results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of BO against the toxicity induced by PCM. PMID:25263977

  9. Three naphthalenes from root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, I D; Yun, B S; Lee, I K; Ryoo, I J; Choung, D H; Han, K H

    1998-03-01

    Three new naphthalenes, designated as syriacusins A-C, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus. These compounds were identified as 2,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-8-methoxy-1-naphthalenecarbaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-1-naphthalenecarbaldehyde, 1-carboxy-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-methoxynaphthalenecarbolactone (1-->8), respectively, on the basis of various spectral studies. The compounds inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50s of 0.54, 5.90 and 1.02 micrograms ml-1, respectively. The first compound also showed cytotoxicity against some human cancer cell lines with an ED50 of 1.5-2.4 micrograms ml-1. PMID:9542172

  10. Nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    Six new compounds including one γ-butyrolactone, cinncassin A (1), two tetrahydrofuran derivatives, cinncassins B and C (2, 3), two lignans, cinncassins D and E (4, 5), and one phenylpropanol glucoside, cinnacassoside D (6), together with 14 known lignans (7-20) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 5, 7, 8, and 15 showed potent inhibition activities with IC50 values of 17.6, 17.7, 18.7, and 17.5μM, respectively. PMID:27223848

  11. Fungi vectored by the bark beetle Ips typographus following hibernation under the bark of standing trees and in the forest litter.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ylva; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Långström, Bo; Ohrn, Petter; Ihrmark, Katarina; Stenlid, Jan

    2009-10-01

    The bark beetle Ips typographus has different hibernation environments, under the bark of standing trees or in the forest litter, which is likely to affect the beetle-associated fungal flora. We isolated fungi from beetles, standing I. typographus-attacked trees, and forest litter below the attacked trees. Fungal identification was done using cultural and molecular methods. The results of the two methods in detecting fungal species were compared. Fungal communities associated with I. typographus differed considerably depending on the hibernation environment. In addition to seven taxa of known ophiostomoid I. typographus-associated fungi, we detected 18 ascomycetes and anamorphic fungi, five wood-decaying basidomycetes, 11 yeasts, and four zygomycetes. Of those, 14 fungal taxa were detected exclusively from beetles that hibernated under bark, and six taxa were detected exclusively from beetles hibernating in forest litter. The spruce pathogen, Ceratocystis polonica, was detected occasionally in bark, while another spruce pathogen, Grosmannia europhioides, was detected more often from beetles hibernating under the bark as compared to litter. The identification method had a significant impact on which taxa were detected. Rapidly growing fungal taxa, e.g. Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Ophiostoma, dominated pure culture isolations; while yeasts dominated the communities detected using molecular methods. The study also demonstrated low frequencies of tree pathogenic fungi carried by I. typographus during its outbreaks and that the beetle does not require them to successfully attack and kill trees. PMID:19444498

  12. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alberto; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; Fimognari, Carmela; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Comandini, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect. PMID:23533692

  13. Elimination of As, Hg and Zn from synthetic solutions and industrial effluents using modified bark

    SciTech Connect

    Gaballah, I.; Kilbertus, G.

    1995-08-01

    Elimination of arsenic, mercury and zinc from synthetic solutions containing H{sub 3}AsO{sub 4}, HgCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} using modified barks was investigated. The pH range was varied from 1 to 10. The initial concentrations of individual element were 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm. More than 99% of mercury and 65% of zinc cations were removed by the modified bark. In this case, the modified bark reacts as a cation exchanger leading to the release of two protons for every Hg{sup II} or Zn{sup II} fixed by this material. About 30% of arsenic was eliminated from the solution. This low efficiency could be attributed to the presence of arsenic as anion. Decontamination of a treated industrial effluent containing 4 ppm of ion metals was performed on a pilot scale by the modified bark. More than 70% of these ion metals were eliminated.

  14. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes.

    PubMed

    Karnaouri, Anthi; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, (13)C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes. PMID:27043513

  15. Hypolipidaemic activity of Helicteres isora L. bark extracts in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G; Murugesan, A G

    2008-02-28

    In this study, the hypolipidaemic effect of an aqueous extract of the bark of Helicteres isora was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the bark extract of Helicteres isora (100 and 200 mg/kgb.w.) for 21 days resulted in significant reduction in serum and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids and triglycerides in STZ diabetic rats. In addition to that, significant (p<0.05) decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) whereas significant increase (p<0.05) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were observed in STZ diabetic rats, which were normalized after 21 days of bark extract treatment. The bark extract at a dose of 200 mg/kgb.w. showed much significant hypolipidaemic effect than at the dose of 100 mg/kgb.w. PMID:18191354

  16. Oak Bark Allometry and Fire Survival Strategies in the Chihuahuan Desert Sky Islands, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schwilk, Dylan W.; Gaetani, Maria S.; Poulos, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Trees may survive fire through persistence of above or below ground structures. Investment in bark aids in above-ground survival while investment in carbohydrate storage aids in recovery through resprouting and is especially important following above-ground tissue loss. We investigated bark allocation and carbohydrate investment in eight common oak (Quercus) species of Sky Island mountain ranges in west Texas. We hypothesized that relative investment in bark and carbohydrates changes with tree age and with fire regime: We predicted delayed investment in bark (positive allometry) and early investment in carbohydrates (negative allometry) under lower frequency, high severity fire regimes found in wetter microclimates. Common oaks of the Texas Trans-Pecos region (Quercus emoryi, Q. gambelii, Q. gravesii, Q. grisea, Q. hypoleucoides, Q. muehlenbergii, and Q. pungens) were sampled in three mountain ranges with historically mixed fire regimes: the Chisos Mountains, the Davis Mountains and the Guadalupe Mountains. Bark thickness was measured on individuals representing the full span of sizes found. Carbohydrate concentration in taproots was measured after initial leaf flush. Bark thickness was compared to bole diameter and allometries were analyzed using major axis regression on log-transformed measurements. We found that bark allocation strategies varied among species that can co-occur but have different habitat preferences. Investment patterns in bark were related to soil moisture preference and drought tolerance and, by proxy, to expected fire regime. Dry site species had shallower allometries with allometric coefficients ranging from less than one (negative allometry) to near one (isometric investment). Wet site species, on the other hand, had larger allometric coefficients, indicating delayed investment to defense. Contrary to our expectation, root carbohydrate concentrations were similar across all species and sizes, suggesting that any differences in below ground

  17. Antidiabetic properties of aqueous barks extract of Parinari excelsa in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Diatta, W; Sy, A N; Dièye, A M; Faye, B; Bassène, E

    2008-06-01

    The aqueous extract of the Parinari excelsa barks at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days has a significant antihyperglycemic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. At the same dose the acute oral administration of aqueous extract of the P. excelsa barks (100 and 300 mg/kg) induced a significant decrease of blood glucose on glucose-loaded normoglycaemic rats. Our results seem to confirm the rational bases for its use in traditional medicine. PMID:18358635

  18. Biomagnetic monitoring of traffic air pollution in Toulouse (France) using magnetic properties of tree bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macouin, M.; Rousse, S.; Brulfert, F.; Durand, M.; Feida, N.; Durand, X.; Becaud, L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic properties of various atmospheric samples represent rapid and economic proxies in the pollution studies based on their strong linkage to heavy metals and/or volatile organic carbons. We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Toulouse (France) based on the magnetic properties of tree (Platanus acerifolia) bark. More than 250 bark samples were taken at different areas of the city. Both mass specific magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) at 1 Tesla display relationships with the traffic intensity and the distance to the road. Urban roadside tree bark exhibit significant enhancement in their values of susceptibility and IRM reflecting surface accumulation of particulate pollutants, compared with tree growing at lower traffic sites. To estimate the deposition time and accumulation on bark, we have deposited 20 "clean" bark samples from low traffic area with susceptibility inferior to 10 SI, near the city ring road. Samples were then collected during three months. Samples were imparted a 1 Tesla IRM both prior the deposition and after the resampling. Results are useful to apprehend the process of magnetic particulates accumulation and to evaluate the potential of tree bark for the air quality monitoring.

  19. [Perchlorate removal from underground water by anaerobic biological reduction with bark].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Fei; Chen, Nan; Chen, Hong-Han

    2013-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to check the feasibility of perchlorate removal from underground water with bark as a carbon source and reaction media, the effect of bark dosage, temperature and initial perchlorate concentrations on perchlorate reduction were also investigated. The results indicated that compared to corn cob, sweet potato and potato, bark in combination with perchlorate reducing microorganisms (PRMs) can efficiently achieve perchlorate removal from underground water, the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which was available to PRMs was the limiting factor that affected the perchlorate removal efficiency. Degradation of 10 mg perchlorate needed to consume 35-40 mg DOC when using bark as the solid carbon source. The removal rate of perchlorate was increased by about 3 fold when the bark dosage was increased from 1:500 to 3:500; however, further increase of solid-liquid ratio (over 5:500) provided no further benefit to the perchlorate reduction rate. The rate constant reached 1.365 mg x (L x d)(-1) at (38 +/- 1) degrees C which was the highest in the batch experiments. The activation energy was 31.08 kJ x mol(-1). Anaerobic biological reduction supported by bark had a good impact on the water quality; the high perchlorate concentration did not cause substrate inhibition. PMID:24028002

  20. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  1. Chronic treatment with bark infusion from Croton cajucara lowers plasma triglyceride levels in genetic hyperlipidemic mice.

    PubMed

    Bighetti, Eliete J B; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; de Faria, Eliana C; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2004-06-01

    Aqueous infusion and preparations containing dehydrocrotonin (DHC) and essential oil from Croton cajucara bark were tested for plasma lipid-lowering effects in genetically modified hyperlipidemic mice. Two mouse models were tested: 1) primary hypercholesterolemia resulting from the LDL-receptor gene knockout, and 2) combined hyperlipidemia resulting from crosses of LDL-receptor knockout mice with transgenic mice overexpressing apolipo protein (apo) CIII and cholesteryl ester-transfer protein. Mice treated with bark infusion, DHC, essential oil, or placebos for 25 days showed no signals of toxicity as judged by biochemical tests for liver and kidney functions. The bark infusion reduced triglyceride plasma levels by 40%, while essential oil and DHC had no significant effects on plasma lipid levels. The bark infusion treatment promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among the lipoprotein fractions in combined hyperlipidemic mice. There was a marked reduction in the VLDL fraction and an increase in the HDL fraction, in such a way that the (VLDL + LDL)/HDL ratio was reduced by half. The bark infusion treatment did not modify cholesterol distribution in hypercholesterolemic mice. In conclusion, C. cajucara bark infusion reduced plasma triglycerides levels and promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins in genetically combined hyperlipidemic mice. These changes modify risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:15381962

  2. Utilizing NASA Satellite Missions to Identify Bark Beetle Infestation in Sequoia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Bird, J. E.; Sabatine, S. M.; Sady, G. C.; Stalzer, A. M.; Wheeler, T. A.; Skiles, J. W.; Schmidt, C.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetle-induced tree mortality has increased over the last few decades, exacerbated by below-average precipitation and a loss of soil nutrients, forcing park managers to improve bark beetle monitoring techniques. Bark beetle dynamics were investigated during summer 2009 at 32 sites within Sequoia National Park, California with the aim of correlating field data with satellite imagery to provide forest managers with a more efficient methodology for tracking, monitoring, and forecasting bark beetle outbreaks. Field parameters included visual assessments of the presence and degree of bark beetle-induced mortality and percent canopy cover. Ancillary data such as relative leaf chlorophyll concentration and soil nutrients including sodium [Na+], nitrate [NO3-], and potassium [K+] were collected for each 15 × 15 meter plot. The relationship between bark beetle attacks and potassium [K+] shows higher concentrations in healthy areas. Additionally, algorithms from three satellites were used to identify areas of moisture and vegetation stress; including the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) from ASTER, Enhanced Wetness Difference Index (EWDI) from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5), Disturbance Index (DI) from MODIS, and four other vegetation indices from Landsat TM5. Vegetation indices show uniform stress across various years.

