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Sample records for ac dielectrophoresis dep

  1. A real-time multiple-cell tracking platform for dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based cellular analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Brinda; Du, Shan; Badawy, Wael; Kaler, Karan V. I. S.

    2005-04-01

    There is an increasing demand from biosciences to develop new and efficient techniques to assist in the preparation and analysis of biological samples such as cells in suspension. A dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based characterization and measurement technique on biological cells opens up a broader perspective for early diagnosis of diseases. An efficient real-time multiple-cell tracking platform coupled with DEP to capture and quantify the dynamics of cell motion and obtain cell viability information is presented. The procedure for tracking a single DEP-levitated Canola plant protoplast, using the motion-based segmentation algorithm hierarchical adaptive merge split mesh-based technique (HAMSM) for cell identification, has been enhanced for identifying and tracking multiple cells. The tracking technique relies on the deformation of mesh topology that is generated according to the movement of biological cells in a sequence of images that allows the simultaneous extraction of the biological cell from the image and the associated motion characteristics. Preliminary tests were conducted with yeast cells and then applied to a cancerous cell line subjected to DEP fields. Characteristics, such as cell count, velocity and size, were individually extracted from the tracked results of the cell sample. Tests were limited to eight yeast cells and two cancer cells. A performance analysis to assess tracking accuracy, computational effort and processing time was also conducted. The tracking technique employed on model intact cells in DEP fields proved to be accurate, reliable and robust.

  2. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  3. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  4. Combination of ac electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis for particle manipulation on electrically-induced microscale wave structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Cheng-Che; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2015-03-01

    This work presents a simple method to fabricate controllable microscale wave structures on the top of regular interdigitated electrode (IDE) arrays using electrically-assisted lithography techniques. Smooth wave structures are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to fabricate using traditional multilayer photolithography technology. The fabricated wave structures were carefully measured using an optical profiler and the measured wave profiles were used in the numerical simulation of electrical field and for evaluating the parameters influencing the fabricated wave structure. It is demonstrated that the combined smooth wave structure and IDE array offer unique capability for particle manipulation including particle concentration, aggregation and separation. Particle motion manipulated via the combined wave structure and IDE array is governed by ac electroosmosis (ACEO), dielectrophoresis (DEP) or a combination of both depending on the applied frequency. At lower frequencies (~30 kHz), ACEO dominates and particles are driven to move along the valleys of the wave structures; while at higher frequencies (~200 kHz), DEP force dominates which concentrates particles at the peaks of the wave structures. In addition, varying the ac waveform from sine-wave to square-wave allows for dynamic control of particle motion. Size-dependent particle separation over the wave structure is also demonstrated for a mixture of 0.5 µm and 2 µm particles that are separated into two populations by the joint effects of drag and DEP forces when being pumped to flow via ACEO.

  5. Floating AC-DEP (dielectrophoretic) manipulations of fluorescent nanoparticle at metal nanostructure for plasmonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Shin, H. J.; Hwang, K. S.; Park, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    We propose the fluorescent nanoparticle manipulations at nano-metal structures with floating AC-DEP force for plasmonic applications. The electrode gap was optimized to induce enough DEP force around the nano-structure for manipulation of the nanoparticles. 10um wide gap of electrode was acquired to apply the floating AC-DEP force at various designed metal nano-structure such as nanowire, y-branch and vortex. The all shape of nano-metal structures are formed at the gap of microelectrode and not connected with microelectrode. The gold nano-structures in the gap of microelectrode were fabricated with e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Before the formation of metal nanostructure, micro electrodes for applying the electric field around the metal nano-structures were fabricated with photolithography and lift-off process. Cadmium selenide (CdSe/ZnS) QDs (0.8 nM, emission wavelength of 605 nm) with a 25 nm zinc sulfide capping layer and 100nm polystyrene nano bead (1 nM, emission wavelength of 610nm) were used as fluorescent nanoparticles. We applied the 8 Vpp, 3 MHz sine wave for the positive DEP force, and it resulted in 108 V/m electric field and 1011 V/m electric field gradient around gold nanowire with floating AC. The fluorescent nanoparticle's attachment at the nanowire is confirmed by the fluorescent optical analysis. The fluorescent nanoparticles are located successfully at designed metal nano-structures for plasmonic applications.

  6. Combined AC electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis for controlled rotation of microparticles.

    PubMed

    Walid Rezanoor, Md; Dutta, Prashanta

    2016-03-01

    Electrorotation is widely used for characterization of biological cells and materials using a rotating electric field. Generally, multiphase AC electric fields and quadrupolar electrode configuration are needed to create a rotating electric field for electrorotation. In this study, we demonstrate a simple method to rotate dielectrophoretically trapped microparticles using a stationary AC electric field. Coplanar interdigitated electrodes are used to create a linearly polarized nonuniform AC electric field. This nonuniform electric field is employed for dielectrophoretic trapping of microparticles as well as for generating electroosmotic flow in the vicinity of the electrodes resulting in rotation of microparticles in a microfluidic device. The rotation of barium titanate microparticles is observed in 2-propanol and methanol solvent at a frequency below 1 kHz. A particle rotation rate as high as 240 revolutions per minute is observed. It is demonstrated that precise manipulation (both rotation rate and equilibrium position) of the particles is possible by controlling the frequency of the applied electric field. At low frequency range, the equilibrium positions of the microparticles are observed between the electrode edge and electrode center. This method of particle manipulation is different from electrorotation as it uses induced AC electroosmosis instead of electric torque as in the case of electrorotation. Moreover, it has been shown that a microparticle can be rotated along its own axis without any translational motion. PMID:27014394

  7. Determination of colloidal particle surface charge from dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Marko; Nuansri, Rittirong; Mazza, Jacob; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Electrophoresis (EP) is used to determine colloidal particle surface charge. However, when the Debye length is comparable to or larger than the particle size, electrophoresis cannot be reliably used to determine the surface charge due to counter ion retardation flow. Alexander et al. developed a theory relating colloidal osmotic pressure and particle surface charge. We use dielectrophoresis (DEP) to obtain a potential landscape based on the number density distribution of the particles in a non-uniform AC electric field. We determine the osmotic pressure from the DEP force and density profiles using Einstein's osmotic equilibrium equation. Surface charge obtained by DEP (thermodynamics) will be compared to that obtained by EP (electrokinetics).

  8. Colon Cancer Cell Separation by Dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Xiaoming; Jiang, H.; Wood, P.; Hrushesky, W.; Wang, Guiren

    2009-11-01

    Separation of cancer cells from the other biological cells can be useful for clinical cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment. In this presentation, conventional dielectrophoresis (c-DEP) is used in a microfluidic chip to manipulate and collect colorectal cancer HCT116 cell, which is doped with Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK 293). It is noticed that, the HCT116 cell are deflected to a side channel from a main channel clearly by apply electric field at particular AC frequency band. This motion caused by negative DEP can be used to separate the cancer cell from others. In this manuscript, chip design, flow condition, the DEP spectrum of the cancer cell are reported respectively, and the separation and collection efficiency are investigated as well. The sorter is microfabricated using plastic laminate technology. -/abstract- This work has been financially supported by the NSF RII funding (EP

  9. Dielectrophoresis for bioparticle manipulation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng; Huang, Haibo; Chen, Liguo; Li, Xiangpeng; Ge, Zunbiao; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Lining

    2014-01-01

    As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presented, in which the applications are classified into five fields: capturing bioparticles to specific regions, focusing bioparticles in the sample, characterizing biomolecular interaction and detecting microorganism, pairing cells for electrofusion and separating different kinds of bioparticles; Thirdly, the effect of DEP on bioparticle viability is analyzed; Finally, the DEP techniques are summarized and future trends in bioparticle manipulation are suggested. PMID:25310652

  10. Dielectrophoresis for Bioparticle Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Cheng; Huang, Haibo; Chen, Liguo; Li, Xiangpeng; Ge, Zunbiao; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Lining

    2014-01-01

    As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presented, in which the applications are classified into five fields: capturing bioparticles to specific regions, focusing bioparticles in the sample, characterizing biomolecular interaction and detecting microorganism, pairing cells for electrofusion and separating different kinds of bioparticles; Thirdly, the effect of DEP on bioparticle viability is analyzed; Finally, the DEP techniques are summarized and future trends in bioparticle manipulation are suggested. PMID:25310652

  11. Dielectrophoresis of graded microparticles in suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Dong; Ji-Ping, Huang; Wah, Yu Kin; Q, Gu G.

    2003-03-01

    Dielectrophoresis of graded microparticles in suspensions L. Dong, J. P. Huang, K. W. Yu and G. Q. Gu Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, NT, HK. Dielectrophoresis is an AC electrokinetic phenomenon that employs the difference in the electric polarizability of microparticles and the suspending media. Under the action of an external electric field, these particles polarize, and experience a force in a nonuniform field. The degree of polarizability can depend on the frequency of the applied AC field. In this work, we consider graded spherical particles in which the material properties can vary continuously in space. These inhomogeneous particles can be more useful and interesting than the homogeneous inclusions. A new theory has been established to study the effective properties of graded composite materials under externally applied field, namely, the differential effective dipole approximation (DEDA). The theory has been applied to two model dielectric profiles, namely, the power-law and linear profiles. Moreover, we have shown that these profiles actually admit exact solutions for the local electric field. We have compared the DEDA results with the exact results for the two model profiles and the agreement is excellent. Based on the DEDA, we investigate the DEP spectrum of a colloidal suspension of graded spherical particles, and compare the results with the DEP spectrum derived from the homogeneous particles.

  12. Dielectrophoresis force of colloidal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hao; Ou-Yang, Daniel

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the motion of a polarizable colloidal particle in a non­uniform electric field. The magnitude of the DEP force is known to be proportional to the gradient of E2. The DEP force also depends on the relative polarizability of the particle to that of the surrounding medium. Due to its ease of use, DEP has been proposed for a variety of applications to manipulate colloidal particles in a microfluidic setting. However, accurate measurements of the DEP force on colloidal nanoparticles are lacking. A new method is proposed to measure accurately the DEP potential force of colloidal nanoparticles by using confocal fluorescence imaging to determine the density distributions of dilute colloidal nanoparticle in a DEP potential force field. The DEP potential field can be calculated from the particle density distributions since the spatial distribution of the particle number density follows the Boltzmann distribution of the DEP potential energy. The validity of the measured DEP force is tested by examining the force as a function of the E field strength and particle size. The classic Maxwell­Wagner­O'Konski is found to be inadequate to fully describe the frequency dependence of the DEP force. NSF 0928299, Emulsion Polymer Institute, Department of Physics of Lehigh University.

  13. Manipulation of Bacteriophages with Dielectrophoresis on Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Madiyar, Foram Ranjeet; Syed, Lateef Uddin; Culbertson, Christopher; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This work describes efficient manipulation of bacteriophage virus particles using a nanostructured dielectrophoresis (DEP) device. The non-uniform electric field for DEP is created by utilizing a nanoelectrode array (NEA) made of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) versus a macroscopic indium tin oxide electrode in a “points-and-lid” configuration integrated in a microfluidic channel. The capture of the virus particles has been systematically investigated versus the flow velocity, sinusoidal AC frequency, peak-to-peak voltage, and virus concentration. The DEP capture at all conditions is reversible and the captured virus particles are released immediately when the voltage is turned off. At the low virus concentration (8.9×104 pfu·ml−1), the DEP capture efficiency up to 60% can be obtained. The virus particles are individually captured at isolated nanoelectrode tips and accumulate linearly with time. Due to the comparable size, it is more effective to capture virus particles than larger bacterial cells with such NEA based DEP devices. This technique can be potentially utilized as a fast sample preparation module in a microfluidic chip to capture, separate, and concentrate viruses and other biological particles in small volumes of dilute solutions in a portable detection system for field applications. PMID:23348683

  14. Electrodeless dielectrophoresis for DNA trapping and cell separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chia-Fu

    2003-03-01

    To move and concentrate molecules in a micro- or nano-fluidic environment is a great challenge in Lab-on-a-Chip systems. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) provides such a capability in translating dielectric objects caused by polarization effects in a nonuniform electric field. In the context of DEP, an electrically polarizable object will be trapped in a region of a focused electric field, provided there is sufficient dielectric response to overcome thermal energy and the electrophoretic force. Typically DEP trapping of biological objects (DNA, cells, virus, etc.) is carried out via microfabricated metal electrodes on a substrate. The standard way to make a DEP trap is to create an electric field gradient with an arrangement of planar metallic electrodes either directly connected to a voltage source or free- floating in the presence of an AC field. Here we constructed an array of dielectric traps ("electrodeless" dielectrophoresis, EDEP) [1] composed of geometrical constrictions defined by photo and soft lithography. The constriction is used to squeeze the electric field in ionic buffer, thereby creating a high field gradient with a local maximum. I will discuss the advantages of the EDEP over the metallic DEP technology and give examples of EDEP for DNA focusing and the separation of bacterial cells (E. Coli) from blood sample in various salt concentrations. Many folds of concentration enhancement may be achieved in a matter of seconds. This technology promises broad applications in a micro-total analysis system. [1] C.F. Chou, J.O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, S.S. Chan, E.C. Cox, N. Darnton, T.A.J. Duke, R.H. Austin, Biophys. J. 83, 2170-2179 (2002).

  15. Dielectrophoresis of nanocolloids: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Salonen, E; Terama, E; Vattulainen, I; Karttunen, M

    2005-10-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the motion of polarizable particles in non-uniform electric fields, has become an important tool for the transport, separation, and characterization of microparticles in biomedical and nanoelectronics research. In this article we present, to our knowledge, the first molecular dynamics simulations of DEP of nanometer-sized colloidal particles. We introduce a simplified model for a polarizable nanoparticle, consisting of a large charged macroion and oppositely charged microions, in an explicit solvent. The model is then used to study DEP motion of the particle at different combinations of temperature and electric field strength. In accord with linear response theory, the particle drift velocities are shown to be proportional to the DEP force. Analysis of the colloid DEP mobility shows a clear time dependence, demonstrating the variation of friction under non-equilibrium. The time dependence of the mobility further results in an apparent weak variation of the DEP displacements with temperature. PMID:16195818

  16. Bubble dielectrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.; Bliss, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The theoretical principles related to bubble dielectrophoresis are examined, taking into account the polarization force, aspects of bubble deformation, the electrostatic bubble levitation theorem, and the equation of motion. The measurement of the dielectrophoretic force on static and dynamic bubbles represents a convenient experimental method for the study of the general problem of dielectrophoresis. The experiments reported include static-force measurements, static-levitation experiments, and dynamic-force measurements.

  17. Cell patterning via diffraction-induced optoelectronic dielectrophoresis force on an organic photoconductive chip.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Mo; Tseng, Sheng-Yang; Chen, Hung-Po; Hsu, Long; Liu, Cheng-Hsien

    2013-10-01

    A laser diffraction-induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) phenomenon for the patterning and manipulation of individual HepG2 cells and polystyrene beads via positive/negative DEP forces is reported in this paper. The optoelectronic substrate was fabricated using an organic photoconductive material, TiOPc, via a spin-coating process on an indium tin oxide glass surface. A piece of square aperture array grid grating was utilized to transform the collimating He-Ne laser beam into the multi-spot diffraction pattern which forms the virtual electrodes as the TiOPc-coating surface was illuminated by the multi-spot diffraction light pattern. HepG2 cells were trapped at the spot centers and polystyrene beads were trapped within the dim region of the illuminated image. The simulation results of light-induced electric field and a Fresnel diffraction image illustrated the distribution of trapped microparticles. The HepG2 morphology change, adhesion, and growth during a 5-day culture period demonstrated the cell viability through our manipulation. The power density inducing DEP phenomena, the characteristics of the thin TiOPc coating layer, the operating ac voltage/frequency, the sandwiched medium, the temperature rise due to the ac electric fields and the illuminating patterns are discussed in this paper. This concept of utilizing laser diffraction images to generate virtual electrodes on our TiOPc-based optoelectronic DEP chip extends the applications of optoelectronic dielectrophoretic manipulation. PMID:23925640

  18. Alternating current-dielectrophoresis driven on-chip collection and chaining of green microalgae in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Suscillon, Coralie; Velev, Orlin D; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2013-01-01

    The capability of the AC dielectrophoresis (DEP) for on-chip capture and chaining of microalgae suspended in freshwaters was evaluated. The effects of freshwater composition as well as the electric field voltage, frequency, and duration, on the dielectrophoretic response of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were characterized systematically. Highest efficiency of cell alignment in one-dimensional arrays, determined by the percentage of cells in chain and the chain length, was obtained at AC-field of 20 V mm(-1) and 1 kHz applied for 600 s. The DEP response and cell alignment of C. reinhardtii in water sampled from lake, pond, and river, as well as model media were affected by the chemical composition of the media. In the model media, the efficiency of DEP chaining was negatively correlated to the conductivity of the cell suspensions, being higher in suspensions with low conductivity. The cells suspended in freshwaters, however, showed anomalously high chaining at long exposure times. High concentrations of nitrate and dissolved organic matter decrease cell chaining efficiency, while phosphate and citrate concentrations increase it and favor formation of longer chains. Importantly, the application of AC-field had no effect on algal autofluorescence, cell membrane damage, or oxidative stress damages in C. reinhardtii. PMID:24404014

  19. Alternating current-dielectrophoresis driven on-chip collection and chaining of green microalgae in freshwaters

    PubMed Central

    Suscillon, Coralie; Velev, Orlin D.; Slaveykova, Vera I.

    2013-01-01

    The capability of the AC dielectrophoresis (DEP) for on-chip capture and chaining of microalgae suspended in freshwaters was evaluated. The effects of freshwater composition as well as the electric field voltage, frequency, and duration, on the dielectrophoretic response of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were characterized systematically. Highest efficiency of cell alignment in one-dimensional arrays, determined by the percentage of cells in chain and the chain length, was obtained at AC-field of 20 V mm−1 and 1 kHz applied for 600 s. The DEP response and cell alignment of C. reinhardtii in water sampled from lake, pond, and river, as well as model media were affected by the chemical composition of the media. In the model media, the efficiency of DEP chaining was negatively correlated to the conductivity of the cell suspensions, being higher in suspensions with low conductivity. The cells suspended in freshwaters, however, showed anomalously high chaining at long exposure times. High concentrations of nitrate and dissolved organic matter decrease cell chaining efficiency, while phosphate and citrate concentrations increase it and favor formation of longer chains. Importantly, the application of AC-field had no effect on algal autofluorescence, cell membrane damage, or oxidative stress damages in C. reinhardtii. PMID:24404014

  20. Wafer-level assembly of carbon nanotube networks using dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monica, A. H.; Papadakis, S. J.; Osiander, R.; Paranjape, M.

    2008-02-01

    We use dielectrophoresis (DEP) to controllably and simultaneously assemble multiple carbon nanotube (CNT) networks at the wafer level. By an appropriate choice of electrode dimensions and geometry, an electric field is generated that captures CNTs from a sizable volume of suspension, resulting in good CNT network uniformity and alignment. During the DEP process, the electrical characteristics of the CNT network are measured and correlated with the network morphology. These experiments give novel insight into the physics of DEP assembly of CNT networks, and demonstrate the scalability of DEP for future device applications.

  1. Liquid dielectrophoresis and surface microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Karan V. I. S.; Prakash, Ravi; Chugh, Dipankar

    2010-01-01

    Liquid dielectrophoresis (L-DEP), when deployed at microscopic scales on top of hydrophobic surfaces, offers novel ways of rapid and automated manipulation of very small amounts of polar aqueous samples for microfluidic applications and development of laboratory-on-a-chip devices. In this article we highlight some of the more recent developments and applications of L-DEP in handling and processing of various types of aqueous samples and reagents of biological relevance including emulsions using such microchip based surface microfluidic (SMF) devices. We highlighted the utility of these devices for on-chip bioassays including nucleic acid analysis. Furthermore, the parallel sample processing capabilities of these SMF devices together with suitable on- or off-chip detection capabilities suggest numerous applications and utility in conducting automated multiplexed assays, a capability much sought after in the high throughput diagnostic and screening assays. PMID:20697595

  2. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Shim, Sangjo

    2014-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a) the principles of DEP; (b) the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c) why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d) instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies. PMID:24662940

  3. Protein dielectrophoresis and the link to dielectric properties

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in protein dielectrophoresis (DEP) for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. However, the DEP behavior of proteins is still not well understood which is important for successful protein manipulation. In this paper, we elucidate the information gained in dielectric spectroscopy (DS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and how these techniques may be of importance for future protein DEP manipulation. EIS and DS can be used to determine the dielectric properties of proteins predicting their DEP behavior. Basic principles of EIS and DS are discussed and related to protein DEP through examples from previous studies. Challenges of performing DS measurements as well as potential designs to incorporate EIS and DS measurements in DEP experiments are also discussed. PMID:25697193

  4. Sensitive Detection of Small Particles in Fluids Using Optical Fiber Tip with Dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Dao-Ming; Pan, Ming-Yang; Huang, Ding-Wei; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    This work presents using a tapered fiber tip coated with thin metallic film to detect small particles in water with high sensitivity. When an AC voltage applied to the Ti/Al coated fiber tip and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate, a gradient electric field at the fiber tip induced attractive/repulsive force to suspended small particles due to the frequency-dependent dielectrophoresis (DEP) effect. Such DEP force greatly enhanced the concentration of the small particles near the tip. The increase of the local concentration also increased the scattering of surface plasmon wave near the fiber tip. Combined both DEP effect and scattering optical near-field, we show the detection limit of the concentration for 1.36 μm polystyrene beads can be down to 1 particle/mL. The detection limit of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria was 20 CFU/mL. The fiber tip sensor takes advantages of ultrasmall volume, label-free and simple detection system. PMID:26927128

  5. Sensitive Detection of Small Particles in Fluids Using Optical Fiber Tip with Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Dao-Ming; Pan, Ming-Yang; Huang, Ding-Wei; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    This work presents using a tapered fiber tip coated with thin metallic film to detect small particles in water with high sensitivity. When an AC voltage applied to the Ti/Al coated fiber tip and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate, a gradient electric field at the fiber tip induced attractive/repulsive force to suspended small particles due to the frequency-dependent dielectrophoresis (DEP) effect. Such DEP force greatly enhanced the concentration of the small particles near the tip. The increase of the local concentration also increased the scattering of surface plasmon wave near the fiber tip. Combined both DEP effect and scattering optical near-field, we show the detection limit of the concentration for 1.36 μm polystyrene beads can be down to 1 particle/mL. The detection limit of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria was 20 CFU/mL. The fiber tip sensor takes advantages of ultrasmall volume, label-free and simple detection system. PMID:26927128

  6. Separation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with DEP-FFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Peng, Haiqing; Alvarez, Noe; Mendes, Manuel; Pasquali, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    A process using a modified dielectrophoresis device separates single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) according to their polarizability in electric fields. This depends on the size and dielectric constant of individual nanotubes and easily separates metallic from semiconducting nanotubes. Separation by length has also been demonstrated. Partial separation (enrichment) according to bandgap (which is linked to polarizability) has also been shown and can be improved to full separation of individual types of semiconducting SWNTs with better control over operational parameters and the length of SWNT starting material. This process and device can be scaled affordably to generate useful amounts of semiconducting SWNTs for electronic device development and production. In this study, a flow injection dielectrophoresis technique was used with a modified dielectrophoresis device. The length, width, and height of the modified chamber were 28, 2.5, and 0.025 cm, respectively. On the bottom of the chamber, there are two arrays of 50-m-wide, 2-m-thick gold electrodes, which are connected to an AC voltage generator and are alternately arranged so that every electrode is adjacent to two electrodes of the opposite polar. There is an additional plate electrode on the top of the chamber that is negatively biased. During the experiment, a syringe pump constantly pumps in the mobile phase, 1-percent sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) solution, into the chamber. The frequency and voltage are set to 1 MHz and 10 V peak-to-peak, respectively. About 150 micro-L of SWNTs in 1- percent SDBS decanted solution are injected to the mobile phase through a septum near the entrance of the chamber. The flow rate of the mobile phase is set to 0.02 cu cm/min. The injected SWNTs sample flows through the chamber before it is lead into a fluorescence flow-through cell and collected for further analysis. The flow-through cell has three windows, thus allowing the fluorometer to collect fluorescence

  7. Contact properties and surface reaction kinetics of single ZnO nanowire devices fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, J. L.; García Núñez, C.; García Marín, A.; Guerrero, C.; Rodríguez, P.; Borromeo, S.; Piqueras, J.

    2014-03-01

    This work describes the development of ZnO nanowire (NW) devices for ultraviolet detection and cost-effective gas sensing. A dielectrophoresis (DEP) flow cell fabricated for the integration of NWs on different substrates is presented. The system includes the possibility to set characteristic parameters such as alternating current (AC) frequency, amplitude or flow speed in order to control NW trapping on specific sites defined by micro-gapped electrodes. The electrical characteristics of the rectifying metal/NW contact fabricated by DEP are investigated in darkness and under direct illumination of the metal-NW interface through the ZnO NW. A significant downshift of the turn-on voltage is observed in the current-voltage characteristics during the illumination with photon energies higher than the ZnO bandgap. The reduction is attributed to a barrier height lowering induced by interface charge emission. The effects of AC bias on the thermal drift of the DC average current in NW devices are also discussed. Finally, the reaction kinetics of ethanol and water vapors on the NW surface are compared through the analysis of the DC current under direct exposure to gas flows. Device responses to more complex compound mixtures such as coffee or mint are also monitored over time, showing different performance in both cases.

  8. Light emission from electrodes under dielectrophoresis conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Long-Fang; Gong, Hua; Dallon, Kathryn L.; Mazzeo, Brian A.; Nordin, Gregory P.

    2016-04-01

    The use of fluorescence in microfluidic optical biodetection requires materials with low-background fluorescence to avoid influencing the desired optical signal with spurious light emission. For the same reason, spurious light emission from galvanoluminescence (GL) should be avoided when fluorescence is used in dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based biosensors. Use of non-noble metal electrodes such as indium tin oxide (ITO) in DEP devices is therefore a concern. We evaluate GL in the context of conditions typical of DEP devices. We experimentally show that use of ITO can result in GL. We also show that GL can be avoided, even with metals that demonstrate strong GL such as Al, by proper selection of operating frequency, which can be determined by measuring the impedance spectrum of the DEP device. In addition, we demonstrate that GL results in broadband emission for all of the salt solutions tested. Broadband emission implies that at least some of the light will pass through typical fluorescence filters if a device exhibits GL. We also show that Ni and Cr electrodes do not exhibit GL and may therefore be suitable as low-cost DEP electrodes.

  9. Rapid microbead-based DNA detection using dielectrophoresis and impedance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Michihiko; Ding, Zhenhao; Kasahara, Hiromichi; Suehiro, Junya

    2014-10-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful tool for diagnostic procedures in bacterial and viral infections. The authors propose a new electrical technique for rapid detection of DNA amplified by PCR using dielectrophoresis (DEP) of microbeads. The method is based on dramatic alteration of DEP characteristics of microbeads caused by DNA labeling. DNA-labeled microbeads are trapped on a microelectrode under the action of positive DEP, whereas pristine ones are not. DEP-trapped microbeads are measured impedimetrically to realize rapid and quantitative detection of the amplified DNA. The validity of the proposed method was demonstrated by detection of PCR-amplified DNA of viruses.

  10. Rapid DNA Idetification by Dielectrophoresis of Nanocolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Zachary; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Gordon, Jason; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2008-03-01

    Due to their size and number, dispersed oligo-functionalized nanocolloids can reduce the diffusion length/docking time and increase the sensitivity of ssDNA hybridization reactions by orders of magnitude compared to immobilized probes. We find that, for long target ssDNAs, their docked conformation is a sensitive function of the nanocolloid size, surface charge, functionalized probe density and number of docked DNAs per bead. Three distinct conformations (collapsed, stretched and condensed) are detected via independent light scattering, Zeta potential, dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electron micrograph techniques. By optimizing the hybridization conditions to produce a stretched conformation, we are able to significantly change the DEP cross-over frequency of hybridized beads, thus allowing rapid label-free detection of hybridization by simple impedance techniques down to pM concentrations.

  11. Discriminating dengue-infected hepatic cells (WRL-68) using dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yafouz, Bashar; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Rothan, Hussin A; Yusof, Rohana; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2016-02-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the induced movement of dielectric particles placed in a nonuniform electric field, has been used as a potential technique for manipulation and separation of many biological samples without destructive consequences to the cell. Cells of the same genotype in different physiological and pathological states have unique morphological and structural features, therefore, it is possible to differentiate between them using their DEP responses. This paper reports the experimental discrimination of normal and dengue-infected human hepatic fetal epithelial cells (WRL-68 cells) based on their DEP crossover frequency, at which no resultant movement occurs in the cells in response to the DEP force. A microarray dot electrode was used to conduct the DEP experiments. The DEP forces applied to the cells were quantified by analyzing the light intensity shift within the electrode's dot region based on the Cumulative Modal Intensity Shift image analysis technique. The differences in dielectric properties between infected and uninfected cells were exploited by plotting a unique DEP spectrum for each set of cells. We observed that the crossover frequency decreased from 220 kHz for the normal WRL-68 cells to 140 kHz after infection with the dengue virus in a medium conductivity of 100 μS/cm. We conclude that the change in the DEP crossover frequency between dengue-infected cells and their healthy counterparts should allow direct characterization of these cell types by exploiting their electrophysiological properties. PMID:26530354

  12. Combined impedance and dielectrophoresis portable device for point-of-care analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral Zamora, B.; Colomer-Farrarons, J.; Mir-Llorente, M.; Homs-Corbera, A.; Miribel-Català, P.; Samitier-Martí, J.

    2011-05-01

    In the 90s, efforts arise in the scientific world to automate and integrate one or several laboratory applications in tinny devices by using microfluidic principles and fabrication technologies used mainly in the microelectronics field. It showed to be a valid method to obtain better reactions efficiency, shorter analysis times, and lower reagents consumption over existing analytical techniques. Traditionally, these fluidic microsystems able to realize laboratory essays are known as Lab-On-a-Chip (LOC) devices. The capability to transport cells, bacteria or biomolecules in an aqueous medium has significant potential for these microdevices, also known as micro-Total-Analysis Systems (uTAS) when their application is of analytical nature. In particular, the technique of dielectrophoresis (DEP) opened the possibility to manipulate, actuate or transport such biological particles being of great potential in medical diagnostics, environmental control or food processing. This technique consists on applying amplitude and frequency controlled AC signal to a given microsystem in order to manipulate or sort cells. Furthermore, the combination of this technique with electrical impedance measurements, at a single or multiple frequencies, is of great importance to achieve novel reliable diagnostic devices. This is because the sorting and manipulating mechanism can be easily combined with a fully characterizing method able to discriminate cells. The paper is focused in the electronics design of the quadrature DEP generator and the four-electrode impedance measurement modules. These together with the lab-on-a-chip device define a full conception of an envisaged Point-of-Care (POC) device.

  13. Stiffness-Independent Highly Efficient On-Chip Extraction of Cell-Laden Hydrogel Microcapsules from Oil Emulsion into Aqueous Solution by Dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haishui; Sun, Mingrui; Heisler-Taylor, Tyler; Kiourti, Asimina; Volakis, John; Lafyatis, Gregory; He, Xiaoming

    2015-10-28

    A dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based method achieves highly efficient on-chip extraction of cell-laden microcapsules of any stiffness from oil into aqueous solution. The hydrogel microcapsules can be extracted into the aqueous solution by DEP and interfacial tension forces with no trapped oil, while the encapsulated cells are free from electrical damage due to the Faraday cage effect. PMID:26297051

  14. Resonant dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamics for high-sensitivity impedance detection of whole-cell bacteria.

    PubMed

    Couniot, Numa; Francis, Laurent A; Flandre, Denis

    2015-08-01

    We present the co-integration of CMOS-compatible Al/Al2O3 interdigitated microelectrodes (IDEs) with an electrokinetic-driven macroelectrode for sensitive detection of whole-cell bacteria in a microfluidic channel. Two frequency ranges applied to the macroelectrode were identified to notably increase the bacterial coverage of the impedimetric sensor per unit time. Around 10 kHz, the bacterial cells were directed towards the IDE center thanks to AC electroosmosis (AC-EO) and the sensor capacitance linearly increased, achieving a limit of detection (LoD) of 3.5 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1) after an incubation time of 20 min with Staphylococcus epidermidis. At 63 MHz precisely, a resonance effect due to the device was found to dramatically increase the trapping of S. epidermidis on the sensor periphery, due to the combined actions of short-range contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) and long-range Joule heating electrothermal (J-ET) flow. Thanks to a flow-based method, the bacterial cells were redirected towards the sensor center and an LoD of 10(5) CFU mL(-1) was achieved within 20 min of incubation, which is almost two orders of magnitude better than the impedimetric sensor alone. Analytical models and 2D simulations using the Maxwell stress tensor (MST) provide a comprehensive analysis of the experimental results, especially about the spectral balance between cDEP, AC-EO and J-ET accounting for the 33-nm thick insulating layer atop the electrodes. Electrode CMOS compatibility confers portability, miniaturization and affordability capabilities for building point-of-care (PoC) diagnostic tests in a lab-on-a-chip (LoC). PMID:26120099

  15. Study of a 3D DEP-based microfluidic system for selective nanoparticle manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, M.; Balasiu, S.; Bunoiu, M. O.; Neculae, A.

    2014-11-01

    Manipulation of nanoparticle using dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an emerging technique to separate particles solely according to their dielectric properties and size, used in different forms to control the position, their orientation and velocity, to filtrate chemical compounds contained in the gas resulting from combustion processes, etc. This contribution presents the results of a simulation study which aims to characterize the functionality of a 3D DEP-based microsystem for the selective manipulation of nanometric particles. The use of 3D geometry of the device represents an important improvement in the description of the behavior of a nanoparticle suspension subjected to dielectrophoretic forces. The numerical solutions of the electric potential, electric field, DEP force and particle concentration distribution for a typical interdigitated electrodes array are calculated using the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element solver. The presented results demonstrate that dielectrophoresis can be successfully used for the manipulation of nanometric particles and give important information for the optimization of the experimental setup.