  3. Preclinical evaluation of rapeseed, raspberry, and pine bark phenolics for health related effects.

    PubMed

    Vuorela, Satu; Kreander, Kari; Karonen, Maarit; Nieminen, Riina; Hämäläinen, Mari; Galkin, Anna; Laitinen, Leena; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Moilanen, Eeva; Pihlaja, Kalevi; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia; Heinonen, Marina

    2005-07-27

    Rapeseed, raspberry, and pine bark are promising bioactive sources of plant phenolics selected from among ca. 100 previously screened plant materials for in vitro preclinical evaluation of health related effects. Phenolic extracts and isolated fractions of the selected materials were investigated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antimutagenic properties as well as for cell permeability. It was shown that rapeseed and pine bark phenolics and raspberry anthocyanins were good or excellent antioxidants toward oxidation of phosphatidylcholine membrane (liposomes), rapeseed oil (crude) phenolics were effective radical scavengers (DPPH test), and both raspberry and pine bark phenolics inhibited LDL oxidation. Rapeseed oil phenolics, principally vinylsyringol, raspberry anthocyanins, and pinoresinol and matairesinol, the principal components of pine bark phenolic isolate, were effective against formation of the proinflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E(2). Raspberry ellagitannins inhibited the growth of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella oxytoca. Pine bark and rapeseed had minor effects on the permeability of model drugs in Caco-2 experiments. None of the tested extracts were mutagenic nor toxic to Caco-2 cells or macrophages. Thus, phenolic isolates from rapeseed, raspberry, and pine bark and are safe and bioactive for possible food applications including functional foods intended for health benefit. PMID:16028975

  4. Magnetic monitoring of pollution deposited on leaves, bark and soil: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górka-Kostrubiec, B.; Jeleńska, M.; Król, E.

    2012-04-01

    We report preliminary results of magnetic study of pollution deposited on leaves, bark and soil in six locations in Warsaw of various level of contamination. Leaves and bark samples were taken at about 1.5m height from different spots of tree crown and at about 0.5m from surface, respectively. Top-soil samples were taken at a distance of no more than 2.5 m from a tree. Samples of leaves and bark were collected from horse chestnut trees in spring and autumn after few rainless days. In spring in several places lime tree leaves were sampled. Dry leaves were crashed and closely packed in plastic boxes. Mass specific susceptibility was measured in three frequency of magnetic filed as a detector of magnetic particles of pollution. Comparison of autumn and spring data provides information about the amount of pollution deposited during vegetation season. Data for horse chestnut and lime tree leaves show that horse chestnut is better collector of particulates. Because of that we decided not to collect leaves from lime tree in the autumn. The relationship of soil susceptibility (X) with X of leaves and bark reveal linear correlation with correlation coefficient R=0.97 and 0.5 for leaves and bark, respectively. Distribution of X values well agree with exposition on roadside particulate pollution. These preliminary results demonstrate that leaves and bark can be used for magnetic monitoring as detector of pollution level and can provide us with information about seasonal variation of this level.

  5. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in the atmosphere and tree bark from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Ma, Zhaohui; Zheng, Wanjing

    2011-06-01

    Air samples in four seasons at one site and tree bark samples from four districts were determined to investigate seasonal variation and regional distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in Beijing, China. The total concentrations of PBDEs (∑PBDE) and HBCD (∑HBCD) were in the range of 57-470 and 20-1800 pg m(-3) in the atmosphere, respectively. The ∑PBDE and ∑HBCD concentrations were significantly influenced by the total suspended particulate matter in atmosphere. The total concentrations of PBDEs and HBCD in tree bark samples were in the range of 99-3700 and 26-3400 ng g(-1) lipid weight. It was found that regional distribution of PBDEs and HBCD was related to the function of each district. In addition, the study found that weeping willow bark was an ideal atmospheric PBDEs and HBCD passive sampler. Finally, atmospheric levels of BDE-209 and HBCD at tree bark sampling districts were estimated via applying an established bark/air partitioning model, which had been verified by the measured concentrations in tree bark and atmosphere in Beijing. PMID:21546059

  6. Environmental monitoring of trace elements in bark of Scots pine by thick-target PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, L.; Saarela, K.-E.; Rajander, J.; Lill, J.-O.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2002-04-01

    Bark samples were taken from Scots pines ( Pinus sylvestris L.) from a polluted area near a metal plant and from a relatively non-polluted site. Thick-target particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used for the analyses after different types of prepreparation of the samples. The bark samples were analysed directly by radially scanning from inner to outer bark in order to study the variability of elemental concentrations in different layers. Some clear differences were found in the chemical composition of the inner and outer bark. The lowest detection limits for the analyses of heavy metal ions were obtained by combining dry ashing at 550 °C with the PIXE method. More than 100 times higher concentrations were found for the heavy metal ions Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As and Pb in the bark samples from a polluted area in comparison to samples from a non-polluted area. The work demonstrated that external-beam thick-target PIXE is a sensitive and reliable method for quantitative determination of heavy metals in tree bark samples.

  7. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  8. Tree bark as a passive air sampler to indicate atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Junxia; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Deng, Jingjing; Liu, Yangcheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Dong, Liang; Lin, Kuangfei

    2014-06-01

    The different barks were sampled to discuss the influence of the tree species, trunk circumference, and bark thickness on the accumulation processes of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from air into the bark. The results of different PBDE concentrations indicated that barks with a thickness of 0-3 mm collected from weeping willow, Camphor tree, and Masson pine, the trunk circumferences of which were 100 to 150 cm, were better PBDEs passive samplers. Furthermore, tree bark and the corresponding air samples were collected at Anji (AJ), Hangzhou (HZ), Shanghai (SH), and Wenling (WL) to investigate the relationship between the PBDE concentrations in bark and those in air. In addition, the significant correlation (r (2) = 0.906; P < 0.05) indicated that atmospheric PBDEs were the principle source for the accumulation of PBDEs in the barks. In this study, the log K BA (bark-air partition coefficient) of individual PBDE congeners at the four sites were in the range from 5.69 to 6.79. Finally, the total PBDE concentration in WL was 5 to 20 times higher than in the other three cities. The result indicated that crude household workshops contributed a heavy amount of PBDEs pollution to the environment, which had been verified by the spatial distribution of PBDEs levels in barks collected at Wenling (range, 26.53-1317.68 ng/g dw). The good correlation between the PBDE concentrations in the barks and the air samples and the variations of the PBDE concentrations in tree barks collected from different sites reflected that the bark could be used as a passive sampler to indicate the atmospheric PBDEs. PMID:24622985

  9. Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Jönsson, Håkan; Hylander, Lars D; Hui, Nan; Yu, Dan; Pell, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the effects of greywater application on the dynamics and functions of biofilms developed in bark, activated charcoal and sand filters used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen. Duplicate columns (20 cm diameter, 60 cm deep) were packed with bark, charcoal or sand with effective size 1.4 mm and uniformity coefficient 2.2, and dosed with 32 L m(-2) day(-1) of an artificial greywater (14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1)) for 116 days. Potential respiration rate (PRR), determined in filter samples after addition of excess glucose, and bacterial diversity and composition, analysed by 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA, were measured at different times and depths in the filters. The bark and charcoal filters were more efficient in removing BOD5 than the sand (98, 97% and 75%, respectively). The highest PRR in the 0-2 cm layer of the columns on day 84 was found in the bark filters, followed by the charcoal and sand filters (632 ± 66, 222 ± 34 and 56 ± 2 mg O2 L(-1), respectively; n = 2). Bacterial community in the bark filters showed the highest richness. The charcoal and sand filters both developed more diverse and dynamic (changing over time and depth) bacterial communities than the bark. In addition to the greywater, the lignocelluosic composition of the bark and its lower pH probably selected for the bacterial community structure and the organic content provided additional substrate, as shown by its higher PRR and its different nitrifying bacterial genera. In the oligotrophic charcoal and sand, the composition of the greywater itself defined the bacterial community. Thus, the initially low bacterial biomass in the latter filters was enriched over time, allowing a diversified bacterial community to develop. The top layers of the bark and charcoal filters displayed a high dominance of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, which were less evident in the 60 cm layer, whereas in the sand filters these genera were

  10. First Report of Stemonitis splendens Rostaf Causing Bark Decay of Oak Logs Used for Shiitake Cultivation in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Da-Ran; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-09-01

    Severe bark decay disease was observed on oak logs at a shiitake cultivation farm in Geochang-gun, Gyeongnam province. The symptoms observed were fruiting bodies that had developed on the top and side surface of oak logs. As a result, the bark came off easily exposing the sapwood. Slime mold specimens collected from oak logs showed developing fruiting bodies comprising of stalks, hypothallus, capillitium, and columella, and the causal agent of bark decay disease was identified as Stemonitis splendens on the basis of morphological characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Stemonitis splendens causing bark decay of oak logs used for shiitake mushroom cultivation in Korea. PMID:25346606

  11. Artocarpus communis Forst. root-bark aqueous extract- and streptozotocin-induced ultrastructural and metabolic changes in hepatic tissues of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst.) (family: Moraceae) root-bark are commonly used traditionally among the Yoruba-speaking people of Western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and/or treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2, adult-onset diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive flavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem-bark and leaves of A. communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root-bark extract on animal model of diabetes mellitus and on liver tissues have hitherto, not been reported in the biomedical literature. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of, and hepatic tissue ultrastructural, morphological and metabolic changes induced by A. communis root-bark aqueous extract (ACE) in Wistar rats. The ultrastructural, morphological and metabolic effects of ACE have been compared with those induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in rat experimental paradigms. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group containing 10 rats, were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the diabetic groups B and C animals by intraperitoneal injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight), while group A rats received A. communis root-bark aqueous extract (ACE, 100 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) alone. Control group D rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered intraperitoneally. The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (100 mg/kg body weight i. p.) daily from day 3 to day 10 after STZ treatment. Hepatic glucokinase, hexokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, serum insulin and blood glucose levels of the animals were measured and recorded before and after ACE, STZ and STZ+ACE treatments. Hepatic tissues were also processed for transmission electron microscopy. Electron microscopic examinations showed toxic, deleterious alterations in the

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in soil, moss and tree-bark from North-Eastern Romania.

    PubMed

    Tarcau, Doina; Cucu-Man, Simona; Boruvkova, Jana; Klanova, Jana; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) have been determined in soil, mosses and tree bark samples collected from the same locations in North-Eastern Romania (region of Moldavia). PCBs and PBDEs were under the limit of quantification in all investigated samples. OCPs were the principal pollutants found in the analysed samples. In soil, moss and tree bark samples, DDT together with its metabolites, was the most abundant OCP ranging between 4.4-79, 5.8-95 and 11-440 ng g(-1) in the individual matrices, followed by HCH isomers with levels between 1.1-9.8, 8.9-130 and 12-130 ng g(-1) in soil, moss and bark respectively. To distinguish between the previous and current pollutant input and preferential biodegradation of DDT metabolites, the degradation ratios were calculated between the parent substances and their metabolites (DDT and HCH isomers). The investigation indicates no important pollution sources near sampling sites and reveals that OCPs originate mainly from long-range air transport processes and through atmospheric deposition of isomers volatilised from secondary sources. Discriminant function analysis was performed to determine whether OCPs uptake differ among the three matrices (soil, moss and tree bark). A good separation was observed between tree bark and the other two matrices. The most redundant variable appears to be p,p'-DDE (R(2)=0.336), while the most informative variable seems to be o,p'-DDT (R(2)=0.0361). Significant correlations were found between bark and moss concentrations for most α-HCH and p,p'-DDD (p<0.01). We have also investigated the enantiomeric signature of α-HCH. For bark and moss, EF values suggest preferential degradation of the (-)α-HCH enantiomer. PMID:23624005

  13. Characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus in cortical bark chlorenchyma of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sveshnikov, Dimitri; Malmberg, Gunilla; Gardeström, Per; Hurry, Vaughan; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2006-05-01

    Winter-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles is accompanied by a 65% reduction of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), measured as Fv/Fm, but relatively stable photosystem I (PSI) activity. In contrast, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in bark chlorenchyma of Scots pine twigs was shown to be well preserved, while PSI capacity was severely decreased. Low-temperature (77 K) chlorophyll fluorescence measurements also revealed lower relative fluorescence intensity emitted from PSI in bark chlorenchyma compared to needles regardless of the growing season. Nondenaturating SDS-PAGE analysis of the chlorophyll-protein complexes also revealed much lower abundance of LHCI and the CPI band related to light harvesting and the core complex of PSI, respectively, in bark chlorenchyma. These changes were associated with a 38% reduction in the total amount of chlorophyll in the bark chlorenchyma relative to winter needles, but the Chl a/b ratio and carotenoid composition were similar in the two tissues. As distinct from winter pine needles exhibiting ATP/ADP ratio of 11.3, the total adenylate content in winter bark chlorenchyma was 2.5-fold higher and the estimated ATP/ADP ratio was 20.7. The photochemical efficiency of PSII in needles attached to the twig recovered significantly faster (28-30 h) then in detached needles. Fluorescence quenching analysis revealed a high reduction state of Q(A) and the PQ-pool in the green bark tissue. The role of bark chlorenchyma and its photochemical performance during the recovery of photosynthesis from winter stress in Scots pine is discussed. PMID:16333639

  14. Isolation and identification of active compounds from Drimys winteri barks.

    PubMed

    Cechinel Filho, V; Schlemper, V; Santos, A R; Pinheiro, T R; Yunes, R A; Mendes, G L; Calixto, J B; Delle Monache, F

    1998-10-01

    The barks of Drimys winteri are used in folk medicine as a remedy to treat several diseases, including dolorous processes. Previous pre-clinical experiments carried out in our laboratories revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. Such promising results led us to determine the analgesic compounds present in D. winteri. Through conventional chromatographic procedures with fractions of CH2Cl2 and EtOAc obtained from methanolic extract, it was found that polygodial (1), 1-beta-(p-methoxycynnamyl) polygodial (2), taxifolin (3) and astilbin (4), are the main components of these fractions. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited marked antinociceptive action by intraperitoneal and oral routes against acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice, suggesting that they are responsible, at least partially, for the antinociceptive effects of this plant. In addition, both compounds were notably more potent than aspirin and acetaminophen, two well-known drugs used here as comparison. PMID:9849632

  15. Phenolic Derivatives from the Root Bark of Oplopanax horridus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Four new phenolic derivatives, including two phenylpropanoid glycosides, one benzoate glycoside, and one lignan glycoside, together with one known glyceride, were isolated from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 3-{4-[(6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) oxy]-3,5-dimethoxyphenylpropanoic acid (1), (+)-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-7- (hydroxylmethyl)-10,11-dimehoxydibenzo[a,c][8]annulen-6-yl]methyl β-D-glucopyranoside (2), (+)-methyl 4-[6-O-{3-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-(1-methylpropyl)oxy]-5-oxopentanoyl}-4-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-methoxybenzoate (3), and 2-methoxy-4-[(1E)-3-methoxy-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl]phenyl 6-O-{3-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-[(1-methylpropyl)oxy]-5-oxopentanoyl-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) on the basis of spectroscopic techniques including NMR and MS analyses. The known compound was identified as glycer-2-yl ferulate (5) by comparing its physical and spectral data with those reported in the literature.

  16. Experimental investigation of surface litter ignition by bark firebrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filkov, Alexander; Kasymov, Denis; Zima, Vladislav; Matvienko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Probability and conditions for ignition of surface litter (pine needles) caused by firebrands is studied in the laboratory conditions. For modeling of firebrands, pine bark of various sizes 10×10, 15×15, 20×20, 25×25, 30×30 mm2 and 5 mm in thickness is used. The experiment was conducted in the absence of wind and at different wind velocities: 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m/s. To conduct investigations, an experimental setup was constructed for generation of firebrands and their impact on surface litter. The results of experiments have shown that the increase in air velocity leads to the increase in probability of surface litter ignition. Thus, wind plays a role of catalyst in the ignition process, bringing an oxidizing agent to firebrands and supporting the process of smoldering. However, if the wind velocity is insufficient for ignition, then there is only the process of smoldering. The area of "uncertainty", where there is smoldering of surface litter without transition to ignition, is found to decrease with increasing the wind velocity. Based on the received results, it can be concluded that the ignition curve of surface liter by firebrands is nonlinear and depends on the wind velocity. At the same time, there is no smoldering and ignition of surface litter for all the wind velocities and the particles with a size of 10 × 10 mm2, regardless of their number.

  17. STEM Thinking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a term seen almost daily in the news. In 2009, President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate initiative to move American students from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math achievement over the next decade (The White House, n.d.). Learning about the attributes of STEM…

  18. Why STEM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  19. Response of Stem Respiration of Two Tropical Species to an Imposed Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, L.; Van Haren, J. L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increased instances of drought are predicted for tropical forests; therefore, it is important to better understand how drought will affect individual aspects of the forest carbon cycle. Through photosynthesis, CO2 is assimilated into sugars, a dominant portion of which goes to the stems where it is used for growth and cell maintenance. Both processes produce CO2 through respiration, which leaves the stem through the bark. This investigation focused on how stem CO2 efflux differs between two tree species in the tropical rainforest biome of Biosphere 2 in Oracle, Arizona—a species of legume (Clitoria racemosa) and a species of non-legume (Phytolacca dioica). A flexible chamber was strapped to each tree and the CO2 that diffused across the bark was measured with a LI-7000. A 4-week long drought was imposed in an effort to simulate future conditions resulting from climate change. It was found that C. racemosa had an overall higher CO2 efflux than P. dioica. C. racemosa has thinner bark than P. dioica, which displays a secondary thickening of its stem as a result of successive cambia; therefore, CO2 could more easily diffuse from the stems of C. racemosa. The results also indicate that decreased soil moisture, as a result of the drought, leads to a significantly lower CO2 efflux from C. racemosa whereas no significant change was observed in P. dioica. This suggests that C. racemosa is more sensitive to water stress than P. dioica, which may have greater water storage capabilities due to its successive cambia. The differing reactions of C. racemosa and P. dioica to decreased soil moisture could be important for calculating carbon stocks and modeling the response of tropical trees to drought.

  20. Frequent, Low-Intensity Fire Increases Tree Defense To Bark Beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, S.; Sala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire and bark beetles are the two largest disturbance agents in North American conifer forests and have interacted for millennia to drive forest composition, structure, and ecological processes. Recent widespread mortality in western coniferous forests due to bark beetle outbreaks have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures and drought associated with global climate change. In fire-dependent forests, fire exclusion has also led to uncharacteristically dense forests which are also thought to be more susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks due to increased drought stress in individual trees. These mortality events have spurred strong interest in the interaction of fire and bark beetles in driving forest dynamics under a changing climate. However, a fact that has not received adequate attention is whether fire exclusion in fire-dependent forests decreases allocation to tree defense, thereby making contemporary forests more prone to bark beetle outbreaks, regardless of climate and stand structure. Fire is known to increase constitutive resin production in many tree species, yet the impact of frequent fire on expression of better defended tree phenotypes has never been examined. We hypothesized that frequent, low-intensity fire increases tree resistance to bark beetle attack through systemic induced resistance. Using a combination of sampling in natural stands for which we had long-term fire history data and an experimental block design of four thinning and burning treatments, we examined the influence of fire and water stress on tree defense to determine if frequent fire increases tree defense and the degree to which water stress modulates this response. We used axial resin ducts as the measure of defense, as this is where resin is both stored and manufactured in Pinaceae. Resin duct production and density has also been shown to be a better indicator of mortality from bark beetle attacks than tree growth. Resin duct density increased after fire at all

  1. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; Balakrishnan, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Materials and Methods: Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica. PMID:24501443

  3. Cinnamon bark oil and its components inhibit biofilm formation and toxin production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Il; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Jintae

    2015-02-16

    The long-term usage of antibiotics has resulted in the evolution of multidrug resistant bacteria, and pathogenic biofilms contribute to reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. In this study, 83 essential oils were initially screened for biofilm inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cinnamon bark oil and its main constituent cinnamaldehyde at 0.05% (v/v) markedly inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Furthermore, cinnamon bark oil and eugenol decreased the production of pyocyanin and 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone, the swarming motility, and the hemolytic activity of P. aeruginosa. Also, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol at 0.01% (v/v) significantly decreased biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Transcriptional analysis showed that cinnamon bark oil down-regulated curli genes and Shiga-like toxin gene stx2 in EHEC. In addition, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) film incorporating biofilm inhibitors was fabricated and shown to provide efficient biofilm control on solid surfaces. This is the first report that cinnamon bark oil and its components, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, reduce the production of pyocyanin and PQS, the swarming motility, and the hemolytic activity of P. aeruginosa, and inhibit EHEC biofilm formation. PMID:25500277

  4. The interaction of Saccharomyces paradoxus with its natural competitors on oak bark

    PubMed Central

    Kowallik, Vienna; Miller, Eric; Greig, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is poorly understood and confounded by domestication. In nature, S. cerevisiae and its undomesticated relative S. paradoxus are usually found on the bark of oak trees, a habitat very different from wine or other human fermentations. It is unclear whether the oak trees are really the primary habitat for wild yeast, or whether this apparent association is due to biased sampling. We use culturing and high-throughput environmental sequencing to show that S. paradoxus is a very rare member of the oak bark microbial community. We find that S. paradoxus can grow well on sterile medium made from oak bark, but that its growth is strongly suppressed when the other members of the community are present. We purified a set of twelve common fungal and bacterial species from the oak bark community and tested how each affected the growth of S. paradoxus in direct competition on oak bark medium at summer and winter temperatures, identifying both positive and negative interactions. One Pseudomonas species produces a diffusible toxin that suppresses S. paradoxus as effectively as either the whole set of twelve species together or the complete community present in nonsterilized oak medium. Conversely, one of the twelve species, Mucilaginibacter sp., had the opposite effect and promoted S. paradoxus growth at low temperatures. We conclude that, in its natural oak tree habitat, S. paradoxus is a rare species whose success depends on the much more abundant microbial species surrounding it. PMID:25706044

  5. A wood and bark fuel economics computer program (FEP). Forest service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Harpole, G.B.; Ince, P.J.; Tschernitz, J.L.; Bilek, E.

    1982-09-01

    Forest products harvesting and manufacturing processes are expected to provide large and continuing supplies of wood and bark residues. At the same time, the demand for wood residue-type materials for production of wood-fiber based products as well as wood and bark fuels is expected to create competing utilization alternatives. Primary objectives of the fuel economics computer program (FEP) presented here are: (1) to provide a means for assessing the relative energy values of fossil fuels and wood/bark fuels, and (2) to provide pre-engineering assessments of the potential investment that may be justified by benefits gained through modification of systems to burn wood/bark fuels. The FEP computer program utilizes readily available fuel and economics information, standard combustion equations, and discounted cash flow analytic techniques. Because the FEP program is designed for preliminary assessments of wood/bark fuel use opportunities it is suggested that more advanced engineering and financial analytic methods be used for further evaluation whenever favorable venture likelihoods are indicated by the FEP program.

  6. Apparatus and method to achieve gasification of bark and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, F.G.

    1987-04-07

    A system is described to achieve gasification of bark pieces, that comprises: a vessel to receive the bark pieces which are introduced at an upper region of the vessel and are burned at a lower region below the upper region. The bark pieces settle from the upper region downward to the lower region in the course of burning and tend to bridge as they settle to leave a bypass hole in the bulk thereof; means to effect combustion of the bark pieces at the lower region; a reciprocating chain mechanism comprising a pair of chains oriented across the vessel and interconnected such that when one chain of the pair moves transversely across the vessel in one direction the other chain of the pair moves transversely across the vessel in the opposite direction. The reciprocating movement of the chains serves to apply angular impelling forces on the bark pieces whereby the individual pieces thereof are turned through angles, first in one direction and then in the other direction, to disrupt the bridging.