  16. Particle separation by dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Vykoukal, Jody

    2009-01-01

    The application of dielectrophoresis to particle discrimination, separation, and fractionation is reviewed, some advantages and disadvantages of currently available approaches are considered, and some caveats are noted. PMID:12210248

  17. Insulator-Based Dielectrophoresis with β-Galactosidase in Nanostructured Devices

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Asuka; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Ros, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) has been explored as a powerful analytical technique in recent years. Unlike with larger entities such as cells, bacteria or organelles, the mechanism of iDEP transport of proteins remains little explored. In this work, we extended the pool of proteins investigated with iDEP in nanostructured devices with β-galactosidase. Our work indicates that β-galactosidase shows concentration due to negative DEP which we compare to DEP response of immunoglobulin G (IgG) encapsulated in micelles also showing negative DEP. Experimental observations are further compared with numerical simulations to elucidate the influence of electrokinetic transport and the magnitude of DEP mobility. Numerical simulations suggest that the DEP mobility calculated using the classical model underestimates the actual contribution of DEP on the experimentally monitored concentration effect of proteins. Moreover, we observed a unique voltage dependent β-galactosidase concentration which we attribute to an additional factor influencing the protein concentration at the nanoconstrictions, namely ion concentration polarization. Our work aids in understanding factors influencing protein iDEP transport which is required for the future development of protein preconcentration or separation methods based on iDEP. PMID:25479537

  18. Insulator-based dielectrophoresis with β-galactosidase in nanostructured devices.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Asuka; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-02-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) has been explored as a powerful analytical technique in recent years. Unlike with larger entities such as cells, bacteria or organelles, the mechanism of iDEP transport of proteins remains little explored. In this work, we extended the pool of proteins investigated with iDEP in nanostructured devices with β-galactosidase. Our work indicates that β-galactosidase shows concentration due to negative DEP which we compare to DEP response of immunoglobulin G (IgG) encapsulated in micelles also showing negative DEP. Experimental observations are further compared with numerical simulations to elucidate the influence of electrokinetic transport and the magnitude of DEP mobility. Numerical simulations suggest that the DEP mobility calculated using the classical model underestimates the actual contribution of DEP on the experimentally monitored concentration effect of proteins. Moreover, we observed a unique voltage dependent β-galactosidase concentration which we attribute to an additional factor influencing the protein concentration at the nanoconstrictions, namely ion concentration polarization. Our work aids in understanding factors influencing protein iDEP transport which is required for the future development of protein preconcentration or separation methods based on iDEP. PMID:25479537

  19. ELECTRICALLY ADDRESSABLE VESICLES – TOOLS FOR DIELECTROPHORESIS METROLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Salil P.; Vahey, Michael D.; Voldman, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has emerged as an important tool for the manipulation of bioparticles ranging from the submicron to the tens of microns in size. Here we show the use of phospholipid vesicle electroformation techniques to develop a new class of test particles with specifically engineered electrical properties to enable identifiable dielectrophoretic responses in microfabricated systems. These electrically addressable vesicles (EAVs) enable the creation of electrically distinct populations of test particles for DEP. EAVs offer control of both their inner aqueous core and outer membrane properties; by encapsulating solutions of different electrolyte strength inside the vesicle and by incorporating functionalized phospholipids containing PEG brushes attached to their hydrophilic head group in the vesicle membrane, we demonstrate control of the vesicles’ electrical polarizabilities. This combined with the ability to encode information about the properties of the vesicle in its fluorescence signature, form the first steps toward the development of EAV populations as metrology tools for any DEP-based microsystem. PMID:19227986

  20. A combination of positive dielectrophoresis driven on-line enrichment and aptamer-fluorescent silica nanoparticle label for rapid and sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Jingfang; Li, Yuhong; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Zou, Zhen; Shi, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important human pathogen that causes several diseases ranging from superficial skin infections to life-threatening diseases. Here, a method combining positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) driven on-line enrichment and aptamer-fluorescent silica nanoparticle label has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of S. aureus in microfluidic channels. An aptamer, having high affinity to S. aureus, is used as the molecular recognition tool and immobilized onto chloropropyl functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles through a click chemistry approach to obtain S. aureus aptamer-nanoparticle bioconjugates (Apt(S.aureus)/FNPs). The pDEP driven on-line enrichment technology was used for accumulating the Apt(S.aureus)/FNP labeled S. aureus. After incubating with S. aureus, the mixture of Apt(S.aureus)/FNP labeled S. aureus and Apt(S.aureus)/FNPs was directly introduced into the pDEP-based microfluidic system. By applying an AC voltage in a pDEP frequency region, the Apt(S.aureus)/FNP labelled S. aureus moved to the electrodes and accumulated in the electrode gap, while the free Apt(S.aureus)/FNPs flowed away. The signal that came from the Apt(S.aureus)/FNP labelled S. aureus in the focused detection areas was then detected. Profiting from the specificity of aptamer, signal amplification of FNP label and pDEP on-line enrichment, this assay can detect as low as 93 and 270 cfu mL(-1)S. aureus in deionized water and spiked water samples, respectively, with higher sensitivities than our previously reported Apt(S.aureus)/FNP based flow cytometry. Moreover, without the need for separation and washing steps usually required for FNP label involved bioassays, the total assay time including sample pretreatment was within 2 h. PMID:25963028

  1. Microarray Dot Electrodes Utilizing Dielectrophoresis for Cell Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Yafouz, Bashar; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades; dielectrophoresis (DEP) has become a vital tool for cell manipulation and characterization due to its non-invasiveness. It is very useful in the trend towards point-of-care systems. Currently, most efforts are focused on using DEP in biomedical applications, such as the spatial manipulation of cells, the selective separation or enrichment of target cells, high-throughput molecular screening, biosensors and immunoassays. A significant amount of research on DEP has produced a wide range of microelectrode configurations. In this paper; we describe the microarray dot electrode, a promising electrode geometry to characterize and manipulate cells via DEP. The advantages offered by this type of microelectrode are also reviewed. The protocol for fabricating planar microelectrodes using photolithography is documented to demonstrate the fast and cost-effective fabrication process. Additionally; different state-of-the-art Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices that have been proposed for DEP applications in the literature are reviewed. We also present our recently designed LOC device, which uses an improved microarray dot electrode configuration to address the challenges facing other devices. This type of LOC system has the capability to boost the implementation of DEP technology in practical settings such as clinical cell sorting, infection diagnosis, and enrichment of particle populations for drug development. PMID:23857266

  2. Separating Beads and Cells in Multi-channel Microfluidic Devices Using Dielectrophoresis and Laminar Flow

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Larry J.; Park, Kidong; Watkins, Nicholas N.; Hsia, K. Jimmy; Bashir, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have advanced cell studies by providing a dynamic fluidic environment on the scale of the cell for studying, manipulating, sorting and counting cells. However, manipulating the cell within the fluidic domain remains a challenge and requires complicated fabrication protocols for forming valves and electrodes, or demands specialty equipment like optical tweezers. Here, we demonstrate that conventional printed circuit boards (PCB) can be used for the non-contact manipulation of cells by employing dielectrophoresis (DEP) for bead and cell manipulation in laminar flow fields for bioactuation, and for cell and bead separation in multichannel microfluidic devices. First, we present the protocol for assembling the DEP electrodes and microfluidic devices, and preparing the cells for DEP. Then, we characterize the DEP operation with polystyrene beads. Lastly, we show representative results of bead and cell separation in a multichannel microfluidic device. In summary, DEP is an effective method for manipulating particles (beads or cells) within microfluidic devices. PMID:21339720

  3. On-chip high-throughput manipulation of particles in a dielectrophoresis-active hydrophoretic focuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ming; Alici, Gursel; Du, Haiping; Sluyter, Ronald; Li, Weihua

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel concept of dielectrophoresis (DEP)-active hydrophoretic focusing of micro-particles and murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. The DEP-active hydrophoretic platform consists of crescent shaped grooves and interdigitated electrodes that generate lateral pressure gradients. These embedded electrodes exert a negative DEP force onto the particles by pushing them into a narrow space in the channel where the particle to groove interaction is intensive and hydrophoretic ordering occurs. Particles passing through the microfluidic device are directed towards the sidewalls of the channel. The critical limitation of DEP operating at a low flow rate and the specific hydrophoretic device for focusing particles of given sizes were overcome with the proposed microfluidic device. The focusing pattern can be modulated by varying the voltage. High throughput was achieved (maximum flow rate ~150 μL min-1) with good focusing performance. The non-spherical MEL cells were utilised to verify the effectiveness of the DEP-active hydrophoretic device.

  4. Dielectrophoresis switching with vertical sidewall electrodes for microfluidic flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Lisa A.; Jeon, Noo Li; Monuki, Edwin; Lee, Abraham P.

    2012-01-01

    A novel dielectrophoresis switching with vertical electrodes in the sidewall of microchannels for multiplexed switching of objects has been designed, fabricated and tested. With appropriate electrode design, lateral DEP force can be generated so that one can dynamically position particulates along the width of the channel. A set of interdigitated electrodes in the sidewall of the microchannels is used for the generation of non-uniform electrical fields to generate negative DEP forces that repel beads/cells from the sidewalls. A countering DEP force is generated from another set of electrodes patterned on the opposing sidewall. These lateral negative DEP forces can be adjusted by the voltage and frequency applied. By manipulating the coupled DEP forces, the particles flowing through the microchannel can be positioned at different equilibrium points along the width direction and continue to flow into different outlet channels. Experimental results for switching biological cells and polystyrene microbeads to multiple outlets (up to 5) have been achieved. This novel particle switching technique can be integrated with other particle detection components to enable microfluidic flow cytometry systems. PMID:17713608

  5. Determination of colloidal osmotic equation of state by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Jacob; Huang, Hao; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Osmotic equation of state [P(N,T)] describes both the mechanical properties and phase behavior of a colloidal suspension. As an alternative to sedimentation, we propose a new approach to determine P(N,T) by dielectrophoresis (DEP). Using fluorescence confocal microscopy, we obtain particle density profiles in order to determine the DEP force distribution when the particle concentration is low and the inter-particle interactions are negligible. From the known force distribution and Einstein's osmotic equilibrium equation, we can calculate P(N,T) from the particle density profile of interacting, charge-stabilized polystyrene latex particles under different salt concentrations and added neutral polymers. The osmotic equation of state for colloidal suspensions can then be crosschecked by sedimentation equilibrium.

  6. Alternating Current Dielectrophoresis Optimization of Pt-Decorated Graphene Oxide Nanostructures for Proficient Hydrogen Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwei; Rathi, Servin; Singh, Budhi; Lee, Inyeal; Joh, Han-Ik; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2015-07-01

    Alternating current dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an excellent technique to assemble nanoscale materials. For efficient DEP, the optimization of the key parameters like peak-to-peak voltage, applied frequency, and processing time is required for good device. In this work, we have assembled graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures mixed with platinum (Pt) nanoparticles between the micro gap electrodes for a proficient hydrogen gas sensors. The Pt-decorated GO nanostructures were well located between a pair of prepatterned Ti/Au electrodes by controlling the DEP technique with the optimized parameters and subsequently thermally reduced before sensing. The device fabricated using the DEP technique with the optimized parameters showed relatively high sensitivity (∼10%) to 200 ppm hydrogen gas at room temperature. The results indicates that the device could be used in several industry applications, such as gas storage and leak detection. PMID:26042360

  7. Alignment of graphene oxide nanostructures between microgap electrodes via dielectrophoresis for hydrogen gas sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Budhi; Wang, Jianwei; Rathi, Servin; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2015-05-18

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures have been aligned between conducting electrodes via dielectrophoresis (DEP) with different electrical configurations. The arrangement of ground with respect to peak-to-peak voltage (V{sub pp}) plays a crucial role in manipulating the GO nanostructures. Grounds on both sides of the V{sub pp} electrode give an excellent linking of GO nanostructures which is explained by scanning electron microscopy and current-voltage characteristics. A finite element method simulation explains the electric field and voltage variation profile during DEP process. The optimized aligned GO nanostructures are used as hydrogen gas sensor with a sensitivity of 6.0% for 800 ppm hydrogen gas.

  8. Alignment of graphene oxide nanostructures between microgap electrodes via dielectrophoresis for hydrogen gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Budhi; Wang, Jianwei; Rathi, Servin; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanostructures have been aligned between conducting electrodes via dielectrophoresis (DEP) with different electrical configurations. The arrangement of ground with respect to peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp) plays a crucial role in manipulating the GO nanostructures. Grounds on both sides of the Vpp electrode give an excellent linking of GO nanostructures which is explained by scanning electron microscopy and current-voltage characteristics. A finite element method simulation explains the electric field and voltage variation profile during DEP process. The optimized aligned GO nanostructures are used as hydrogen gas sensor with a sensitivity of 6.0% for 800 ppm hydrogen gas.

  9. Microfluidic separation of live and dead yeast cells using reservoir-based dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Saurin; Showers, Daniel; Vedantam, Pallavi; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong; Qian, Shizhi; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2012-01-01

    Separating live and dead cells is critical to the diagnosis of early stage diseases and to the efficacy test of drug screening, etc. This work demonstrates a novel microfluidic approach to dielectrophoretic separation of yeast cells by viability. It exploits the cell dielectrophoresis that is induced by the inherent electric field gradient at the reservoir-microchannel junction to selectively trap dead yeast cells and continuously separate them from live ones right inside the reservoir. This approach is therefore termed reservoir-based dielectrophoresis (rDEP). It has unique advantages as compared to existing dielectrophoretic approaches such as the occupation of zero channel space and the elimination of any mechanical or electrical parts inside microchannels. Such an rDEP cell sorter can be readily integrated with other components into lab-on-a-chip devices for applications to biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:23853679

  10. Two-Dimensional Algal Collection and Assembly by Combining AC-Dielectrophoresis with Fluorescence Detection for Contaminant-Induced Oxidative Stress Sensing.

    PubMed

    Siebman, Coralie; Velev, Orlin D; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2015-06-01

    An alternative current (AC) dielectrophoretic lab-on-chip setup was evaluated as a rapid tool of capture and assembly of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in two-dimensional (2D) close-packed arrays. An electric field of 100 V·cm⁻¹, 100 Hz applied for 30 min was found optimal to collect and assemble the algae into single-layer structures of closely packed cells without inducing cellular oxidative stress. Combined with oxidative stress specific staining and fluorescence microscopy detection, the capability of using the 2D whole-cell assembly on-chip to follow the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress during short-term exposure to several environmental contaminants, including mercury, methylmercury, copper, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), and diuron was explored. The results showed significant increase of the cellular ROS when C. reinhardtii was exposed to high concentrations of methylmercury, CuO-NPs, and 10⁻⁵ M Cu. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of combining AC-dielectrophoretically assembled two-dimensional algal structures with cell metabolic analysis using fluorescence staining, as a rapid analytical tool for probing the effect of contaminants in highly impacted environment. PMID:26083806

  11. Two-Dimensional Algal Collection and Assembly by Combining AC-Dielectrophoresis with Fluorescence Detection for Contaminant-Induced Oxidative Stress Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Siebman, Coralie; Velev, Orlin D.; Slaveykova, Vera I.

    2015-01-01

    An alternative current (AC) dielectrophoretic lab-on-chip setup was evaluated as a rapid tool of capture and assembly of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in two-dimensional (2D) close-packed arrays. An electric field of 100 V·cm−1, 100 Hz applied for 30 min was found optimal to collect and assemble the algae into single-layer structures of closely packed cells without inducing cellular oxidative stress. Combined with oxidative stress specific staining and fluorescence microscopy detection, the capability of using the 2D whole-cell assembly on-chip to follow the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress during short-term exposure to several environmental contaminants, including mercury, methylmercury, copper, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), and diuron was explored. The results showed significant increase of the cellular ROS when C. reinhardtii was exposed to high concentrations of methylmercury, CuO-NPs, and 10−5 M Cu. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of combining AC-dielectrophoretically assembled two-dimensional algal structures with cell metabolic analysis using fluorescence staining, as a rapid analytical tool for probing the effect of contaminants in highly impacted environment. PMID:26083806

  12. Three dimensional passivated-electrode insulator-based dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Nakidde, Diana; Zellner, Phillip; Shake, Tyler; Riquelme, Maria V.; Pruden, Amy; Agah, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a 3D passivated-electrode, insulator-based dielectrophoresis microchip (3D πDEP) is presented. This technology combines the benefits of electrode-based DEP, insulator-based DEP, and three dimensional insulating features with the goal of improving trapping efficiency of biological species at low applied signals and fostering wide frequency range operation of the microfluidic device. The 3D πDEP chips were fabricated by making 3D structures in silicon using reactive ion etching. The reusable electrodes are deposited on second glass substrate and then aligned to the microfluidic channel to capacitively couple the electric signal through a 100 μm glass slide. The 3D insulating structures generate high electric field gradients, which ultimately increases the DEP force. To demonstrate the capabilities of 3D πDEP, Staphylococcus aureus was trapped from water samples under varied electrical environments. Trapping efficiencies of 100% were obtained at flow rates as high as 350 μl/h and 70% at flow rates as high as 750 μl/h. Additionally, for live bacteria samples, 100% trapping was demonstrated over a wide frequency range from 50 to 400 kHz with an amplitude applied signal of 200 Vpp. 20% trapping of bacteria was observed at applied voltages as low as 50 Vpp. We demonstrate selective trapping of live and dead bacteria at frequencies ranging from 30 to 60 kHz at 400 Vpp with over 90% of the live bacteria trapped while most of the dead bacteria escape. PMID:25784964

  13. Three dimensional passivated-electrode insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nakidde, Diana; Zellner, Phillip; Alemi, Mohammad Mehdi; Shake, Tyler; Hosseini, Yahya; Riquelme, Maria V; Pruden, Amy; Agah, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a 3D passivated-electrode, insulator-based dielectrophoresis microchip (3D πDEP) is presented. This technology combines the benefits of electrode-based DEP, insulator-based DEP, and three dimensional insulating features with the goal of improving trapping efficiency of biological species at low applied signals and fostering wide frequency range operation of the microfluidic device. The 3D πDEP chips were fabricated by making 3D structures in silicon using reactive ion etching. The reusable electrodes are deposited on second glass substrate and then aligned to the microfluidic channel to capacitively couple the electric signal through a 100 μm glass slide. The 3D insulating structures generate high electric field gradients, which ultimately increases the DEP force. To demonstrate the capabilities of 3D πDEP, Staphylococcus aureus was trapped from water samples under varied electrical environments. Trapping efficiencies of 100% were obtained at flow rates as high as 350 μl/h and 70% at flow rates as high as 750 μl/h. Additionally, for live bacteria samples, 100% trapping was demonstrated over a wide frequency range from 50 to 400 kHz with an amplitude applied signal of 200 Vpp. 20% trapping of bacteria was observed at applied voltages as low as 50 Vpp. We demonstrate selective trapping of live and dead bacteria at frequencies ranging from 30 to 60 kHz at 400 Vpp with over 90% of the live bacteria trapped while most of the dead bacteria escape. PMID:25784964

  14. Wirelessly powered microfluidic dielectrophoresis devices using printable RF circuits.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Cho, Gyoujin; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2011-03-21

    We report the first microfluidic device integrated with a printed RF circuit so the device can be wirelessly powered by a commercially available RFID reader. For conventional dielectrophoresis devices, electrical wires are needed to connect the electric components on the microchip to external equipment such as power supplies, amplifiers, function generators, etc. Such a procedure is unfamiliar to most clinicians and pathologists who are used to working with a microscope for examination of samples on microscope slides. The wirelessly powered device reported here eliminates the entire need for wire attachments and external instruments so the operators can use the device in essentially the same manner as they do with microscope slides. The integrated circuit can be fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate at very low cost using a roll-to-roll printing method. Electrical power at 13.56 MHz transmitted by a radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader is inductively coupled to the printed RFIC and converted into 10 V DC (direct current) output, which provides sufficient power to drive a microfluidic device to manipulate biological particles such as beads and proteins via the DC dielectrophoresis (DC-DEP) effect. To our best knowledge, this is the first wirelessly powered microfluidic dielectrophoresis device. Although the work is preliminary, the device concept, the architecture, and the core technology are expected to stimulate many efforts in the future and transform the technology to a wide range of clinical and point-of-care applications. PMID:21293829

  15. Preimplantation Mouse Embryo Selection Guided by Light-Induced Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Justin K.; Swinton, Paul; Boscardin, W. John; Lue, Tom F.; Rinaudo, Paolo F.; Wu, Ming C.; Garcia, Maurice M.

    2010-01-01

    Selection of optimal quality embryos for in vitro fertilization (IVF) transfer is critical to successful live birth outcomes. Currently, embryos are chosen based on subjective assessment of morphologic developmental maturity. A non-invasive means to quantitatively measure an embryo's developmental maturity would reduce the variability introduced by the current standard. We present a method that exploits the scaling electrical properties of pre-transfer embryos to quantitatively discern embryo developmental maturity using light-induced dielectrophoresis (DEP). We show that an embryo's DEP response is highly correlated with its developmental stage. Uniquely, this technique allows one to select, in sequence and under blinded conditions, the most developmentally mature embryos among a mixed cohort of morphologically indistinguishable embryos cultured in optimized and sub-optimal culture media. Following assay, embryos continue to develop normally in vitro. Light-induced dielectrophoresis provides a non-invasive, quantitative, and reproducible means to select embryos for applications including IVF transfer and embryonic stem cell harvest. PMID:20405021

  16. Materials separation by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagar, A. D.; Rose, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of vacuum dielectrophoresis as a method for particulate materials separation in a microgravity environment was investigated. Particle separations were performed in a specially constructed miniature drop-tower with a residence time of about 0.3 sec. Particle motion in such a system is independent of size and based only on density and dielectric constant, for a given electric field. The observed separations and deflections exceeded the theoretical predictions, probably due to multiparticle effects. In any case, this approach should work well in microgravity for many classes of materials, with relatively simple apparatus and low weight and power requirements.

  17. Three dimensional microelectrode system for dielectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Dehlinger, Dietrich A.; Rose, Klint A.; Shusteff, Maxim; Bailey, Christopher G.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2013-09-03

    A dielectrophoresis apparatus for separating particles from a sample, including an apparatus body; a dielectrophoresis channel in the apparatus body, the dielectrophoresis channel having a central axis, a bottom, a top, a first side, and a second side; a first mesa projecting into the dielectrophoresis channel from the bottom and extending from the first side across the dielectrophoresis channel to the second side, the first mesa extending at an angle to the central axis of the dielectrophoresis channel; a first electrode extending along the first mesa; a second mesa projecting into the dielectrophoresis channel from the bottom and extending from the first side across the dielectrophoresis channel to the second side, the second mesa extending at an angle to the central axis of the dielectrophoresis channel; a space between at least one of the first electrode and the second side or the second electrode and the second side; and a gap between the first electrode and the second electrode.

  18. A portable and integrated instrument for cell manipulation by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Burgarella, Sarah; Di Bari, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The physical manipulation of biological cells is a key point in the development of miniaturized systems for point-of-care analyses. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been reported by several laboratories as a promising method in biomedical research for label-free cell manipulation without physical contact, by exploiting the dielectric properties of cells suspended in a microfluidic sample, under the action of high-gradient electric fields. In view of a more extended use of DEP phenomena in lab-on-chip devices for point-of-care settings, we have developed a portable instrument, integrating on the same device the microfluidic biochip for cell manipulation and all the laboratory functions (i.e., DEP electric signal generation, microscopic observation of the biological sample under test and image acquisition) that are normally obtained by combining different nonportable standard laboratory instruments. The nonuniform electric field for cell manipulation on the biochip is generated by microelectrodes, patterned on the silicon substrate of microfluidic channels, using standard microfabrication techniques. Numerical modeling was performed to simulate the electric field distribution, quantify the DEP force, and optimize the geometry of the microelectrodes. The developed instrument includes an electronic board, which allows the control of the electric signal applied to electrodes necessary for DEP, and a miniaturized optical microscope system that allows visual inspection and eventually cell counting, as well as image and video recording. The system also includes the control software. The portable and integrated platform described in this work therefore represents a complete and innovative solution of applied research, suitable for many biological applications. PMID:25808778

  19. Hybrid Modeling Method for a DEP Based Particle Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Miled, Mohamed Amine; Gagne, Antoine; Sawan, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP) based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results. PMID:23364197

  20. Atmospheric-pressure microplasma in dielectrophoresis-driven bubbles for optical emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Shen, Yan-Ting; Tsai, Ling-Pin; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Cheng, Yu-Ting

    2012-10-01

    The manipulation of bubbles and the ignition of microplasma within a 200 nL bubble at atmospheric pressure and in an inert silicone oil environment were achieved. Driven by dielectrophoresis (DEP), bubble generation, transportation, mixing, splitting, and expelling were demonstrated. This process facilitated the preparation of various bubbles with tuneable gas compositions. Different gas bubbles, including air, argon (Ar), helium (He), and Ar/He mixtures, were manipulated and ignited to the plasma state by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) within a 50 μm-high gap between parallel plates. Moving and splitting the atmospheric-pressure microplasma in different gas bubbles were achieved by DEP. The excited light of the microplasma was recorded by an optical spectrometer for the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analyses. The characteristic peaks of air, Ar, and He were observed in the DEP-driven microplasma. With the capability to manipulate bubbles and microplasma, this platform could be used for gas analyses in the future. PMID:22878730

  1. Concentration of Sindbis virus with optimized gradient insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Lawrence, Robert M; Jones, Paul V; Hogue, Brenda G; Hayes, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology, separation science, and clinical research are impacted by microfluidic devices. Separation and manipulation of bioparticles such as DNA, protein and viruses are performed on these platforms. Microfluidic systems provide many attractive features, including small sample size, rapid detection, high sensitivity and short processing time. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrophoresis are especially well suited to microscale bioparticle control and have been demonstrated in many formats. In this work, an optimized gradient insulator-based DEP device was utilized for concentration of Sindbis virus, an animal virus with a diameter of 68 nm. Within only a few seconds, the concentration of Sindbis virus can be increased by two to six times in the channel under easily accessible voltages as low as about 70 V. Compared with traditional diagnostic methods used in virology, DEP-based microfluidics can enable faster isolation, detection and concentration of viruses in a single step within a short time. PMID:26878279

  2. Marker-specific sorting of rare cells using dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoyuan; Bessette, Paul H.; Qian, Jiangrong; Meinhart, Carl D.; Daugherty, Patrick S.; Soh, Hyongsok T.

    2005-01-01

    Current techniques in high-speed cell sorting are limited by the inherent coupling among three competing parameters of performance: throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. Microfluidics provides an alternate strategy to decouple these parameters through the use of arrayed devices that operate in parallel. To efficiently isolate rare cells from complex mixtures, an electrokinetic sorting methodology was developed that exploits dielectrophoresis (DEP) in microfluidic channels. In this approach, the dielectrophoretic amplitude response of rare target cells is modulated by labeling cells with particles that differ in polarization response. Cell mixtures were interrogated in the DEP-activated cell sorter in a continuous-flow manner, wherein the electric fields were engineered to achieve efficient separation between the dielectrophoretically labeled and unlabeled cells. To demonstrate the efficiency of marker-specific cell separation, DEP-activated cell sorting (DACS) was applied for affinity-based enrichment of rare bacteria expressing a specific surface marker from an excess of nontarget bacteria that do not express this marker. Rare target cells were enriched by >200-fold in a single round of sorting at a single-channel throughput of 10,000 cells per second. DACS offers the potential for automated, surface marker-specific cell sorting in a disposable format that is capable of simultaneously achieving high throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. PMID:16236724

  3. Cell pairing using microwell array electrodes based on dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuki; Tomita, Masahiro; Mizutani, Fumio; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-15

    We report a simple device with an array of 10,000 (100 × 100) microwells for producing vertical pairs of cells in individual microwells with a rapid manipulation based on positive dielectrophoresis (p-DEP). The areas encircled with micropoles which fabricated from an electrical insulating photosensitive polymer were used as microwells. The width (14 μm) and depth (25 μm) of the individual microwells restricted the size to two vertically aligned cells. The DEP device for the manipulation of cells consisted of a microfluidic channel with an upper indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and a lower microwell array electrode fabricated on an ITO substrate. Mouse myeloma cells stained in green were trapped within 1 s in the microwells by p-DEP by applying an alternating current voltage between the upper ITO and the lower microwell array electrode. The cells were retained inside the wells even after switching off the voltage and washing with a fluidic flow. Other myeloma cells stained in blue were then trapped in the microwells occupied by the cells stained in green to form the vertical cell pairing in the microwells. Cells stained in different colors were paired within only 1 min and a pairing efficiency of over 50% was achieved. PMID:24947270

  4. Electrodeless dielectrophoresis: Impact of geometry and material on obstacle polarization.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Georg R; Kiewidt, Lars; Du, Fei; Baune, Michael; Thöming, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Insulator-based (electrodeless) dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is a promising particle manipulation technique, based on movement of matter in inhomogeneous fields. The inhomogeneity of the field arises because the excitatory field distorts at obstacles (posts). This effect is caused by accumulation of polarization charges at material interfaces. In this study, we utilize a multipole expansion method to investigate the influence of geometry and material on field distortion of posts with arbitrary cross-sections in homogeneous electric fields applied perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the post. The post then develops a multipole parallel or anti parallel to the excitatory field. The multipoles intensity is defined by the post's structure and material properties and directly influences the DEP particle trapping potential. We analyzed posts with circular and rhombus-shaped cross-sections with different cross-sectional width-to-height ratios and permittivities for their polarization intensity, multipole position, and their particle trapping behavior. A trade-off between high maximum field gradient and high coverage range of the gradient is presented, which is determined by the sharpness of the post's edges. We contribute to the overall understanding of the post polarization mechanism and expect that the results presented will help optimizing the structure of microchannels with arrays of posts for electrodeless DEP application. PMID:26463845

  5. Effect of solution conductivity and electrode shape on the deposition of carbon nanotubes from solution using dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Naieni, A Kashefian; Nojeh, A

    2012-12-14

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a popular technique for fabricating carbon nanotube (CNT) devices. The electric current passing through the solution during DEP creates a temperature gradient, which results in electrothermal fluid flow because of the presence of the electric field. CNT solutions prepared with various methods can have different conductivities and the motion of the solution because of the electrothermal phenomenon can affect the DEP deposition differently in each case. We investigated the effect of this movement in solutions with various levels of conductivity through experiments as well as numerical modeling. Our results show that electrothermal motion in the solution can alter the deposition pattern of the nanotubes drastically for high conductivity solutions, while DEP remains the dominant force when a low conductivity (surfactant-free) solution is used. The extent of effectiveness of each force is discussed in the various cases and the fluid movement model is investigated using two- and three-dimensional finite element simulations. PMID:23165429

  6. AC electric field induced dielectrophoretic assembly behavior of gold nanoparticles in a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiyu; Wang, Chunhui; Ding, Haitao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we focus on frequency-dependence of pearl chain formations (PCF) of gold nanoparticles driven by AC dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially in a low field-frequency range, where induced double-layer charging effect at ideally polarizable surfaces on particle DEP behavior and surrounding liquid motion need not be negligible. As field frequency varies, grown features of DEP assembly structures ranging from low-frequency non-bridged gap to high-frequency single gold nanoparticle-made nanowires bridging the electrodes are demonstrated experimentally. Specifically, at 10 kHz, a kind of novel channel-like structure with parallel opposing banks is formed at the center of interelectrode gap. In stark contrast, at 1 MHz, thin PCF with diameter of 100 nm is created along the shortest distance of the isolation spacing. Moreover, a particular conductive path of nanoparticle chains is produced at 1 MHz in a DEP device embedded with multiple floating electrodes. A theoretical framework taking into account field-induced double-layer polarization at both the particle/electrolyte and electrode/electrolyte interface is developed to correlate these experimental observations with induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) phenomenon. And a RC circuit model is helpful in accounting for the formation of this particular non-bridged channel-like structure induced by a low-frequency AC voltage. As compared to thin PCF formed at high field frequency that effectively short circuits the electrode pair, though it is difficult for complete PCF bridging to occur at low frequency, the non-bridged conducting microstructure has potential to further miniaturize the size of electrode gap fabricated by standard micromachining process and may find useful application in biochemical sensing.

  7. Rapid and high-throughput formation of 3D embryoid bodies in hydrogels using the dielectrophoresis technique.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Yamada, Shukuyo; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-10-01

    In this manuscript, we demonstrate the rapid formation of three-dimensional (3D) embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates with controllable sizes and shapes in hydrogels using dielectrophoresis (DEP). The ESCs encapsulated within a methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) prepolymer were introduced into a DEP device and, upon applying an electric field and crosslinking of the GelMA hydrogel, formed 3D ESC aggregates. Embryoid bodies (EBs) fabricated using this method showed high cellular viability and pluripotency. The proposed technique enables production of EBs on a large scale and in a high-throughput manner for potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications. PMID:25082412

  8. Swimming of bacteria under dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Ngoc Phu; Marcos, Marcos

    In this work, we present a model to predict the response of a swimming helically flagellated bacterium to a unidirectional dielectrophoretic (DEP) force with its strength varying linearly in space. We employ resistive force theory to compute the hydrodynamic force on the flagellar bundle, and the effects of DEP force and rotational diffusion are examined using the Fokker-Planck equation. The DEP force greatly contributes to the reorientation of the bacterium such that the bacterium's primary axis is aligned with the direction of the force. Interestingly, when the DEP strength varies perpendicularly to the direction of the force, the bacterium's primary axis is no longer aligned with the DEP force, which results in a translation of the bacterium perpendicular to its primary axis. Finally, we show the feasibility to utilize this phenomenon to achieve bacterial focusing. The full name of the second author is MARCOS.

  9. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter K; Rogeberg, Anders; Kutter, Jörg P; Bang, Dang D; Wolff, Anders

    2006-12-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DEP. The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell is measured by integrated polymer optical elements (waveguide, lens, and fiber coupler). By comparing the cell counting rates measured by the two FCs, the collection efficiency of the DEP filter can be determined. The chips were used for quantitative determination of the effect of flow rate, applied voltage, conductivity of the sample, and frequency of the electric field on the sorting efficiency. A theoretical model for the capture efficiency was developed and a reasonable agreement with the experimental results observed. Viable and non-viable yeast cells showed different frequency dependencies and were sorted with high efficiency. At 2 MHz, more than 90% of the viable and less than 10% of the non-viable cells were captured on the DEP filter. The presented approach provides quantitative real-time data for sorting a large number of cells and will allow optimization of the conditions for, e.g., collecting cancer cells on a DEP filter while normal cells pass through the system. Furthermore, the microstructure is simple to fabricate and can easily be integrated with other microstructures for lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:17161009

  10. Separation of mixtures of particles in a multipart microdevice employing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Villanueva, Roberto C; Pérez-González, Victor H; Davalos, Rafael V; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2011-09-01

    Dielectrophoresis is the electrokinetic movement of particles due to polarization effects in the presence of non-uniform electric fields. In insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) regions of low and high electric field intensity, i.e. non-uniformity of electric field, are produced when the cross-sectional area of a microchannel is decreased by the presence of electrical insulating structures between two electrodes. This technique is increasingly being studied for the manipulation of a wide variety of particles, and novel designs are continuously developed. Despite significant advances in the area, complex mixture separation and sample fractionation continue to be the most important challenges. In this work, a microchannel design is presented for carrying out direct current (DC)-iDEP for the separation of a mixture of particles. The device comprises a main channel, two side channels and two sections of cylindrical posts with different diameters, which will generate different non-uniformities in the electric field on the main channel, designed for the discrimination and separation of particles of two different sizes. By applying an electric potential of 1000 V, a mixture of 1 and 4 μm polystyrene microspheres were dielectrophoretically separated and concentrated at the same time and then redirected to different outlets. The results obtained here demonstrate that, by carefully designing the device geometry and selecting operating conditions, effective sorting of particle mixtures can be achieved in this type of multi-section DC-iDEP devices. PMID:21874656

  11. nDEP-driven cell patterning and bottom-up construction of cell aggregates using a new bioelectronic chip.

    PubMed

    Menad, S; Franqueville, L; Haddour, N; Buret, F; Frenea-Robin, M

    2015-04-01

    Creating cell aggregates of controlled size and shape and patterning cells on substrates using a bottom-up approach constitutes important challenges for tissue-engineering applications and studies of cell-cell interactions. In this paper, we report nDEP (negative dielectrophoresis) driven assembly of cells as compact aggregates or onto defined areas using a new bioelectronic chip. This chip is composed of a quadripolar electrode array obtained using coplanar electrodes partially covered with a thin, micropatterned PDMS membrane. This thin PDMS layer was coated with poly-L-lysine and played the role of adhesive substrate for cell patterning. For the formation of detachable cell aggregates, the PDMS was not pretreated and cells were simply immobilized into assemblies maintained by cell-cell adhesion after the electric field removal. Cell viability after exposition to DEP buffer was also assessed, as well as cell spreading activity following DEP-driven assembly. PMID:25595475

  12. Dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Microgravity and vacuum, singly or combined, are uniquely advantageous media for the use of dielectrophoresis as a mmaterial s separation technology. In order to assess these advantages, a free-fall vacuum dielectrophoretic separator was designed and constructed for use at the earth's surface.

  13. Two-dimensional numerical modeling for separation of deformable cells using dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Li, Hua; Lam, K Y

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we numerically explore the possibility of separating two groups of deformable cells, by a very small dielectrophoretic (DEP) microchip with the characteristic length of several cell diameters. A 2D two-fluid model is developed to describe the separation process, where three types of forces are considered, the aggregation force for cell-cell interaction, the deformation force for cell deformation, and the DEP force for cell dielectrophoresis. As a model validation, we calculate the levitation height of a cell subject to DEP force, and compare it with the experimental data. After that, we simulate the separation of two groups of cells with different dielectric properties at high and low frequencies, respectively. The simulation results show that the deformable cells can be separated successfully by a very small DEP microchip, according to not only their different permittivities at the high frequency, but also their different conductivities at the low frequency. In addition, both two groups of cells have a shape deformation from an original shape to a lopsided slipper shape during the separation process. It is found that the cell motion is mainly determined by the DEP force arising from the electric field, causing the cells to deviate from the centerline of microchannel. However, the cell deformation is mainly determined by the deformation force arising from the fluid flow, causing the deviated cells to undergo an asymmetric motion with the deformation of slipper shape. PMID:24981085

  14. Dielectrophoresis in a slanted microchannel for separation of microparticles and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seong-Won; Kim, So Hyun; Park, Je-Kyun; Park, Sungsu

    2013-12-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an effective method to trap, manipulate and separate various dielectric particles. To generate a DEP force, a spatially nonuniform electrical field has been generated by an array of electrodes, while electrodeless DEP has been accomplished by placing an insulating material between two electrodes. Here, we describe a new DEP method for generating a nonuniform electrical field using a slanted microchannel. The electric field gradient is induced due to a slope in the channel and can be used to move and separate particles. Based on the gradual electric field induced by three dimensional structure of the microchannel, our method enables particles of different sizes to be separated solely by DEP force without flow. The slanted microchannel was easily fabricated by a replica molding technique using a commercial UV-cured photopolymer (NOA 63) and bonded as an insulating layer between two indium-tin-oxide films. By applying the electrical field, polystyrene beads of different sizes (6-45 microm in diameter) were trapped and separated depending on the applied electric strength and frequency. Using this method, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa attached to antibody-conjugated microbeads was successfully separated from Escherichia coli in a slanted microchannel. PMID:24266178

  15. Dielectrophoresis-Based Double-Emulsion Droplet Centering for Concentric Laser Target Foam Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, Zongmin

    Cryogenic laser targets used for inertial confinement fusion experiments are prepared from hollow, low-density polymer foam shells. For effective implosion, these foam shells must meet very rigid requirements on their dimensions. They must be concentric within ≤ 5% of the average shell thickness and the inner surface root-mean-square (RMS) roughness must be on the scale of microns. In this dissertation, a voltage-controlled scheme for centering double-emulsion droplets is developed based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). This technique has potential application in a scalable microfluidic assembly-line process for the formation of highly concentric foam shells for laser targets. The DEP centering effect, utilizing a uniform AC electric field, originates from the interactions between the induced dipoles of the inner droplet and the surrounding liquid . Double-emulsion droplets can be centered only when the dielectric constant of the outer shell is higher than that of the suspension medium. The dielectric constant of the inner droplet has no effect on the centering stability. The AC frequency of the applied electric field must be sufficiently high (˜20 MHz) to overcome electrostatic shielding due to the electrical conductivity (>10-3 S/m) of the liquid forming the outer shell. To minimize gravity and buoyancy, the densities of the liquids must be closely matched to ˜0.1%. Preliminary demonstration of the centering effect was performed with a thin ITO glass plate to support the droplets midway between the two parallel electrodes. Fairly good centering results for 3˜6 mm diameter droplets were obtained within ˜60 s using an electric field of magnitude >10 4 V/m in liquids of viscosity ˜10 centipoise. The physical support, however, caused a systematic ˜10% vertical offset between the two centers. The droplets also exhibited some distortion on the lower side adjacent to the glass plate. To reduce these offset and distortion problems, double-emulsion droplets were

  16. Thermometry in dielectrophoresis chips for contact-free cell handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, M. S.; Mueller, T.; Schnelle, T.

    2007-01-01

    Cell biology applications, protocols in immunology and stem cell research, require that individual cells are handled under strict control of their contacts to other cells or synthetic surfaces. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in microfluidic chips is an established technique to investigate, group, wash, cultivate and sort cells contact-free under physiological conditions: microelectrode octode cages, versatile dielectrophoretic elements energized with radio frequency electric fields, stably trap single cells or cellular aggregates. For medical applications and cell cultivation, possible side effects of the dielectrophoretic manipulation, such as membrane polarization and Joule heating, have to be quantified. Therefore, we characterized the electric field-induced warming in dielectrophoretic cages using ohmic resistance measurements, fluorometry, liquid crystal beads, infra-red thermography and bubble size thermometry. We compare the results of these techniques with respect to the influences of voltage, electric conductivity of buffer, frequency, cage size and electrode surface. We conclude that in the culture medium thermal effects may be neglected if low voltages and an electric field-reducing phase pattern are used. Our experimental results provide explicit values for estimating the thermal effect on dielectrophoretically caged cells and show that Joule heating is best minimized by optimizing the cage geometry and reducing the buffer conductivity. The results may additionally serve to evaluate and improve theoretical predictions on field-induced effects. Based on present-day chip processing possibilities, DEP is well suited for the manipulation of cells.

  17. Numerical simulation of bioparticle separation by dielectrophoretic field-flow-fractionation (DEP-FFF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Andreea; Neculae, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    The separation systems based on dielectrophoretic field-flow-fractionation (DEP-FFF) are used for a wide range of bioparticle types, including cells, bacteria, viruses, proteins, etc. An array of interdigitated microelectrodes lining the bottom surface of a thin chamber is used to generate dielectrophoretic forces that levitate the bioparticle mixture. The balance between DEP levitation and gravitational forces determines the bioparticles position at equilibrium heights within a fluid-flow profile, and consequently determines their velocities and the corresponding elution times. The elution time depends on the voltage applied on the microelectrodes, geometry of the device, bioparticle dielectric properties and density. This paper analyses numerically the behavior of a bioparticle mixture suspended in a dense and viscous fluid under dielectrophoresis. The controlled spatial separation of bioparticle mixture is performed by a combination of dielectrophoretic and hydrodynamic forces. The theoretical background and a set of numerical results (calculated DEP force, particle trajectories, etc.) are presented. The numerical solutions are obtained using the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element solver. The presented results demonstrate that the DEP-FFF method can be successfully applicable to many biomedical cell separation problems, including microfluidic-scale diagnosis and preparative-scale purification of cell subpopulations.

  18. A biocompatible microchip and methodology for efficiently trapping and positioning living cells into array based on negative dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Rong

    2015-06-01

    We present a microchip and trapping methodology based on negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP), whereby living cells were manipulated and positioned into an array with high trapping efficiency while maintaining good viability. The main factors that ensured good viability of cells were investigated including temperature of medium, extra transmembrane potential on cells, and electrolysis effect in DEP-based trapping. Optimum DEP conditions for the microchip were determined by considering both biocompatibility and trapping efficiency. Experiments demonstrated that under a voltage of 3.6-4 Vpp and at a frequency of 100 kHz, HeLa cells could be trapped and positioned into an array in less than 10 s while maintaining good viability. The normal adherence morphology and fluorescence of the cells, dyed with propidium iodide and Calcein-AM, were observed and verified the biocompatibility of the microchip and trapping methodology.

  19. Developing interface localized liquid dielectrophoresis for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, Glen; Brown, Carl V.; Newton, Michael I.; Wells, Gary G.; Sampara, Naresh

    2012-11-01

    Electrowetting charges the solid-liquid interface to change the contact area of a droplet of a conducting liquid. It is a powerful technique used to create variable focus liquid lenses, electronic paper and other devices, but it depends upon ions within the liquid. Liquid dielectrophoresis (L-DEP) is a bulk force acting on the dipoles throughout a dielectric liquid and is not normally considered to be a localized effect acting at the interface between the liquid and a solid or other fluid. In this work, we show theoretically how non-uniform electric fields generated by interdigitated electrodes can effectively convert L-DEP into an interface localized form. We show that for droplets of sufficient thickness, the change in the cosine of the contact angle is proportional to the square of the applied voltage and so obeys a similar equation to that for electrowetting - this we call dielectrowetting. However, a major difference to electrowetting is that the strength of the effect is controlled by the electrode spacing and the liquid permittivity rather than the properties of an insulator in a sandwich structure. Experimentally, we show that that this dielectrowetting equation accurately describes the contact angle of a droplet of oil viewed across parallel interdigitated electrodes. Importantly, the induced spreading can be complete, such that contact angle saturation does not occur. We then show that for thin films, L-DEP can shape the liquid-air interface creating a spatially periodic wrinkle and that such a wrinkle can be used to create a voltage programmable phase diffraction grating.

  20. Dielectric model for Chinese hamster ovary cells obtained by dielectrophoresis cytometry.

    PubMed

    Salimi, E; Braasch, K; Butler, M; Thomson, D J; Bridges, G E

    2016-01-01

    We present a dielectric model and its parameters for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells based on a double-shell structure which includes the cell membrane, cytoplasm, nuclear envelope, and nucleoplasm. Employing a dielectrophoresis (DEP) based technique and a microfluidic system, the DEP response of many single CHO cells is measured and the spectrum of the Clausius-Mossotti factor is obtained. The dielectric parameters of the model are then extracted by curve-fitting to the measured spectral data. Using this approach over the 0.6-10 MHz frequency range, we report the values for CHO cells' membrane permittivity, membrane thickness, cytoplasm conductivity, nuclear envelope permittivity, and nucleoplasm conductivity. The size of the cell and its nuclei are obtained using optical techniques. PMID:26858823

  1. Characterization of microfluidic shear-dependent epithelial cell adhesion molecule immunocapture and enrichment of pancreatic cancer cells from blood cells with dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Smith, James P.; Saha, Trisha N.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Current microfluidic techniques for isolating circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from cancer patient blood are limited by low capture purity, and dielectrophoresis (DEP) has the potential to complement existing immunocapture techniques to improve capture performance. We present a hybrid DEP and immunocapture Hele-Shaw flow cell to characterize DEP's effects on immunocapture of pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1, PANC-1, and BxPC-3) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with an anti-EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) antibody. By carefully specifying the applied electric field frequency, we demonstrate that pancreatic cancer cells are attracted to immunocapture surfaces by positive DEP whereas PBMCs are repelled by negative DEP. Using an exponential capture model to interpret our capture data, we show that immunocapture performance is dependent on the applied DEP force sign and magnitude, cell surface EpCAM expression level, and shear stress experienced by cells flowing in the capture device. Our work suggests that DEP can not only repel contaminating blood cells but also enhance capture of cancer cell populations that are less likely to be captured by traditional immunocapture methods. This combination of DEP and immunocapture techniques to potentially increase CTC capture purity can facilitate subsequent biological analyses of captured CTCs and research on cancer metastasis and drug therapies. PMID:25379092

  2. Three dimensional microelectrode system for dielectrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dehlinger, Dietrich A; Rose, Klint A; Shusteff, Maxim; Bailey, Christopher G; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P

    2014-12-02

    A dielectrophoresis method for separating particles from a sample, including a dielectrophoresis channel, the dielectrophoresis channel having a central axis, a bottom, a top, a first side, and a second side; a first mesa projecting into the dielectrophoresis channel from the bottom and extending from the first side across the dielectrophoresis channel to the second side, the first mesa extending at an angle to the central axis of the dielectrophoresis channel; a second mesa projecting into the dielectrophoresis channel from the bottom and extending from the first side across the dielectrophoresis channel to the second side, the second mesa parallel to said first mesa; a space between at least one of the first electrode and the second side or the second electrode and the second side; and a gap between the first electrode and the second electrode, and pumping a recovery fluid through said gap between said first electrode and into said space between at least one of said first mesa and said second side or said second mesa and said second side.

  3. Virus enrichment for single virus infection by using 3D insulator based dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taisuke; Maruyama, Hisataka; Honda, Ayae; Arai, Fumihito

    2014-01-01

    We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that enables virus enrichment for single virus infection, by using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). A 3D-constricted flow channel design enabled the production of an iDEP force in the microfluidic chip. iDEP using a chip with multiple active virus filters (AVFs) was more accurate and faster than using a chip with a single AVF, and improved the efficiency of virus trapping. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure required for fabrication of constricted flow channel. Influenza virus (A PR/8) was enriched by a negative DEP force when sinusoidal wave was applied to the electrodes within an amplitude range of 20 Vp-p and a frequency of 10 MHz. AVF-mediated virus enrichment can be repeated simply by turning the current ON or OFF. Furthermore, the negative AVF can inhibit virus adhesion onto the glass substrate. We then trapped and transported one of the enriched viruses by using optical tweezers. This microfluidic chip facilitated the effective transport of a single virus from AVFs towards the cell-containing chamber without crossing an electrode. We successfully transported the virus to the cell chamber (v = 10 µm/s) and brought it infected with a selected single H292 cell. PMID:24918921

  4. Direct current-dielectrophoresis assisted microscale machining of metal by femtosecond pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, ChangKyoo; Farson, Dave F.

    2015-07-01

    Accumulation of ablation debris particles interferes with femtosecond laser micromachining of high-aspect ratio grooves in metal. Debris removal from such grooves by an air or inert gas jet requires that the gas jet axis be aligned with the groove. This requirement constrains the motion system design and programming as well as the gas nozzle design for cutting of arbitrary shapes. Gas jet debris removal is also not feasible in vacuum environments. In this study, a novel technique based on DC-dielectrophoresis (DEP) for removing debris from the cut groove was investigated. Femtosecond laser ablation of linear and circular grooves from thick sections of aluminum was performed with no debris removal and with debris removal by air jet or DC-DEP force. Ablation depth and precision were compared for the three experimental conditions. Debris removal by DC-DEP force resulted in the most accurate, consistent, and orientation-independent machining of high-aspect ratio grooves. Moreover, larger electric fields exerted stronger DC-DEP force on debris particles and resulted in better ablation precision and machining rate.

  5. Dielectrophoresis microjets: a merging of electromagnetics and microfluidics for on-chip technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Kyle A.; Collier, Christopher M.; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2014-05-01

    Digital (droplet-based) microfluidic systems apply electromagnetic characteristics as the fundamental fluid actuation mechanism. These systems are often implemented in two-dimensional architectures, overcoming one-dimensional continuous flow channel practical issues. The fundamental operation for digital microfluidics requires the creation of an electric field distribution to achieve desired fluid actuation. The electric field distribution is typically non-uniform, enabling creation of net dielectrophoresis (DEP) force. The DEP force magnitude is proportional to the difference between microdroplet and surrounding medium complex dielectric constants, and the gradient of the electric field magnitude squared. Force sign/direction can be manipulated to achieve a force towards higher (positive DEP) or lower (negative DEP) electrostatic energy by tailoring the relative difference between microdroplet and surrounding medium complex dielectric constants through careful selection of the devices fabrication materials. The DEP force magnitudes and directions are applied here for well-controlled and high-speed microdroplet actuation. Control and speed characteristics arise from significant differences in the microdroplet/medium conductivity and the use of a micropin architecture with strong electric field gradients. The implementation, referred to here as a DEP microjet, establishes especially strong axial propulsion forces. Single- and double-micropin topologies achieve strong axial propulsion force, but only the double-micropin topology creates transverse converging forces for stable and controlled microdroplet actuation. Electric field distributions for each topology are investigated and linked to axial and transverse forces. Experimental results are presented for both topologies. The double-micropin topology is tested with biological fluids. Microdroplet actuation speeds up to 25 cm/s are achieved—comparable to the fastest speeds to-date.

  6. On-chip DNA preconcentration in different media conductivities by electrodeless dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunbo; Ye, Ziran; Hui, Yu Sanna; Gao, Yibo; Jiang, Yusheng; Wen, Weijia

    2015-09-01

    Electrodeless dielectrophoresis is the best choice to achieve preconcentration of nanoparticles and biomolecules due to its simple, robust, and easy implementation. We designed a simple chip with microchannels and nano-slits in between and then studied the trapping of DNA in high conductive medium and low conductive medium, corresponding to positive and negative dielectrophoresis (DEP), respectively. It is very important to investigate the trapping in media with different conductivities since one always has to deal with the sample solutions with different conductivities. The trapping process was analyzed by the fluorescent intensity changes. The results showed that DNA could be trapped at the nano-slit in both high and low conductive media in a lower electric field strength (10 V/cm) compared to the existing methods. This is a significant improvement to suppress the Joule heating effect in DEP related experiments. Our work may give insight to researchers for DNA trapping by a simple and low cost device in the Lab-on-a-Chip system. PMID:26487901

  7. Continuous separation of multiple size microparticles using alternating current dielectrophoresis in microfluidic device with acupuncture needle electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ye; Ren, Yukun; Yan, Hui; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2016-03-01

    The need to continuously separate multiple microparticles is required for the recent development of lab-on-chip technology. Dielectrophoresis(DEP)-based separation device is extensively used in kinds of microfluidic applications. However, such conventional DEP-based device is relatively complicated and difficult for fabrication. A concise microfluidic device is presented for effective continuous separation of multiple size particle mixtures. A pair of acupuncture needle electrodes are creatively employed and embedded in a PDMS(poly-dimethylsiloxane) hurdle for generating non-uniform electric field thereby achieving a continuous DEP separation. The separation mechanism is that the incoming particle samples with different sizes experience different negative DEP(nDEP) forces and then they can be transported into different downstream outlets. The DEP characterizations of particles are calculated, and their trajectories are numerically predicted by considering the combined action of the incoming laminar flow and the nDEP force field for guiding the separation experiments. The device performance is verified by successfully separating a three-sized particle mixture, including polystyrene microspheres with diameters of 3 μm, 10 μm and 25 μm. The separation purity is below 70% when the flow rate ratio is less than 3.5 or more than 5.1, while the separation purity can be up to more than 90% when the flow rate ratio is between 3.5 and 5.1 and meanwhile ensure the voltage output falls in between 120 V and 150 V. Such simple DEP-based separation device has extensive applications in future microfluidic systems.

  8. Tailoring particle translocation via dielectrophoresis in pore channels.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shoji; Tsutsui, Makusu; Theodore, Hu; Yuhui, He; Arima, Akihide; Tsuji, Tetsuro; Doi, Kentaro; Kawano, Satoyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling electrophoretic motions of nanoscopic objects in fluidic channels are a central challenge in developing nanopore technology for molecular analyses. Although progress has been made in slowing the translocation velocity to meet the requirement for electrical detections of analytes via picoampere current measurements, there exists no method useful for regulating particle flows in the transverse directions. Here, we report the use of dielectrophoresis to manipulate the single-particle passage through a solid-state pore. We created a trap field by applying AC voltage between electrodes embedded in a low-aspect-ratio micropore. We demonstrated a traffic control of particles to go through center or near side surface via the voltage frequency. We also found enhanced capture efficiency along with faster escaping speed of particles by virtue of the AC-mediated electroosmosis. This method is compatible with nanopore sensing and would be widely applied for reducing off-axis effects to achieve single-molecule identification. PMID:27527126

  9. Tailoring particle translocation via dielectrophoresis in pore channels

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shoji; Tsutsui, Makusu; Theodore, Hu; Yuhui, He; Arima, Akihide; Tsuji, Tetsuro; Doi, Kentaro; Kawano, Satoyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling electrophoretic motions of nanoscopic objects in fluidic channels are a central challenge in developing nanopore technology for molecular analyses. Although progress has been made in slowing the translocation velocity to meet the requirement for electrical detections of analytes via picoampere current measurements, there exists no method useful for regulating particle flows in the transverse directions. Here, we report the use of dielectrophoresis to manipulate the single-particle passage through a solid-state pore. We created a trap field by applying AC voltage between electrodes embedded in a low-aspect-ratio micropore. We demonstrated a traffic control of particles to go through center or near side surface via the voltage frequency. We also found enhanced capture efficiency along with faster escaping speed of particles by virtue of the AC-mediated electroosmosis. This method is compatible with nanopore sensing and would be widely applied for reducing off-axis effects to achieve single-molecule identification. PMID:27527126

  10. DEP: A Depression Emulation Program*

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Charles; Glass, Richard M; Banks, Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Cognitive deficits can be studied by “lesioning” computer simulations of normal cognitive processes. DEP (Depression Emulation Program) implements key aspects of a computational theory of “normal” adaptive reactive depression. A theory of “normal” depression is a step toward a theory of “pathological” depression. Transient depressed mood caused by an environmental event may be an example of fallure-triggered reprogramming of the self-schema. We normally generate responses to our environment in a fast and effortless “compiled” mode. After experiencing a stable, internal, and global failure, we debug our self-schema in a slow and effortful “interpreted” mode. During debugging, we experience a cognitive loop, increased objectivity, decreased motivation, and fluctuating self-generalizations. DEP exhibits analogous behavior and suggests vulnerability in an emotional operating system that normally, and periodically, adapts to a changing environment. Computer simulation of cognitive deficit may become a valuable research tool in psychiatry and neurology.

  11. Test of DEP hybrid photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Elias, J.

    1997-08-01

    The goal of the measurement was to study some parameters of DEP HYBRID PHOTODIODES (HPD), and the check its performance for CMS calorimetry at LHC. The principal of the HPD operation is described. The schematic view of the HPD. The HPD is vacuum photo device composed of photocathode (PC) and a silicon PIN diode (Si) as multiplication system in a very close proximity geometry. The distance between PC and Si is of the order of several mm and has an electric field < 10 kV. The photoelectron emited by the photocathode multiply by a factor of several thousand in the silicon and the charge is collected on the HPD`s anode. Several types of HPD`s were tested. There was a single channel HPD, called {open_quotes}E-type{close_quotes} with p-side of the silicon facing the HPD`s photocathode and two multipixel HPD (DEP) namely a 25 pixel HPD and a 7 pixel HPD. Both were of {open_quotes}T-type{close_quotes} structure with n-side of silicon facing the photocathode.

  12. Biological Responses to Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEPs) Depend on the Physicochemical Properties of the DEPs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Jung; Roh, Jinkyu; Kang, Min-Sung; Kim, Soo Nam; Kim, Younghun; Choi, Sangdun

    2011-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are the main components of ambient particulate materials, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-PAHs, heavy metals, and gaseous materials. Many epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have shown that ambient particles, including DEPs, are associated with respiratory disorders, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and lung cancer. However, the relationship between the biological response to DEPs and their chemical composition remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the physicochemical properties of DEPs before toxicological studies, and then administered a single intratracheal instillation of DEPs to mice. The mice were then killed 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after DEP exposure to observe the biological responses induced by DEPs over time. Our findings suggest that DEPs engulfed into cells induced a Th2-type inflammatory response followed by DNA damage, whereas DEPs not engulfed into cells induced a Th1-type inflammatory response. Further, the physicochemical properties, including surface charge, particle size, and chemical composition, of DEPs play a crucial role in determining the biological responses to DEPs. Consequently, we suggest that the biological response to DEPs depend on cell-particle interaction and the physicochemical properties of the particles. PMID:22039547

  13. Review article-dielectrophoresis: status of the theory, technology, and applications.

    PubMed

    Pethig, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A review is presented of the present status of the theory, the developed technology and the current applications of dielectrophoresis (DEP). Over the past 10 years around 2000 publications have addressed these three aspects, and current trends suggest that the theory and technology have matured sufficiently for most effort to now be directed towards applying DEP to unmet needs in such areas as biosensors, cell therapeutics, drug discovery, medical diagnostics, microfluidics, nanoassembly, and particle filtration. The dipole approximation to describe the DEP force acting on a particle subjected to a nonuniform electric field has evolved to include multipole contributions, the perturbing effects arising from interactions with other cells and boundary surfaces, and the influence of electrical double-layer polarizations that must be considered for nanoparticles. Theoretical modelling of the electric field gradients generated by different electrode designs has also reached an advanced state. Advances in the technology include the development of sophisticated electrode designs, along with the introduction of new materials (e.g., silicone polymers, dry film resist) and methods for fabricating the electrodes and microfluidics of DEP devices (photo and electron beam lithography, laser ablation, thin film techniques, CMOS technology). Around three-quarters of the 300 or so scientific publications now being published each year on DEP are directed towards practical applications, and this is matched with an increasing number of patent applications. A summary of the US patents granted since January 2005 is given, along with an outline of the small number of perceived industrial applications (e.g., mineral separation, micropolishing, manipulation and dispensing of fluid droplets, manipulation and assembly of micro components). The technology has also advanced sufficiently for DEP to be used as a tool to manipulate nanoparticles (e.g., carbon nanotubes, nano wires, gold and metal

  14. Review Article—Dielectrophoresis: Status of the theory, technology, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Pethig, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A review is presented of the present status of the theory, the developed technology and the current applications of dielectrophoresis (DEP). Over the past 10 years around 2000 publications have addressed these three aspects, and current trends suggest that the theory and technology have matured sufficiently for most effort to now be directed towards applying DEP to unmet needs in such areas as biosensors, cell therapeutics, drug discovery, medical diagnostics, microfluidics, nanoassembly, and particle filtration. The dipole approximation to describe the DEP force acting on a particle subjected to a nonuniform electric field has evolved to include multipole contributions, the perturbing effects arising from interactions with other cells and boundary surfaces, and the influence of electrical double-layer polarizations that must be considered for nanoparticles. Theoretical modelling of the electric field gradients generated by different electrode designs has also reached an advanced state. Advances in the technology include the development of sophisticated electrode designs, along with the introduction of new materials (e.g., silicone polymers, dry film resist) and methods for fabricating the electrodes and microfluidics of DEP devices (photo and electron beam lithography, laser ablation, thin film techniques, CMOS technology). Around three-quarters of the 300 or so scientific publications now being published each year on DEP are directed towards practical applications, and this is matched with an increasing number of patent applications. A summary of the US patents granted since January 2005 is given, along with an outline of the small number of perceived industrial applications (e.g., mineral separation, micropolishing, manipulation and dispensing of fluid droplets, manipulation and assembly of micro components). The technology has also advanced sufficiently for DEP to be used as a tool to manipulate nanoparticles (e.g., carbon nanotubes, nano wires, gold and metal

  15. Multiplexed actuation using ultra dielectrophoresis for proteomics applications: a comprehensive electrical and electrothermal design methodology.

    PubMed

    Emaminejad, Sam; Dutton, Robert W; Davis, Ronald W; Javanmard, Mehdi

    2014-06-21

    In this work, we present a methodological approach to analyze an enhanced dielectrophoresis (DEP) system from both a circuit analysis and electrothermal view points. In our developed model, we have taken into account various phenomena and constraints such as voltage degradation (due to the presence of the protecting oxide layer), oxide breakdown, instrumentation limitations, and thermal effects. The results from this analysis are applicable generally to a wide variety of geometries and high voltage microsystems. Here, these design guidelines were applied to develop a robust electronic actuation system to perform a multiplexed bead-based protein assay. To carry out the multiplexed functionality, along a single microfluidic channel, an array of proteins is patterned, where each element is targeting a specific secondary protein coated on micron-sized beads in the subsequently introduced sample solution. Below each element of the array, we have a pair of addressable interdigitated electrodes. By selectively applying voltage at the terminals of each interdigitated electrode pair, the enhanced DEP, or equivalently 'ultra'-DEP (uDEP) force detaches protein-bound beads from each element of the array, one by one, without disturbing the bound beads in the neighboring regions. The detached beads can be quantified optically or electrically downstream. For proof of concept, we illustrated 16-plex actuation capability of our device to elute micron-sized beads that are bound to the surface through anti-IgG and IgG interaction which is on the same order of magnitude in strength as typical antibody-antigen interactions. In addition to its application in multiplexed protein analysis, our platform can be potentially utilized to statistically characterize the strength profile of biological bonds, since the multiplexed format allows for high throughput force spectroscopy using the array of uDEP devices, under the same buffer and assay preparation conditions. PMID:24801800

  16. Conducting properties of nearly depleted ZnO nanowire UV sensors fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Núñez, C.; García Marín, A.; Nanterne, P.; Piqueras, J.; Kung, P.; Pau, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) with different radii (rNW) have been aligned between pre-patterned electrodes using dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the fabrication of high gain UV sensors. The DEP conditions (voltage amplitude and frequency) and electrode material, geometry and size were optimized to enhance the efficiency during the DEP process. To understand the alignment mechanism of the ZnO NWs, the dielectrophoretic force (FDEP) was analyzed as a function of the DEP conditions and NW dimensions. These studies showed that the DEP alignment process tends to trap NWs with a smaller radius. The effects of NW size on device performance were analyzed by means of I-V measurements in darkness and under illumination (200 nm < λ < 600 nm). In darkness, the NW resistance increases as rNW decreases due to the reduction of the conduction volume, until saturation is reached for rNW < 65 nm. On the other hand, the NW spectral photoresponse shows high values around 108 A W-1 (measured at 5 V and λ < 370 nm) and follows a linear trend as a function of the NW cross section. In addition, the cut-off wavelength depends on rNW, presenting a clear blue-shift for NWs with a lower radius (rNW < 50 nm). Transient photoresponse studies show that NWs with lower radii have longer rise times and shorter decay times mainly due to surface trapping effects. Regardless of NW size, passivation of the surface using a dielectric capping layer of SiO2 reduces the dynamic range of the photoresponse due to a strong increase of the dark current.

  17. Dielectrophoretic differentiation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts using contactless dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Kittur, Harsha; Sano, Michael B.; C. Roberts, Paul; Schmelz, Eva M.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies in women. The primary challenge is the detection of the cancer at an early stage, since this drastically increases the survival rate. In this study we investigated the dielectrophoretic responses of progressive stages of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, as well as mouse fibroblast and macrophage cell lines, utilizing contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP). cDEP is a relatively new cell manipulation technique that has addressed some of the challenges of conventional dielectrophoretic methods. To evaluate our microfluidic device performance, we computationally studied the effects of altering various geometrical parameters, such as the size and arrangement of insulating structures, on dielectrophoretic and drag forces. We found that the trapping voltage of MOSE cells increases as the cells progress from a non-tumorigenic, benign cell to a tumorigenic, malignant phenotype. Additionally, all MOSE cells display unique behavior compared to fibroblasts and macrophages, representing normal and inflammatory cells found in the peritoneal fluid. Based on these findings, we predict that cDEP can be utilized for isolation of ovarian cancer cells from peritoneal fluid as an early cancer detection tool. PMID:22536308

  18. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    SciTech Connect

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  19. Arraying single microbeads in microchannels using dielectrophoresis-assisted mechanical traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirapu-Azpiroz, Jaione; Temiz, Yuksel; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Manipulating and immobilizing single microbeads in flowing fluids is relevant for biological assays and chemical tests but typically requires expensive laboratory equipment and trapping mechanisms that are not reversible. In this paper, we present a highly efficient and reversible mechanism for trapping microbeads by combining dielectrophoresis (DEP) with mechanical traps. The integration of planar electrodes and mechanical traps in a microchannel enables versatile manipulation of microbeads via DEP for their docking in recessed structures of mechanical traps. By simulating the combined effects of the hydrodynamic drag and DEP forces on microbeads, we explore a configuration of periodic traps where the beads are guided by the electrodes and immobilized in recess areas of the traps. The design of the electrode layout and operating configuration are optimized for the efficient trapping of single microbeads. We demonstrated the predicted guiding and trapping effectiveness of the design as well as the reversibility of the system on 10 μm polystyrene beads. Experimental verification used an array of 96 traps in an area of 420 × 420 μm2, reaching a trapping efficiency of 63% when 7 Vpp is applied to the electrodes under 80 nl min-1 flow rate conditions, and 98% of bead release when the voltage is turned off.