  7. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  8. [Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in camphor bark from speedy developing urban in Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang-Xin; Zeng, Liang-Zi; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Li-Fei; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Liang; Huang, Ye-Ru

    2011-09-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) were measured in camphor bark samples from 40 locations in Suzhou, Nantong and Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 8 PBDEs were detected in all samples and the average concentrations of total PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 100, 99, 153, 154, 183, 209) was 835 microg/kg lipid weight (ranged from 112 to 7 460 microg/kg lipid weight). The BDE209 was the main homologues and accounted for 65.7% -99.6% of sigma 8 PBDEs. The predominant commercial products source for PBDEs in bark was Deca-BDE commercial products. Concentration of sigma 8 PBDEs detected in central district of Nantong were significantly higher than those in industrial park, suggesting the discharge of industrial point source might be the main source of PBDEs in this city. No significant difference was found between the levels of sigma 8 PBDEs in camphor bark collected from Suzhou and Wuxi. It can be concluded that the two cities are contaminated interactionally by PBDEs through atmospheric dispersion. The homologue and congener profiles of penta-BDEs for camphor bark were not consistent with commercial products, atmosphere and dust soil, which related with adsorption effect of tree bark and degradation effect of PBDEs. PMID:22165235

  9. The interaction of Saccharomyces paradoxus with its natural competitors on oak bark.

    PubMed

    Kowallik, Vienna; Miller, Eric; Greig, Duncan

    2015-04-01

    The natural history of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is poorly understood and confounded by domestication. In nature, S. cerevisiae and its undomesticated relative S. paradoxus are usually found on the bark of oak trees, a habitat very different from wine or other human fermentations. It is unclear whether the oak trees are really the primary habitat for wild yeast, or whether this apparent association is due to biased sampling. We use culturing and high-throughput environmental sequencing to show that S. paradoxus is a very rare member of the oak bark microbial community. We find that S. paradoxus can grow well on sterile medium made from oak bark, but that its growth is strongly suppressed when the other members of the community are present. We purified a set of twelve common fungal and bacterial species from the oak bark community and tested how each affected the growth of S. paradoxus in direct competition on oak bark medium at summer and winter temperatures, identifying both positive and negative interactions. One Pseudomonas species produces a diffusible toxin that suppresses S. paradoxus as effectively as either the whole set of twelve species together or the complete community present in nonsterilized oak medium. Conversely, one of the twelve species, Mucilaginibacter sp., had the opposite effect and promoted S. paradoxus growth at low temperatures. We conclude that, in its natural oak tree habitat, S. paradoxus is a rare species whose success depends on the much more abundant microbial species surrounding it. PMID:25706044

  10. Bark and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence are linked to wood structural changes in Eucalyptus saligna

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Denise; Tausz, Michael; Moore, Gregory; Nicolas, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Wood structure and wood anatomy are usually considered to be largely independent of the physiological processes that govern tree growth. This paper reports a statistical relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and wood density. A relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and the quantity of wood decay in a tree is also described. There was a statistically significant relationship between the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm and wood density and the quantity of wood decay in summer, but not in spring or autumn. Leaf chlorophyll fluorescence at 0.05 ms (the O step) could predict the quantity of wood decay in trees in spring. Bark chlorophyll fluorescence could predict wood density in spring using the Fv/Fm parameter, but not in summer or autumn. There was a consistent statistical relationship in spring, summer and autumn between the bark chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm and wood decay. This study indicates a relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence and wood structural changes, particularly with bark chlorenchyma. PMID:24790120

  11. Stem cell glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety. Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will introduce glycolipids expressed in pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic-like stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and multilineage-differentiating stress enduring cells), multipotent stem cells (neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, fetal liver multipotent progenitor cells, and hematopoietic stem cells), and cancer stem cells (brain cancer stem cells and breast cancer stem cells), and discuss their availability as biomarkers for identifying and isolating stem cells. PMID:21161592

  12. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Rhododendron arboreum bark.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Muhammad; Ali, Sajid; Muhammad, Naveed; Gillani, Syed N; Shah, Muhmmad R; Khan, Haroon; Maione, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Smith. (Ericaceae), an evergreen small tree, is one of the 1000 species that belongs to genus Rhododendron distributed worldwide. In folk medicine, as various parts of this plant exhibit medicinal properties, it is used in the treatment of different ailments.The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract of R. arboreum bark, followed by activity-guided fractionation of n-hexane, n-butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions.The ethyl acetate fraction (200 mg/kg i.p.) showed the maximum analgesic effect (82%) in acetic acid-induced writhing, followed, to a less extent, by crude extract and chloroform fraction both at a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. (65.09% and 67.89%, respectively). In carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema, the crude extract and its related fractions displayed in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg i.p.) an anti-inflammatory activity for all time-courses (1-5 hrs). For the active extract/fractions (200 mg/kg i.p.), the maximum effect was observed 5 h after carrageenan injection. These evidences were also supported by in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory properties. In conclusion, R. arboreum crude methanolic extract and its fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. For these reasons, this plant could be a promising source of new compounds for the management of pain and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25501256

  13. The effect of management systems and ecosystem types on bark regeneration in Himatanthus drasticus (Apocynaceae): recommendations for sustainable harvesting.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Cristina; Maës dos Santos, Flavio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Bark and exudates are widely commercialized non-timber forest products. However, the ecological impacts of the harvesting of these products have seldom been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of tree resilience to harvesting intensity in Himatanthus drasticus, a tree that is highly exploited in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) for its medicinal latex. Although the traded product is the latex, the traditional harvesting systems involve the removal of the bark of the trees to allow exploitation. A 3-year experiment was conducted in two different Cerrado ecosystems (open savanna and savanna woodland). Trees were debarked at four debarking intensities to simulate the effects of traditional management systems. Measurements of bark growth were taken every 6 months, and quantitative and qualitative indexes of bark regeneration were obtained. The mortality of the debarked trees was low and could not be related to the intensity of harvesting. No signs of attack by fungi or insects were recorded. Compared with other species exploited for bark, H. drasticus is very resilient to harvesting; however, bark regeneration is relatively slow. In both analyzed ecosystems, the regeneration indexes showed higher values in the controls than in the treatments, indicating that 3 years is not sufficient for total recovery of the rhytidome. Bark regeneration occurred primarily by sheet growth and was more rapid in open savanna than in savanna woodland. No differences in the rate of bark recovery were found among management treatments. Based on the results, sustainable harvesting guidelines are suggested for the species. PMID:23959345

  14. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  16. Identification and antennal electrophysiology of ash bark volatiles for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biologically active bark volatiles from ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) might be used as tools in monitoring the presence of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. Two compounds have been identified from the volatile emissions from white ash bark. These two compounds were readily sen...

  17. Biology of the invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was detected in the United States in 2003 and is now known to occur in 28 states and four Canadian Provinces. S. schevyrewi infests the same elm hosts as the long-established invasive, and smaller European elm bark be...

  18. Aggregation pheromones of bark beetles, pityogenes quadridens and P. bidentatus, colonizing scotch pine: olfactory avoidance of interspecific competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bark beetles Pityogenes bidentatus and P. quadridens (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) compete for bark areas on branches of Scotch pine, Pinus sylvestris. Hindguts and head/thoraxes of males and females of both species feeding in hosts were extracted in pentane and analyzed by gas chromat...

  19. Leptographium tereforme sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the root-feeding bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda F., is native to Europe but was discovered in Los Angeles, California in 2003. This root- and stump-feeding bark beetle is a common vector of Ophiostomatales, which are potential tree pathogens or causes of blue-stain of conifer sapwood. In this st...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a... individual basis, by prior arrangement with the Commanding Officer, Pacific Missile Range Facility,...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a... individual basis, by prior arrangement with the Commanding Officer, Pacific Missile Range Facility,...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  3. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  4. The complex symbiotic relationships of bark beetles with microorganisms: a potential practical approach for biological control in forestry.

    PubMed

    Popa, Valentin; Déziel, Eric; Lavallée, Robert; Bauce, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2012-07-01

    Bark beetles, especially Dendroctonus species, are considered to be serious pests of the coniferous forests in North America. Bark beetle forest pests undergo population eruptions, causing region wide economic losses. In order to save forests, finding new and innovative environmentally friendly approaches in wood-boring insect pest management is more important than ever. Several biological control methods have been attempted over time to limit the damage and spreading of bark beetle epidemics. The use of entomopathogenic microorganisms against bark beetle populations is an attractive alternative tool for many biological control programmes in forestry. However, the effectiveness of these biological control agents is strongly affected by environmental factors, as well as by the susceptibility of the insect host. Bark beetle susceptibility to entomopathogens varies greatly between species. According to recent literature, bark beetles are engaged in symbiotic relationships with fungi and bacteria. These types of relationship are very complex and apparently involved in bark beetle defensive mechanisms against pathogens. The latest scientific discoveries in multipartite symbiosis have unravelled unexpected opportunities in bark beetle pest management, which are discussed in this article. PMID:22566204

  5. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

  6. Semiochemical-MediatedFlight Strategies of Two Invasive Elm Bark Beetles: A Potential Factor in Competitive Displacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent seven-state survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus was not as abundant. Behavioral trials were conducted by hanging sm...

  7. Antihyperglycemic activity of Tectona grandis Linn. bark extract on alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Varma, S B; Jaybhaye, D L

    2010-07-01

    Tectona Grandis Linn.(saag - tick wood), an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk reputation among the Indian herbs as a hypoglycemic agent. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of T. grandis Linn. bark extract in control and alloxan-diabetic rats. Oral administration of the bark suspension of T. grandis (2.5 and 5 g/kg body wt.) for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose (from 250 ± 6.5 to 50 ± 2.5 mg/dL). Thus, the present study clearly shows that the T. grandis Linn. bark extract exerts anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:21170208

  8. Impact of pretreatments on morphology and enzymatic saccharification of shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrahim Nasser; Santoso, Shella Permatasari; Tran-Nguyen, Phuong Lan; Huynh, Lien Huong; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of subcritical water (SCW) and dilute acid pretreatments on the shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron (paper bark tree, PBT) biomass morphology, crystallinity index (CrI) and enzymatic saccharification were studied. The morphology of PBT bark was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. SCW pretreatment mainly extracted amorphous parts of the biomass hence its CrI increased, partial decrystallization of cellulose and exposing of intact nanofibers of cellulose were observed for SCW pretreatment at 180°C. On the other hand, dilute acid pretreatment at 160°C exhibited a large decrease in CrI, an increase in surface area, a decrease in lignin content and decrystallization of cellulose as well as the peel-off and degradation of some nanofiber bundles. Dilute acid and SCW pretreatments of PBT biomass resulted in about 4.5 fold enhancement in glucose release relative to the untreated one. PMID:23697662

  9. Mimusops elengi bark extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Ghosh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    The bark extract of Mimusops elengi is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins. The present study shows the usefulness of the bark extract of Mimusops elengi for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete within a few minutes without any extra stabilizing or capping agents and the polyphenols present in the bark extract acted as both reducing as well as stabilizing agents. The synthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 3-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to their corresponding aminophenols in water at room temperature.

  10. An Efficient, Robust, and Inexpensive Grinding Device for Herbal Samples like Cinchona Bark

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steen Honoré; Holmfred, Else; Cornett, Claus; Maldonado, Carla; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-01-01

    An effective, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for the grinding of herb samples like bark and roots was developed by rebuilding a commercially available coffee grinder. The grinder was constructed to be able to provide various particle sizes, to be easy to clean, and to have a minimum of dead volume. The recovery of the sample when grinding as little as 50 mg of crude Cinchona bark was about 60%. Grinding is performed in seconds with no rise in temperature, and the grinder is easily disassembled to be cleaned. The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC. PMID:26839823

  11. Development of a nested PCR detection procedure for Nectria fuckeliana direct from Norway spruce bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Langrell, Stephen R H

    2005-01-01

    A pair of primers specific for Nectria fuckeliana, a bark infecting pathogen predominantly of Norway spruce (Picea abies), were designed from comparisons of nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nine isolates from Norway, Lithuania, Switzerland, Austria, Slovakia, Scotland (Larix sp.) and New Zealand (Pinus radiata), and other closely related nectriaceous species, including Neo. Neomacrospora, and 'N'. mammoidea, to which it exhibits taxonomic similarities. Complete ITS sequence homology was observed between each of the nine N. fuckeliana isolates, regardless of geographic provenance, including a previously published Danish strain. Primers Cct1 and Cct2 consistently amplified a single product of 360 bp from DNA prepared from 20 isolates covering the principle range of the disease from Central and Northern Europe, but not from other Neonectria, 'Nectria' or a range of species commonly encountered in forest ecosystems, as well as P. abies or P. radiata DNA. A quick, simple and efficient mechanical lysis procedure for the extraction of high quality total DNA from bark, coupled with post-extraction polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) chromatography purification, is described to facilitate successful PCR detection of N. fuckeliana direct from bark extracts. Detection of N. fuckeliana from bark preparations was only possible following nested PCR of PVPP purified extracts using universal primers ITS5 and 4 in first round amplification. The identity of products from bark tissues was confirmed by Southern hybridisation and sequencing. Using the above procedure, positive diagnosis of N. fuckeliana was achievable within 5 h and has the potential for full exploitation as both a forest management and ecological research tool. As the DNA extraction procedure described here has been successful in application against other tree species, it has potential for incorporation into other molecular diagnostic systems for other

  12. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A.; Rabaglia, Robert J.; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  13. Fraxinus paxiana bark mediated photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their size modulation using swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Hemant; Vendamani, V. S.; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is presented using bark extracts of Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterised by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the bark samples are irradiated with 100 MeV silver ions and the subsequent structural modifications are analyzed. The swift heavy ion irradiated Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis bark is also used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is illustrated that the irradiated bark assists in synthesizing smaller nanoparticles of homogenous size distribution as compared to when the pristine bark is used. The newly synthesized silver nanoparticles are also used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli bacteria.

  14. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  15. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  16. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049-0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  17. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 3: the chemical composition of wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark extract.