  20. Monitoring the permeabilization of a single cell in a microfluidic device, through the estimation of its dielectric properties based on combined dielectrophoresis and electrorotation in situ experiments.

    PubMed

    Trainito, Claudia Irene; Français, Olivier; Le Pioufle, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    The electric field is commonly used in microdevices to handle, treat, or monitor living cells for various biological or biomedical applications (cells electrofusion, gene electrotransfer, drugs injection, cell sorting, …). Dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces, using stationary waves (conventional DEP) or traveling waves, are widely used for the cell handling or sorting. Electrorotation, which is induced by a rotating electrical field, is used for the determination of cell dielectric parameters. The application of pulsed electric field (PEF) results in the cell membrane permeabilization that might allow the transfer of various molecules in the cytoplasm. In this paper, we propose a method to monitor in situ the level of electropermeabilization induced by PEF application on a single cell, by combining the dielectrophoresis force and the electrorotation torque within a microfluidic device. The method was experimented on two different cell lines (human leukemic T-cell lymphoblast and murine melanoma cell): a single cell is captured by dielectrophoresis while its dielectric properties (both permittivity and conductivity of cytoplasm and membrane) are estimated thanks to a rotating electric field, which is applied simultaneously. The permeabilization effect of PEF, applied to the single cell trapped in such conditions in the biodevice, could be monitored by the estimation of its dielectric properties before and after pulse application. PMID:25641658

  1. Development of flow through dielectrophoresis microfluidic chips for biofuel production: Sorting and detection of microalgae with different lipid contents

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yu-Luen; Kuo, Mei-Yi; Juang, Yi-Je

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a continuous flow dielectrophoresis (DEP) microfluidic chip was fabricated and utilized to sort out the microalgae (C. vulgaris) with different lipid contents. The proposed separation scheme is to allow that the microalgae with different lipid contents experience different negative or no DEP force at the separation electrode pair under the pressure-driven flow. The microalgae that experience stronger negative DEP will be directed to the side channel while those experience less negative or no DEP force will pass through the separation electrode pair to remain in the main channel. It was found that the higher the lipid content inside the microalgae, the higher the crossover frequency. Separation of the microalgae with 13% and 21% lipid contents, and 24% and 30%–35% lipid contents was achieved at the operating frequency 7 MHz, and 10 MHz, respectively. Moreover, separation can be further verified by measurement of the fluorescence intensity of the neutral lipid inside the sorted algal cells. PMID:25553195

  2. Interplay of induced charge electroosmosis, electrothermal flow, and dielectrophoresis at insulating constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingari, Naga Neehar; Wang, Qianru; Buie, Cullen

    2014-11-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study on the combined influence of induced charge electroosmotic flow (ICEO) and electrothermal flow on particle motion in an insulator based dielectrophoretic (iDEP) device. Strong electric fields used for particle trapping induce charges on the channel wall of low, but finite permittivity, and also induce strong temperature gradients because of Joule heating. Consequently, the background fluid flow near the constriction is a superposition of these two effects. Our analysis presents a hitherto unexplored interplay between these two effects and how they influence particles which also experience dielectrophoresis. From our analysis, we find that for channels of low surface permittivity and conductivity, electrothermal effects are stronger near the constriction compared to ICEO effects, while the opposite is true when the surface permittivity or conductivity (or both) are comparable to that of bulk fluid. The analysis also includes the pH and electrolyte concentration dependent contributions of the dynamic Stern layer on ICEO flow.

  3. Multi-stage separations based on dielectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-07-13

    A system utilizing multi-stage traps based on dielectrophoresis. Traps with electrodes arranged transverse to the flow and traps with electrodes arranged parallel to the flow with combinations of direct current and alternating voltage are used to trap, concentrate, separate, and/or purify target particles.

  4. Scalable dielectrophoresis of single walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzhugh, William A.

    Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) have attracted much attention as a candidate material for future nano-scale 'beyond silicon' devices. However industrial scale operations have been impeded by difficulties in separating the metallic and semiconducting species. This paper addresses the use of highly inhomogeneous alternating electric fields, dielectrophoresis, to isolate SWNT species in scaled systems. Both numerical and experimental methods will be discussed.

  5. Label-free detection of multidrug resistance in K562 cells through isolated 3D-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Yağmur; Koyuncuoğlu, Aziz; Erdem, Murat; Özgür, Ebru; Gündüz, Ufuk; Külah, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP), a technique used to separate particles based on different sizes and/or dielectric properties under nonuniform electric field, is a promising method to be applied in label-free, rapid, and effective cell manipulation and separation. In this study, a microelectromechanical systems-based, isolated 3D-electrode DEP device has been designed and implemented for the label-free detection of multidrug resistance in K562 leukemia cells, based on the differences in their cytoplasmic conductivities. Cells were hydrodynamically focused to the 3D-electrode arrays, placed on the side walls of the microchannel, through V-shaped parylene-C obstacles. 3D-electrodes extruded along the z-direction provide uniformly distributed DEP force through channel depth. Cell suspension containing resistant and sensitive cancer cells with 1:100 ratio was continuously flown through the channel at a rate of 10 μL/min. Detection was realized at 48.64 MHz, the cross-over frequency of sensitive K562 cells, at which sensitive cells flow with the fluid, while the resistant ones are trapped by positive DEP force. Device can be operated at considerably low voltages (<9 Vpp ). This is achieved by means of a very thin (0.5 μm) parylene coating on electrodes, providing the advantages offered by the isolation of electrodes from the sample, while the working voltage can still be kept low. Results prove that the presented DEP device can provide an efficient platform for the detection of multidrug resistance in leukemia, in a label-free manner. PMID:25781271

  6. Isolation and enrichment of low abundant particles with insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    LaLonde, Alexandra; Romero-Creel, Maria F; Saucedo-Espinosa, Mario A; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2015-11-01

    Isolation and enrichment of low-abundant particles are essential steps in many bio-analytical and clinical applications. In this work, the capability of an insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) device for the detection and stable capture of low abundant polystyrene particles and yeast cells was evaluated. Binary and tertiary mixtures of particles and cells were tested, where the low-abundant particles had concentration ratios on the order of 1:10 000 000 compared to the other particles present in the mixture. The results demonstrated successful and stable capture and enrichment of rare particles and cells (trapping efficiencies over 99%), where particles remained trapped in a stable manner for up to 4 min. A device with four reservoirs was employed for the separation and enrichment of rare particles, where the particles of interest were first selectively concentrated and then effectively directed to a side port for future collection and analysis. The present study demonstrates that simple iDEP devices have appropriate screening capacity and can be used for handling samples containing rare particles; achieving both enrichment and isolation of low-abundant particles and cells. PMID:26674134

  7. Dielectrophoresis-Assisted Raman Spectroscopy of Intravesicular Analytes on Metallic Pyramids.

    PubMed

    Barik, Avijit; Cherukulappurath, Sudhir; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Johnson, Timothy W; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Chemical analysis of membrane-bound containers such as secretory vesicles, organelles, and exosomes can provide insights into subcellular biology. These containers are loaded with a range of important biomolecules, which further underscores the need for sensitive and selective analysis methods. Here we present a metallic pyramid array for intravesicular analysis by combining site-selective dielectrophoresis (DEP) and Raman spectroscopy. Sharp pyramidal tips act as a gradient force generator to trap nanoparticles or vesicles from the solution, and the tips are illuminated by a monochromatic light source for concurrent spectroscopic detection of trapped analytes. The parameters suitable for DEP trapping were optimized by fluorescence microscopy, and the Raman spectroscopy setup was characterized by a nanoparticle based model system. Finally, vesicles loaded with 4-mercaptopyridine were concentrated at the tips and their Raman spectra were detected in real time. These pyramidal tips can perform large-area array-based trapping and spectroscopic analysis, opening up possibilities to detect molecules inside cells or cell-derived vesicles. PMID:26751756

  8. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on dielectrophoresis induced diffusion limited aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Faisal Khair

    Wires formed by diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) induced by dielectrophoresis (DEP) of gold nanoparticles were investigated as an effective sample preparation method for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Thymine was used as a test molecule and its SERS was measured to investigate the effectiveness of this technique that reproducibly resulted in x10 9 enhancement. It is known that molecules adsorbed near or at the surface of certain nanostructures produce strongly increased Raman signals and such phenomena is attributed to the concentration of electromagnetic (EM) optical fields at "hotspots" that usually occur at nanoscale junctions or clefts in metal nanostructures. Similarly, the enhancement obtained is attributed to the localized surface Plasmon's of the gold nanoparticles and the formation of "hotspots" in DEP wires. There are other methods that reproducibly yield in excess of x108 enhancement in SERS using tunable lasers and very elaborate Raman spectroscopy. The results presented here are obtained using a fixed laser excitation source at 785 nm and a simple spectrometer (5 cm-1 resolution).

  9. Dielectrophoresis-Mediated Electrodeformation as a Means of Determining Individual Platelet Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu Ling; Lu, Yi; Bluestein, Danny; Slepian, Marvin J

    2016-04-01

    Platelets, essential for hemostasis, are easily activated via biochemical and mechanical stimuli. Cell stiffness is a vital parameter modulating the mechano-transduction of exogenous mechanical stimuli. While methods exist to measure cell stiffness, no ready method exists for measuring platelet stiffness that is both minimally-contacting, imparting minimal exogenous force and non-activating. We developed a minimal-contact methodology capable of trapping and measuring the stiffness of individual platelets utilizing dielectrophoresis (DEP)-mediated electrodeformation. Parametric studies demonstrate a non-uniform electric field in the MHz frequency range (0.2-20 MHz) is required for generating effective DEP forces on platelets, suspended in isotonic buffer with conductivity ~100-200 μS/cm. A nano-Newton DEP force (0.125-4.5 nN) was demonstrated to be essential for platelet electrodeformation, which could be generated with an electric field with strength of 1.5-9 V/μm. Young's moduli of platelets were calculated using a Maxwell stress tensor model and stress-deformation relationship. Platelet stiffness was determined to be in the range of 3.5 ± 1.4 and 8.5 ± 1.5 kPa for resting and 0.4% paraformaldehyde-treated cells, respectively. The developed methodology fills a gap in approaches of measuring individual platelet stiffness, free of inadvertent platelet activation, which will facilitate further studies of mechanisms involved in mechanically-mediated platelet activation. PMID:26202677

  10. Fabrication of continuous flow microfluidics device with 3D electrode structures for high throughput DEP applications using mechanical machining.

    PubMed

    Zeinali, Soheila; Çetin, Barbaros; Oliaei, Samad Nadimi Bavil; Karpat, Yiğit

    2015-07-01

    Microfluidics is the combination of micro/nano fabrication techniques with fluid flow at microscale to pursue powerful techniques in controlling and manipulating chemical and biological processes. Sorting and separation of bio-particles are highly considered in diagnostics and biological analyses. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has offered unique advantages for microfluidic devices. In DEP devices, asymmetric pair of planar electrodes could be employed to generate non-uniform electric fields. In DEP applications, facing 3D sidewall electrodes is considered to be one of the key solutions to increase device throughput due to the generated homogeneous electric fields along the height of microchannels. Despite the advantages, fabrication of 3D vertical electrodes requires a considerable challenge. In this study, two alternative fabrication techniques have been proposed for the fabrication of a microfluidic device with 3D sidewall electrodes. In the first method, both the mold and the electrodes are fabricated using high precision machining. In the second method, the mold with tilted sidewalls is fabricated using high precision machining and the electrodes are deposited on the sidewall using sputtering together with a shadow mask fabricated by electric discharge machining. Both fabrication processes are assessed as highly repeatable and robust. Moreover, the two methods are found to be complementary with respect to the channel height. Only the manipulation of particles with negative-DEP is demonstrated in the experiments, and the throughput values up to 105 particles / min is reached in a continuous flow. The experimental results are compared with the simulation results and the limitations on the fabrication techniques are also discussed. PMID:25808433

  11. DIELECTROPHORESIS-BASED MICROFLUIDIC SEPARATION AND DETECTION SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Vykoukal, Jody; Noshari, Jamileh; Becker, Frederick; Gascoyne, Peter; Krulevitch, Peter; Fuller, Chris; Ackler, Harold; Hamilton, Julie; Boser, Bernhard; Eldredge, Adam; Hitchens, Duncan; Andrews, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of human diseases frequently requires isolation and detection of certain cell types from a complex mixture. Compared with traditional separation and detection techniques, microfluidic approaches promise to yield easy-to-use diagnostic instruments tolerant of a wide range of operating environments and capable of accomplishing automated analyses. These approaches will enable diagnostic advances to be disseminated from sophisticated clinical laboratories to the point-of-care. Applications will include the separation and differential analysis of blood cell subpopulations for host-based detection of blood cell changes caused by disease, infection, or exposure to toxins, and the separation and analysis of surface-sensitized, custom dielectric beads for chemical, biological, and biomolecular targets. Here we report a new particle separation and analysis microsystem that uses dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF). The system consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated sample injector, a DEP-FFF separator, and an AC impedance sensor. We show the design of a miniaturized impedance sensor integrated circuit (IC) with improved sensitivity, a new packaging approach for micro-flumes that features a slide-together compression package and novel microfluidic interconnects, and the design, control, integration and packaging of a fieldable prototype. Illustrative applications will be shown, including the separation of different sized beads and different cell types, blood cell differential analysis, and impedance sensing results for beads, spores and cells. PMID:22025905

  12. Dielectrophoresis of gold nanoparticles conjugated to DNA origami structures

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Matthew; Lakatos, Mathias; Heerwig, Andreas; Ostermaier, Frieder; Haufe, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Summary DNA nanostructures are promising construction materials to bridge the gap between self-assembly of functional molecules and conventional top-down fabrication methods in nanotechnology. Their positioning onto specific locations of a microstructured substrate is an important task towards this aim. Here we study manipulation and positioning of pristine and of gold nanoparticle-conjugated tubular DNA origami structures using ac dielectrophoresis. The dielectrophoretic behavior was investigated employing fluorescence microscopy. For the pristine origami, a significant dielectrophoretic response was found to take place in the megahertz range, whereas, due to the higher polarizability of the metallic nanoparticles, the nanoparticle/DNA hybrid structures required a lower electrical field strength and frequency for a comparable trapping at the edges of the electrode structure. The nanoparticle conjugation additionally resulted in a remarkable alteration of the DNA structure arrangement. The growth of linear, chain-like structures in between electrodes at applied frequencies in the megahertz range was observed. The long-range chain formation is caused by a local, gold nanoparticle-induced field concentration along the DNA nanostructures, which in turn, creates dielectrophoretic forces that enable the observed self-alignment of the hybrid structures. PMID:27547612

  13. Dielectrophoresis of gold nanoparticles conjugated to DNA origami structures.

    PubMed

    Henning-Knechtel, Anja; Wiens, Matthew; Lakatos, Mathias; Heerwig, Andreas; Ostermaier, Frieder; Haufe, Nora; Mertig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    DNA nanostructures are promising construction materials to bridge the gap between self-assembly of functional molecules and conventional top-down fabrication methods in nanotechnology. Their positioning onto specific locations of a microstructured substrate is an important task towards this aim. Here we study manipulation and positioning of pristine and of gold nanoparticle-conjugated tubular DNA origami structures using ac dielectrophoresis. The dielectrophoretic behavior was investigated employing fluorescence microscopy. For the pristine origami, a significant dielectrophoretic response was found to take place in the megahertz range, whereas, due to the higher polarizability of the metallic nanoparticles, the nanoparticle/DNA hybrid structures required a lower electrical field strength and frequency for a comparable trapping at the edges of the electrode structure. The nanoparticle conjugation additionally resulted in a remarkable alteration of the DNA structure arrangement. The growth of linear, chain-like structures in between electrodes at applied frequencies in the megahertz range was observed. The long-range chain formation is caused by a local, gold nanoparticle-induced field concentration along the DNA nanostructures, which in turn, creates dielectrophoretic forces that enable the observed self-alignment of the hybrid structures. PMID:27547612

  14. Higher-order dielectrophoresis of nonspherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nili, Hossein; Green, Nicolas G.

    2014-06-01

    Higher-order terms of dielectrophoretic (DEP) force are commonly ignored by invoking the simplifying dipole approximation. Concurrently, the trend towards micro- and nano-electrode structures in DEP design is bringing about an increasing number of instances where the approximation is expected to lose reliability. The case is severe for nonspherical particles (the shape of many biological particles) due to the shape-dependent nature of dielectric polarization. However, there is a lack of analytical means to determine multipole moments of nonspherical particles, numerical calculations of the same are regarded as unreliable, and there is a prevalence for higher-order force considerations to be ignored. As a result, the dipole approximation is used and/or nonspherical particles are approximated as spheres. This work proves the inefficacy of current qualitative criteria for the reliability of the dipole approximation and presents a quantitative substitute, with verified accuracy, that enables precise determination of the extent to which the dipole approximation would be reliable, and if found unreliable, corrects the approximation by adding second- and third-order terms of the DEP force. The effects of field nonuniformity, electrode design, and particle shape and aspect ratio on the significance of higher-order DEP forces is quantitatively analyzed. The results show that higher-order DEP forces are indeed of substantially increased significance for nonspherical particles; in the cases examined in this work, multipolar terms are seen to constitute more than 40% of the total force on ellipsoidal and cylindrical particles. It is further shown that approximating nonspherical particles as spheres of similar dimensions is subject to substantial error. Last, the substantial importance of the electrode design in influencing higher-order forces is shown.

  15. Alternating current dielectrophoresis of core-shell nanoparticles: Experiments and comparison with theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chungja

    Nanoparticles are fascinating where physical and optical properties are related to size. Highly controllable synthesis methods and nanoparticle assembly are essential for highly innovative technological applications. Well-defined shaped and sized nanoparticles enable comparisons between experiments, theory and subsequent new models to explain experimentally observed phenomena. Among nanoparticles, nonhomogeneous core-shell nanoparticles (CSnp) have new properties that arise when varying the relative dimensions of the core and the shell. This CSnp structure enables various optical resonances, and engineered energy barriers, in addition to the high charge to surface ratio. Assembly of homogeneous nanoparticles into functional structures has become ubiquitous in biosensors (i.e. optical labeling), nanocoatings, and electrical circuits. Limited nonhomogenous nanoparticle assembly has only been explored. Many conventional nanoparticle assembly methods exist, but this work explores dielectrophoresis (DEP) as a new method. DEP is particle polarization via non-uniform electric fields while suspended in conductive fluids. Most prior DEP efforts involve microscale particles. Prior work on core-shell nanoparticle assemblies and separately, nanoparticle characterizations with dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, did not systematically explore particle size, dielectric properties (permittivity and electrical conductivity), shell thickness, particle concentration, medium conductivity, and frequency. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to systematically examine these dielectrophoretic properties for core-shell nanoparticles. Further, we conduct a parametric fitting to traditional core-shell models. These biocompatible core-shell nanoparticles were studied to fill a knowledge gap in the DEP field. Experimental results (chapter 5) first examine medium conductivity, size and shell material dependencies of dielectrophoretic behaviors of spherical CSnp into 2D and

  16. Screening of antibiotic susceptibility to β-lactam-induced elongation of Gram-negative bacteria based on dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheng-Che; Cheng, I-Fang; Chen, Hung-Mo; Kan, Heng-Chuan; Yang, Wen-Horng; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate a rapid antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) based on the changes in dielectrophoretic (DEP) behaviors related to the β-lactam-induced elongation of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) on a quadruple electrode array (QEA). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) can be determined within 2 h by observing the changes in the positive-DEP frequency (pdf) and cell length of GNB under the cefazolin (CEZ) treatment. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the CEZ are used as the sample bacteria and antibiotic respectively. The bacteria became filamentous due to the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and cell division and cell lysis occurred for the higher antibiotic dose. According to the results, the pdfs of wild type bacteria decrease to hundreds of kHz and the cell length is more than 10 μm when the bacterial growth is inhibited by the CEZ treatment. In addition, the growth of wild type bacteria and drug resistant bacteria differ significantly. There is an obvious decrease in the number of wild type bacteria but not in the number of drug resistant bacteria. Thus, the drug resistance of GNB to β-lactam antibiotics can be rapidly assessed. Furthermore, the MIC determined using dielectrophoresis-based AST (d-AST) was consistent with the results of the broth dilution method. Utilizing this approach could reduce the time needed for bacteria growth from days to hours, help physicians to administer appropriate antibiotic dosages, and reduce the possibility of the occurrence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. PMID:22404714

  17. Nanoparticles trapping from flue gas using dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neculae, Adrian; Strambeanu, Nicolae; Lungu, Antoanetta; Bunoiu, Madalin; Lungu, Mihai

    2015-12-01

    The paper first presents a mathematical model which describes the effect of dielectrophoretic forces on the nanoparticles suspended in gaseous environment, together with a set of numerical results obtained in the frame of this model. Next, an experimental microfluidic device with interdigitated bar electrodes for retaining of nanometric particles from combustion gases under dielectrophoresis is described. The particles deposited on the electrodes of the experimental device are analysed using a reflection metallographic microscope with CCD camera together with a data analysis system. The experimental results are analysed in terms of a new trapping parameter, named as Filtration. Finally, a comparison between the theoretical results provided by numerical simulations and the experimental results on the deposition of nanoparticles on electrodes is given. The comparison demonstrates a good agreement between the two types of results.

  18. Dielectrophoresis-assisted 3D nanoelectroporation for non-viral cell transfection in adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lingqian; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Zhao, Xi; Bertani, Paul; Yang, Zhaogang; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Malkoc, Veysi; Shi, Junfeng; Sen, Chandan K; Odonnell, Lynn; Yu, Jianhua; Lu, Wu; Lee, L James

    2015-08-01

    Current transfection technologies lead to significant inter-clonal variations. Previously we introduced a unique electrotransfection technology, Nanochannel-Electroporation (NEP), which can precisely and benignly transfect small cell populations (~100-200 cells) with single-cell resolution. Here we report on the development of a novel 3D NEP system for large scale transfection. A properly-engineered array of nanochannels, capable of handling/transfecting ~60 000 cells cm(-2), was fabricated using cleanroom technologies. Positive dielectrophoresis was used to selectively position cells on the nanochannels, thus allowing highly efficient transfection. Single-cell dosage control was demonstrated using both small and large molecules, and different cell types. The potential clinical relevance of this system was tested with difficult-to-transfect natural killer cell suspensions, and plasmids encoding for the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), a model of high relevance for adoptive immunotherapy. Our results show significantly higher CAR transfection efficiencies for the DEP-NEP system (>70% vs. <30%), as well as enhanced cell viabilities. PMID:26105628

  19. Alteration of pulmonary immunity to Listeria monocytogenes by diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). I. Effects of DEPs on early pulmonary responses.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xue-Jun; Schafer, Rosana; Ma, Jane Y C; Antonini, James M; Weissman, David D; Siegel, Paul D; Barger, Mark W; Roberts, Jenny R; Ma, Joseph K-H

    2002-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) aggravate pulmonary bacterial infection by both innate and cell-mediated immune mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of DEP exposure on the functions of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and lymphocytes from lung-draining lymph nodes using a rat Listeria monocytogenes infection model. In the present study, we focused on the effects of DEP exposure on AM functions, including phagocytic activity and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The Listeria infection model was characterized by an increase in neutrophil count, albumin content, and acellular lactate dehydrogenase activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid at 3 and 7 days postinfection. Short-term DEP inhalation (50 and 100 mg/m(3), 4 hr) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of lung clearance of Listeria, with the highest bacteria count occurring at day 3. This aggravated bacterial infection was consistent with the inhibitory effect of DEPs on macrophage functions. DEPs suppressed phagocytosis and Listeria-induced basal secretion of interleukin-1ss (IL-1ss) and IL-12 by AMs in a dose-dependent manner. The amount of IL-1ss and IL-12 in the BAL fluid was also reduced by DEP exposure. In addition, DEPs decreased Listeria-induced lipopolysaccharide-stimulated secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1ss, and IL-12 from AMs. These results suggest that DEPs retard bacterial clearance by inhibiting AM phagocytosis and weaken the innate immunity by inhibiting AM secretion of IL-1ss and TNF-alpha. DEPs may also suppress cell-mediated immunity by inhibiting AM secretion of IL-12, a key cytokine for the initiation of T helper type 1 cell development in Listeria infection. PMID:12417481

  20. Construction of biofilms with defined internal architecture using dielectrophoresis and flocculation.

    PubMed

    Verduzco-Luque, Cynthia E; Alp, Burçak; Stephens, Gillian M; Markx, Gerard H

    2003-07-01

    A novel approach was developed for the construction of biofilms with defined internal architecture using AC electrokinetics and flocculation. Artificial structured microbial consortia (ASMC) consisting of localized layered microcolonies of different cell types were formed by sequentially attracting different cell types to high field regions near microelectrodes using dielectrophoresis. Stabilization of the microbial consortia on the electrode surface was achieved by crosslinking the cells using the flocculant polyethyleneimine (PEI). Consortia of Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were made as model systems. Also, more natural consortia were made of the bacteria Pseudomonas putida, Clavibacter michiganense, and Methylobacterium mesophilum, which are found together in consortia during biodegradation of metal-cutting waste fluids. PMID:12740931

  1. Directed Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires over Large Area by Dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, R; Kundu, Subhajit; Pradhan, Avradip; Sai, T Phanindra; Ghosh, Arindam; Ravishankar, N

    2015-08-25

    Ultrathin Au nanowires (∼2 nm diameter) are interesting from a fundamental point of view to study structure and electronic transport and also hold promise in the field of nanoelectronics, particularly for sensing applications. Device fabrication by direct growth on various substrates has been useful in demonstrating some of the potential applications. However, the realization of practical devices requires device fabrication strategies that are fast, inexpensive, and efficient. Herein, we demonstrate directed assembly of ultrathin Au nanowires over large areas across electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis with a mechanistic understanding of the process. On the basis of the voltage and frequency, the wires either align in between or across the contact pads. We exploit this assembly to produce an array of contacting wires for statistical estimation of electrical transport with important implications for future nanoelectronic/sensor applications. PMID:26255906

  2. High precision attachment of silver nanoparticles on AFM tips by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Leiterer, Christian; Wünsche, Erik; Singh, Prabha; Albert, Jens; Köhler, Johann M; Deckert, Volker; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    AFM tips are modified with silver nanoparticles using an AC electrical field. The used technique works with sub-micron precision and also does not require chemical modification of the tip. Based on the electrical parameters applied in the process, particle density and particle position on the apex of the tip can be adjusted. The feasibility of the method is proven by subsequent tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) measurements using the fabricated tips as a measurement probe. Since this modification process itself does not require any lithographic processing, the technique can be easily adapted to modify AFM tips with a variety of nanostructures with pre-defined properties, while being parallelizable for a potential commercial application. Graphical abstract Silver nanoparticles attached to AFM tips using dielectrophoresis. Comparing nanoparticles attached using 1 kHz (left) to 1 MHz (right), SEM and optical (inset) images. PMID:26968565

  3. A Microdata Model of Delayed Entry Program (DEP) Behavior. Technical Report 666.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Chester E.; Schmitz, Edward J.

    High personnel loss rates among recruits who have signed up for the Army's Delayed Entry Program (DEP) are becoming an increasing problem for DEP program managers. Therefore, a research project was conducted to examine DEP loss as a function of sociodemography and policy variables at the microdata level. Two DEP loss models were created. The first…

  4. Nanoslit design for ion conductivity gradient enhanced dielectrophoresis for ultrafast biomarker enrichment in physiological media.

    PubMed

    Rohani, Ali; Varhue, Walter; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Chou, Chia-Fu; Swami, Nathan S

    2016-05-01

    Selective and rapid enrichment of biomolecules is of great interest for biomarker discovery, protein crystallization, and in biosensing for speeding assay kinetics and reducing signal interferences. The current state of the art is based on DC electrokinetics, wherein localized ion depletion at the microchannel to nanochannel interface is used to enhance electric fields, and the resulting biomarker electromigration is balanced against electro-osmosis in the microchannel to cause high degrees of biomarker enrichment. However, biomarker enrichment is not selective, and the levels fall off within physiological media of high conductivity, due to a reduction in ion concentration polarization and electro-osmosis effects. Herein, we present a methodology for coupling AC electrokinetics with ion concentration polarization effects in nanoslits under DC fields, for enabling ultrafast biomarker enrichment in physiological media. Using AC fields at the critical frequency necessary for negative dielectrophoresis of the biomarker of interest, along with a critical offset DC field to create proximal ion accumulation and depletion regions along the perm-selective region inside a nanoslit, we enhance the localized field and field gradient to enable biomarker enrichment over a wide spatial extent along the nanoslit length. While enrichment under DC electrokinetics relies solely on ion depletion to enhance fields, this AC electrokinetic mechanism utilizes ion depletion as well as ion accumulation regions to enhance the field and its gradient. Hence, biomarker enrichment continues to be substantial in spite of the steady drop in nanostructure perm-selectivity within physiological media. PMID:27462378

  5. Numerical characterization of electrohydrodynamic micro- or nanopatterning processes based on a phase-field formulation of liquid dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hongmiao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Li, Xiangming; Liu, Hongzhong

    2013-04-16

    The electrohydrodynamic patterning of polymer is a unique technique for micro- and nanostructuring where an electric voltage is applied to an electrode pair consisting of a patterned template and a polymer-coated substrate either in contact or separated by an air gap to actuate the deformation of the rheological polymer. Depending on the template composition, three processes were proposed for implementing the EHDP technique and have received a great amount of attention (i.e., electrostatic force-assisted nanoimprint, dielectrophoresis-electrocapillary force-driven imprint, and electrically induced structure formation). A numerical approach, which is versatile for visualizing the full evolution of micro- or nanostructures in these patterning processes or their variants, is a desirable critical tool for optimizing the process variables in industrial applications of this structuring technique. Considering the fact that all of these processes use a dielectric and viscous polymer (behaving mechanically as a liquid) and are carried out in ambient air, this Article presents a generalized formulation for the numerical characterization of the EHDP processes by coupling liquid dielectrophoresis (L-DEP) and the phase field of the air-liquid dual phase. More importantly, some major scale effects, such as the surface tension, contact angle, liquid-solid interface slip, and non-Newtonian viscosity law are introduced, which can impact the accuracy of the numerical results, as shown experimentally by our electrical actuation of a dielectric microdroplet as a test problem. The numerical results are in good agreement with or are well explained by experimental observations published for the three EHDP processes. PMID:23506225

  6. Real-Time Analysis of Cellular Response to Small-Molecule Drugs within a Microfluidic Dielectrophoresis Device.

    PubMed

    Park, In Soo; Lee, Jaewoo; Lee, Gyudo; Nam, Kihwan; Lee, Taewoo; Chang, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hansung; Lee, Sei-Young; Seo, Jongbum; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Sang Woo

    2015-06-16

    Quantitative detection of the biological properties of living cells is essential for a wide range of purposes, from the understanding of cellular characteristics to the development of novel drugs in nanomedicine. Here, we demonstrate that analysis of cell biological properties within a microfluidic dielectrophoresis device enables quantitative detection of cellular biological properties and simultaneously allows large-scale measurement in a noise-robust and probeless manner. Applying this technique, the static and dynamic biological responses of live B16F10 melanoma cells to the small-molecule drugs such as N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and [(dihydronindenyl)oxy]alkanoic acid (DIOA) were quantitatively and statistically examined by investigating changes in movement of the cells. Measurement was achieved using subtle variations in dielectrophoresis (DEP) properties of the cells, which were attributed to activation or deactivation of K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter channels on the cell membrane by the small-molecule drugs, in a microfluidic device. On the basis of quantitative analysis data, we also provide the first report of the shift of the complex permittivity of a cell induced by the small-molecule drugs. In addition, we demonstrate interesting quantifiable parameters including the drug effectiveness coefficient, antagonistic interaction coefficient, kinetic rate, and full width at half-maximum, which corresponded to changes in biological properties of B16F10 cells over time when NEM and DIOA were introduced alone or in combination. Those demonstrated parameters represent very useful tools for evaluating the effect of small-molecule drugs on the biological properties of cells. PMID:25811309

  7. Fluidic Dielectrophoresis of Aqueous Electrical Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Zachary

    2014-11-01

    To date, alternating current (AC) electric fields have been exploited to dielectrophoretically manipulate bubbles, liquid drops, particles, biomolecules and cells. Research and applications in this area, however, has been primarily limited to the interfaces formed between two immiscible metal-liquid, particle-liquid, or gas-liquid surfaces on particles. The influence of AC electric fields across aqueous liquid-liquid interfaces remains relatively unexplored. Fundamentally, many electrokinetic phenomena arise from discontinuities in ionic flux and charge accumulation at electrical interfaces, and here I explore the influence of AC electric fields on the electrical interface created between two aqueous liquids with disparaging electrical properties Using a microfluidic channel with embedded electrodes, two fluid streams - one with a greater electrical conductivity, the other a greater dielectric constant - were made to flow side-by-side. An AC electric field was applied across the flow channel and fluid was observed to displace across the phase interface. The displacement direction is AC frequency dependent, and is attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization at the liquid-liquid electrical interface. At low AC frequency, below the interfacial charge relaxation time, the high conductive stream is observed to displace into the high dielectric stream. Above this frequency, the direction of liquid injection reverses, and the high dielectric stream injects into the high conductivity stream. An analytical model is presented for this liquid crossover frequency, and applied towards biosensing applications.

  8. Dielectrophoresis device and method having insulating ridges for manipulating particles

    DOEpatents

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.

    2008-03-25

    Embodiments of the present invention provide methods and devices for manipulating particles using dielectrophoresis. Insulating ridges and valleys are used to generate a spatially non-uniform electrical field. Particles may be concentrated, separated, or captured during bulk fluid flow in a channel having insulating ridges and valleys.