    PubMed

    Venter, Pieter B; Senekal, Nadine D; Kemp, Gabré; Amra-Jordaan, Maryam; Khan, Pir; Bonnet, Susan L; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2012-11-01

    Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark extract is an important renewable industrial source of natural polymers for leather tanning and adhesive manufacturing. The wattle bark proanthocyanidin oligomers have 5-deoxy extender units that render the interflavanyl bonds resistant to acid catalysed hydrolysis and their composition cannot be determined via conventional thiolysis. We combined established phyto- and synthetic chemistry perspectives with an electrospray mass spectrometry investigation to establish that the flavan-3-ol based oligomers consist of a starter unit which is either catechin or gallocatechin, angularly bonded to fisetinidol or predominantly robinetinidol extender units. PMID:22917955

  18. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049–0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  19. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

    PubMed Central

    Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Moshi, Mainen J; Masimba, Pax J; Kapingu, Modest C; Nondo, Ramadhani SO

    2007-01-01

    Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1), methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml), while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15) μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles. PMID:17394672

  20. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trois, Cristina . E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za; Polster, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  1. Free and chemically bonded phenolic acids in barks of Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.

    PubMed

    Turek, Sebastian; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Liquid column chromatography, planar chromatography (TLC) on modified and unmodified silica layers, reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as ESI-TOF MS and 1H-NMR have been used for separation, purification and identification of phenolic acids in the barks of Sambucus nigra and Viburnum opulus (Caprifoliaceae). By the use of these procedures three cinnamic acid derivatives: caffeic acid, p-coumaric, and ferulic acid, four benzoic acid derivatives: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, two phenylacetic acid derivatives: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homogentisic acid, and two depsides: chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid were detected and identified in the bark of Viburnum opulus. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and chlorogenic acid were also detected and identified in the bark of Sambucus nigra. Except for chlorogenic acid, this is the first time these phenolic acids have been isolated, detected, and identified in the bark of V. opulus and S. nigra. PMID:18536165

  2. BARK CANKER OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY DEVELOPING ON PECAN CARYA ILLINOENSIS TREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan trees in a five-year-old orchard of 17 cultivars had symptoms of an unusual bark canker first noticed in October, 2002. Symptoms appeared from ground line up to 3 meters on the central leader and most likely were initiated during the summer of 2002. Cankers developed around buds of the trunk...

  3. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  4. 78 FR 23592 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... behalf of Radio Systems Corporation of Knoxville, Tennessee. 78 FR 12788-89. The complaint alleges... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation AGENCY: U.S....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic...

  5. First evidence for seasonal fluctuations in lichen- and bark-colonising fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek; Rambold, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    Endophytic fungal communities in leaves of deciduous trees usually undergo pronounced seasonal changes. We hypothesised that such compositional shifts are predominantly caused by annuality of the leaves and therefore less pronounced in fungi colonising the perennial substrates bark and corticolous lichens. To test this hypothesis, thalli of the foliose lichen-forming fungal species Xanthoria parietina and Physconia distorta, along with the adjacent bark, were sampled during spring and autumn at two sides of a single tree in southern Germany. Analysis of clone libraries by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed 588 singleton and 221 non-singleton RFLP-types of non-lichenised fungi. The communities differed significantly between host lichen species. Season and exposure had only a significant impact when the two factors were combined in the analysis. Accordingly, bark- and/or the lichen-associated fungal communities change throughout the year's course, a finding that rejects the initial hypothesis. This survey revealed valuable information for future broad-based studies, by indicating that a relatively high diversity of non-lichenised fungi is associated with corticolous lichen thalli and the adjacent bark. Furthermore, the structure of non-lichenised fungal assemblages associated with corticolous lichen communities obviously depends at least on the following factors: 'lichen species', 'exposure', and 'season'. PMID:24037543

  6. Host-tree monoterpenes and biosynthesis of aggregation pheromones in the bark beetle ips paraconfusus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the 1970-80s, vapors of the common conifer tree monoterpenes, myrcene and a-pinene, were shown to serve as precursors of ipsenol, ipsdienol and cis-verbenol, aggregation pheromone components of Ips paraconfusus. A paradigm developed that Ips bark beetles utilize pre-formed monoterpene precursors ...

  7. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. PMID:26547588

  8. ENHANCED DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF THE WALNUT PATHOGEN BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS: CAUSAL AGENT OF DEEP BARK CANKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep bark canker (DBC) of walnut is caused by the bacterium Brenneria rubrifaciens which produces the red pigment rubrifacine. This disease of English walnut trees, is characterized by deep vertical cankers which exude sap laden with B. rubrifaciens. Although DBC is not observed on younger trees, ...

  9. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel in Grasshopper Mice Defends Against Bark Scorpion Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Matthew P.; Cummins, Theodore R.; Zakon, Harold H.

    2014-01-01

    Painful venoms are used to deter predators. Pain itself, however, can signal damage and thus serves an important adaptive function. Evolution to reduce general pain responses, although valuable for preying on venomous species, is rare, likely because it comes with the risk of reduced response to tissue damage. Bark scorpions capitalize on the protective pain pathway of predators by inflicting intensely painful stings. However, grasshopper mice regularly attack and consume bark scorpions, grooming only briefly when stung. Bark scorpion venom induces pain in many mammals (house mice, rats, humans) by activating the voltage-gated Na+ channel Nav1.7, but has no effect on Nav1.8. Grasshopper mice Nav1.8 has amino acid variants that bind bark scorpion toxins and inhibit Na+ currents, blocking action potential propagation and inducing analgesia. Thus, grasshopper mice have solved the predator-pain problem by using a toxin bound to a nontarget channel to block transmission of the pain signals the venom itself is initiating. PMID:24159039

  10. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27060627

  11. Genome sequence of Valsa canker pathogens uncovers a potential adaptation of colonization of woody bark.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huiquan; Li, Zhengpeng; Ke, Xiwang; Dou, Daolong; Gao, Xiaoning; Song, Na; Dai, Qingqing; Wu, Yuxing; Xu, Jin-Rong; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-12-01

    Canker caused by ascomycetous Valsa species are among the most destructive diseases of woody plants worldwide. These pathogens are distinct from other pathogens because they only effectively attack tree bark in the field. To unravel the potential adaptation mechanism of bark colonization, we examined the genomes of Valsa mali and Valsa pyri that preferentially infect apple and pear, respectively. We reported the 44.7 and 35.7 Mb genomes of V. mali and V. pyri, respectively. We also identified the potential genomic determinants of wood colonization by comparing them with related cereal pathogens. Both genomes encode a plethora of pathogenicity-related genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In order to adapt to the nutrient limitation and low pH environment in bark, they seem to employ membrane transporters associated with nitrogen uptake and secrete proteases predominantly with acidic pH optima. Remarkably, both Valsa genomes are especially suited for pectin decomposition, but are limited in lignocellulose and cutin degradation. Besides many similarities, the two genomes show distinct variations in many secondary metabolism gene clusters. Our results show a potential adaptation of Valsa canker pathogens to colonize woody bark. Secondary metabolism gene clusters are probably responsible for this host specificity. PMID:26137988

  12. Are bark beetles chewing up our forests? What about our coffee?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A write-up for the Elsevier SciTech Connect blog on the recently published book entitled "Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species," edited by Fernando E. Vega and Richard W. Hofstetter. The book was published by Academic Press in January 2015....

  13. Container Height and Douglas Fir Bark Texture Affect Substrate Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to quantify the effect of substrate texture on water holding capacity of douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] bark (DFB) in containers of varying height. Increasing container height resulted in a linear decrease in CC and a linear increase in AS. Fine texture DF...

  14. Evaluation Report of the Ontario Camp Leadership Centre at Bark Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Research Consulting House Ltd., Mississauga (Ontario).

    Both participants in the Ontario Camp Leadership Center at Bark Lake and their sponsoring organizations agreed on the benefits of the leadership development experience and enthusiastically endorsed the program. Researchers conducted a 19-question telephone survey of 202 program participants and a 32-question survey of 40 sponsors and 20…

  15. Solute transport through a pine-bark based substrate under saturated and unsaturated conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of how dissolved mineral nutrient ions (solutes) move through pine bark substrates during the application of irrigation water is vital to better understand nutrient transport and leaching from containerized crops during an irrigation event. However, current theories on solute transp...

  16. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to host bark volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bark volatiles from green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica were tested for electrophysiological activity by Agrilus planipennis using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and for behavioral activity using baited purple traps in Michigan USA. GC-EAD analysis of the headspace volati...

  17. Prospect Point: Reflections on Bark Lake as a Private Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheedy, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    The director of the ropes course at the recently privatized Bark Lake (Ontario) summer camp discusses differences between nonprofit and for-profit organizations and describes the group-based year-round outdoor education programs that were developed when the facility became private. Working within a profit formula can be more liberating but can…

  18. Binary metal sorption by pine bark: Study of equilibria and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Asheh, S.; Duvnjak, Z.

    1998-06-01

    Pine bark was able to sorb cadmium, copper, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions. Binary equilibrium data from the combination of these metals were collected in this work using the sorbent. These data were modeled using three types of binary component equilibrium isotherms, all of which resulted in good fitting of the experimental data, with the Langmuir-Freundlich model resulting in their best representation. In general, the capacity of bark for each metal in the binary system was lower than in the single metal systems. The study also examined the mechanisms of metal biosorption by bark. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive c-ray (EDX) microanalyses revealed that metal ions were sorbed mainly at the cell wall of the bark and only a small amount of ions diffused into the cytoplasm. Both the EDX analysis and the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) measurements showed that ion exchange was an important mechanism in this sorption process. Electron spin resonance (ESR) tests demonstrated that free radicals from the sorbent also have a significant role in the sorption processes.

  19. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  20. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%). Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts. PMID:23158079

  1. 7,7-Dimethylaporphine and Other Alkaloids from the Bark of Guatteria friesiana.

    PubMed

    Costa, Emmanoel V; Pinheiro, Maria Lúcia B; Maia, Beatriz Helena L N S; Marques, Francisco A; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Marchetti, Gabriela M; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Soares, Milena B P; Costa, Cinara O S; Galvão, Alexandre F C; Lopes, Norberto P; Koolen, Hector H F; Bezerra, Daniel P; Barison, Andersson

    2016-06-24

    Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Guatteria friesiana afforded 12 new aporphines (1-12), along with nine known alkaloids (13-21). The structures of the new alkaloids were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds against a small panel of tumor cell lines was assessed using the Alamar blue assay. PMID:27300257

  2. Change in physical properties of pine bark and switchgrass substrates over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatives to pine bark for nursery crop substrates have been proposed, including the use of straw materials such as switchgrass. While straw substrates can be developed with suitable physical properties measured immediately after mixing, little is known about how the physical properties of straw...

  3. Necrotic bark of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a bioindicator of environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chrzan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pH and the concentration of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in aqueous extracts of necrotic bark Pinus sylvestris L. and in adjacent soil, located in two types of forest habitat in different parts in the Niepołomice Forest in southern Poland. The Niepołomice Forest is located about 35 km east of an urban-industrial agglomeration Kraków. Despite the lack of significant differences in pine bark reaction studied, there was a clear difference in contamination of both bark and soil with heavy metals. There was a correlation between the distribution of pollutants in the forest, and the direction of the prevailing winds. More heavy metals were accumulated in the pine bark and soil from the west than the east. The high content of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in the soils most likely results from the inflow of gas and dust pollutants from the urban-industrial agglomeration of Kraków. PMID:25106515

  4. Exchange of organohalogen compounds between air and tree bark in the Yellow River region.

    PubMed

    He, Chang; Jin, Jun; Li, Guangyao; Wang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Organohalogen compound concentrations in paired air and bark samples from the Yellow River region were determined. Overall, the organohalogen compound concentrations were higher in the samples from the lower than from the upper Yellow River region. The polybrominated diphenyl ether, polychlorinated biphenyl, and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were 310-5200, 0.92-3.8, and 120-6700 pg m(-3), respectively, in the air samples and 29,000-190,0000, 220-1400, and 49,000-220,0000 pg g(-1) lipid weight, respectively, in the bark samples. The concentrations in the air samples were significantly positively correlated with the concentrations in the bark samples. Constant B, related to the partitioning of a contaminant between the gas and particle phases in the air, was calculated for each compound. This was the first time constant B was simultaneously been determined for a range of different organohalogen compounds. An air-tree bark exchange model was calibrated and verified. The exchange coefficients (KBA) that were determined were compared with the model results, and the optimum KOA values for use in the model were found to be 10(9)-10(16). The compound of interest needed to be detected in more than 50% of the samples for the model results to be valid. PMID:27035385

  5. Acutangulosides A-F, monodesmosidic saponins from the bark of Barringtonia acutangula.

    PubMed

    Mills, Clive; Carroll, Anthony R; Quinn, Ronald J

    2005-03-01

    Nine triterpene saponins, acutangulosides A-F (2-7), and acutanguloside D-F methyl esters (5a-7a) and a single triterpene aglycone (1) were isolated from a water extract of the bark of Barringtonia acutangula. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data. PMID:15787427

  6. Recent bark beetle outbreaks have little impact on streamflow in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinski, Kimberly M.; Hogue, Terri S.; Porter, Aaron T.; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Western United States (US), the current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected more than five million hectares since its start in 1996, including headwater catchments that supply water to much of the Western US. There is widespread concern that the hydrologic consequences of the extensive pine tree die-off will impact water supply across the Western US. While forest disturbance studies have shown that streamflow increases in response to tree harvest, the actual effect of bark beetle infestations on water supply remains widely debated. The current study evaluates watershed-level response following bark beetle outbreak for 33 watersheds in seven western states. Streamflow records were investigated to assess whether the timing and amount of stream discharge during bark beetle outbreak and early recovery periods were significantly different to pre-outbreak conditions. Results show no significant modification in peak flows or average daily streamflow following bark beetle infestation, and that climate variability may be a stronger driver of streamflow patterns and snowmelt timing than chronic forest disturbance.