  9. Dynamic Dielectrophoresis Model of Multi-Phase Ionic Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ying; Luo, Jing; Guo, Dan; Wen, Shizhu

    2015-01-01

    Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids. PMID:25699513

  10. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Muratore, Massimo; Mitchell, Steve; Waterfall, Martin

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Dielectrophoretic separation/sorting of multipotent cells. •Plasma membrane microvilli structure of C2C12 and fibroblasts by SEM microscopy. •Cell cycle determination by Ki-67 in DEP-sorted cells. •Plasma membrane differences responsible for changes in membrane capacitance. -- Abstract: Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Development of a bio-microelectromechanical system device for axonal extension evaluation by PC12D patterning using a dielectrophoresis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamachi, Eiji; Murakami, Shinya; Koga, Hirotaka; Morita, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    We developed a bio-microelectromechanical system (bio-MEMS) device by combining the dielectrophoresis (DEP) method and MEMS technology that to trap a single PC12D (rat phenocromocytoma cell) for cell pattern formation to measure the axonal extension function. Our device could trap PC12Ds to assign bicells, with designed distances between two cells of 100, 200, and 300 μm. PC12Ds were injected into our bio-MEMS device using a micropipette. We observed the axonal extension using a time-lapse microscope to study the effect of the bicell distance on the axonal extension and connection ability. An alternative electric field (frequency: 10 MHz, voltage: 5 V) was applied for the PC12D DEP patterning. To keep the patterned PC12Ds on the electrode holes, water was injected using a microsyringe to sweep out excess cells, which remained outside the holes. An average single PC12D pattern ratio of 89.3% was achieved. The axonal extension ability was affected by the cell distance. PC12D bicell distances of 100 and 200 μm showed good connection ratios of 86.7% and 91.7%, respectively, where as a bicell distance of 300 μm showed a low-connection ratio of about 40.0%. We confirmed the applicability of our bio-MEMS device to bicell patterning and evaluated the cell extension function.

  12. Geometric and Material Determinants of Patterning Efficiency by Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Dirk R.; Sah, Robert L.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2004-01-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces have been used extensively to manipulate, separate, and localize biological cells and bioparticles via high-gradient electric fields. However, minimization of DEP exposure time is desirable, because of possible untoward effects on cell behavior. Toward this goal, this article investigates the geometric and material determinants of particle patterning kinetics and efficiency. In particular, the time required to achieve a steady-state pattern is theoretically modeled and experimentally validated for a planar, interdigitated bar electrode array energized in a standing-wave configuration. This measure of patterning efficiency is calculated from an improved Fourier series solution of DEP force, in which realistic boundary conditions and a finite chamber height are imposed to reflect typical microfluidic applications. The chamber height, electrode spacing, and fluid viscosity and conductivity are parameters that profoundly affect patterning efficiency, and optimization can reduce electric field exposure by orders of magnitude. Modeling strategies are generalizable to arbitrary electrode design as well as to conditions where DEP force may not act alone to cause particle motion. This improved understanding of DEP patterning kinetics provides a framework for new advances in the development of DEP-based biological devices and assays with minimal perturbation of cell behavior. PMID:15454417

  13. Geometric and material determinants of patterning efficiency by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Dirk R; Sah, Robert L; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2004-10-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces have been used extensively to manipulate, separate, and localize biological cells and bioparticles via high-gradient electric fields. However, minimization of DEP exposure time is desirable, because of possible untoward effects on cell behavior. Toward this goal, this article investigates the geometric and material determinants of particle patterning kinetics and efficiency. In particular, the time required to achieve a steady-state pattern is theoretically modeled and experimentally validated for a planar, interdigitated bar electrode array energized in a standing-wave configuration. This measure of patterning efficiency is calculated from an improved Fourier series solution of DEP force, in which realistic boundary conditions and a finite chamber height are imposed to reflect typical microfluidic applications. The chamber height, electrode spacing, and fluid viscosity and conductivity are parameters that profoundly affect patterning efficiency, and optimization can reduce electric field exposure by orders of magnitude. Modeling strategies are generalizable to arbitrary electrode design as well as to conditions where DEP force may not act alone to cause particle motion. This improved understanding of DEP patterning kinetics provides a framework for new advances in the development of DEP-based biological devices and assays with minimal perturbation of cell behavior. PMID:15454417

  14. Light induced DEP for immobilizing and orienting Escherichia coli bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccio, Lisa; Marchesano, Valentina; Mugnano, Martina; Grilli, Simonetta; Ferraro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating bacteria and understanding their behavior when interacting with different substrates are of fundamental importance for patterning, detection, and any other topics related to health-care, food-enterprise, etc. Here, we adopt an innovative dielectrophoretic (DEP) approach based on electrode-free DEP for investigating smart but simple strategies for immobilization and orientation of bacteria. Escherichia coli DH5-alpha strain has been selected as subject of the study. The light induced DEP is achieved through ferroelectric iron-doped lithium niobate crystals used as substrates. Due to the photorefractive (PR) property of such material, suitable light patterns allow writing spatial-charges-distribution inside its volume and the resultant electric fields are able to immobilize E. coli on the surface. The experiments showed that, after laser irradiation, about 80% of bacteria is blocked and oriented along a particular direction on the crystals within an area of few square centimeters. The investigation presented here could open the way for detection or patterning applications based on a new driving mechanism. Future perspectives also include the possibility to actively switch by light the DEP forces, through the writing/erasing characteristic of PR fields, to dynamically control biofilm spatial structure and arrangement.

  15. Developing Visual Novel Game of English Conversation for DEP EEPIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agusalim, Imam Dui

    2015-01-01

    English subjects become a big part of education curriculum in Indonesia taught from the elementary level, intermediate, and high included the Distance Learning (DEP). To meet the needs of the importance of English will require learning media can be: 1. Creating Independence learning; 2. Increase the motivation to learn; and 3. Improving the…

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Diethyl Phthalate (DEP) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In March 2014, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for DEP to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in co...

  17. Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP): The Relationship between Resilience and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Óscar Sánchez; Méndez, Francisco Xavier; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to describe and analyze a new test and construct, Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP), defined as the ability to observe adverse situations from various points of view. At the theoretical level, it is a bridge between the reformulated model of learned helplessness (as a resilience model), and creative…

  18. Direct numerical simulation of AC dielectrophoretic particle-particle interactive motions.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ye; Zeng, Zhenping; Qian, Shizhi

    2014-03-01

    Under an AC electric field, individual particles in close proximity induce spatially non-uniform electric field around each other, accordingly resulting in mutual dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces on these particles. The resulting attractive DEP particle-particle interaction could assemble individual colloidal particles or biological cells into regular patterns, which has become a promising bottom-up fabrication technique for bio-composite materials and microscopic functional structures. In this study, we developed a transient multiphysics model under the thin electric double layer (EDL) assumption, in which the fluid flow field, AC electric field and motion of finite-size particles are simultaneously solved using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) numerical approach. Numerical simulations show that negative DEP particle-particle interaction always tends to attract particles and form a chain parallel to the applied electric field. Particles usually accelerate at the first stage of the attractive motion due to an increase in the DEP interactive force, however, decelerate until stationary at the second stage due to a faster increase in the repulsive hydrodynamic force. Identical particles move at the same speed during the interactive motion. In contrast, smaller particles move faster than bigger particles during the attractive motion. The developed model explains the basic mechanism of AC DEP-based particle assembly technique and provides a versatile tool to design microfluidic devices for AC DEP-based particle or cell manipulation. PMID:24407661

  19. Reconfigurable liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides with dielectrophoresis-driven virtual microchannels on an electromicrofluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Lee, Hsuan-Ping; Chien, Chia-Chi; Lu, Yi-Wen; Chiu, Yi; Lin, Fan-Yi

    2016-03-01

    An electrically reconfigurable liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L(2)) optical waveguide with core liquid γ-butyrolactone (GBL, ncore = 1.4341, εcore = 39) and silicone oil (ncladding = 1.401, εcladding = 2.5) as cladding liquid is accomplished using dielectrophoresis (DEP) that attracts and deforms the core liquid with the greater permittivity to occupy the region of strong electric field provided by Teflon-coated ITO electrodes between parallel glass plates. Instead of continuously flowing core and cladding liquids along a physical microchannel, the DEP-formed L(2) optical waveguide guides light in a stationary virtual microchannel that requires liquids of limited volume without constant supply and creates stable liquid/liquid interfaces for efficient light guidance in a simply fabricated microfluidic device. We designed and examined (1) stationary and (2) moving L(2) optical waveguides on the parallel-plate electromicrofluidic platform. In the stationary L-shaped waveguide, light was guided in a GBL virtual microchannel core for a total of 27.85 mm via a 90° bend (radius 5 mm) before exiting from the light outlet of cross-sectional area 100 μm × 100 μm. For the stationary spiral waveguide, light was guided in a GBL core containing Rhodamine 6G (R6G, 1 mM) and through a series of 90° bends with decreasing radii from 5 mm to 2.5 mm. With the stationary straight waveguide, the propagation loss was measured to be 2.09 dB cm(-1) in GBL with R6G (0.01 mM). The moving L-shaped waveguide was implemented on a versatile electromicrofluidic platform on which electrowetting and DEP were employed to generate a precise GBL droplet and form a waveguide core. On sequentially applying appropriate voltage to one of three parallel L-shaped driving electrodes, the GBL waveguide core was shifted; the guided light was switched at a speed of up to 0.929 mm s(-1) (switching period 70 ms, switching rate 14.3 Hz) when an adequate electric signal (173.1 VRMS, 100 kHz) was applied. PMID

  20. INHALATION OF OZONE AND DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) INDUCES ACUTE AND REVERSIBLE CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently shown that episodic but not acute exposure to ozone or DEP induces vascular effects that are associated with the loss of cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acids (DEP 2.0 mg/m3 > ozone, 0.4 ppm). In this study we determined ozone and DEP-induced cardiac gen...

  1. Method and Apparatus for Separating Particles by Dielectrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pant, Kapil (Inventor); Wang, Yi (Inventor); Bhatt, Ketan (Inventor); Prabhakarpandian, Balabhasker (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Particle separation apparatus separate particles and particle populations using dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces generated by one or more pairs of electrically coupled electrodes separated by a gap. Particles suspended in a fluid are separated by DEP forces generated by the at least one electrode pair at the gap as they travel over a separation zone comprising the electrode pair. Selected particles are deflected relative to the flow of incoming particles by DEP forces that are affected by controlling applied potential, gap width, and the angle linear gaps with respect to fluid flow. The gap between an electrode pair may be a single, linear gap of constant gap, a single linear gap having variable width, or a be in the form of two or more linear gaps having constant or variable gap width having different angles with respect to one another and to the flow.

  2. Dielectrophoresis-Based Sample Handling in General-Purpose Programmable Diagnostic Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Vykoukal, Jody V.

    2009-01-01

    As the molecular origins of disease are better understood, the need for affordable, rapid, and automated technologies that enable microscale molecular diagnostics has become apparent. Widespread use of microsystems that perform sample preparation and molecular analysis could ensure that the benefits of new biomedical discoveries are realized by a maximum number of people, even those in environments lacking any infrastructure. While progress has been made in developing miniaturized diagnostic systems, samples are generally processed off-device using labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional sample preparation methods. We present the concept of an integrated programmable general-purpose sample analysis processor (GSAP) architecture where raw samples are routed to separation and analysis functional blocks contained within a single device. Several dielectrophoresis-based methods that could serve as the foundation for building GSAP functional blocks are reviewed including methods for cell and particle sorting, cell focusing, cell ac impedance analysis, cell lysis, and the manipulation of molecules and reagent droplets. PMID:19684877

  3. Experimental and theoretical analysis of DEP-based particle deflection for the separation of protein-bound particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Lim, Geon-Gyu; Lee, Hyang-Beom; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical analysis of dielectrophoretic (DEP) particle deflection in a microfluidic channel for the separation of protein-bound particles. A 2D electrode array with widely spaced bars is designed to deflect a particle at the exit of the fluidic channel by negative DEP force. When particles pass through the channel, the particle streams are deflected differently depending on the DEP characteristics of the particles. In this paper, we propose methodologies to characterize the DEP force with the deflection distance using comparative analyses of a simulation and an experiment. The deflection distances of the particles are measured as a function of the ac voltage applied and compared with full 3D simulations. The Clausius-Mossotti (CM) factor of a protein-bound particle is analyzed, based on frequency-dependent deflection distance data measured experimentally, and protein-bound particles are separated from a mixture with nonbound particles in a real application. Two particle groups, 2.3 µm and 6.4 µm polystyrene particles, were used for the simulation and experimental study, and the 6.4 µm diameter particles were selected as an adequate protein-binding substrate for the application of biomolecular detection. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a test target protein. The particle's BSA binding is identified by the change in the particle's deflection distance. In particular, we used 1 wt% BSA as a target protein sample to investigate the deflection of 6.4 µm diameter particles as a function of protein concentration. The frequency-dependent CM factor curves for BSA-bound and nonbound particles are also calculated theoretically. Therefore, this paper shows a model analytic study on the biomolecular detection performance of a fabricated DEP-deflection microsystem. In addition, we present further significant analyses such as calculation of the electrical surface conductance of BSA around a particle, and we trace simulation errors. The

  4. Manipulation of self-assembly amyloid peptide nanotubes by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jaime; Tanzi, Simone; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie

    2008-12-01

    Self-assembled amyloid peptide nanotubes (SAPNT) were manipulated and immobilized using dielectrophoresis. Micro-patterned electrodes of Au were fabricated by photolithography and lifted off on a silicon dioxide layer. SAPNT were manipulated by adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the applied voltage. The immobilized SAPNT were evaluated by SEM and atomic force microscopy. The conductivity of the immobilized SAPNT was studied by I-V characterization, for both single SAPNT and bundles. This work illustrates a way to manipulate and integrate biological nanostructures into novel bio-nanoassemblies with concrete applications, such as field-effect transistors, microprobes, microarrays, and biosensing devices. PMID:19130587

  5. Suspended InAs nanowire Josephson junctions assembled via dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, D; Stornaiuolo, D; Massarotti, D; Ercolani, D; Sorba, L; Beltram, F; Tafuri, F; Roddaro, S

    2015-09-25

    We present a novel technique for the realization of suspended Josephson junctions based on InAs semiconductor nanowires. The devices are assembled using a technique of drop-casting guided by dielectrophoresis, which allows one to finely align the nanostructures on top of the electrodes. The proposed architecture removes the interaction between the nanowire and the substrate which is known to influence disorder and the orientation of the Rashba vector. The relevance of this approach in view of the implementation of hybrid Josephson junctions based on semiconducting nanowires coupled with high-temperature superconductors is discussed. PMID:26335273

  6. Suspended InAs nanowire Josephson junctions assembled via dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemurro, D.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Massarotti, D.; Ercolani, D.; Sorba, L.; Beltram, F.; Tafuri, F.; Roddaro, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel technique for the realization of suspended Josephson junctions based on InAs semiconductor nanowires. The devices are assembled using a technique of drop-casting guided by dielectrophoresis, which allows one to finely align the nanostructures on top of the electrodes. The proposed architecture removes the interaction between the nanowire and the substrate which is known to influence disorder and the orientation of the Rashba vector. The relevance of this approach in view of the implementation of hybrid Josephson junctions based on semiconducting nanowires coupled with high-temperature superconductors is discussed.

  7. Dielectrophoresis and its application to biomedical diagnostics platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basuray, Sagnik

    Novel pathogenic diagnostics and on field devices to attest their growth have been the current norm of scientific research and curiosity. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics have recently been on the forefront of the development of these devices for their inherent advantages of large surface to volume ratio and small diffusion times. With the advancement of soft lithographic techniques, the devices can be easily adapted for medical systems and bio-diagnostic devices to study mechanistic pathways of bio-molecules, bio-chemical reactions and as delivery modules for drug. However, the lack of better sensors, other than optics, to detect low bio-particle numbers in real samples have made the instruments bulky, expensive and not suitable for field use. Thus there is an urgent need to develop label-free, portable, inexpensive, rapid diagnostic devices. In order to achieve a viable device, researchers in these fields have been using dielectrophoresis as the mechanism of choice for a variety of tasks, from particle manipulation, to delivery, to movement of the particles through the fluid. However, the exact physical mechanism for not only the dielectrophoresis of the colloidal assembly is unclear, but the dielectrophoresis of single bio-particles/charged nano-colloids is not understood fully. In this thesis, I present a theory for charged nano-colloid dielectrophoresis taking into account the surface charge and Debye double layer effects. The exact mechanism of the origin of the Stern layer, through the surface conductance effect of a nano-colloid to form a collapsed diffuse layer that renders a nano-colloid conductive at sub-optical frequency has been formulated. This effect is utilized to optimize a nano-colloid assay to detect DNA hybridization. The collapsed diffuse layer kinetics with thick diffuse layer is solved, using spherical harmonics of the Bessel solution of the Poisson equation, to give a modified Clausius-Mosotti factor, that accounts for the size dependent

  8. Dielectrophoresis-based classification of cells using multi-target multiple-hypothesis tracking.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Samuel J; Chiarulli, Donald M; Levitan, Steven P; Carthel, Craig; Coraluppi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel methodology for classifying cells by using a combination of dielectrophoresis, image tracking and classification algorithms. We use dielectrophoresis to induce unique motion patterns in cells of interest. Motion is extracted via multi-target multiple-hypothesis tracking. Trajectories are then used to classify cells based on a generalized likelihood ratio test. We present results of a simulation study and of our prototype tracking the dielectrophoretic velocities of cells. PMID:25570230

  9. Dielectrophoresis and electrorotation of neurospora slime and murine myeloma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gimsa, J; Marszalek, P; Loewe, U; Tsong, T Y

    1991-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis and electrorotation are commonly used to measure dielectric properties and membrane electrical parameters of biological cells. We have derived quantitative relationships for several critical points, defined in Fig. A 1, which characterize the dielectrophoretic spectrum and the electrorotational spectrum of a cell, based on the single-shell model (Pauly, H., and H.P. Schwan, 1959. Z. Naturforsch. 14b:125-131; Sauer, F.A. 1985. Interactions between Electromagnetic Field and Cells. A. Chiabrera, C. Nicolini, and H.P. Schwan, editors. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York. 181-202). To test these equations and to obtain membrane electrical parameters, a technique which allowed simultaneous measurements of the dielectrophoresis and the electrorotation of single cells in the same chamber, was developed and applied to the study of Neurospora slime and the Myeloma Tib9 cell line. Membrane electrical parameters were determined by the dependence of the first critical frequency of dielectrophoresis (fct1) and the first characteristic frequency of electrorotation (fc1) on the conductivity of the suspending medium. Membrane conductances of Neurospora slime and Myeloma also were found to be 500 and 380 S m-2, respectively. Several observations indicate that these cells are more complex than that described by the single-shell model. First, the membrane capacities from fct1 (0.81 x 10(-2) and 1.55 x 10(-2) F m-2 for neurospora slime and Myeloma, respectively) were at least twice those derived from fc1. Second, the electrorotation spectrum of Myeloma cells deviated from the single-shell like behavior. These discrepancies could be eliminated by adapting a three-shell model (Furhr, G., J. Gimsa, and R. Glaser. 1985. Stud. Biophys. 108:149-164). Apparently, there was more than one membrane relaxation process which could influence the lower frequency region of the beta-dispersion. fct1 of Myeloma in a medium of given external conductivity were found to be similar for most

  10. AC Electrokinetic Cell Separation on a Microfluidic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Zachary; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2009-03-01

    Rapid cell separation and collection is demonstrated through the integration of electrokinetic pumps, dielectrophoretic (DEP) traps and field driven valves into a well designed microfluidic channel loop. We present the ground-up design and analysis of this fully functional microfluidic device for the rapid separation and collection of live and dead yeast cells and malaria red blood cells (RBCs) at low concentrations. DEP cell sorting and concentration schemes are based on the exploitation of cell specific DEP crossover frequencies (cof's). A rigorous DEP study of yeast and RBCs is presented and used to determine optimal conditions for cell separation. By utilizing a glutaraldehyde crosslinking cell fixation reaction that is sensitive to cell membrane protein concentration, we demonstrate the ability to further amplify these differences between healthy and unhealthy cells as well as stabilize their DEP cof's. Pumping is achieved with a new type of electrokinetic flow, AC electrothermal electro-osmosis (ETEO) and is shown to scale inversely with the field induced debye length and drive fluid velocities in excess of 6 mm/sec. The well characterized electrokinetic phenomena are integrated into a microchannel loop with a specifically designed electrode field penetration length for low concentration cell separation and concentration.

  11. Dielectrophoretic mobility determination in DC insulator-based dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Noah G.; Jones, Paul V.; Mahanti, Prasun; Chen, Kang Ping; Taylor, Thomas J.; Hayes, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Insulator based dielectrophoresis is powerful tool for separating and charactering particles, yet it is limited by a lack of quantitative characterizations. Here this limitation is addressed by employing a method capable of quantifying the dielectrophoretic mobility of particles. Using streak-based velocimetry the particle properties are deduced from their motion in a microfluidic channel with a constant electric field gradient. From this approach the dielectrophoretic mobility of 1 μm polystyrene particles was found to be −2 ± 0.4 × 10−8 cm4/(V2·s). In the future, such quantitative treatment will allow for the elucidation of unique insights and rational design of devices. PMID:21823129

  12. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy of Cells Using Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhang, Wei; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of cells can reveal valuable information about their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to provide high-resolution images from the surface of biological samples. However, samples need to be dehydrated and coated with conductive materials for SEM imaging. Besides, immobilizing non-adherent cells during processing and analysis is challenging and requires complex fixation protocols. In this work, we developed a novel dielectrophoresis based microfluidic platform for interfacing non-adherent cells with high-resolution SEM at low vacuum mode. The system enables rapid immobilization and dehydration of samples without deposition of chemical residues over the cell surface. Moreover, it enables the on-chip chemical stimulation and fixation of immobilized cells with minimum dislodgement. These advantages were demonstrated for comparing the morphological changes of non-budding and budding yeast cells following Lyticase treatment. PMID:25089528

  13. An Unbiased Screen Identifies the DEP-1 Tumour Suppressor as a Phosphatase Controlling EGFR Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarcic, Gabi; Boguslavsky, Shlomit K.; Wakim, Jean; Kiuchi, Tai; Liu, Angela; Reinitz, Felicia; Nathanson, David; Takahashi, Takamune; Mischel, Paul S.; Ng, Tony; Yarden, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF-receptor (EGFR). This event precedes signalling from both the plasma membrane and from endosomes, and it is essential for recruitment of an ubiquitin ligase, CBL, that sorts activated receptors to endosomes and degradation. Because hyper-phosphorylation of EGFR is involved in oncogenic pathways, we performed an unbiased screen of siRNA oilgonucleotides targeting all human tyrosine phosphatases. Results We report the identification of PTPRK and PTPRJ (DEP-1) as EGFR-targeting phosphatases. DEP-1 is a tumour suppressor that dephosphorylates, thereby stabilizes EGFR by hampering its ability to associate with the CBL-GRB2 ubiquitin ligase complex. DEP-1 silencing enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of endosomal EGFRs and, accordingly, increased cell proliferation. In line with functional interactions, EGFR and DEP-1 form physical associations, and EGFR phosphorylates a substrtae trapping mutant of DEP-1. Interestingly, the interactions of DEP-1 and EGFR are followed by physical segregation: whereas EGFR undergoes endocytosis, DEP-1 remains confined to the cell surface. Conclusions EGFR and DEP-1 physically interact at the cell surface and maitain bidirectional enzyme-substrate interactions, which are relevant to their respective oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions. These observations highlight the emerging roles of vesicular trafficking in malignant processes. PMID:19836242

  14. MURINE PULMONARY MACROPHAGE EXPRESSION AND PRODUCTION OF TNFA AND MIP-2 AFTER EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) AND EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEP constitute an important fraction of particulate air pollution and have been shown to cause inflammation of the airways. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory cytokine response of alveolar macrophages exposed to DEP and DEP-extracts. A murine alveolar macr...

  15. DEP Induction of ROS in Capillary-like Endothelial Tubes Leads to VEGF-A Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming Wei; Po, Iris; Laumbach, Robert; Koslosky, John; Cooper, Keith; Gordon, Marion K.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. One contributor to pathogenesis is inhaled particles reaching and injuring the lung capillary endothelial cells, and possibly gaining access to the blood stream. Using in vitro capillary tubes as a simplified vascular model system for this process, it was previously shown that DEPs induce the redistribution of vascular endothelial cell-cadherin (VE-Cad) away from the plasma membrane to intracellular locations. This allowed DEPs into the cell cytoplasm and tube lumen, suggesting the tubes may have become permeable (Chao et al., 2011). Here some of the mechanisms responsible for endothelial tube changes after DEP exposure were examined. The results demonstrate that endothelial tube cells mounted an oxidative stress response to DEP exposure. Hydrogen peroxide and oxidized proteins were detected after 24 hr of exposure to DEPs. Particles induced relocalization of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, upregulating the expression of the enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Surprisingly, vascular endothelial cell growth factor-A (VEGF-A), initially termed “vascular permeability factor” (VPF), was found to be up-regulated in response to the HO-1 expression induced by DEPs. Similar to DEPs, applied VEGF-A induced relocalization of VE-Cadherin from the cell membrane surface to an intracellular location, and relocalization of VE-cadherin was associated with permeability. These data suggest that the DEPs may induce or contribute to the permeability of capillary-like endothelial tube cells via induction of HO-1 and VEGF-A. PMID:22507881

  16. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and nanoparticle exposures: what do DEP human clinical studies tell us about potential human health hazards of nanoparticles?

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Lapin, Charles A; Hamade, Ali K; Valberg, Peter A

    2010-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly tested in cellular and laboratory-animal experiments for hazard potential, but there is a lack of health effects data for humans exposed to ENPs. However, human data for another source of nanoparticle (NP) exposure are available, notably for the NPs contained in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP). Studies of human volunteers exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) in research settings report DEP-NP number concentrations (i.e., >10(6) particles/cm(3)) that exceed number concentrations reported for worst-case exposure conditions for workers manufacturing and handling ENPs. Recent human DE exposure studies, using sensitive physiological instrumentation and well-characterized exposure concentrations and durations, suggest that elevated DE exposures from pre-2007 engines may trigger short-term changes in, for example, lung and systemic inflammation, thrombogenesis, vascular function, and brain activity. Considerable uncertainty remains both as to which DE constituents underlie the observed responses (i.e., DEP NPs, DEP mass, DE gases), and as to the implications of the observed short-term changes for the development of disease. Even so, these DE human clinical data do not give evidence of a unique toxicity for NPs as compared to other small particles. Of course, physicochemical properties of toxicological relevance may differ between DEP NPs and other NPs, yet overall, the DE human clinical data do not support the idea that elevated levels of NPs per se (at least in the DEP context) must be acutely toxic by virtue of their nano-sized nature alone. PMID:20462394

  17. Dielectrophoresis-based particle sensor using nanoelectrode arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor); Arumugam, Prabhu U. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for concentrating or partly separating particles of a selected species from a liquid or fluid containing these particles and flowing in a channel, and for determining if the selected species particle is present in the liquid or fluid. A time varying electrical field E, having a root-mean-square intensity E.sup.2.sub.rms with a non-zero gradient in a direction transverse to the liquid or fluid flow direction, is produced by a nanostructure electrode array, with a very high magnitude gradient near exposed electrode tips. A dielectrophoresis force causes the selected particles to accumulate near the electrode tips, if the medium and selected particles have substantially different dielectric constants. An insulating material surrounds most of each of the nanostructure electrodes, and a region of the insulating material surface is functionalized to promote attachment of the selected species particles to the surface. An electrical property value Z(meas) is measured at the functionalized surface and is compared with a reference value Z(ref) to determine if the selected species particles are attached to the functionalized surface.

  18. Characterization and optimization of liquid electrodes for lateral dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Demierre, Nicolas; Braschler, Thomas; Linderholm, Pontus; Seger, Urban; van Lintel, Harald; Renaud, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Using the concept of insulator-based "electrodeless" dielectrophoresis, we present a novel geometry for shaping electric fields to achieve lateral deviation of particles in liquid flows. The field is generated by lateral planar metal electrodes and is guided along access channels to the active area in the main channel. The equipotential surfaces at the apertures of the access channels behave as vertical "liquid" electrodes injecting the current into the main channel. The field between a pair of adjacent liquid electrodes generates the lateral dielectrophoretic force necessary for particle manipulation. We use this force for high-speed deviation of particles. By adding a second pair of liquid electrodes, we focus a particle stream. The position of the focused stream can be swept across the channel by adjusting the ratio of the voltages applied to the two pairs. Based on conformal mapping, we provide an analytical model for estimating the potential at the liquid electrodes and the field distribution in the main channel. We show that the simulated particle trajectories agree with observations. Finally, we show that the model can be used to optimize the device geometry in different applications. PMID:17330167

  19. The use of microfluidics and dielectrophoresis for separation, concentration, and identification of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Cynthia; Sieverts, Michael; Tew, Karen; Dykes, Annelise; Salisbury, Michaela; Vargis, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Traditional bacterial identification methods take one to two days to complete, relying on large bacteria colonies for visual identification. In order to decrease this analysis time in a cost-effective manner, a method to sort and concentrate bacteria based on the bacteria's characteristics itself is needed. One example of such a method is dielectrophoresis, which has been used by researchers to separate bacteria from sample debris and sort bacteria according to species. This work presents variations in which dielectrophoresis can be performed and their associated drawbacks and benefits specifically to bacterial identification. In addition, a potential microfluidic design will be discussed.

  20. Dielectrophoresis chips improve PCR detection of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in apple juice.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Jaramillo, Maria; Huttener, Mario; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Samitier, Josep; Torrents, Eduard; Juárez, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) manipulation of cells present in real samples is challenging. We show in this work that an interdigitated DEP chip can be used to trap and wash a population of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii that contaminates a sample of apple juice. By previously calibrating the chip, the yeast population loaded is efficiently trapped, washed, and recovered in a small-volume fraction that, in turn, can be used for efficient PCR detection of this yeast. DEP washing of yeast cells gets rid of PCR inhibitors present in apple juice and facilitates PCR analysis. This and previous works on the use of DEP chips to improve PCR analysis show that a potential use of DEP is to be used as a treatment of real samples prior to PCR. PMID:25808673

  1. The protein tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1/PTPRJ promotes breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Spring, K; Fournier, P; Lapointe, L; Chabot, C; Roussy, J; Pommey, S; Stagg, J; Royal, I

    2015-10-29

    DEP-1/PTPRJ is a receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase mainly known for its antiproliferative and tumor-suppressive functions. Many identified substrates are growth factor receptors, and DEP-1 is deleted and/or mutated in human cancers including that of the breast. However, DEP-1 was also identified as a promoter of Src activation and proinvasive functions in the endothelium, suggesting it could perhaps mediate breast cancer invasiveness that is likewise driven by Src family kinases. We show here that DEP-1 expression was greater in highly invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, BT-549) than in the less invasive or untransformed cell lines tested (MCF-7, T47D, SK-BR3 and MCF10A). DEP-1 silencing experiments in invasive cells demonstrated that moderately expressed and catalytically active DEP-1 was required, in collaboration with basal epidermal growth factor receptor activity, for Src activation and the phosphorylation of its substrate Cortactin, and for their colocalization at the cell's leading edge. This correlated with an increased number of cell protrusions, and an enhanced capacity of the cells to migrate and invade. Similarly, moderate overexpression of DEP-1 in the low-invasive cells resulted in the promotion of their invasiveness in an Src-dependent manner. Consistent with these data, the expression of endogenous DEP-1 was elevated in a bone metastatic cell line derived from MDA-MB-231 cells, and promoted increased Src Y418 and Cortactin Y421 phosphorylation, as well as pro-MMP9 secretion and Matrigel invasion. Importantly, the silencing of DEP-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells greatly decreased their ability to metastasize, despite having no effect on tumor growth or angiogenesis. Hence, we found that moderate expression of DEP-1 was associated with the increased relapse and decreased survival of breast cancer patients. These results therefore identify a new and unsuspected role for DEP-1 as a mediator of an invasive cell program implicating Src

  2. Self-Rotation of Cells in an Irrotational AC E-Field in an Opto-Electrokinetics Chip

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Long-Ho; Liang, Wenfeng; Cheung, Florence Wing Ki; Liu, Wing Keung; Li, Wen Jung; Chen, Shih-Chi; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The use of optical dielectrophoresis (ODEP) to manipulate microparticles and biological cells has become increasingly popular due to its tremendous flexibility in providing reconfigurable electrode patterns and flow channels. ODEP enables the parallel and free manipulation of small particles on a photoconductive surface on which light is projected, thus eliminating the need for complex electrode design and fabrication processes. In this paper, we demonstrate that mouse cells comprising melan-a cells, RAW 267.4 macrophage cells, peripheral white blood cells and lymphocytes, can be manipulated in an opto-electrokinetics (OEK) device with appropriate DEP parameters. Our OEK device generates a non-rotating electric field and exerts a localized DEP force on optical electrodes. Hitherto, we are the first group to report that among all the cells investigated, melan-a cells, lymphocytes and white blood cells were found to undergo self-rotation in the device in the presence of a DEP force. The rotational speed of the cells depended on the voltage and frequency applied and the cells' distance from the optical center. We discuss a possible mechanism for explaining this new observation of induced self-rotation based on the physical properties of cells. We believe that this rotation phenomenon can be used to identify cell type and to elucidate the dielectric and physical properties of cells. PMID:23320067

  3. AC Electric Field-Induced Trapping of Microparticles in Pinched Microconfinements.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ranabir; Shaik, Vaseem Akram; Chakraborty, Debapriya; Ghosal, Sandip; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-06-01

    The trapping of charged microparticles under confinement in a converging-diverging microchannel, under a symmetric AC field of tunable frequency, is studied. We show that at low frequencies, the trapping characteristics stem from the competing effects of positive dielectrophoresis and the linear electrokinetic phenomena of electroosmosis and electrophoresis. It is found, somewhat unexpectedly, that electroosmosis and electrophoresis significantly affect the concentration profile of the trapped analyte, even for a symmetric AC field. However, at intermediate frequencies, the microparticle trapping mechanism is predominantly a consequence of positive dielectrophoresis. We substantiate our experimental results for the microparticle concentration distribution, along the converging-diverging microchannel, with a detailed theoretical analysis that takes into account all of the relevant frequency-dependent electrokinetic phenomena. This study should be useful in understanding the response of biological components such as cells to applied AC fields. Moreover, it will have potential applications in the design of efficient point-of-care diagnostic devices for detecting biomarkers and also possibly in some recent strategies in cancer therapy using AC fields. PMID:25954982

  4. Dielectrophoresis-driven spreading of immersed liquid droplets.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carl V; McHale, Glen; Trabi, Christophe L

    2015-01-27

    In recent years electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) has become an effective tool to control partial wetting. EWOD uses the liquid-solid interface as part of a capacitive structure that allows capacitive and interfacial energies to adjust by changes in wetting when the liquid-solid interface is charged due to an applied voltage. An important aspect of EWOD has been its applications in microfluidics in chemistry and biology and in optical devices and displays in physics and engineering. Many of these rely on the use of a liquid droplet immersed in a second liquid due to the need either for neutral buoyancy to overcome gravity and shield against impact shocks or to encapsulate the droplet for other reasons, such as in microfluidic-based DNA analyses. Recently, it has been shown that nonwetting oleophobic surfaces can be forcibly wetted by nonconducting oils using nonuniform electric fields and an interface-localized form of liquid dielectrophoresis (dielectrowetting). Here we show that this effect can be used to create films of oil immersed in a second immiscible fluid of lower permittivity. We predict that the square of the thickness of the film should obey a simple law dependent on the square of the applied voltage and with strength dependent on the ratio of difference in permittivity to the liquid-fluid interfacial tension, Δε/γ(LF). This relationship is experimentally confirmed for 11 liquid-air and liquid-liquid combinations with Δε/γ(LF) having a span of more than two orders of magnitude. We therefore provide fundamental understanding of dielectrowetting for liquid-in-liquid systems and also open up a new method to determine liquid-liquid interfacial tensions. PMID:25519875

  5. The DEP-6D, a new preference-based measure to assess health states of dependency.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Míguez, E; Abellán-Perpiñán, J M; Alvarez, X C; González, X M; Sampayo, A R

    2016-03-01

    In medical literature there are numerous multidimensional scales to measure health states for dependence in activities of daily living. However, these scales are not preference-based and are not able to yield QALYs. On the contrary, the generic preference-based measures are not sensitive enough to measure changes in dependence states. The objective of this paper is to propose a new dependency health state classification system, called DEP-6D, and to estimate its value set in such a way that it can be used in QALY calculations. DEP-6D states are described as a combination of 6 attributes (eat, incontinence, personal care, mobility, housework and cognition problems), with 3-4 levels each. A sample of 312 Spanish citizens was surveyed in 2011 to estimate the DEP-6D preference-scoring algorithm. Each respondent valued six out of the 24 states using time trade-off questions. After excluding those respondents who made two or more inconsistencies (6% out of the sample), each state was valued between 66 and 77 times. The responses present a high internal and external consistency. A random effect model accounting for main effects was the preferred model to estimate the scoring algorithm. The DEP-6D describes, in general, more severe problems than those usually described by means of generic preference-based measures. The minimum score predicted by the DEP-6D algorithm is -0.84, which is considerably lower than the minimum value predicted by the EQ-5D and SF-6D algorithms. The DEP-6D value set is based on community preferences. Therefore it is consistent with the so-called 'societal perspective'. Moreover, DEP-6D preference weights can be used in QALY calculations and cost-utility analysis. PMID:26921836

  6. Direct measurement of the dielectrophoresis forces acting on micro-objects using optical tweezers and a simple microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, In Soo; Park, Se Hee; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Beop-Min

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a reliable frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic (DEP) force measurement system based on optical tweezers and a microfluidic chip. Using this system, we directly measured the frequency-dependent DEP forces acting on polystyrene beads while varying various parameters, which were all verified by theoretical simulations. We also investigated the DEP characteristics of non-functionalized and carboxyl-functionalized polystyrene beads in solutions with different conductivities by associating the measured crossover frequencies with a theoretical DEP model. This system can be used as a quantifying tool for surface conductance assays by characterizing the DEP forces acting on micro-objects in various experimental conditions.

  7. Assembly of gold nanoparticles of different diameters between nanogap electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Donguk; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2010-01-04

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) of different diameters i.e., 5, 10, and 20 nm, were assembled between 20 nm gap electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis (DEP) process. DEP parameters, such as frequency, trapping time, and voltage of value 1 MHz, 1 s, and 2-3 V, respectively, led to the pearl-chain assembly corresponding to each type of NPs between 20 nm gap electrodes. Mutual DEP could be attributed to the NPs chaining in low field regions and subsequently the DEP force directs these chains to the trapping region. Such controlled assembly of individual NPs may find application in fabricating devices for molecular electronics.

  8. Significant diethyl phthalate (DEP) degradation by combined advanced oxidation process in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Na, Seungmin; Ahn, Yun-Gyong; Cui, Mingcan; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2012-06-30

    Ultrasound (US) combined with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and a titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) catalyst was used to effectively remove diethyl phthalate (DEP) from aqueous solutions. Single (sonolysis, photolysis, photocatalysis) and combined (sonophotolysis, sonophotocatalysis) processes were performed to confirm the synergistic effects and DEP degradation mechanism. Using only US, the optimum frequency for DEP degradation was 283 kHz. At this frequency a high rate of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formation was observed of approximately 0.32 mM min(-1). The pseudo-first order degradation rate constants were 10(-2)-10(-4) min(-1) depending on the process. Significant degradation and mineralization (TOC) of DEP were observed with the sonophotolytic and sonophotocatalytic processes. Moreover, synergistic effects of 1.29 and 1.95 were exhibited at the sonophotocatalytic and sonophotolytic DEP degradation, respectively. Furthermore, additional advantageous reactions may occur in the heterogeneous sonophotocatalytic process due to interactions between US, UV, and the photocatalyst. PMID:22406850

  9. Study of Ac Dielectrophoretic Process of SiC Nanowires: A Universal Method for Alignment of Semiconductor Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yao, Limei; Cui, Yan; Cong, Haining; Zheng, Jinju; Shang, Minghui; Yang, Zuobao; Yang, Weiyou; Wei, Guodong; Gao, Fengmei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the dielectrophoretic processes of SiC nanowires suspended in three typical solvents, (highly purified water, ethanol and isopropanol) were systematically investigated. Optical microscope and SEM characterizations were used to observe the order of SiC nanowires on the surface of gold microchannels. The gold microchannels were induced by Ac dielectrophoresis of the corresponding dispersion solutions of SiC nanowires, with a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. The study shows that the dielectrophoresis process is an effective way of synthesizing highly oriented SiC nanoarrays using isopropanol solution. The results also show that the arrangement of SiC nanowires on the interdigital electrode configuration not only depend on the kind of solvent used, but also on the applied frequency (1000 Hz~1 MHz) and voltage (1 V~20 V). PMID:27451739

  10. Design of optimal electrode geometries for dielectrophoresis using fitness based on simplified particle trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kinio, Steven; Mills, James K

    2016-08-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces applied to microscopic particles are highly dependent on the gradient of the electric field experienced by the particles. These DEP forces can be used to selectively capture and remove cells from fluid flows within a micro-channel above the DEP electrodes. Modification of the geometry of the electrodes that generate the electric field is the main approach available to increase the electric field gradient over a wide area, and hence increase the applied dielectrophoretic force. Optimized DEP forces increase attraction or repulsion of target cells from the electrode surface, enhancing the efficacy of electrodes for cell sorting applications. In this paper, we present a design approach, using genetic optimization techniques, to develop novel electrode geometries that effectively capture target particles. The performance of candidate electrode designs is evaluated by calculating simplified particle trajectories. PMID:27432322

  11. Electro-phoretic rotation and orientation of polarizable spheroidal particles in AC fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloh, Touvia; Goldstein, Ben Weis

    2015-02-01

    A theoretical study is provided for determining the angular rotation rate of an ideally polarized (metallic) spheroidal particle freely suspended in a symmetric electrolyte under general alternating current ambient electric excitations. In particular, we discuss cases of electro-rotation (ROT) and electro-orientation (EOR) of such nano/micro particles incited by two orthogonal electric field components which may be out of phase. The analysis is carried under the Poisson-Nernst-Planck approximation and the "weak" field model. The analytic expressions thus obtained are valid for a conducting prolate spheroid with arbitrary eccentricity including the limiting cases of isotropic spheres and infinitely long cylindrical rods. The total dipolophoretic (DIP) angular velocity is decomposed from contributions due to dielectrophoresis (DEP) induced by the dipole-moment within the particle and by the induced-charge electrophoresis (ICEP) mechanism near the conducting surface. It is demonstrated that the explicit expressions for the DIP angular velocities reduce to the well-known ROT solution for the sphere as well as to the recently found expressions (based on slender-body approximation) for both ROT and EOR of metal nanowires [Arcenegui et al., "Electro-orientation and electrorotation of metal nanowires," Phys. Rev. E 88(6), 063018 (2013)]. Some comparisons with available experimental data are also provided for slender spheroidal geometries including a detailed discussion of DEP and ICEP effects and their relative contributions to the overall DIP rotational velocity.

  12. Dielectrophoresis of a surfactant-laden viscous drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-06-01

    The dielectrophoresis of a surfactant-laden viscous drop in the presence of non-uniform DC electric field is investigated analytically and numerically. Considering the presence of bulk-insoluble surfactants at the drop interface, we first perform asymptotic solution for both low and high surface Péclet numbers, where the surface Péclet number signifies the strength of surface convection of surfactants as compared to the diffusion at the drop interface. Neglecting fluid inertia and interfacial charge convection effects, we obtain explicit expression for dielectrophoretic drop velocity for low and high Péclet numbers by assuming small deviation of drop shape from sphericity and small deviation of surfactant concentration from the equilibrium uniform distribution. We then depict a numerical solution, assuming spherical drop, for arbitrary values of Péclet number. Our analyses demonstrate that the asymptotic solution shows excellent agreement with the numerical solution in the limiting conditions of low and high Péclet numbers. The present analysis shows that the flow-induced redistribution of the surfactants at the drop interface generates Marangoni stress, owing to the influence of the surfactant distribution on the local interfacial tension, at the drop interface and significantly alters the drop velocity at steady state. For a perfectly conducting/dielectric drop suspended in perfectly dielectric medium, Marangoni stress always retards the dielectrophoretic velocity of the drop as compared with a surfactant-free drop. For a leaky dielectric drop suspended in another leaky dielectric medium, in the low Péclet number limit, depending on the electrical conductivity and permittivity of both the liquids, the Marangoni stress may aid or retard the dielectrophoretic velocity of the drop. The Marangoni stress also has the ability to move the drop in the opposite direction as compared with a surfactant-free drop. This non-intuitive reverse motion of the drop is

  13. Dielectrophoresis device and method having nonuniform arrays for manipulating particles

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; Simmons, Blake A.

    2012-09-04

    Microfluidic devices according to embodiments of the present invention include an inlet port, an outlet port, and a channel or chamber having a non-uniform array of insulating features on one or more surfaces. Electrodes are provided for generation of a spatially non-uniform electric field across the array. A voltage source, which may be an A.C. and/or a D.C. voltage source may be coupled to the electrodes for the generation of the electric field.

  14. Traveling wave dielectrophoresis micropump based on the dispersion of a capacitive electrode layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczak, Marcin; Diesinger, Heinrich

    2009-06-01

    A traveling wave dielectrophoresis microfluid pump based on structural dispersion is demonstrated. The phase shift between medium polarization and applied propagating field, necessary to generate asynchronous propagative forces in dielectrophoresis, is generated by an RC circuit consisting of the electrode insulator and the liquid conductivity. Since the device characteristics involve only bulk properties, the micropump does not require conductivity gradient or double layers, unlike existing micropumps using electro-osmosis and electrohydrodynamic shear forces. Its frequency of maximum pumping force can be made considerably lower than the dielectric relaxation frequency of the liquid. By decomposing the traveling wave electrode array into a rudimentary RC model, coincidence is found between optimized pumping conditions and crossover of the impedance measured between electrode combs. By using impedance spectroscopy alternately with pumping, the frequency of the applied signal can be matched in real-time to the complex dielectric constant of the liquid to keep the pumping force maximized.

  15. Guided assembly of metal and hybrid conductive probes using floating potential dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Puigmartí-Luis, Josep; Stadler, Johannes; Schaffhauser, Daniel; del Pino, Angel Pérez; Burg, Brian R; Dittrich, Petra S

    2011-03-01

    We present the site-selective, parallel and reproducible formation of conductive gold and tetrathiafulvalene-gold (TTF-Au) hybrid micro- and nanowires from their respective ion salt and cation-radical solutions. While the formation of micro- and nanowires by means of dielectrophoresis with directly coupled electrodes has been thoroughly investigated in recent studies, we present here the first relevant example of metal and hybrid wire assembly obtained by floating potential dielectrophoresis. In this configuration, the assembly of micro- and nanowires is achieved by capacitively coupling a large electrode (bias electrode) to a conductive substrate (p-doped Si) separated by an insulating oxide layer. In contrast to former studies, this allows parallel production of micro- and nanowires with only one pair of electrodes connected to a sine wave generator. We further demonstrate that these structures are suitable probes for localized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). PMID:21225055

  16. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved. PMID:27375816

  17. Trajectory of microscale entities in a microdevice for field-flow fractionation based on dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Bobby; Alazzam, Anas; Khashan, Saud A.; El-Khasawneh, Bashar S.

    2015-06-01

    This article deals with the development of a two-dimensional dynamic model for tracking the path of cells subjected to dielectrophoresis, in a continuous flow microfluidic device, for purposes of field-flow fractionation. The nonuniform electric field exists between the top and bottom surface of the microchannel; the top electrode runs over the entire length of the microchannel while the bottom surface of the same holds multiple finite sized electrodes of opposite polarity. The model consists of two governing equations with each describing the movement of the cell in one of the two dimensions of interest. The equations governing of the cell trajectories as well as that of the electric potential inside the microchannel are solved using finite difference method. The model is subsequently used for parametric study; the parameters considered include cell radii, actuation voltage, microchannel height and volumetric flow rate. The model is particularly useful in the design of microfluidic device employing dielectrophoresis for field flow fractionation.

  18. Guided assembly of metal and hybrid conductive probes using floating potential dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puigmartí-Luis, Josep; Stadler, Johannes; Schaffhauser, Daniel; Del Pino, Ángel Pérez; Burg, Brian R.; Dittrich, Petra S.

    2011-03-01

    We present the site-selective, parallel and reproducible formation of conductive gold and tetrathiafulvalene-gold (TTF-Au) hybrid micro- and nanowires from their respective ion salt and cation-radical solutions. While the formation of micro- and nanowires by means of dielectrophoresis with directly coupled electrodes has been thoroughly investigated in recent studies, we present here the first relevant example of metal and hybrid wire assembly obtained by floating potential dielectrophoresis. In this configuration, the assembly of micro- and nanowires is achieved by capacitively coupling a large electrode (bias electrode) to a conductive substrate (p-doped Si) separated by an insulating oxide layer. In contrast to former studies, this allows parallel production of micro- and nanowires with only one pair of electrodes connected to a sine wave generator. We further demonstrate that these structures are suitable probes for localized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).We present the site-selective, parallel and reproducible formation of conductive gold and tetrathiafulvalene-gold (TTF-Au) hybrid micro- and nanowires from their respective ion salt and cation-radical solutions. While the formation of micro- and nanowires by means of dielectrophoresis with directly coupled electrodes has been thoroughly investigated in recent studies, we present here the first relevant example of metal and hybrid wire assembly obtained by floating potential dielectrophoresis. In this configuration, the assembly of micro- and nanowires is achieved by capacitively coupling a large electrode (bias electrode) to a conductive substrate (p-doped Si) separated by an insulating oxide layer. In contrast to former studies, this allows parallel production of micro- and nanowires with only one pair of electrodes connected to a sine wave generator. We further demonstrate that these structures are suitable probes for localized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Electronic supplementary

  19. Dielectrophoresis in particle confinement: Aligned carbon particles in polymer matrix below percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaapila, M.; Høyer, H.; Helgesen, G.

    2014-09-01

    We review preparation and properties of confined, aligned string-like particle assemblies formed by dielectrophoresis under alternating electric fields. Particular attention is placed on carbon particles aligned in the oligomer matrix. In these systems the particle fraction is low, below the isotropic percolation threshold. The matrix is polymerized after alignment, which locks the aligned strings in place. Application examples are discussed including particle separation, conductivity enhancement and piezoresistive sensors.

  20. Three-dimensional cell manipulation and patterning using dielectrophoresis via a multi-layer scaffold structure.

    PubMed

    Chu, H K; Huan, Z; Mills, J K; Yang, J; Sun, D

    2015-02-01

    Cell manipulation is imperative to the areas of cellular biology and tissue engineering, providing them a useful tool for patterning cells into cellular patterns for different analyses and applications. This paper presents a novel approach to perform three-dimensional (3D) cell manipulation and patterning with a multi-layer engineered scaffold. This scaffold structure employed dielectrophoresis as the non-contact mechanism to manipulate cells in the 3D domain. Through establishing electric fields via this multi-layer structure, the cells in the medium became polarized and were attracted towards the interior part of the structure, forming 3D cellular patterns. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the manipulation and the patterning processes with the proposed structure. Results show that with the presence of a voltage input, this multi-layer structure was capable of manipulating different types of biological cells examined through dielectrophoresis, enabling automatic cell patterning in the time-scale of minutes. The effects of the voltage input on the resultant cellular pattern were examined and discussed. Viability test was performed after the patterning operation and the results confirmed that majority of the cells remained viable. After 7 days of culture, 3D cellular patterns were observed through SEM. The results suggest that this scaffold and its automated dielectrophoresis-based patterning mechanism can be used to construct artificial tissues for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:25501324

  1. Using dielectrophoresis to study the dynamic response of single budding yeast cells to Lyticase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Yi, Pyshar; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-05-01

    Budding yeast cells are quick and easy to grow and represent a versatile model of eukaryotic cells for a variety of cellular studies, largely because their genome has been widely studied and links can be drawn with higher eukaryotes. Therefore, the efficient separation, immobilization, and conversion of budding yeasts into spheroplast or protoplast can provide valuable insight for many fundamentals investigations in cell biology at a single cell level. Dielectrophoresis, the induced motion of particles in non-uniform electric fields, possesses a great versatility for manipulation of cells in microfluidic platforms. Despite this, dielectrophoresis has been largely utilized for studying of non-budding yeast cells and has rarely been used for manipulation of budding cells. Here, we utilize dielectrophoresis for studying the dynamic response of budding cells to different concentrations of Lyticase. This involves separation of the budding yeasts from a background of non-budding cells and their subsequent immobilization onto the microelectrodes at desired densities down to single cell level. The immobilized yeasts are then stimulated with Lyticase to remove the cell wall and convert them into spheroplasts, in a highly dynamic process that depends on the concentration of Lyticase. We also introduce a novel method for immobilization of the cell organelles released from the lysed cells by patterning multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between the microelectrodes. PMID:25701421

  2. Rapid flow fractionation of particles combining liquid and particulate dielectrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael R. (Inventor); Lomakin, Oleg (Inventor); Jones, Thomas B. (Inventor); Ahmed, Rajib (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Rapid, size-based, deposition of particles from liquid suspension is accomplished using a nonuniform electric field created by coplanar microelectrode strips patterned on an insulating substrate. The scheme uses the dielectrophoretic force both to distribute aqueous liquid containing particles and, simultaneously, to separate the particles. Size-based separation is found within nanoliter droplets formed along the structure after voltage removal. Bioparticles or macromolecules of similar size can also be separated based on subtle differences in dielectric property, by controlling the frequency of the AC current supplied to the electrodes.

  3. Dielectrophoresis based integration of nanostructures and their sensorial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiterer, Christian; Brönstrup, Gerald; Berg, Steffen; Jahr, Norbert; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Here we present a technique to integrate bottom-up nanostructures for optoelectronic and chemoresistive sensing using an AC electrical field. The work focuses mainly on two types of nanostructured materials: gold nanoparticle and silicon nanowire. In terms of electrical microintegration of these structures, it is especially important to apply a reliable electrical contact with low contact-resistance, in order to be able to use them as optoelectronic or chemo resistive sensors. To achieve this, a micro integration process was developed to achieve this goal. The contacted nanostructures were characterized electrically to optimize the integration procedure and acquire best possible sensing capabilities. Silicon nanowires were demonstrated to work as wavelength sensitive optical sensors and gold nanoparticle as marker free chemo resistive sensor.

  4. AC electrokinetic manipulation of selenium nanoparticles for potential nanosensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Seyed Reza; Bayati, Marzieh; Hosseinirad, Somayeh; Foroumadi, Alireza; Gilani, Kambiz; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Se nanoparticles were synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process. ► AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoresis electrode showed non-ohmic behavior. ► The device can potentially be used as a nanosensor. - Abstract: We report the AC electrokinetic behavior of selenium (Se) nanoparticles for electrical characterization and possible application as micro/nano devices. selenium Se nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process and investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Interdigitated castellated ITO and non-castellated platinum electrodes were employed for manipulation of suspended materials in the fluid. Using ITO electrodes at low frequency limits resulted in deposition of Se particles on electrode surface. When Se particles exposed to platinum electrodes in the 10 Hz–1 kHz range and V {sub p−p}> 8, AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. However, in 10 kHz–10 MHz range and V {sub p−p}> 5, dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. As the Se particle concentration increased, the trapped Se particles were aligned along the electric field line and bridged the electrode gap. The device was characterized and can potentially be useful in making micro/nano electronic devices.

  5. Multicenter study of combination DEP regimen as a salvage therapy for adult refractory hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yini; Huang, Wenqiu; Hu, Liangding; Cen, Xinan; Li, Lihong; Wang, Jijun; Shen, Jianliang; Wei, Na

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a refractory immune disorder with a significant risk of death. Although standard therapy has dramatically improved survival in HLH patients, approximately 30%, especially adults, show no response to current treatment strategies. This prospective study aimed to investigate the efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin treatment combined with etoposide and methylprednisolone (doxorubicin-etoposide-methylprednisolone; DEP) as a salvage therapy for adult refractory HLH. Adult patients who did not achieve at least partial response 2 weeks after initial standard HLH therapy were enrolled in this study between June 2013 and June 2014. Response to salvage therapy was assessed at 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of DEP therapy and patients were followed until death or until November 2014. Sixty-three refractory HLH patients were enrolled, including 29 cases of lymphoma-associated HLH, 22 cases of Epstein-Barr virus–associated HLH, and 4 cases of familial HLH. There were 8 cases with unknown underlying diseases. Seventeen cases (27.0%) achieved complete response and 31 cases (49.2%) achieved partial response. The overall response was 76.2% (48/63). Patients who showed no response to DEP died within 4 weeks after salvage therapy. Twenty-nine of the 48 patients who achieved partial or complete response survived to subsequent chemotherapy, allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or splenectomy. Our study suggests that DEP regimen is an effective salvage regimen for adult refractory HLH, which can prolong patient survival as we continue to understand the responsible mechanisms and bridge the gap between HLH and its underlying diseases. This study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Platform (http://www.chictr.org.cn/) as ChiCTR-IPC-14005514. PMID:26289641

  6. Single quantum dot (QD) manipulation on nanowire using dielectrophoretic (DEP) force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lee, S. Y.; Suh, J.-K. F.; Park, J. H.; Shin, H. J.

    2011-02-01

    Au nanowires of 100 nm, 200nm and 400 nm widths with micro scale Au electrode were fabricated as electrodes to apply high electric field gradient for strong DEP force within the nanometer range. Au nanowires were fabricated on a silicon dioxide (SiO2) using lift-off process after e-beam lithography and e-beam evaporation. E-beam resister (ER) was patterned and a 50 nm thick Au layer. Photo resister (PR) was patterned to make Au microelectrode and did lift-off process. The Au nanowires with microelectrode were covered with SiO2 layer deposited with PECVD resulting in 1 um thick. Opened end of gold nanowires, the target surface for QD immobilization, were formed using etching processes. Single QD immobilization on the nanowire end-facet was accomplished through positive DEP force. Sine wave of 8 Vpp intensity and 3 MHz frequency was applied and it induced electric field of 108 V/m intensity and electric field gradient around Au nanowire to make strong positive DEP. Optical analysis confirmed the attachment of single QD on the nanowire. A single 25 nm diameter QD was manipulated on 100 nm, 200 nm and 400 nm width nanowires when 8 Vpp, 3 MHz sine wave was applied.

  7. Antibody-free isolation of rare cancer cells from blood based on 3D lateral dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, I-Fang; Huang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Liu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Yu-De; Su, Wu-Chou

    2015-07-21

    We present an antibody-free approach for the high-purity and high-throughput dielectrophoretic (DEP) isolation of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) from blood in a microfluidic chip. A hydrodynamic sheath flow is designed upstream in the chip to direct the suspension samples to the channel side walls, thus providing a queue to allow DEP-induced lateral displacements. High-throughput continuous cancer cell sorting (maximum flow rate: ~2.4 mL h(-1), linear velocity: ~4 mm s(-1)) is achieved with a sustained 3D lateral DEP (LDEP) particle force normal to the continuous through-flow. This design allows the continuous fractionation of micro/nanosized particles into different downstream subchannels based on the differences in their different critical negative DEP strengths/mobilities. The main advantage of this separation strategy is that increasing the channel length can effectively increase the throughput proportionally. The effective separation of rare cancer cells (<0.001%) from diluted human blood in a handheld chip is demonstrated. An enrichment factor of 10(5) and a recovery rate of ~85% from a 0.001% cancer cell sample are achieved at an optimal flow rate of 20 μL min(-1) passing through a 6 cm long LDEP channel with an appropriate voltage at a frequency of 10 kHz. A higher throughput of 2.4 mL h(-1) is also achieved with a 13 cm long metal-based microchannel. PMID:26085231

  8. Nanoconstriction-based electrodeless dielectrophoresis chip for nanoparticle and protein preconcentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Chi-Han; Chien, Liang-Ju; Kuo, Ju-Nan

    2015-08-01

    An electrodeless dielectrophoresis (EDEP) microchip is proposed for the concentration of nanoscale particles and proteins in a 150 nm nanoconstriction gap in a microchannel. Notably, the nanoconstriction is fabricated using a simple thermal-oxidation shrinkage process. It is shown that the nanoconstriction enhances the local electric field intensity by a factor of 1 × 103. The strong electric field and field gradient result in concentration enrichment by factors 1 × 104 and 1 × 103 for nanoparticles and proteins, respectively, within 30 s. Thus, the proposed EDEP chip has significant potential for achieving rapid and highly sensitive protein detection and for biomarker discovery applications.

  9. Novel electrodeless-dielectrophoresis device for nanoparticle trapping using three-dimensional inverted-pyramid arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Chi-Han; Chien-Lung Lin, Liang-Ju, Jr.; Kuo, Ju-Nan

    2016-05-01

    A novel electrodeless-dielectrophoresis (EDEP) device incorporating three-dimensional (3D) inverted-pyramid arrays is proposed for the trapping and separation of nanoparticles. The electrokinetic phenomena in the proposed device are investigated both numerically and experimentally. The results reveal that the pyramid structures induce a 3D squeezed electric field, which allows particle trapping with a lower driving voltage than that required in traditional two-dimensional (2D) EDEP devices. Overall, the proposed EDEP device provides a mass-producible solution for nanoparticle-trapping applications and overcomes the Poisson statistical limit inherent in 2D nanogap-based EDEP devices with smaller (pL) sample volumes.

  10. Amplitude scaling of a static wrinkle at an oil-air interface created by dielectrophoresis forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. V.; Al-Shabib, W.; Wells, G. G.; McHale, G.; Newton, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    Dielectrophoresis forces have been used to create a static periodic wrinkle with a sinusoidal morphology on the surface of a thin layer of 1-decanol oil. The surface deformation occurs when a voltage V is applied between adjacent coplanar strip electrodes in an interdigitated array onto which the oil film is coated. It has been shown experimentally that the peak-to-peak amplitude A of the wrinkle scales according to the functional form A ∝V2 exp(-αh¯/p) for a range of oil film thicknesses h¯ (between 15 and 50 μm) and wrinkle pitches p (160, 240, and 320 μm).

  11. High-purity separation of cancer cells by optically induced dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Hsiang; Lin, Mai-Wei; Tien, Wan-Ting; Lai, Chin-Pen; Weng, Kuo-Yao; Ko, Ching-Huai; Lin, Chun-Chuan; Chen, Jyh-Chern; Tiao, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Tse-Ching; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Cheng, Chieh-Fang

    2014-04-01

    Detecting and concentrating cancer cells in peripheral blood is of great importance for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) can achieve high resolution and low optical intensities, and the electrode pattern can be dynamically changed by varied light patterns. By changing the projected light pattern, it is demonstrated to separate high-purity gastric cancer cell lines. Traditionally, the purity of cancer cell isolation by negative selection is 0.9% to 10%; by positive selection it is 50% to 62%. An ODEP technology is proposed to enhance the purity of cancer cell isolation to about 77%. PMID:24723112

  12. Deficiency of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1/PTPRJ promotes matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in meningioma cells.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Astrid; Stampnik, Yvonn; Cui, Yan; Morrison, Helen; Pachow, Doreen; Kliese, Nadine; Mawrin, Christian; Böhmer, Frank-D

    2015-05-01

    Brain-invasive growth of a subset of meningiomas is associated with less favorable prognosis. The molecular mechanisms causing invasiveness are only partially understood, however, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been identified as a contributing factor. We have previously found that loss of density enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1, also designated PTPRJ), a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase, promotes meningioma cell motility and invasive growth in an orthotopic xenotransplantation model. We have now analyzed potential alterations of the expression of genes involved in motility control, caused by DEP-1 loss in meningioma cell lines. DEP-1 depleted cells exhibited increased expression of mRNA encoding MMP-9, and the growth factors EGF and FGF-2. The increase of MMP-9 expression in DEP-1 depleted cells was also readily detectable at the protein level by zymography. MMP-9 upregulation was sensitive to chemical inhibitors of growth factor signal transduction. Conversely, MMP-9 mRNA levels could be stimulated with growth factors (e.g. EGF) and inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNFα). Increase of MMP-9 expression by DEP-1 depletion, or growth factor/cytokine stimulation qualitatively correlated with increased invasiveness in vitro scored as transmigration through matrigel-coated membranes. The studies suggest induction of MMP-9 expression promoted by DEP-1 deficiency, or potentially by growth factors and inflammatory cytokines, as a mechanism contributing to meningioma brain invasiveness. PMID:25672645

  13. Multiphase optofluidics on an electro-microfluidic platform powered by electrowetting and dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Wang, Fu-Min

    2014-08-01

    For diverse material phases used on an electro-microfluidic (EMF) platform, exploiting the electro-optical properties of matter in varied phases is essential to reap the benefits of the optofluidic capabilities of that platform. Materials in the four fundamental phases--solid-phase dielectric layer, liquid-phase droplet, gas-phase bubble, and plasma-phase bubble microplasma--have been investigated to offer electrically tunable optical characteristics for the manipulation of fluids on an EMF platform. Here we present an overview of the basic driving mechanisms for electrowetting and dielectrophoresis on the EMF platform. Three optofluidic examples occurring in multiple phases are described: solid optofluidics--liquid and light regulation by electrowetting on a solid polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) dielectric layer; liquid optofluidics--transmittance and reflectance modulation with formation of particle chains in a liquid droplet; and gas and plasma optofluidics--ignition and manipulation of a bubble microplasma by liquid dielectrophoresis. By combining the various materials possessing diverse electro-optical characteristics in separate phases, the EMF platform becomes an ideal platform for integrated optofluidics. PMID:24899133

  14. Dielectrophoresis of DNA: time- and frequency-dependent collections on microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Bakewell, David J; Morgan, Hywel

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports measurements that characterize the collection of DNA onto interdigitated microelectrodes by high-frequency dielectrophoresis. Measurements of time-dependent collection of 12 kilobase pair plasmid DNA onto microelectrodes by dielectrophoresis show significant reduction in the response as the frequency increases from 100 kHz to 20 MHz. Collection time profiles are quantitatively measured using fluorescence microscopy over the range 100 kHz to 5 MHz and are represented in terms of two parameters: the initial dielectrophoretic collection rate, and the initial to steady-state collection transition. Measured values for both parameters are consistent with trends in the frequency-dependent real part of the effective polarizability measured for the same plasmid DNA using dielectric spectroscopy. The experimentally measured parameters are qualitatively compared with trends predicted by theory that takes into account dielectrophoretic particle movement and diffusion. The differences between experiment and theory are discussed with suggested improvements to theoretical models, for example, including the effects of electrohydrodynamically driven fluid motion. PMID:16805110

  15. Dielectrophoresis of DNA: time- and frequency-dependent collections on microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Bakewell, David J; Morgan, Hywel

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports measurements that characterize the collection of DNA onto interdigitated microelectrodes by high-frequency dielectrophoresis. Measurements of time-dependent collection of 12 kilobase pair plasmid DNA onto microelectrodes by dielectrophoresis show significant reduction in the response as the frequency increases from 100 kHz to 20 MHz. Collection time profiles are quantitatively measured using fluorescence microscopy over the range 100 kHz to 5 MHz and are represented in terms of two parameters: the initial dielectrophoretic collection rate, and the initial to steady-state collection transition. Measured values for both parameters are consistent with trends in the frequency-dependent real part of the effective polarizability measured for the same plasmid DNA using dielectric spectroscopy. The experimentally measured parameters are qualitatively compared with trends predicted by theory that takes into account dielectrophoretic particle movement and diffusion. The differences between experiment and theory are discussed with suggested improvements to theoretical models, for example, including the effects of electrohydrodynamically driven fluid motion. PMID:16570867

  16. Selection of mammalian cells based on their cell-cycle phase using dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Unyoung; Shu, Chih-Wen; Dane, Karen Y.; Daugherty, Patrick S.; Wang, Jean Y. J.; Soh, H. T.