  7. Chemical ecology of bark beetles in regard to search and selection of host trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), especially pests in the genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Scolytus, Trypodendron, Tomicus, and Pityogenes of the Northern hemisphere are reviewed regarding aspects of their chemical ecology during host finding and selection. Most of the species covered here feed on con...

  8. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map. PMID:22169208

  9. 18, 19-Secooleanane Type Triterpene Glycosyl Esters from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five novel 18,19-secooleanane type triterpene glycosides, 1-5, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the bark of Teminalia arjuna, along with nine known oleanane triterpenoids. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR, HRESIMS and CD spectra....

  10. Habitat use and spatial structure of a barking frog (Eleutherodactylus augusti) population in southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, C.S.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking Frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are the northernmost ranging member of the large tropical family Leptodactylidae. We investigated the ecology of this saxicolous species at the northern edge of its range in a canyon in southern Arizona. We captured 54 frogs on discontinuous rock outcrops; eight of nine females and 39 of 45 males were on limestone outcrops. The remaining frogs were closer to limestone outcrops by more than 200 m than would be expected if they were distributed randomly with respect to limestone formations. Seven of 10 frogs radio-tracked had core home ranges (50% fixed kernel) from 94 to 100% on limestone; the other three frogs did not have any part of their home range on limestone outcrops. During five years of mark-recapture efforts, no frogs were found on a different outcrop from the one where they were originally captured; no radio-tracked frogs moved between outcrops during the breeding season. We estimated that four to 20 Barking Frogs occupied each outcrop; these groups probably are connected primarily by juvenile dispersal. As an organism living at the edge of its range, Barking Frogs in Arizona may rely heavily on extensive underground areas such as those found in limestone to protect them from a physiologically challenging environment. To manage for the persistence of Barking Frogs in southern Arizona, we must identify and protect habitat patches and movement pathways among them.

  11. Influence of pine bark particle size and pH on cation exchange capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) describes the maximum quantity of cations a soil or substrate can hold while being exchangeable with the soil solution. While CEC has been studied for peat-based substrates, relatively little work has documented factors that affect CEC of pine bark substrates. The ob...

  12. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world’s tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, along with potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labeling...

  13. Comparison of using polyurethane foam passive samplers and tree bark samples from Western China to determine atmospheric organochlorine pesticide.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuxu; Lu, Yao; Jin, Jun; Li, Guangyao; Li, Peng; He, Chang; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers were deployed and tree bark samples were collected at 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the samples were determined. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its degradation products (collectively called DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the dominant OCPs in the PUF samples and tree bark samples. The mean DDTs, HCHs and HCB concentrations were 33, 22 and 18ng/sample in the PUF samples, and 428, 74, and 43ng/(g lipid weight (lw)) in the tree bark, respectively. The OCP concentrations in the air, calculated using PUF-air and tree-bark-air partitioning models, were of the same order of magnitude. Both sample types showed that relatively fresh inputs of DDT and HCHs to the environment have occurred in western China. Meanwhile, PUF passive samplers were compared with the use of tree bark samples as passive samplers. The OCP compositions in the PUF and tree bark samples were different. Only the relatively stable OCPs (such as HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE)) were consistent in the PUF and tree bark samples. PMID:26969054

  14. Effect of pine bark on the biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and on the bacterial community structure in a batch experiment.

    PubMed

    Chusova, Olga; Nolvak, Hiie; Nehrenheim, Emma; Truu, Jaak; Odlare, Monica; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Truu, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Pine bark, a low-cost industrial residue, has been suggested as a promising substitute for granular activated carbon in the on-site treatment of water contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). However, the complex organic structure and indigenous microbial community of pine bark have thus far not been thoroughly described in the context of TNT-contaminated water treatment. This two-week batch study examined the removal efficiency ofTNT from water by (1) adsorption on pine bark and (2) simultaneous adsorption on pine bark and biotransformation by specialized TNT-biotransforming microbial inocula. The bacterial community composition of experimental batches, inocula and pine bark, was profiled by Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results revealed that the inocula and experimental batches were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and that the tested inocula had good potential for TNT biotransformation. The type of applied inocula had the most profound effect on the TNT-transforming bacterial community structure in the experimental batches. The indigenous microbial community of pine bark harboured phylotypes that also have a potential to degrade TNT. Altogether, the combination of a specialized inoculum and pine bark proved to be the most efficient treatment option for TNT-contaminated water. PMID:25145200

  15. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Suchara, I; Rulík, P; Hůlka, J; Pilátová, H

    2011-04-15

    The (137)Cs specific activities (mean 32Bq kg(-1)) were determined in spruce bark samples that had been collected at 192 sampling plots throughout the Czech Republic in 1995, and were related to the sampling year. The (137)Cs specific activities in spruce bark correlated significantly with the (137)Cs depositions in areas affected by different precipitation sums operating at the time of the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. The ratio of the (137)Cs specific activities in bark and of the (137)Cs deposition levels yielded bark aggregated transfer factor T(ag) about 10.5×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1). Taking into account the residual specific activities of (137)Cs in bark 20Bq kg(-1) and the available pre-Chernobyl data on the (137)Cs deposition loads on the soil surface in the Czech Republic, the real aggregated transfer factor after and before the Chernobyl fallout proved to be T*(ag)=3.3×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1) and T**(ag)=4.0×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1), respectively. The aggregated transfer factors T*(ag) for (137)Cs and spruce bark did not differ significantly in areas unequally affected by the (137)Cs fallout in the Czech Republic in 1986, and the figures for these aggregated transfer factors were very similar to the mean bark T(ag) values published from the extensively affected areas near Chernobyl. The magnitude of the (137)Cs aggregated transfer factors for spruce bark for the pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl period in the Czech Republic was also very similar. The variability in spruce bark acidity caused by the operation of local anthropogenic air pollution sources did not significantly influence the accumulation and retention of (137)Cs in spruce bark. Increasing elevation of the bark sampling plots had a significant effect on raising the remaining (137)Cs specific activities in bark in areas affected by precipitation at the time when the plumes crossed, because the sums of this precipitation increased with elevation (covariable). PMID:21377193

  16. Decomposition of conifer tree bark under field conditions: effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina; Kapitsa, Ekaterina; Shorokhova, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    In forest ecosystems, the processes of decomposition of coarse woody debris (CWD) can contribute significantly to the emission component of carbon (C) cycle and thus accelerate the greenhouse effect and global climate change. A better understanding of decomposition of CWD is required to refine estimates of the C balance in forest ecosystems and improve biogeochemical models. These estimates will in turn contribute to assessing the role of forests in maintaining their long-term productivity and other ecosystems services. We examined the decomposition rate of coniferous bark with added nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers in experiment under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in 2015 during 17 weeks in Moscow region (54o50'N, 37o36'E) under continental-temperate climatic conditions. The conifer tree bark mixture (ca. 70% of Norway spruce and 30% of Scots pine) was combined with soil and placed in piles of soil-bark substrate (SBS) with height of ca. 60 cm and surface area of ca. 3 m2. The dry mass ratio of bark to soil was 10:1. The experimental design included following treatments: (1) soil (Luvisols Haplic) without bark, (S), (2) pure SBS, (3) SBS with N addition in the amount of 1% of total dry bark mass (SBS-N), and (4) SBS with N and P addition in the amount of 1% of total dry bark mass for each element (SBS-NP). The decomposition rate expressed as CO2 emission flux, g C/m2/h was measured using closed chamber method 1-3 times per week from July to early November using LiCor 6400 (Nebraska, USA). During the experiment, we also controlled soil temperature at depths of 5, 20, 40, and 60 cm below surface of SBS using thermochrons iButton (DS1921G, USA). The pattern of CO2 emission rate from SBS depended strongly on fertilizing. The highest decomposition rates (DecR) of 2.8-5.6 g C/m2/h were observed in SBS-NP treatment during the first 6 weeks of experiment. The decay process of bark was less active in the treatment with only N addition. In this

  17. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress.

    PubMed

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knízek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-07-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10 x 50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O(3) level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O(3) levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. PMID:15046842

  18. Effect of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Jayaprasad; Subramanian, Sharavanan; Kaliyan, Veerakumar

    2015-11-01

    Mosquitoes are the vector of more diseases and cause major health problems like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and lymphatic filariasis. This article deals with the mosquito larvicidal activity of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Methanolic crude extract of Ch. swietenia bark was obtained by soxhlet apparatus and aqueous crude extract by cold percolation method. The range of concentrations of the crude extracts used was 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm. The mortality and lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) was calculated after a 24-h exposure period. Both the extracts showed trustworthy larvicidal activity. The larvicidal activity of the methanol extract of Ch. swietenia bark was higher than the aqueous extract, and the LC50 and the LC90 values of the methanol extract were found to be 124.70 and 226.26 μg/ml (Ae. aegypti), 130.57 and 234.67 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 137.55 and 246.09 ppm (An. stephensi). The LC50 and the LC90 values of the aqueous extract were found to be 133.10 and 238.93 ppm (Ae. aegypti), 136.45 and 242.47 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 139.43 and 248.64 ppm (An. stephensi). No mortality was observed in the control. Methanolic crude extract Ch. swietenia bark shows higher activity against An. stephensi than the other two tested larvae and aqueous extract. The results of the present study propose a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the larvicidal activity of Ch. swietenia bark extracts. PMID:26246308

  19. Inhibitory effects of bark extracts from Ulmus laevis on endometrial carcinoma: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Daniel; Abarzua, Sibylle; Schlichting, André; Richter, Dagmar-Ulrike; Leinweber, Peter; Briese, Volker

    2009-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of elm tree have been shown in several studies. Besides this, protective effects of components of elm bark on damaged tissue have also been described. This study was carried out to investigate the antitumour potential of an ethanolic extract isolated from Ulmus laevis in the hormone-dependent endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2. A range of 2.5-500 microg/ml of elm bark extract was used as standard concentrations. The molecular-chemical composition of the bark extract was analysed by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry. The influence of the bark extracts was determined on cell vitality [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test], cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine test) and cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase test) in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL 95-2. By pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry, the main substance classes of the extract as a composition of sterols/triterpenes, free fatty acids and a group of phenols, lignin monomers and flavonoids was identified. Our study showed a significant inhibition of cell vitality and proliferation measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test up to 5 microg/ml extract and up to 100 microg/ml according to the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine test. Concentrations of 500 microg/ml induced a significant inhibition of cell vitality up to 80% and cell proliferation up to 81.5%. A significant cytotoxity was not observed. The results lead to the assumption that the bark extract from Ulmus laevis has antiproliferation and anticancer potential in hormone-dependent endometrial carcinoma cells. PMID:19337064

  20. Auditory Discrimination of Natural and High-Pass Filtered Bark Vocalizations in a California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Jason; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    A California sea lion performed a psychophysical auditory discrimination task with a set of six stimuli: three barks recorded from conspecific males and high-pass filtered versions of the barks that removed the majority of energy at fundamental frequencies. Discrimination performance and subject reaction times (RTs) suggested that the vocalizations were all perceived as fairly dissimilar. This preliminary study hints that low-frequency components are a salient part of the California sea lion bark despite elevation of this species' aerial hearing thresholds and the potential for elevated environmental noise levels at frequencies below 1 kHz. PMID:26611026

  1. Decoupled leaf and stem economics in rain forest trees.

    PubMed

    Baraloto, Christopher; Timothy Paine, C E; Poorter, Lourens; Beauchene, Jacques; Bonal, Damien; Domenach, Anne-Marie; Hérault, Bruno; Patiño, Sandra; Roggy, Jean-Christophe; Chave, Jerome

    2010-11-01

    Cross-species analyses of plant functional traits have shed light on factors contributing to differences in performance and distribution, but to date most studies have focused on either leaves or stems. We extend these tissue-specific analyses of functional strategy towards a whole-plant approach by integrating data on functional traits for 13 448 leaves and wood tissues from 4672 trees representing 668 species of Neotropical trees. Strong correlations amongst traits previously defined as the leaf economics spectrum reflect a tradeoff between investments in productive leaves with rapid turnover vs. costly physical leaf structure with a long revenue stream. A second axis of variation, the 'stem economics spectrum', defines a similar tradeoff at the stem level: dense wood vs. high wood water content and thick bark. Most importantly, these two axes are orthogonal, suggesting that tradeoffs operate independently at the leaf and at the stem levels. By simplifying the multivariate ecological strategies of tropical trees into positions along these two spectra, our results provide a basis to improve global vegetation models predicting responses of tropical forests to global change. PMID:20807232

  2. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, Joseph E.; Sanderson, Stephen N.