    2007-01-01

    An effective, noninvasive means of selecting cells based on their phase within the cell cycle is an important capability for biological research. Current methods of producing synchronous cell populations, however, tend to disrupt the natural physiology of the cell or suffer from low synchronization yields. In this work, we report a microfluidic device that utilizes the dielectrophoresis phenomenon to synchronize cells by exploiting the relationship between the cell's volume and its phase in the cell cycle. The dielectrophoresis activated cell synchronizer (DACSync) device accepts an asynchronous mixture of cells at the inlet, fractionates the cell populations according to the cell-cycle phase (G1/S and G2/M), and elutes them through different outlets. The device is gentle and efficient; it utilizes electric fields that are 1–2 orders of magnitude below those used in electroporation and enriches asynchronous tumor cells in the G1 phase to 96% in one round of sorting, in a continuous flow manner at a throughput of 2 × 105 cells per hour per microchannel. This work illustrates the feasibility of using laminar flow and electrokinetic forces for the efficient, noninvasive separation of living cells. PMID:18093921

  17. Microfluidic platform for separation and extraction of plasma from whole blood using dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Szydzik, Crispin; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Mitchell, Arnan; Karnutsch, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic based blood plasma extraction is a fundamental necessity that will facilitate many future lab-on-a-chip based point-of-care diagnostic systems. However, current approaches for providing this analyte are hampered by the requirement to provide external pumping or dilution of blood, which result in low effective yield, lower concentration of target constituents, and complicated functionality. This paper presents a capillary-driven, dielectrophoresis-enabled microfluidic system capable of separating and extracting cell-free plasma from small amounts of whole human blood. This process takes place directly on-chip, and without the requirement of dilution, thus eliminating the prerequisite of pre-processed blood samples and external liquid handling systems. The microfluidic chip takes advantage of a capillary pump for driving whole blood through the main channel and a cross flow filtration system for extracting plasma from whole blood. This filter is actively unblocked through negative dielectrophoresis forces, dramatically enhancing the volume of extracted plasma. Experiments using whole human blood yield volumes of around 180 nl of cell-free, undiluted plasma. We believe that implementation of various integrated biosensing techniques into this plasma extraction system could enable multiplexed detection of various biomarkers. PMID:26759637

  18. PEP-on-DEP: A competitive peptide-based disposable electrochemical aptasensor for renin diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Biyani, Manish; Kawai, Keiko; Kitamura, Koichiro; Chikae, Miyuki; Biyani, Madhu; Ushijima, Hiromi; Tamiya, Eiichi; Yoneda, Takashi; Takamura, Yuzuru

    2016-10-15

    Antibody-based immunosensors are relatively less accessible to a wide variety of unreachable targets, such as low-molecular-weight biomarkers that represent a rich untapped source of disease-specific diagnostic information. Here, we present a peptide aptamer-based electrochemical sensor technology called 'PEP-on-DEP' to detect less accessible target molecules, such as renin, and to improve the quality of life. Peptide-based aptamers represent a relatively smart class of affinity binders and show great promise in biosensor development. Renin is involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure and is an emerging biomarker protein for predicting cardiovascular risk and prognosis. To our knowledge, no studies have described aptamer molecules that can be used as new potent probes for renin. Here, we describe a portable electrochemical biosensor platform based on the newly identified peptide aptamer molecules for renin. We constructed a randomized octapeptide library pool with diversified sequences and selected renin specific peptide aptamers using cDNA display technology. We identified a few peptide aptamer sequences with a KD in the µM binding affinity range for renin. Next, we grafted the selected peptide aptamers onto gold nanoparticles and detected renin in a one-step competitive assay using our originally developed DEP (Disposable Electrochemical Printed) chip and a USB powered portable potentiostat system. We successfully detected renin in as little as 300ngmL(-1) using the PEP-on-DEP method. Thus, the generation and characterization of novel probes for unreachable target molecules by merging a newly identified peptide aptamer with electrochemical transduction allowed for the development of a more practical biosensor that, in principle, can be adapted to develop a portable, low-cost and mass-producible biosensor for point-of-care applications. PMID:26746799

  19. ACS Quicklook PDF products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkov, Anatoly

    1999-12-01

    This report details the features of the ACS quicklook PDF products produced by the HST data pipeline. The requirements closely follow the design of paper products recommended by the Data Quality Committee, with appropriate changes required to fully support ACS.

  20. AC electric field for rapid assembly of nanostructured polyaniline onto microsized gap for sensor devices.

    PubMed

    La Ferrara, Vera; Rametta, Gabriella; De Maria, Antonella

    2015-07-01

    Interconnected network of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) is giving strong potential for enhancing device performances than bulk PANI counterparts. For nanostructured device processing, the main challenge is to get prototypes on large area by requiring precision, low cost and high rate assembly. Among processes meeting these requests, the alternate current electric fields are often used for nanostructure assembling. For the first time, we show the assembly of nanostructured PANI onto large electrode gaps (30-60 μm width) by applying alternate current electric fields, at low frequencies, to PANI particles dispersed in acetonitrile (ACN). An important advantage is the short assembly time, limited to 5-10 s, although electrode gaps are microsized. That encouraging result is due to a combination of forces, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP), induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) flow and alternate current electroosmotic (ACEO) flow, which speed up the assembly process when low frequencies and large electrode gaps are used. The main achievement of the present study is the development of ammonia sensors created by direct assembling of nanostructured PANI onto electrodes. Sensors exhibit high sensitivity to low gas concentrations as well as excellent reversibility at room temperature, even after storage in air. PMID:26009866

  1. High efficiency light-induced dielectrophoresis biochip prepared using CVD techniques.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Wei; Huang, Yao-Sheng; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Tsai, Wu-Han; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Jian, Li-Yi

    2016-10-01

    This article describes a high-efficiency light-induced dielectrophoresis biochip containing a thin film prepared through inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICPCVD). The biochip comprises two ITO glass substrates and a photoconductive amorphous silicon thin film. The biochip can effectively sort particular particles (or cells) by projecting visible light onto the surface of the silicon thin film. The sorting efficiency of biochips is highly associated with the quality of the deposited amorphous silicon thin films; therefore, the choice of deposition technique is extremely critical. However, no study has examined this problem. Hence, the current study thoroughly compared the efficiency of the biochip when films produced through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and ICPCVD are used. PMID:27530346

  2. Efficient dielectrophoretic cell enrichment using a dielectrophoresis-well based system

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razak, Mohd Azhar; Hoettges, Kai F.; Fatoyinbo, Henry O.; Labeed, Fatima H.; Hughes, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Whilst laboratory-on-chip cell separation systems using dielectrophoresis are increasingly reported in the literature, many systems are afflicted by factors which impede “real world” performance, chief among these being cell loss (in dead spaces, attached to glass and tubing surfaces, or sedimentation from flow), and designs with large channel height-to-width ratios (large channel widths, small channel heights) that make the systems difficult to interface with other microfluidic systems. In this paper, we present a scalable structure based on 3D wells with approximately unity height-to-width ratios (based on tubes with electrodes on the sides), which is capable of enriching yeast cell populations whilst ensuring that up to 94.3% of cells processed through the device can be collected in tubes beyond the output. PMID:24396544

  3. Microfabrication of multi-layered electrodes for dielectrophoresis-based field flow fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Bobby; Alazzam, Anas; Khashan, Saud A.

    2015-06-01

    This article details the process layout required for realizing a three-dimensional arrangement of electrodes in a microfluidic device for field flow fractionation based on dielectrophoresis. The metal electrodes are placed horizontally, in a stair-case arrangement, and pass through the bulk of the fluid. Several standard microfabrication processes are employed, in realizing this microdevice, including multi-layer photolithography, casting and plasma bonding. Thus the process layout is repeatable and reproducible. The feasibility of this process layout is demonstrated using three electrodes arranged in aforementioned manner; nevertheless, this process can be extended to as many electrodes as desired in the horizontal direction. This process layout can will make applications possible that were not possible till date due to the inability in microfabricating three-dimensional horizontal metal electrodes that run through the entire width of the microchannel.

  4. Microparticles manipulation and enhancement of their separation in pinched flow fractionation by insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Khashei, Hesamodin; Latifi, Hamid; Seresht, Mohsen Jamshidi; Ghasemi, Amir Hossein Baradaran

    2016-03-01

    The separation and manipulation of microparticles in lab on a chip devices have importance in point of care diagnostic tools and analytical applications. The separation and sorting of particles from biological and clinical samples can be performed using active and passive techniques. In passive techniques, no external force is applied while in active techniques by applying external force (e.g. electrical), higher separation efficiency is obtained. In this article, passive (pinched flow fractionation) and active (insulator-based dielectrophoresis) methods were combined to increase the separation efficiency at lower voltages. First by simulation, appropriate values of geometry and applied voltages for better focusing, separation, and lower Joule heating were obtained. Separation of 1.5 and 6 μm polystyrene microparticles was experimentally obtained at optimized geometry and low total applied voltage (25 V). Also, the trajectory of 1.5 μm microparticles was controlled by adjusting the total applied voltage. PMID:26685118

  5. Efficient dielectrophoretic cell enrichment using a dielectrophoresis-well based system.

    PubMed

    Abdul Razak, Mohd Azhar; Hoettges, Kai F; Fatoyinbo, Henry O; Labeed, Fatima H; Hughes, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Whilst laboratory-on-chip cell separation systems using dielectrophoresis are increasingly reported in the literature, many systems are afflicted by factors which impede "real world" performance, chief among these being cell loss (in dead spaces, attached to glass and tubing surfaces, or sedimentation from flow), and designs with large channel height-to-width ratios (large channel widths, small channel heights) that make the systems difficult to interface with other microfluidic systems. In this paper, we present a scalable structure based on 3D wells with approximately unity height-to-width ratios (based on tubes with electrodes on the sides), which is capable of enriching yeast cell populations whilst ensuring that up to 94.3% of cells processed through the device can be collected in tubes beyond the output. PMID:24396544

  6. Double-layer polarization of a non-conducting particle in an alternating current field with applications to dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui

    2011-09-01

    Dielectrophoresis is becoming one of the most important techniques in particle manipulation including particle separation, particle assembly, and biomolecule characterization. Understanding dielectrophoretic properties of particles is a key step toward effective and efficient particle manipulation. Theoretical studies of polarization of a particle can help to understand experimental observations and also go beyond to develop a predictive theory to guide the experimental design. This article discusses recent theoretical advances in the polarization of a dielectric particle, in particular, the polarization of the electric double layer. The double-layer polarization is critical to determine particle dynamics in dielectrophoresis. The dipole moment characterizing the strength of this polarization depends on the double-layer thickness, the electric field frequency, the particle's surface charge, and other surface's properties (Pohl, H. A., Dielectrophoresis, Cambridge University Press, New York 1978). After a brief review of the mathematical model, the focus is on the following problems: (i) the polarization of a spherical particle; (ii) the polarization of an elongated cylindrical particle; (iii) the effect of the slip on the polarization of a particle. The double-layer polarization is examined here in the context of high-frequency and low-frequency dispersions induced by surface conduction and diffusion, respectively. PMID:21823130

  7. A local bottom-gate structure with low parasitic capacitance for dielectrophoresis assembly and electrical characterization of suspended nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Shusen; Rong, Hao; Lu, Miao

    2014-05-01

    A device including a pair of top electrodes and a local gate in the bottom of an SU-8 trench was fabricated on a glass substrate for dielectrophoresis assembly and electrical characterization of suspended nanomaterials. The three terminals were made of gold electrodes and electrically isolated from each other by an air gap. Compared to the widely used global back-gate silicon device, the parasitic capacitance between the three terminals was significantly reduced and an individual gate was assigned to each device. In addition, the spacing from the bottom-gate to either the source or drain was larger than twice the source-drain gap, which guaranteed that the electric field between the source and drain in the dielectrophoresis assembly was not distinguished by the bottom-gate. To prove the feasibility and versatility of the device, a suspended carbon nanotube and graphene film were assembled by dielectrophoresis and characterized successfully. Accordingly, the proposed device holds promise for the electrical characterization of suspended nanomaterials, especially in a high frequency resonator or transistor configuration.

  8. Orientation and Pearl-Chain Formation of Paramecia Induced by AC Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Toyomasa; Tanji, Ayafumi; Yagi, Hiroshi

    1987-11-01

    Paramecium deciliated with ethanol is able to orient itself in a parallel (positive orientation) or perpendicular direction (negative orientation) to an AC electric field, depending upon the applied frequency. We found that this turnover frequency is between 1 and 10 MHz in a non-electrolyte solution for the cells. The cells also aggregate with one another by the mutual dielectrophoresis in the electric field, provided the distance between the two cells is shorter than about half their length. The two critical field intensities for the orientation and for the aggregation cannot be clearly distinguished. Consequently, when the cell density in the solution is sufficiently high, a positive or negative pearl-chain of the cells is formed, depending upon the applied frequency.

  9. ESTIMATION OF INTERNAL EXPOSURE TO URANIUM WITH UNCERTAINTY FROM URINALYSIS DATA USING THE InDEP COMPUTER CODE

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jeri L.; Apostoaei, A. Iulian; Thomas, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is currently studying mortality in a cohort of 6409 workers at a former uranium processing facility. As part of this study, over 220 000 urine samples were used to reconstruct organ doses due to internal exposure to uranium. Most of the available computational programs designed for analysis of bioassay data handle a single case at a time, and thus require a significant outlay of time and resources for the exposure assessment of a large cohort. NIOSH is currently supporting the development of a computer program, InDEP (Internal Dose Evaluation Program), to facilitate internal radiation exposure assessment as part of epidemiological studies of both uranium- and plutonium-exposed cohorts. A novel feature of InDEP is its batch processing capability which allows for the evaluation of multiple study subjects simultaneously. InDEP analyses bioassay data and derives intakes and organ doses with uncertainty estimates using least-squares regression techniques or using the Bayes’ Theorem as applied to internal dosimetry (Bayesian method). This paper describes the application of the current version of InDEP to formulate assumptions about the characteristics of exposure at the study facility that were used in a detailed retrospective intake and organ dose assessment of the cohort. PMID:22683620

  10. Lab-on-a-chip Single Particle Dielectrophoretic Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weina; Shao, Hua; Lear, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    Cell-patterning and cell-manipulation in micro-environments are fundamental to biological and biomedical applications, for example, spectroscopic cytology based cancer detection. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) traps with transparent centers for stabilized cell and particle optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) were fabricated by patterning 10 μm wide, planar gold electrodes on glass substrates. The capturing strength of DEP traps was quantified based on the minimum AC voltage required to capture and hold varying diameter polystyrene or was it some other material, e.g. silica or PMMA microspheres in water as a function of frequency required under a constant flowrate of 20 μm/s. The maximum required trapping voltage in the negative DEP regime of f = 1 kHz to 40 MHz was 5.0 VAC. The use of AC fields effectively suppressed hydrolysis. New geometries of DEP traps are being explored on the basis of 3-D electrostatic field simulations.

  11. A tapered aluminium microelectrode array for improvement of dielectrophoresis-based particle manipulation.

    PubMed

    Buyong, Muhamad Ramdzan; Larki, Farhad; Faiz, Mohd Syafiq; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Yunas, Jumrail; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the dielectrophoretic force (F(DEP)) response of Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays with tapered profile is investigated through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. A standard CMOS processing technique with a step for the formation of a tapered profile resist is implemented in the fabrication of Tapered Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays (TAMA). The F(DEP) is investigated through analysis of the Clausius-Mossotti factor (CMF) and cross-over frequency (f(xo)). The performance of TAMA with various side wall angles is compared to that of microelectrodes with a straight cut sidewall profile over a wide range of frequencies through FEM numerical simulations. Additionally, electric field measurement (EFM) is performed through scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in order to obtain the region of force focus in both platforms. Results showed that the tapered profile microelectrodes with angles between 60° and 70° produce the highest electric field gradient on the particles. Also, the region of the strongest electric field in TAMA is located at the bottom and top edge of microelectrode while the strongest electric field in microelectrodes with straight cut profile is found at the top corner of the microelectrode. The latter property of microelectrodes improves the probability of capturing/repelling the particles at the microelectrode's side wall. PMID:25970255

  12. Analysing calcium signalling of cells under high shear flows using discontinuous dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Soffe, Rebecca; Baratchi, Sara; Tang, Shi-Yang; Nasabi, Mahyar; McIntyre, Peter; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-01-01

    Immobilisation of cells is an important feature of many cellular assays, as it enables the physical/chemical stimulation of cells; whilst, monitoring cellular processes using microscopic techniques. Current approaches for immobilising cells, however, are hampered by time-consuming processes, the need for specific antibodies or coatings, and adverse effects on cell integrity. Here, we present a dielectrophoresis-based approach for the robust immobilisation of cells, and analysis of their responses under high shear flows. This approach is quick and label-free, and more importantly, minimises the adverse effects of electric field on the cell integrity, by activating the field for a short duration of 120 s, just long enough to immobilise the cells, after which cell culture media (such as HEPES) is flushed through the platform. In optimal conditions, at least 90% of the cells remained stably immobilised, when exposed to a shear stress of 63 dyn/cm(2). This approach was used to examine the shear-induced calcium signalling of HEK-293 cells expressing a mechanosensitive ion channel, transient receptor potential vaniloid type 4 (TRPV4), when exposed to the full physiological range of shear stress. PMID:26202725

  13. Analysing calcium signalling of cells under high shear flows using discontinuous dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffe, Rebecca; Baratchi, Sara; Tang, Shi-Yang; Nasabi, Mahyar; McIntyre, Peter; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-07-01

    Immobilisation of cells is an important feature of many cellular assays, as it enables the physical/chemical stimulation of cells; whilst, monitoring cellular processes using microscopic techniques. Current approaches for immobilising cells, however, are hampered by time-consuming processes, the need for specific antibodies or coatings, and adverse effects on cell integrity. Here, we present a dielectrophoresis-based approach for the robust immobilisation of cells, and analysis of their responses under high shear flows. This approach is quick and label-free, and more importantly, minimises the adverse effects of electric field on the cell integrity, by activating the field for a short duration of 120 s, just long enough to immobilise the cells, after which cell culture media (such as HEPES) is flushed through the platform. In optimal conditions, at least 90% of the cells remained stably immobilised, when exposed to a shear stress of 63 dyn/cm2. This approach was used to examine the shear-induced calcium signalling of HEK-293 cells expressing a mechanosensitive ion channel, transient receptor potential vaniloid type 4 (TRPV4), when exposed to the full physiological range of shear stress.

  14. Feedback control for noise-aided parallel micromanipulation of several particles using dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zemánek, Jiří; Michálek, Tomáš; Hurák, Zdeněk

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes a novel control strategy for simultaneous manipulation of several microscale particles over a planar microelectrode array using dielectrophoresis. The approach is based on a combination of numerical nonlinear optimization, which gives a systematic computational procedure for finding the voltages applied to the individual electrodes, and exploitation of the intrinsic noise, which compensates for the loss of controllability when two identical particles are exposed to identical forces. Although interesting on its own, the proposed functionality can also be seen as a preliminary achievement in a quest for a technique for separation of two particles. The approach is tested experimentally with polystyrene beads (50 microns in diameter) immersed in deionized water on a flat microelectrode array with parallel electrodes. A digital camera and computer vision algorithm are used to measure the positions. Two distinguishing features of the proposed control strategy are that the range of motion is not limited to interelectrode gaps and that independent manipulation of several particles simultaneously is feasible even on a simple microelectrode array. PMID:25875804

  15. 3D experimental investigation of the interplay between dielectrophoresis and induced-charge electroosmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boymelgreen, Alicia; Zehavi, Matan; Yossifon, Gilad

    2014-11-01

    It is well-known that the advent non-linear electrokinetic flows, such as induced-charge electroosmosis, are strongly dependent on the frequency of the applied field. However, to date, there exists no unifying theory which can exactly predict both the strength and frequency dispersion of such electrokinetic flows. Using microPIV and temperature sensitive dyes we demonstrate the presence of a number of competing non-linear effects including dielectrophoresis, electrothermal flow and wall effects which compete with induced-charge electrokinetic flow, potentially causing a distortion of both the strength and frequency dispersion predicted for pure induced-charge effects. In terms of the wall effects, we investigate the differences between channels in which the walls are conducting (the field is perpendicular to the wall) and insulating (the field is parallel to the wall). This work is of both fundamental and practical importance and may be used to further refine non-linear electrokinetic theory and optimize the flow parameters of electroosmotic pumps and the mobility of electrokinetically driven micromotors or carriers in lab-on-a-chip analysis systems.

  16. Analysing calcium signalling of cells under high shear flows using discontinuous dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Soffe, Rebecca; Baratchi, Sara; Tang, Shi-Yang; Nasabi, Mahyar; McIntyre, Peter; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-01-01

    Immobilisation of cells is an important feature of many cellular assays, as it enables the physical/chemical stimulation of cells; whilst, monitoring cellular processes using microscopic techniques. Current approaches for immobilising cells, however, are hampered by time-consuming processes, the need for specific antibodies or coatings, and adverse effects on cell integrity. Here, we present a dielectrophoresis-based approach for the robust immobilisation of cells, and analysis of their responses under high shear flows. This approach is quick and label-free, and more importantly, minimises the adverse effects of electric field on the cell integrity, by activating the field for a short duration of 120 s, just long enough to immobilise the cells, after which cell culture media (such as HEPES) is flushed through the platform. In optimal conditions, at least 90% of the cells remained stably immobilised, when exposed to a shear stress of 63 dyn/cm2. This approach was used to examine the shear-induced calcium signalling of HEK-293 cells expressing a mechanosensitive ion channel, transient receptor potential vaniloid type 4 (TRPV4), when exposed to the full physiological range of shear stress. PMID:26202725

  17. An integrated dielectrophoresis-active hydrophoretic microchip for continuous particle filtration and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Chao; Yuan, Dan; Alici, Gursel; Du, Haiping; Zhu, Yonggang; Li, Weihua

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic manipulation of biological objects from mixture has a significant application in sample preparation and clinical diagnosis. This work presents a dielectrophoresis-active hydrophoretic device for continuous label-free particle separation and filtration. This device comprises interdigitated electrodes and a hydrophoretic channel. According to the difference of lateral positions of polystyrene particles, the device can run at separation or filtration modes by altering the power supply voltages. With an applied voltage of 24 Vp-p, both 3 and 10 μm beads had close lateral positions and were redirected to the same outlet. Under a voltage of 36 Vp-p, beads with the diameters of 3 and 10 μm had different lateral positions and were collected from the different outlets. Separation of 5 and 10 μm particles was achieved to demonstrate the relatively small size difference of the beads. This device has great potential in a range of lab-on-a-chip applications.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Optically-Induced Dielectrophoresis Using a Voltage-Transformation-Ratio Model

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Shih-Hsun; Huang, Sheng-Chieh; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) has been extensively used for the manipulation and separation of cells, beads and micro-droplets in microfluidic devices. With this approach, non-uniform electric fields induced by light projected on a photoconductive layer can be used to generate attractive or repulsive forces on dielectric materials. Then, moving these light patterns can be used for the manipulation of particles in the microfluidic devices. This study reports on the results from numerical simulation of the ODEP platform using a new model based on a voltage transformation ratio, which takes the effective electrical voltage into consideration. Results showed that the numerical simulation was in reasonably agreement with experimental data for the manipulation of polystyrene beads and emulsion droplets, with a coefficient of variation less than 6.2% (n = 3). The proposed model can be applied to simulations of the ODEP force and may provide a reliable tool for estimating induced dielectrophoretic forces and electric fields, which is crucial for microfluidic applications. PMID:23385411

  19. Biaxial Dielectrophoresis Force Spectroscopy: A Stoichiometric Approach for Examining Intermolecular Weak Binding Interactions.

    PubMed

    Park, In Soo; Kwak, Tae Joon; Lee, Gyudo; Son, Myeonggu; Choi, Jeong Woo; Choi, Seungyeop; Nam, Kihwan; Lee, Sei-Young; Chang, Woo-Jin; Eom, Kilho; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Sangyoup; Bashir, Rashid; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-04-26

    The direct quantification of weak intermolecular binding interactions is very important for many applications in biology and medicine. Techniques that can be used to investigate such interactions under a controlled environment, while varying different parameters such as loading rate, pulling direction, rupture event measurements, and the use of different functionalized probes, are still lacking. Herein, we demonstrate a biaxial dielectrophoresis force spectroscopy (BDFS) method that can be used to investigate weak unbinding events in a high-throughput manner under controlled environments and by varying the pulling direction (i.e., transverse and/or vertical axes) as well as the loading rate. With the BDFS system, we can quantitatively analyze binding interactions related to hydrogen bonding or ionic attractions between functionalized microbeads and a surface within a microfluidic device. Our BDFS system allowed for the characterization of the number of bonds involved in an interaction, bond affinity, kinetic rates, and energy barrier heights and widths from different regimes of the energy landscape. PMID:27007455

  20. Monitoring drug induced apoptosis and treatment sensitivity in non-small cell lung carcinoma using dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Taruvai Kalyana Kumar, Rajeshwari; Liu, Shanshan; Minna, John D; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive real time methods for characterizing biomolecular events that contribute towards apoptotic kinetics would be of significant importance in the field of cancer biology. Effective drug-induced apoptosis is an important factor for establishing the relationship between cancer genetics and treatment sensitivity. The objective of this study was to develop a non-invasive technique to characterize cancer cells that are undergoing drug-induced apoptosis. We used dielectrophoresis to determine apoptotic cells as early as 2h post drug treatment as compared to 24h with standard flow cytometry method using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) adenocarcinoma cell line (HCC1833) as a study model. Our studies have shown significant differences in apoptotic cells by chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the extracellular surface when the cells where treated with a potent Bcl-2 family inhibitor drug (ABT-263). Time lapse dielectrophoretic studies were performed over 24h period after exposure to ABT-263 at clinically relevant concentrations. The dielectrophoretic studies were compared to Annexin-V FITC flow assay for the detection of PS in mid-stage apoptosis using flow cytometry. As a result of physical and biochemical changes, inherent dielectric properties of cells undergoing varying stages of apoptosis showed amplified changes in their cytoplasmic and membrane capacitance. In addition, zeta potential of these fixed isolated cells was measured to obtain direct correlation to biomolecular events. PMID:27262539

  1. Polymeric microfluidic devices for the monitoring and separation of water-borne pathogens utilizing insulative dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Greg J.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Brazzle, John D.; Hachman, John T.; Hunter, Marion C.; Chames, Jeffery M.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; Simmons, Blake A.

    2005-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated selective trapping, concentration, and release of various biological organisms and inert beads by insulator-based dielectrophoresis within a polymeric microfluidic device. The microfluidic channels and internal features, in this case arrays of insulating posts, were initially created through standard wet-etch techniques in glass. This glass chip was then transformed into a nickel stamp through the process of electroplating. The resultant nickel stamp was then used as the replication tool to produce the polymeric devices through injection molding. The polymeric devices were made of Zeonor 1060R, a polyolefin copolymer resin selected for its superior chemical resistance and optical properties. These devices were then optically aligned with another polymeric substrate that had been machined to form fluidic vias. These two polymeric substrates were then bonded together through thermal diffusion bonding. The sealed devices were utilized to selectively separate and concentrate a variety of biological pathogen simulants and organisms. These organisms include bacteria and spores that were selectively concentrated and released by simply applying D.C. voltages across the plastic replicates via platinum electrodes in inlet and outlet reservoirs. The dielectrophoretic response of the organisms is observed to be a function of the applied electric field and post size, geometry and spacing. Cells were selectively trapped against a background of labeled polystyrene beads and spores to demonstrate that samples of interest can be separated from a diverse background. We have implemented a methodology to determine the concentration factors obtained in these devices.

  2. A frequency-control particle separation device based on resultant effects of electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiang-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2016-08-01

    Particle separation plays an important role in microfluidic sample preparation for various biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a particle manipulation and separation scheme using a microfluidic device based on low-volume/low-voltage electrokinetic frequency modulation. Utilizing a circular micro-electrode array, both electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis can be contributed to manipulate particles in the device by controlling the frequency of applied sinusoidal travelling wave signals. Theoretical simulations based on finite-element methods are employed to establish fundamental understanding of the developed scheme. For experimental demonstration, polystyrene beads (6 μm in diameter) and human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) are used to validate the frequency-modulation effect. Furthermore, different diameter polystyrene beads (6 μm and 10 μm in diameter) are mixed to show potentials of precise particle separations (˜90% efficiency) by the reported frequency-controlled electrokinetic device. The developed technique can be exploited as an actuation scheme and particle manipulation method for microfluidic sample preparations of low ionic concentration samples.

  3. Apoptosis progression studied using parallel dielectrophoresis electrophysiological analysis and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, H J; Cardnell, A; Hoettges, K F; Labeed, F H; Hughes, M P

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis is characterised by many cellular events, but the standard Annexin-V assay identifies two; the transfer of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) from inner to outer leaflets of the plasma membrane, acting as an "eat me" signal to macrophages, and the permeabilisation of the plasma membrane. In this paper we compare the results from the Annexin-V assay with electrophysiology data obtained in parallel using dielectrophoresis, which highlights two changes in cell electrophysiology; a change in cytoplasmic conductivity which correlates with PS expression, and a membrane conductance spike that correlates with permeabilisation. Combining results from both methods shows a strong inverse relationship between conductivity and PS externalisation. One mechanism which may explain this correlation is related to intracellular Ca(2+), which is known to increase early in apoptosis. PS expression occurs when enzymes called scramblases swap external and internal phospholipids, and which are usually activated by Ca(2+), whilst the change in cytoplasmic conductivity may be due to K(+) efflux from intermediate conductance (IK) ion channels that are also activated by Ca(2+). PMID:26235126

  4. An Anti-Adhesion Technique in Microfluidic Channel Using Dielectrophoresis for Particle Processing Microfluidic Chip Applications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Gu; Seo, Hye-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Particle adhesion to the walls of microfluidic channels is a prominent cause of deteriorating performance and reliability in miniaturized analytical devices; it can also cause unexpected changes in their structures and operating conditions. Therefore, the demand of anti-adhesion for wall loss reduction on particle processing chips is high. This paper demonstrates an anti-adhesion technique using dielectrophoresis. The proposed technique is applied to a distribution microchannel for a feasibility test and is then applied to a blood plasma filter, which is a human blood cell and plasma separation device. In the distribution microchannel, the application of electric potentials of 0-20 V(pp) at 3 MHz caused the wall loss of polystyrene latex (PSL) particles to decrease with decreasing particle diameter. When an electric potential of 20 V(pp) was applied in a distribution microchannel experiment using PSL particles, the wall loss decreased by 52.7 ± 3% for 10-μm-diameter particles. On the other hand, when a 20 V(pp) electric potential was applied in a distribution microchannel experiment using human blood cells, the wall loss decreased by 66.4 ± 6%. In the blood plasma filter, the wall loss decreased by 54.89 ± 5% at 20 V(pp) and 1 MHz. The purity efficiency of the blood plasma filter was 69.56% without the wall loss reduction technique and 95.14% when the applied electric potential was 20 V(pp). PMID:26485924

  5. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Muratore, Massimo; Mitchell, Steve; Waterfall, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:23933253

  6. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  7. [Genetic analysis of dense and erect panicle 2 allele DEP2-1388 and its application in hybrid rice breeding].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yungao; Guo, Lianan; Yang, Guotao; Qin, Peng; Fan, Cunliu; Peng, Youlin; Yan, Wei; He, Hang; Li, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, we isolated an erect panicle mutant, R1338, from indica heavy-panicle restorer Shuhui498. Compared with wild type control, the mutant displayed dwarfism, erect and short panicle, short primary panicle branch, increased grain density, short grain length and increased grain thickness. In addition, the erect panicle architecture of R1388 resulted in significant decreased bending moment and increased resistance to panicle bending. Histocytological analysis indicated that the diameter of uppermost internode, cellulose content and lignin content play important roles in resistance to panicle bending. Genetic analysis revealed that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a semi-dominant nuclear gene. With resequencing and MutMap analysis strategy, we found that one SNP from A to G at the seventh exon of DEP2 resulted in the 928(th) amino acid substitution from arginine (AGG) to glycine (GGG) in R1338 mutant. Considering the phenotype of other dep2 mutants, the phenotype of R1338 was likely to be caused by the SNP in DEP2. The mutant R1338 and wild type were crossed with several sterile lines which respectively had different panicle types, the combinations generated from R1338 and curve panicle sterile lines showed semi-erect panicle, higher seed setting percentage and heterosis, and the combinations generated from R1388 and erect panicle sterile line with DEP1 showed erect panicle by gene additive effect. Moreover, the combinations with semi-erect panicle had superior light transmittance and stronger light intensity, which improved efficiency of light utilization to intermediate and subjacent leaves compared to the combinations with curved panicle. This study provides a good strategy to solve the problem of population density in three-line hybrid rice. PMID:26787525

  8. Testing for Depéret's Rule (Body Size Increase) in Mammals using Combined Extinct and Extant Data

    PubMed Central

    Bokma, Folmer; Godinot, Marc; Maridet, Olivier; Ladevèze, Sandrine; Costeur, Loïc; Solé, Floréal; Gheerbrant, Emmanuel; Peigné, Stéphane; Jacques, Florian; Laurin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not evolutionary lineages in general show a tendency to increase in body size has often been discussed. This tendency has been dubbed “Cope's rule” but because Cope never hypothesized it, we suggest renaming it after Depéret, who formulated it clearly in 1907. Depéret's rule has traditionally been studied using fossil data, but more recently a number of studies have used present-day species. While several paleontological studies of Cenozoic placental mammals have found support for increasing body size, most studies of extant placentals have failed to detect such a trend. Here, we present a method to combine information from present-day species with fossil data in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework. We apply the method to body mass estimates of a large number of extant and extinct mammal species, and find strong support for Depéret's rule. The tendency for size increase appears to be driven not by evolution toward larger size in established species, but by processes related to the emergence of new species. Our analysis shows that complementary data from extant and extinct species can greatly improve inference of macroevolutionary processes. PMID:26508768

  9. Do diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) influence the metabolic syndrome parameters? Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Medic Stojanoska, Milica; Milankov, Andrijana; Vukovic, Bojan; Vukcevic, Dejan; Sudji, Jan; Bajkin, Ivana; Curic, Nikola; Icin, Tijana; Kovacev Zavisic, Branka; Milic, Natasa

    2015-08-01

    The study objective was to determine if the healthy participants were exposed to diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and if this exposure could be linked to the development of metabolic syndrome. The study included 103 healthy volunteers of similar age with normal BMI values, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. DEP and DEHP were measured in the morning urine samples to detect monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP). Two phthalate groups and a control group were formed. Both MEP group and control group had similar results. The correlations between MEP and the measured parameters were insignificant. The correlation between the MEHP group and the age was significantly negative, but between the MHEP group and the waist circumference the correlation was significantly positive. Lipids and lipoproteins were within the reference values and equal in both groups. The significant negative correlation was observed only between MEHP and HDL. Our population is exposed to DEP and DEHP. There was only a significant correlation between DEHP and the observed metabolic syndrome components. Its negative impact was higher as the participants were younger. PMID:26210228

  10. Testing for Depéret's Rule (Body Size Increase) in Mammals using Combined Extinct and Extant Data.

    PubMed

    Bokma, Folmer; Godinot, Marc; Maridet, Olivier; Ladevèze, Sandrine; Costeur, Loïc; Solé, Floréal; Gheerbrant, Emmanuel; Peigné, Stéphane; Jacques, Florian; Laurin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not evolutionary lineages in general show a tendency to increase in body size has often been discussed. This tendency has been dubbed "Cope's rule" but because Cope never hypothesized it, we suggest renaming it after Depéret, who formulated it clearly in 1907. Depéret's rule has traditionally been studied using fossil data, but more recently a number of studies have used present-day species. While several paleontological studies of Cenozoic placental mammals have found support for increasing body size, most studies of extant placentals have failed to detect such a trend. Here, we present a method to combine information from present-day species with fossil data in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework. We apply the method to body mass estimates of a large number of extant and extinct mammal species, and find strong support for Depéret's rule. The tendency for size increase appears to be driven not by evolution toward larger size in established species, but by processes related to the emergence of new species. Our analysis shows that complementary data from extant and extinct species can greatly improve inference of macroevolutionary processes. PMID:26508768

  11. Low-frequency dielectrophoretic response of a single particle in aqueous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, H Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We use optical tweezers-based dielectrophoresis (DEP) force spectroscopy to investigate the roles of the electrical double layer in the AC dielectric response of an individual colloidal particle in an aqueous medium. Specifically, we measure the DEP crossover frequency as a function of particles size, medium viscosity, and temperature. Experimental results were compared to low frequency relaxation mechanisms predicted by Schwarz, demonstrating the dielectrophoretic responses in the frequency range between 10 kHz and 1 MHz were dominated by counterion diffusion within the electric double layer. PMID:26858820

  12. DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE (DEP)-INDUCED ACTIV ATION OF STAT3 REQUIRES ACTIVITIES OF EGFR AND SRC IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vivo exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) elicits acute inflammatory responses in the lung characterized by inflammatory cell influx and elevated expression of mediators such as cytokines, and chemokines. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein...