    1984-01-01

    A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  3. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

    1981-10-27

    A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  4. Stem cell biobanks.

    PubMed

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment. PMID:20560026

  5. Enantioselective synthesis and vanilloid activity evaluation of 1-beta-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)polygodial, an antinociceptive compound from Drymis winteri barks.

    PubMed

    Della Monica, Carmela; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Landi, Raffaella; Izzo, Irene; Spinella, Aldo

    2007-12-01

    A simple strategy is outlined for preparation of the antinociceptive 1-beta-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)polygodial, isolated from Drymis winteri barks. The synthesized compound showed vanilloid activity. PMID:17951058

  6. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar bark by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Jae Taek; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Kim, Ung-Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Gon Wi, Seung; Cho, Jae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Pretreatment of poplar bark with a combination of sulfuric acid (3%, w/w, H2SO4) and gamma irradiation (0-1000 kGy) was performed in an attempt to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The yields of reducing sugar were slightly increased with an increasing irradiation dose, ranging from 35.4% to 51.5%, with a 56.1% reducing sugar yield observed after dilute acid pretreatment. These results clearly showed that soluble sugars were released faster and to a greater extent in dilute acid-pretreated poplar bark than in gamma irradiation-pretreated bark. When combined pretreatment was carried out, a drastic increase in reducing sugar yield (83.1%) was found compared with individual pretreatment, indicating the possibility of increasing the convertibility of poplar bark following combined pretreatment. These findings are likely associated with cellulose crystallinity, lignin modification, and removal of hemicelluloses.

  7. Seeing with ears: Sightless humans' perception of dog bark provides a test for structural rules in vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Csaba; Pongrácz, Péter; Miklósi, Adám

    2010-05-01

    Prerecorded family dog (Canis familiaris) barks were played back to groups of congenitally sightless, sightless with prior visual experience, and sighted people (none of whom had ever owned a dog). We found that blind people without any previous canine visual experiences can categorize accurately various dog barks recorded in different contexts, and their results are very close to those of sighted people in characterizing the emotional content of barks. These findings suggest that humans can recognize some of the most important motivational states reflecting, for example, fear or aggression in a dog's bark without any visual experience. It is very likely that this result can be generalized to other mammalian species--that is, no visual experience of another individual is needed for recognizing some of the most important motivational states of the caller. PMID:19760535

  8. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Lifei; Zhang, Xiulan; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Lingling

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Camphor tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China. Tree bark samples were collected in August 2012. The Σ15PAHs concentrations were ranged from 6.18 to 1560 ng g(-1)dry weight (dw), with an average value of 407 ng g(-1)dw. Generally, the concentrations of PAHs in the suburban areas were the highest, followed by urban and rural areas. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios results showed that vehicle emission, biomass and coal combustion and industrial emission were the major sources of PAHs in tree bark from Southern Jiangsu. Good correlation was found between tree bark and polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers, indicating that both of them respond well to the gas-phase PAHs monitoring. PMID:24480428

  9. Low-severity fire increases tree defense against bark beetle attacks.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna; Heyerdahl, Emily K; Boutin, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Induced defense is a common plant strategy in response to herbivory. Although abiotic damage, such as physical wounding, pruning, and heating, can induce plant defense, the effect of such damage by large-scale abiotic disturbances on induced defenses has not been explored and could have important consequences for plant survival facing future biotic disturbances. Historically, low-severity wildfire was a widespread, frequent abiotic disturbance in many temperate coniferous forests. Native Dendroctonus and Ips bark beetles are also a common biotic disturbance agent in these forest types and can influence tree mortality patterns after wildfire. Therefore, species living in these disturbance-prone environments with strategies to survive both frequent fire and bark beetle attack should be favored. One such example is Pinus ponderosa forests of western North America. These forests are susceptible to bark beetle attack and frequent, low-severity fire was common prior to European settlement. However, since the late 1800s, frequent, low-severity fires have greatly decreased in these forests. We hypothesized that non-lethal, low-severity, wildfire induces resin duct defense in P. ponderosa and that lack of low-severity fire relaxes resin duct defense in forests dependent on frequent, low-severity fire. We first compared axial resin duct traits between trees that either survived or died from bark beetle attacks. Next, we studied axial ducts using tree cores with crossdated chronologies in several natural P. ponderosa stands before and after an individual wildfire and, also, before and after an abrupt change in fire frequency in the 20th century. We show that trees killed by bark beetles invested less in resin ducts relative to trees that survived attack, suggesting that resin duct-related traits provide resistance against bark beetles. We then show low-severity fire induces resin duct production, and finally, that resin duct production declines when fire ceases. Our results

  10. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant) and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible) trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early

  11. Stem cells supporting other stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Leatherman, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cell therapies are increasingly prevalent for the treatment of damaged or diseased tissues, but most of the improvements observed to date are attributed to the ability of stem cells to produce paracrine factors that have a trophic effect on existing tissue cells, improving their functional capacity. It is now clear that this ability to produce trophic factors is a normal and necessary function for some stem cell populations. In vivo adult stem cells are thought to self-renew due to local signals from the microenvironment where they live, the niche. Several niches have now been identified which harbor multiple stem cell populations. In three of these niches – the Drosophila testis, the bulge of the mammalian hair follicle, and the mammalian bone marrow – one type of stem cell has been found to produce factors that contribute to the maintenance of a second stem cell population in the shared niche. In this review, I will examine the architecture of these three niches and discuss the molecular signals involved. Together, these examples establish a new paradigm for stem cell behavior, that stem cells can promote the maintenance of other stem cells. PMID:24348512

  12. Production and use of industrial wood and bark residues for 44 counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, and Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    An estimate is given of the tons of industrial wood and bark residues produced and left unused in 44 of the 170 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) power service area counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, and Mississippi. This report supplements the data appearing in TVA's Technical Note B45 Production and Use of Industrial Wood and Bark Residues in the Tennessee Valley, 1979. Together, these reports present residue estimates for all the 201-county Tennessee Valley region. 6 tables.

  13. Experimental evaluation of mimosa tenuiflora (willd.) poir. (Tepescohuite) I. Screening of the antimicrobial properties of bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Lozoya, X; Navarro, V; Arnason, J T; Kourany, E

    1989-01-01

    Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir, is a tree from the south areas of Mexico. This bark is popularly used as remedy to treat different skin lesions. The present study demonstrates the in vitro antimicrobial properties of the water and ethanolic extracts prepared with the dried and powdered bark of this plant. A clear inhibition growth effect was observed in all the gram positive and gram negative organisms, yeasts and dermatophytes used. PMID:2764672

  14. Information on the sulfur content of bark and its contribution to SO2 emissions when burned as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, H.S.; Blosser, R.O.

    1980-07-01

    The sulfur dioxide content of bark and wood residues that are used in wood energy boilers was analyzed. About 5% of the sulfur found in bark and wood is released into the atmosphere as SO2 during combustion; the 5% amounts to an emission rate of 0.001-0.02 lb SO2/million Btu energy. Sulfur content in wood is not stoichiometrically converted to SO2. (14 references, 2 tables)

  15. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and stem diameter changes during freezing and thawing of Scots pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Lauri; Hölttä, Teemu; Lintunen, Anna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2015-12-01

    Boreal trees experience repeated freeze-thaw cycles annually. While freezing has been extensively studied in trees, the dynamic responses occurring during the freezing and thawing remain poorly understood. At freezing and thawing, rapid changes take place in the water relations of living cells in needles and in stem. While freezing is mostly limited to extracellular spaces, living cells dehydrate, shrink and their osmotic concentration increases. We studied how the freezing-thawing dynamics reflected on leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and xylem and living bark diameter changes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings in controlled experiments. Photosynthetic rate quickly declined following ice nucleation and extracellular freezing in xylem and needles, almost parallel to a rapid shrinking of xylem diameter, while that of living bark followed with a slightly longer delay. While xylem and living bark diameters responded well to decreasing temperature and water potential of ice, the relationship was less consistent in the case of increasing temperature. Xylem showed strong temporal swelling at thawing suggesting water movement from bark. After thawing xylem diameter recovered to a pre-freezing level but living bark remained shrunk. We found that freezing affected photosynthesis at multiple levels. The distinct dynamics of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance reveals that the decreased photosynthetic rate reflects impaired dark reactions rather than stomatal closure. Freezing also inhibited the capacity of the light reactions to dissipate excess energy as heat, via non-photochemical quenching, whereas photochemical quenching of excitation energy decreased gradually with temperature in agreement with the gas exchange data. PMID:26423334

  16. Effect of root bark extract of Berberis vulgaris L. on Leishmania major on BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Salehabadi, Alireza; Karamian, Mahdi; Farzad, Motevalli Haghi; Namaei, Mohammad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important diseases transmitted by arthropod. This disease is present in 88 countries. Approximately 400 million people are at risk, and 12 million are involved. We aimed to examine the application of ethanolic extract of the root bark of Berberis vulgaris L. for treatment of mice infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis. At first, 40 BALB/c mice were infected to Leishmania major promastigotes and were divided in two groups A and B. Then, each of A and B groups were divided to two subgroups. Mice from subgroup A1 were treated with 10% root bark alcoholic extract, and mice from subgroup A2 were treated with only alcohol (control). Mice from subgroup B1 were treated with 20% root bark alcoholic extract, and mice from subgroup B2 were treated with only alcohol (control). The 90% recovery was found in the mice treated with 20% root bark extract, and 55% recovery was found with 10% root bark extract, but in the control group, 0% recovery was found. The results of our study showed that the lotion of root bark extract has good suppression effects on parasites. Therefore, it might be a pro for developing new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:24337510

  17. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems. PMID:26302987

  18. Improved measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb^{-1} of data collected at √{s}=3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction B(D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=(8.72 ± 0.07_stat. ± 0.18_sys.)%, which is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties but with significantly improved precision. Combining the Particle Data Group values of B(D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ ), B(D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e), and the lifetimes of the D^0 and D^+ mesons with the value of B(D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }) measured in this work, we determine the following ratios of partial widths: Γ (D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ )/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=0.963± 0.044 and Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ })/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e)=0.988± 0.033.

  19. Characterizing noise in nonhuman vocalizations: Acoustic analysis and human perception of barks by coyotes and dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Mitchell, Brian R.; Tokuda, Isao; Owren, Michael J.

    2005-07-01

    Measuring noise as a component of mammalian vocalizations is of interest because of its potential relevance to the communicative function. However, methods for characterizing and quantifying noise are less well established than methods applicable to harmonically structured aspects of signals. Using barks of coyotes and domestic dogs, we compared six acoustic measures and studied how they are related to human perception of noisiness. Measures of harmonic-to-noise-ratio (HNR), percent voicing, and shimmer were found to be the best predictors of perceptual rating by human listeners. Both acoustics and perception indicated that noisiness was similar across coyote and dog barks, but within each species there was significant variation among the individual vocalizers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various measures are discussed.

  20. Tannin signatures of barks, needles, leaves, cones, and wood at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.

    2004-03-01

    We analyzed 117 tissues from 77 different plant species for molecular tannin. Tannin was measured in 89 tissues (as high as 10.5 wt.% total tannin), including procyanidin (PC) tannin in 88 tissues, prodelphinidin (PD) tannin in 50, and propelargonidin (PP) tannin in 24. In addition to tannin, several flavones, flavanones, and triterpenoids were measured, the latter which yielded as much as 4.5 wt.%. Compositions varied considerably between species, including several that yielded comparatively rare tannin or triterpenoids. Conifer needles were distinguished by high yields of PD tannin overall and relative to PC tannin. Dicotyledon leaves were characterized by the presence of flavones and triterpenoids. Barks were marked by flavanones and tetracosanoic acid. Based on these trends, relationships that could be useful as geochemical parameters were developed for distinguishing needles, leaves, and barks as possible components of litter, soil, or sedimentary mixtures.

  1. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-01

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-03

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Three New Isoprenylated Flavonoids from the Root Bark of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Ji-Hae; Lee, Yeong-Geun; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Oh, Eun-Ji; Lee, Dae-Young; Lim, Dong-Wook; Han, Daeseok; Baek, Nam-In

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the root bark of Morus alba has led to the isolation and identification of three new isoprenylated flavonoids, namely sanggenon U (1), sanggenon V (2), and sanggenon W (3), along with four known isoprenylated flavonoids: euchrenone a₇ (4), sanggenon J (5), kuwanon E (6), and kuwanon S (7). All compounds were isolated by repeated silica gel (SiO₂), octadecyl SiO₂ (ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 open column chromatography. The structure of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), circular dichroism (CD), and infrared (IR). In addition, compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from the root bark of M. alba in this study. PMID:27563860

  4. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antioxidative compounds from the bark of Eugenia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Lelono, Raden Arthur Ario; Tachibana, Sanro

    2013-08-15

    Eugenia polyantha bark extracts were found to have potential antioxidative activities. This study is an effort to investigate the antioxidative compounds in E. polyantha. In vitro antioxidatve assay were used as guided tools for the isolation of antioxidative compounds. The methanol-water extracts showed the highest level of free radical-scavenging activity (ED50) = 180 microg mL(-1) and protection from beta-carotene bleaching (8.7 microg mL(-1)). The methanol-water (1:1) extracts exhibited strong DPPH scavenging activity and protection against beta carotene bleaching and was subjected to repeated silica gel column chromatography. The n-butanol, acetone and ethyl acetate solubles exhibited the highest antioxidative activities, derivatization was conducted to the isolated antioxidative compounds prior to identification. Catechin, gallic acid and rutin were isolated from those solubles as active compounds present in the Eugenia polyantha bark. PMID:24498834

  5. Production and use of industrial wood and bark residues in the Tennessee Valley region, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    Forest products industries in the 201-county Tennessee Valley region produced 8.7 million tons (initial condition) of industrial wood and bark residues in 1984. In the 125-county Tennessee Valley watershed, 4.8 million tons of residues were produced. Use of these residues was similar for both areas (201 area - 87.2% and 125 area - 86.8%). These residues were used chiefly for pulp and industrial fuel. This report highlights changes in the production and use of plant by-products since 1975. Detailed information is presented by industry and county on the type, condition, amount, and use of residues produced. The information is designed for use by firms plannng expansions or new developements using wood and bark residues as a raw material. 7 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. barks.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Orlando V; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Alves, Maria S; Araújo, Aílson A L; Pinto, Míriam A O; Amaral, Maria P H; Rodarte, Mírian P; Kaplan, Maria A C

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata. PMID:22976469

  7. Granular bed emission control of a fluid-bed bark combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Tollett, R.M.; Turchina, A.V.; Ostendorf, R.G.; Navratil, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Various additive mixtures were evaluated for effects on modifying resistivity of aspen bark ash. This had a direct effect on the efficiency of the Electroscrubber Filter (ESF) which is an electrically enhanced granular bed filter. Increased efficiencies were demonstrated in full scale testing at the Procter and Gamble plant in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Since July, 1984, emission tests have shown results below 0.04 number/MM BTU. The ESF was installed in 1983 on an EPI fluid-bed combuster burning aspen bark. In the first year of operation the ESF had trouble maintaining grid voltage. As with electrostatic precipitators, Electroscrubbers are sensitive to the resistivity of the ash collected but in an opposite way. Low resistivity is good for an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), but bad for an Electroscrubber. This paper discusses the importance of resistivity and the theoretical aspects of an Electroscrubber type of device.

  8. Biosorption of zinc from aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica bark: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    King, P; Anuradha, K; Lahari, S Beena; Prasanna Kumar, Y; Prasad, V S R K

    2008-03-21

    The removal of zinc ions from aqueous solutions on the biomass of Azadirachta indica bark has been studied by using batch adsorption technique. The biosorption studies were determined as a function of contact time, pH, initial metal ion concentration, average biosorbent size and biosorbent dosage. The equilibrium metal uptake was increased and percentage biosorption was decreased with an increase in the initial concentration and particle size of biosorbent. The maximum zinc biosorption occurred at pH 6 and percentage biosorption increases with increase in the biosorbent dosage. Experimental data obtained were tested with the adsorption models like Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. Biosorption isothermal data were well interpreted by Langmuir model with maximum biosorption capacity of 33.49mg/g of zinc ions on A. indica bark biomass and kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:17681426

  9. Bioactive properties of Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith bark extract, the Amazonian "clavo huasca".

    PubMed

    Morales, Lidia; Acero, Nuria; Galán, Antonio; Perez-García, Carmen; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2011-09-01

    Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith (Bignoniaceae) is a liana vine used in traditional Amazonian medicine as a tonic and energizer as well as a treatment for rheumatism. These traditional indications prompted this study of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. panurensis bark extract (ETP). Phytochemical analysis of ETP showed the presence of saponins and a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids. A battery of in vitro tests revealed that the extract has free radical-scavenging antioxidant properties and reduces microsomal lipid peroxidation, uric acid synthesis, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. The anti-inflammatory properties of ETP were further confirmed in vivo in a rat carrageenan edema model, in which the extract exhibited a potent activity. These results support the idea that T. panurensis bark extract could be beneficial for treating inflammation and are in agreement with one of the main traditional uses of this plant. PMID:21488753

  10. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Xiaowei; Yang, Fengjian; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) was successfully applied to the extraction of proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini bark. In this work, in order to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction process, a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction yield, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the ILMAE procedure for the proanthocyanidins was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the proanthocyanidins was obtained. Relative to other methods, the proposed approach provided higher extraction yield and lower energy consumption. The Larix gmelini bark samples before and after extraction were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ILMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22606036

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in the bark and leaves of Juglans regia planted in Artvin City, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Yunus; Unver, Mehmet C.; Ugulu, Ilker; Calis, Mesude; Durkan, Nazmi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals such as copper, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium concentrated in Juglans regia bark and leaf samples from different localities in Artvin, Turkey. Analysis of the heavy metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr in samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP–OES; Perkin Elmer, Optima 8000 DV). Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The comparisons were performed in order to determine whether there were any differences between J. regia bark and leaf samples in terms of average heavy metal accumulation levels. As a result of this study, the following mean concentrations were determined for J. regia bark samples: the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr (μg g−1, dry weight) ranged from 72.46 to 88.14, 14.40 to 628.0, 0.896 to 67.71, 7.000 to 28.52, 0.040 to 0.905, 1.031 to 2.744, 0.011 to 0.158 and 1.192 to 3.134, respectively. On the other hand, for J. regia leaf samples, the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr (μg g−1, dry weight) ranged from 0.339 to 13.80, 12.72 to 698.2, 1.001 to 204.6, 7.362 to 56.03, 0.158 to 0.665, 0.130 to 2.744, 0.041 to 0.114 and 0.508 to 2.767, respectively. In the statistical analysis, heavy metal accumulation values of J. regia bark and leaf samples for Cu, Ni and Cr were significantly different (P < 0.05). PMID:26019552

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  13. Two bioactive pentacyclic triterpene esters from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Yun, B S; Ryoo, I J; Lee, I K; Park, K H; Choung, D H; Han, K H; Yoo, I D

    1999-05-01

    Two new triterpene caffeates have been isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus. Their structures were established through various spectral studies as 3beta,23,28-trihydroxy-12-oleanene 23-caffeate (1) and 3beta,23,28-trihydroxy-12-oleanene 3beta-caffeate (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and significant cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. PMID:10346965

  14. Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

    1994-02-01

    Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles. Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs. PMID:8134409

  15. Chemical composition of essential oil from the root bark of Sassafras albidum.

    PubMed

    Kamdem, D P; Gage, D A

    1995-12-01

    The root bark of Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees (Lauraceae) was extracted at room temperature with hexane and chloroform as solvents. The isolated essential oils were analyzed with GC and GC/MS. Thirty compounds were identified, nine of which have not been previously reported from this species. The major compounds were safrole (85%), camphor (3.25%), and methyleugenol (1.10%). Ten sesquiterpenes were also identified. PMID:8824955

  16. Large carbon release legacy from bark beetle outbreaks across Western United States.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A; Collatz, G James; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Rogan, John; Kulakowski, Dominik; Masek, Jeffrey G

    2015-08-01

    Warmer conditions over the past two decades have contributed to rapid expansion of bark beetle outbreaks killing millions of trees over a large fraction of western United States (US) forests. These outbreaks reduce plant productivity by killing trees and transfer carbon from live to dead pools where carbon is slowly emitted to the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration which subsequently feeds back to climate change. Recent studies have begun to examine the local impacts of bark beetle outbreaks in individual stands, but the full regional carbon consequences remain undocumented for the western US. In this study, we quantify the regional carbon impacts of the bark beetle outbreaks taking place in western US forests. The work relies on a combination of postdisturbance forest regrowth trajectories derived from forest inventory data and a process-based carbon cycle model tracking decomposition, as well as aerial detection survey (ADS) data documenting the regional extent and severity of recent outbreaks. We find that biomass killed by bark beetle attacks across beetle-affected areas in western US forests from 2000 to 2009 ranges from 5 to 15 Tg C yr(-1) and caused a reduction of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of about 6.1-9.3 Tg C y(-1) by 2009. Uncertainties result largely from a lack of detailed surveys of the extent and severity of outbreaks, calling out a need for improved characterization across western US forests. The carbon flux legacy of 2000-2009 outbreaks will continue decades into the future (e.g., 2040-2060) as committed emissions from heterotrophic respiration of beetle-killed biomass are balanced by forest regrowth and accumulation. PMID:25826244

  17. Design and operation of industrial boilers fired with wood and bark residue fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Junge, D.C.

    1982-08-01

    Most of the technical reference literature concerning the design and operation of industrial wood and bark-fired boilers and supporting facilities is out of date. This publication updates existing information and includes extensive research and development data that was generated at Oregon State University. Topics covered include the state of wood combustion technology; the basic characteristics of wood fuels; the principles of wood combustion and parameters that influence combustion; fuel receiving preparation, and storage; and pollution control.

  18. Utilization of bark pockets as time capsules of atmospheric-lead pollution in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, Gøran; Abrahamsen, Gunnar; Steinnes, Eiliv; Hjelmseth, Harry

    The outer bark being enveloped by and grown into the tree trunk (bark pocket), acts as a passive biomonitor which readily accumulates pollution on its surface. Analysed with stable lead isotopes, these environmental historical archives are very strong candidates for unwinding pollution history. The Røros sulphide ore district, central Norway, has a well-documented mining activity which started in 1647 and the quarrying and smelting in Røros was easily monitored from the middle of the 18th century until the smelting stopped in 1977. Thereafter other sources, like the increase in use of leaded gasoline and further on its outphasing, can be followed. In southern Norway analyses of bark pockets show a good correlation with Pb isotope data from peat cores and tree rings. This region has not been dominated by a single source for many centuries. From the 17th century until about 1925 coal firing and ore smelting in England and on the continent were the dominating sources of pollution in southwestern Norway. From about 1925 and until about 1950 other sources like waste burning contributed, and from about 1950 onwards the pollution has been a mixture of mainly leaded gasoline, coal and coke firing, and incineration of waste. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the historical changes of environmental pollution in Norway during the last several hundred years up to the present time using tree bark pockets as pollution time capsules. Analyses of stable lead isotopes makes it possible to trace and identify lead from different sources of pollution and atmospherically transported lead deposited in central and southern Norway. Of special interest is the relationship between the industrialization of Europe and the global environmental pollution. Understanding this evolution is of considerable value for evaluating the present day situation.

  19. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro. PMID:23214264

  20. Four new prenylated flavonoids and xanthones from the root bark of Artocarpus nobilis.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, U L B; Samarakoon, T B; Kumarihamy, B M M; Hara, N; Fujimoto, Y

    2008-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the n-butanol extract from the methanol extract of the root bark of Artocarpus nobilis furnished four new prenylated flavonoids together with artonin E 2'-methylether (4), isoartonin E 2'-methylether (5), dihydroisoartonin E 2'-methylether (6), artonin V 2'-methylether (7), artobiloxanthone (1), artonin E (2) and cycloartobiloxanthone (3). All these compounds showed strong radical scavenging properties towards DPPH radical. PMID:17855020