  13. AC magnetohydrodynamic microfluidic switch

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoff, A V; Lee, A P

    2000-03-02

    A microfluidic switch has been demonstrated using an AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping mechanism in which the Lorentz force is used to pump an electrolytic solution. By integrating two AC MHD pumps into different arms of a Y-shaped fluidic circuit, flow can be switched between the two arms. This type of switch can be used to produce complex fluidic routing, which may have multiple applications in {micro}TAS.

  14. ACS Symposium Support

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth D. Jordan

    2010-02-20

    The funds from this DOE grant were used to help cover the travel costs of five students and postdoctoral fellows who attended a symposium on 'Hydration: From Clusters to Aqueous Solutions' held at the Fall 2007 American Chemical Society Meeting in Boston, MA, August 19-23. The Symposium was sponsored by the Physical Chemistry Division, ACS. The technical program for the meeting is available at http://phys-acs.org/fall2007.html.

  15. Continuous dielectrophoretic particle separation using a microfluidic device with 3D electrodes and vaulted obstacles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yankai; Ren, Yukun; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports a microfluidic separation device combining 3D electrodes and vaulted obstacles to continuously separate particles experiencing strong positive dielectrophoresis (DEP) from particles experiencing weak positive DEP, or from particles experiencing negative DEP. The separation is achieved by first focusing the particle mixture into a narrow stream by a hydrodynamic focusing flow, and then deviating them into different outlets by AC DEP. The vaulted obstacles facilitate the separation by both increasing the non-uniformity of the electric field, and influencing the particles to move in regions strongly affected by DEP. The 3D electrodes give rise to a spatially non-uniform electric field and extend DEP effect to the channel height. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the obstacles on electric field distribution and particle trajectories so as to optimize the obstacle height and compare with the experimental results. The performance of the device is assessed by separating 25 μm gold-coated particles from 10 μm particles in different flow rates by positive DEP and negative DEP, and also separating 25 μm gold-coated particles from yeast cells using only positive DEP. The experimental observation shows a reasonable agreement with numerical simulation results. PMID:25962351

  16. Enhanced contactless dielectrophoresis enrichment and isolation platform via cell-scale microstructures.

    PubMed

    Čemažar, Jaka; Douglas, Temple A; Schmelz, Eva M; Davalos, Rafael V

    2016-01-01

    We designed a new microfluidic device that uses pillars on the same order as the diameter of a cell (20 μm) to isolate and enrich rare cell samples from background. These cell-scale microstructures improve viability, trapping efficiency, and throughput while reducing pearl chaining. The area where cells trap on each pillar is small, such that only one or two cells trap while fluid flow carries away excess cells. We employed contactless dielectrophoresis in which a thin PDMS membrane separates the cell suspension from the electrodes, improving cell viability for off-chip collection and analysis. We compared viability and trapping efficiency of a highly aggressive Mouse Ovarian Surface Epithelial (MOSE) cell line in this 20 μm pillar device to measurements in an earlier device with the same layout but pillars of 100 μm diameter. We found that MOSE cells in the new device with 20 μm pillars had higher viability at 350 VRMS, 30 kHz, and 1.2 ml/h (control 77%, untrapped 71%, trapped 81%) than in the previous generation device (untrapped 47%, trapped 42%). The new device can trap up to 6 times more cells under the same conditions. Our new device can sort cells with a high flow rate of 2.2 ml/h and throughput of a few million cells per hour while maintaining a viable population of cells for off-chip analysis. By using the device to separate subpopulations of tumor cells while maintaining their viability at large sample sizes, this technology can be used in developing personalized treatments that target the most aggressive cancerous cells. PMID:26858821

  17. Concurrent shear stress and chemical stimulation of mechano-sensitive cells by discontinuous dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Soffe, Rebecca; Baratchi, Sara; Tang, Shi-Yang; Mitchell, Arnan; McIntyre, Peter; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-03-01

    Microfluidic platforms enable a variety of physical or chemical stimulation of single or multiple cells to be examined and monitored in real-time. To date, intracellular calcium signalling research is, however, predominantly focused on observing the response of cells to a single mode of stimulation; consequently, the sensitising/desensitising of cell responses under concurrent stimuli is not well studied. In this paper, we provide an extended Discontinuous Dielectrophoresis procedure to investigate the sensitising of chemical stimulation, over an extensive range of shear stress, up to 63 dyn/cm(2), which encompasses shear stresses experienced in the arterial and venus systems (10 to 60 dyn/cm(2)). Furthermore, the TRPV4-selective agonist GSK1016790A, a form of chemical stimulation, did not influence the ability of the cells' to remain immobilised under high levels of shear stress; thus, enabling us to investigate shear stress stimulation on agonism. Our experiments revealed that shear stress sensitises GSK1016790A-evoked intracellular calcium signalling of cells in a shear-stimulus dependent manner, as observed through a reduction in the cellular response time and an increase in the pharmacological efficacy. Consequently, suggesting that the role of TRPV4 may be underestimated in endothelial cells-which experience high levels of shear stress. This study highlights the importance of conducting studies at high levels of shear stress. Additionally, our approach will be valuable for examining the effect of high levels of shear on different cell types under different conditions, as presented here for agonist activation. PMID:27099646

  18. Tevatron AC dipole system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  19. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  20. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  1. AC solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schutten, H.P.; Benjamin, J.A.; Lade, R.W.

    1986-03-18

    An AC solar cell is described comprising: a pair of PN junction type solar cells connected in antiparallel between a pair of main terminals; and means for electrically directing light alternatingly without mechanical movement on the PN junctions to generate an alternating potential across the main terminals.

  2. AC 67 Launch Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Live footage of the Unmanned Atlas Centaur (AC) 67 launch is presented on March 26, 1987 at the WESH television station in Florida. Lightning is shown after 49 seconds into the flight. The vehicle is totally destroyed due to a cloud-to-ground lightning flash.

  3. Analysis of a static undulation on the surface of a thin dielectric liquid layer formed by dielectrophoresis forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl V.; McHale, Glen; Mottram, Nigel J.

    2011-07-01

    A layer of insulating liquid of dielectric constant ɛOil and average thickness h- coats a flat surface at y = 0 at which a one-dimensional sinusoidal potential V(x ,0)=VOcos(πx /p) is applied. Dielectrophoresis forces create a static undulation (or "wrinkle") distortion h(x) of period p at the liquid/air interface. Analytical expressions have been derived for the electrostatic energy and the interfacial energy associated with the surface undulation when h(x)=h--(1/2)Acos(2πx /p) yielding a scaling relationship for A as a function of h-, p, VO, ɛOil and the surface tension. The analysis is valid as A/p → 0, and in this limit convergence with numerical simulation of the system is shown.

  4. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  5. Effects of High-Intensity Swimming on Lung Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in a Murine Model of DEP-Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Leonardo C. M.; Bruggemann, Thayse R.; Bobinski, Franciane; da Silva, Morgana Duarte; Oliveira, Regiane Carvalho; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; de Souza, Luiz Felipe; Dafre, Alcir; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Bonorino, Kelly Cattelan; Hizume Kunzler, Deborah de C.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) induces lung inflammation and increases oxidative stress, and both effects are susceptible to changes via regular aerobic exercise in rehabilitation programs. However, the effects of exercise on lungs exposed to DEP after the cessation of exercise are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-intensity swimming on lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice exposed to DEP concomitantly and after exercise cessation. Male Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: Control (n = 12), Swimming (30 min/day) (n = 8), DEP (3 mg/mL—10 μL/mouse) (n = 9) and DEP+Swimming (n = 8). The high-intensity swimming was characterized by an increase in blood lactate levels greater than 1 mmoL/L between 10th and 30th minutes of exercise. Twenty-four hours after the final exposure to DEP, the anesthetized mice were euthanized, and we counted the number of total and differential inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), measured the lung homogenate levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, INF-ϫ, IL-10, and IL-1ra using ELISA, and measured the levels of glutathione, non-protein thiols (GSH-t and NPSH) and the antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the lung. Swimming sessions decreased the number of total cells (p<0.001), neutrophils and lymphocytes (p<0.001; p<0.05) in the BALF, as well as lung levels of IL-1β (p = 0.002), TNF-α (p = 0.003), IL-6 (p = 0.0001) and IFN-ϫ (p = 0.0001). However, the levels of IL-10 (p = 0.01) and IL-1ra (p = 0.0002) increased in the swimming groups compared with the control groups, as did the CAT lung levels (p = 0.0001). Simultaneously, swimming resulted in an increase in the GSH-t and NPSH lung levels in the DEP group (p = 0.0001 and p<0.002). We concluded that in this experimental model, the high-intensity swimming sessions decreased the lung inflammation and oxidative stress status during DEP-induced lung

  6. Dielectrophoresis device and method having non-uniform arrays for manipulating particles

    DOEpatents

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; Simmons, Blake

    2008-09-02

    Microfluidic devices according to embodiments of the present invention include an inlet port, an outlet port, and a channel or chamber having a non-uniform array of insulating features on one or more surfaces. Electrodes are provided for generation of a spatially non-uniform electric field across the array. A voltage source, which may be an A.C. and/or a D.C. voltage source may be coupled to the electrodes for the generation of the electric field.

  7. AC Electrokinetic Bacteria/Virus Traps and Separatrix Crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Diana; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2004-11-01

    A fast and long-range bacteria/virus trap is developed with a dynamical systems approach, by optimizing AC electro-osmotic (ACEO) flow fields on micro-fabricated electrodes. The bacteria are convected to the designated locations three orders of magnitude faster than any motion driven by particle forces. Optimal time-varying flow fields are designed via dynamical system theory by employing the opposite flow directions of capacitive and Faradaic ACEO flows and by judiciously introducing local particle-attracting DEP elements at the converging stagnation lines on the electrodes. The latter elements shift the unstable saddle point of the liquid flow field such that an attracting trap region appears on the electrode for the particle flow field. Time-periodic forcing breaks heteroclinic orbits that bound circulation regions in the bulk sample such that the trap becomes a global attractor. The multi-scale electrode assembly is able to trap most of the bacteria in a ml-sample, with a low CFU count of one thousand per cc, within two minutes. The particle density is increased by four orders of magnitude such that their fluorescent intensity, after molecular tags have been added, is dramatically magnified to allow detection. Virus and nanoparticle trajectories in the micro-fluidic device are imaged with fluorescent imaging.

  8. Identification of /sup 233/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.Y.; Zhou, M.L.

    1983-09-01

    We report in this paper identification of the new isotope /sup 233/Ac. Uranium targets were irradiated with 28 GeV protons; after rapid retrieval of the target and separation of actinium from thorium, /sup 233/Ac was allowed to decay into the known /sup 233/Th daughter. Exhaustive chemical purification was employed to permit the identification of /sup 233/Th via its characteristic ..gamma.. radiations. The half-life derived for /sup 233/Ac from several experiments is 2.3 +- 0.3 min. The production cross section for /sup 233/Ac is 100 ..mu..b.

  9. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  10. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  11. Selective nanomanipulation of fluorescent polystyrene nano-beads and single quantum dots at gold nanostructures based on the AC-dielectrophoretic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinsik; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Sangyoup; Park, Jung Ho; Shin, Hyun-Joon

    2015-11-01

    We introduced the selective manipulation of polystyrene (PS) nano-beads and single quantum dots (QDs) at a gold nanostructure by using the AC-dielectrophoretic (DEP) force. Manipulation in three degrees of freedom (end-facet, side, and position-selective manipulation) was accomplished in gold nanostructures between microelectrodes. A 10 μm gap between the microelectrodes, which has a 100 nm-wide nanowire and 200 nm-wide vortex nanostructures at the inside of the gap, was fabricated, and nanostructures were not connected with the electrodes. We also performed theoretical calculations to verify the selective manipulation through the floating AC-DEP force. A sufficiently high gradient of the square of the electric field (∇|E|2, ~1019 V2 m-3) was accomplished and controlled for achieving a strong attaching force of nanoparticles using the gap between microelectrodes and nanostructures as well as the rotation of structures. Fluorescent PS nano-beads and QDs were attached at the designed end facet, side, and position of nanostructures with high selectivity. A single QD attachment was also realized at gold nanostructures, and the attached QDs were verified as single using optical ``blinking'' measurements.We introduced the selective manipulation of polystyrene (PS) nano-beads and single quantum dots (QDs) at a gold nanostructure by using the AC-dielectrophoretic (DEP) force. Manipulation in three degrees of freedom (end-facet, side, and position-selective manipulation) was accomplished in gold nanostructures between microelectrodes. A 10 μm gap between the microelectrodes, which has a 100 nm-wide nanowire and 200 nm-wide vortex nanostructures at the inside of the gap, was fabricated, and nanostructures were not connected with the electrodes. We also performed theoretical calculations to verify the selective manipulation through the floating AC-DEP force. A sufficiently high gradient of the square of the electric field (∇|E|2, ~1019 V2 m-3) was accomplished and

  12. Rapid and selective concentration of microparticles in an optoelectrofluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Park, Je-Kyun

    2009-01-21

    We demonstrate rapid manipulation and selective concentration of microparticles using AC electrokinetics such as dielectrophoresis (DEP) and AC electro-osmosis (ACEO) in an optoelectrofluidic platform based on a liquid crystal display (LCD). When 10 V bias at 10 kHz was applied to the optoelectrofluidic device, only the 1 microm-diameter polystyrene particles were concentrated into the projected LCD image patterns and closely packed, forming the crystalline structure by ACEO flow, while the 6 microm-diameter particles were repelled by negative DEP forces. We have characterized this frequency-dependency of the optoelectrofluidic particle behavior according to the particle diameter. On the basis of these results, we can rapidly concentrate the 1 microm-diameter particles and separate them from the 6 microm particles, by applying an AC signal of 10 kHz frequency. This novel technique can be applied to rapidly concentrate, separate and pattern micro-/nanoparticles in many biological and chemical applications. PMID:19107274

  13. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  14. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.

  15. Thermionic triode generates ac power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniazzeh, A. G. F.; Scharz, F. C.

    1970-01-01

    Electrostatic grid controls conduction cycle of thermionic diode to convert low dc output voltages to high ac power without undesirable power loss. An ac voltage applied to the grid of this new thermionic triode enables it to convert heat directly into high voltage electrical power.

  16. Automated ac galvanomagnetic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, F. R.; Espy, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    An automated, ac galvanomagnetic measurement system is described. Hall or van der Pauw measurements in the temperature range 10-300 K can be made at a preselected magnetic field without operator attendance. Procedures to validate sample installation and correct operation of other system functions, such as magnetic field and thermometry, are included. Advantages of ac measurements are discussed.

  17. Electronic cages for living cells.

    PubMed

    Al Saeed, Sarah; Bakewell, David J

    2015-08-01

    Design and construction of an electronic cage is described which enables real-time manipulation of live and dead eukaryotic cells. Non-uniform, radio frequency (RF) AC electric fields are used to enable translational and rotational movement of cells, known as dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electro-rotation (EROT), and distinguish their state as viable and non-viable. A concentric multilayered mathematical model, applicable for eukaryotic cells, is also developed, coded and implemented. The simulations predict three dielectric dispersions in the DEP and EROT spectra, though in practice the third is very small so that two are observed. The cage is part of a multi-staged project incorporating controller and DEP/EROT digital signal generator and image processing. PMID:26736401

  18. Dielectrophoretic Force Imaging of Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Garth J.

    2004-03-01

    A new scanning probe microscopic technique is demonstrated, exploiting AC electrokinetic forces for real-time functional imaging of biological interfaces with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) describes the mobility of particles in radio-frequency AC electric fields and is related to the frequency-dependent polarizability. Similar to the forces in optical trapping, DEP interactions are greatest for large field gradients, such as those adjacent to highly curved electrodes. Moderate AC potentials (5 Vpp) are more than sufficient to induce surface forces strong enough for reliable feedback during imaging. Simply changing the AC frequency can change the nature of the DEP force from repulsive to attractive. By scanning the AC frequency, dielectrophoretic spectroscopy using light with a wavelength of ˜ 1/2 km can be performed with spatial resolution of a few nanometers (about 11 to 12 orders of magnitude below the diffraction-limit), representing a new level of achievement in near-field microscopy. Among other things, the facile applicability of DEP imaging in aqueous media is ideally suited for ultrahigh resolution microscopy of biological systems, including supported lipid bilayer membranes, immobilized organelles, and living cells.

  19. Electric-field-induced dielectrophoresis and heterogeneous aggregation in dilute suspensions of positively polarizable particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acrivos, Andreas; Qiu, Zhiyong; Markarian, Nikolai; Khusid, Boris

    2002-11-01

    We specified the conditions under which a dilute suspension of positively polarizable particles would undergo a heterogeneous aggregation in high-gradient strong AC fields and then examined experimentally and theoretically its kinetics [1]. Experiments were conducted on flowing dilute suspensions of heavy aluminum oxide spheres subjected to a high-gradient AC field (several kV/mm) such that the dielectrophoretic force acting on the particles was arranged in the plane perpendicular to the streamlines of the main flow. To reduce the gravitational settling of the particles, the electric chamber was kept slowly rotating around a horizontal axis. Following the application of a field, the particles were found to move towards both the high-voltage and grounded electrodes and to form arrays of "bristles" along their edges. The process was modeled by computing the motion of a single particle under the action of dielectrophoretic, viscous, and gravitational forces for negligibly small particle Reynolds numbers. The particle polarization required for the calculation of the dielectrophoretic force was measured in low-strength fields (several V/mm). The theoretical predictions for the kinetics of the particle accumulation on the electrodes were found to be in a reasonable agreement with experiment, although the interparticle interactions governed the formation of arrays of bristles. These bristles were formed in a two-step mechanism, which arose from the interplay of the dielectrophoretic force that confined the particles near the electrode edge and the dipolar interactions of nearby particles. The results of our studies provide the basic characteristics needed for the design and optimization of electro-hydrodynamic apparatuses. The work was supported by a NASA grant. The suspension characterization was conducted at the NJIT W.M. Keck Laboratory. 1. Z. Qiu, N. Markarian, B. Khusid, A. Acrivos, J. Apple. Phys., 92(5), 2002.

  20. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  1. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  2. Ac traction gets on track

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, L.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes inverter-based ac traction systems which give freight locomotives greater adhesion, pulling power, and braking capacity. In the 1940s, dc traction replaced the steam engine as a source of train propulsion, and it has ruled the freight transportation industry ever since. But now, high-performance ac-traction systems, with their unprecedented levels of pulling power and adhesion, are becoming increasingly common on America`s freight railroads. In thousands of miles of demonstration tests, today`s ac-traction systems have outperformed traditional dc-motor driven systems. Major railroad companies are convinced enough of the benefits of ac traction to have integrated it into their freight locomotives.

  3. Reassessment of the Four Yield-related Genes Gn1a, DEP1, GS3, and IPA1 in Rice Using a CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Li, Meiru; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Zejiao; Wu, Pingzhi; Fang, Maichun; Pan, Xiaoping; Lin, Qiupeng; Luo, Wanbin; Wu, Guojiang; Li, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) systems have been successfully used as efficient tools for genome editing in a variety of species. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate the Gn1a (Os01g0197700), DEP1 (Os09g0441900), GS3 (Os03g0407400), and IPA1 (Os08g0509600) genes of rice cultivar Zhonghua 11, genes which have been reported to function as regulators of grain number, panicle architecture, grain size and plant architecture, respectively. Analysis of the phenotypes and frequencies of edited genes in the first generation of transformed plants (T0) showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was highly efficient in inducing targeted gene editing, with the desired genes being edited in 42.5% (Gn1a), 67.5% (DEP1), 57.5% (GS3), and 27.5% (IPA1) of the transformed plants. The T2 generation of the gn1a, dep1, and gs3 mutants featured enhanced grain number, dense erect panicles, and larger grain size, respectively. Furthermore, semi-dwarf, and grain with long awn, phenotypes were observed in dep1 and gs3 mutants, respectively. The ipa1 mutants showed two contrasting phenotypes, having either fewer tillers or more tillers, depending on the changes induced in the OsmiR156 target region. In addition, we found that mutants with deletions occurred more frequently than previous reports had indicated and that off-targeting had taken place in highly similar target sequences. These results proved that multiple regulators of important traits can be modified in a single cultivar by CRISPR/Cas9, and thus facilitate the dissection of complex gene regulatory networks in the same genomic background and the stacking of important traits in cultivated varieties. PMID:27066031

  4. Reassessment of the Four Yield-related Genes Gn1a, DEP1, GS3, and IPA1 in Rice Using a CRISPR/Cas9 System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meiru; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Zejiao; Wu, Pingzhi; Fang, Maichun; Pan, Xiaoping; Lin, Qiupeng; Luo, Wanbin; Wu, Guojiang; Li, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) systems have been successfully used as efficient tools for genome editing in a variety of species. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate the Gn1a (Os01g0197700), DEP1 (Os09g0441900), GS3 (Os03g0407400), and IPA1 (Os08g0509600) genes of rice cultivar Zhonghua 11, genes which have been reported to function as regulators of grain number, panicle architecture, grain size and plant architecture, respectively. Analysis of the phenotypes and frequencies of edited genes in the first generation of transformed plants (T0) showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was highly efficient in inducing targeted gene editing, with the desired genes being edited in 42.5% (Gn1a), 67.5% (DEP1), 57.5% (GS3), and 27.5% (IPA1) of the transformed plants. The T2 generation of the gn1a, dep1, and gs3 mutants featured enhanced grain number, dense erect panicles, and larger grain size, respectively. Furthermore, semi-dwarf, and grain with long awn, phenotypes were observed in dep1 and gs3 mutants, respectively. The ipa1 mutants showed two contrasting phenotypes, having either fewer tillers or more tillers, depending on the changes induced in the OsmiR156 target region. In addition, we found that mutants with deletions occurred more frequently than previous reports had indicated and that off-targeting had taken place in highly similar target sequences. These results proved that multiple regulators of important traits can be modified in a single cultivar by CRISPR/Cas9, and thus facilitate the dissection of complex gene regulatory networks in the same genomic background and the stacking of important traits in cultivated varieties. PMID:27066031

  5. CONNECTICUT DEP PROPERTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of property owned and maintained by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes state fish hatcheries, flood control areas, historic preserves, natural area preserves, state forests, state par...

  6. MASSACHUSETTS DEP EELGRASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field verified points showing presence or absence of submerged rooted vascular plants along Massachusetts coastline. In addition to the photo interpreted eelgrass coverage (EELGRASS), this point coverage (EGRASVPT) was generated based on field-verified sites as well as all field...

  7. The ac53, ac78, ac101, and ac103 Genes Are Newly Discovered Core Genes in the Family Baculoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Miele, Solange Ana Belén; Iserte, Javier Alonso; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    The family Baculoviridae is a large group of insect viruses containing circular double-stranded DNA genomes of 80 to 180 kbp, which have broad biotechnological applications. A key feature to understand and manipulate them is the recognition of orthology. However, the differences in gene contents and evolutionary distances among the known members of this family make it difficult to assign sequence orthology. In this study, the genome sequences of 58 baculoviruses were analyzed, with the aim to detect previously undescribed core genes because of their remote homology. A routine based on Multi PSI-Blast/tBlastN and Multi HaMStR allowed us to detect 31 of 33 accepted core genes and 4 orthologous sequences in the Baculoviridae which were not described previously. Our results show that the ac53, ac78, ac101 (p40), and ac103 (p48) genes have orthologs in all genomes and should be considered core genes. Accordingly, there are 37 orthologous genes in the family Baculoviridae. PMID:22933288

  8. Simple Equipment for Imaging AC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Anayama, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    Presents an effective way to demonstrate the difference between direct current and alternating current using red and green LEDs. Describes how to make a tool that shows how an AC voltage changes with time using the afterimage effect of the LEDs. (Author/NB)

  9. Semiconductor ac static power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrancik, J.

    1968-01-01

    Semiconductor ac static power switch has long life and high reliability, contains no moving parts, and operates satisfactorily in severe environments, including high vibration and shock conditions. Due to their resistance to shock and vibration, static switches are used where accidental switching caused by mechanical vibration or shock cannot be tolerated.

  10. Energy saving in ac generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit cuts no-load losses, without sacrificing full-load power. Phase-contro circuit includes gate-controlled semiconductor switch that cuts off applied voltage for most of ac cycle if generator idling. Switch "on" time increases when generator is in operation.

  11. Voltage controller/current limiter for ac

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T. T.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit protects ac power systems for overload failures, limits power surge and short-circuit currents to 150 percent of steady state level, regulates ac output voltage, and soft starts loads. Limiter generates dc error signal in response to line fluctuations and dumps power when overload is reached. Device is inserted between ac source and load.

  12. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  13. ac-resistance-measuring instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.J.

    1981-04-22

    An auto-ranging ac resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an ac excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance.

  14. Ozone enhances diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression in human airway epithelial cells through activation of nuclear factors- kappaB (NF-kappaB) and IL-6 (NF-IL6).

    PubMed

    Kafoury, Ramzi M; Kelley, James

    2005-12-01

    Ozone, a highly reactive oxidant gas is a major component of photochemical smog. As an inhaled toxicant, ozone induces its adverse effects mainly on the lung. Inhalation of particulate matter has been reported to cause airway inflammation in humans and animals. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence has indicated that exposure to particulate matter (PM[2.5-10]), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been correlated with increased acute and chronic respiratory morbidity and exacerbation of asthma. Previously, exposure to ozone or particulate matter and their effect on the lung have been addressed as separate environmental problems. Ozone and particulate matter may be chemically coupled in the ambient air. In the present study we determined whether ozone exposure enhances DEP effect on interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. We report that ozone exposure (0.5 ppm x 1 hr) significantly increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression in A549 cells (117 +/- 19 pg/ml, n = 6, p < 0.05) as compared to cultures treated with DEP (100 microg/ml x 4 hr) alone (31 +/- 3 pg/ml, n = 6), or cultures exposed to purified air (24 +/- 6 pg/ml, n = 6). The increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression following ozone exposure was attributed to ozone-induced increase in the activity of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and NF-IL6. The results of the present study indicate that ozone exposure enhances the toxicity of DEP in human airway epithelial cells by augmenting IL-8 gene expression, a potent chemoattractant of neutrophils in the lung. PMID:16819095

  15. Online optical and dielectric monitoring of anisotropic epoxy/BaTiO3 composite formation tailored by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belijar, Guillaume; Diaham, Sombel; Valdez-Nava, Zarel; Lebey, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Anisotropic composites can be obtained by applying an alternating (ac) electric field, forming particle chains in its direction. The control of the particle chains will directly impact the final properties of the composite. Nevertheless, up to now the monitoring of the particle chain formation has only been made by direct optical or post-curing observations. A new technique for the monitoring of the particle dielectrophoretic alignment is proposed, based on the online measurement of the dielectric permittivity. Epoxy/barium titanate (BaTiO3) composites, in the range of 0.25 vol% to 20 vol% of BaTiO3 microparticles, are cured while an ac field (600 Vrms mm-1) is applied. The ac current magnitude and the phase shift angle are measured to determine the dielectric properties of the composite. The same experiment is achieved under optical microscope observation for 0.25 vol% to correlate the changes of the composite dielectric properties to the particle chain formation. As a result, the permittivity variations can be correlated to the particle chains formation and to their growth.

  16. Low-power wireless on-chip microparticle manipulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dei, Yoshiaki; Kishiwada, Yasushi; Yamane, Rie; Inoue, Taisuke; Matsuoka, Toshimasa

    2015-04-01

    In order to realize an easy-to-use on-chip microparticle manipulation system, a chip that can manipulate microparticles by pulse-driven dielectrophoresis (DEP) in a solution with wireless power reception function was designed. Considering both of the DEP operation and power consumption of the chip, the internal supply voltage and the DEP driving signal frequency for CMOS digital circuits including the ring oscillator were assigned to about 0.5 V and about 1 MHz, respectively. The simulation results of wireless power transfer reveals that the use of higher-frequency (13 MHz) and input-matching circuits improve power transfer efficiency (4.7% for the rectification and DEP driving signal generation) and a smaller required available power of the AC power source (19.2 mW). The chip fabricated in a 180 nm triple-well CMOS process demonstrates the wireless on-chip DEP operation. Compared with power transfer systems using an off-chip transformer, the small primary coil on the PCB and the on-chip secondary coil dominate the power dissipation.

  17. Operational Regimes and Physics Present in Optoelectronic Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Justin K.; Jamshidi, Arash; Ohta, Aaron T.; Hsu, Hsan-Yin; Wu, Ming C.

    2008-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) are a powerful light-based technique for the manipulation of micro- and nanoscopic particles. In addition to an optically patterned dielectrophoresis (DEP) force, other light-induced electrokinetic and thermal effects occur in the OET device. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of various fluidic, optical, and electrical effects present during OET operation. These effects include DEP, light-induced ac electroosmosis, electrothermal flow, and buoyancy-driven flow. We present finite-element modeling of these effects to establish the dominant mode for a given set of device parameters and bias conditions. These results are confirmed experimentally and present a comprehensive outline of the operational regimes of the OET device. PMID:19079767

  18. AhR-dependent secretion of PDGF-BB by human classically activated macrophages exposed to DEP extracts stimulates lung fibroblast proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Jaguin, Marie; Fardel, Olivier; Lecureur, Valérie

    2015-06-15

    Lung diseases are aggravated by exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) found in air pollution. Macrophages are thought to play a crucial role in lung immune response to these pollutants, even if the mechanisms involved remain incompletely characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated that classically and alternative human macrophages (MΦ) exhibited increased secretion of PDGF-B in response to DEP extract (DEPe). This occurred via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activation because DEPe-induced PDGF-B overexpression was abrogated after AhR expression knock-down by RNA interference, in both M1 and M2 polarizing MΦ. In addition, TCDD and benzo(a)pyrene, two potent AhR ligands, also significantly increased mRNA expression of PDGF-B in M1 MΦ, whereas some weak ligands of AhR did not. We next evaluated the impact of conditioned media (CM) from MΦ culture exposed to DEPe or of recombinant PDGF-B onto lung fibroblast proliferation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG-1295, prevents phosphorylations of PDGF-Rβ, AKT and ERK1/2 and the proliferation of MRC-5 fibroblasts induced by recombinant PDGF-B and by CM from M1 polarizing MΦ, strongly suggesting that the PDGF-BB secreted by DEPe-exposed MΦ is sufficient to activate the PDGF-Rβ pathway of human lung fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that human MΦ, whatever their polarization status, secrete PDGF-B in response to DEPe and that PDGF-B is a target gene of AhR. Therefore, induction of PDGF-B by DEP may participate in the deleterious effects towards human health triggered by such environmental urban contaminants. - Highlights: • PDGF-B expression and secretion are increased by DEPe exposure in human M1 and M2 MΦ. • DEPe-induced PDGF-B expression is aryl-hydrocarbon-dependent. • DEPe-exposed M1 MΦ secrete sufficient PDGF-B to increase lung fibroblast proliferation.

  19. Ac electrode diagnostics in ac-operated metal halide lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luijks, G. M. J. F.; van Esveld, H. A.; Nijdam, S.; Weerdesteijn, P. A. M.

    2008-07-01

    A diagnostic technique is presented to determine the electrode work function in ac-operated metal halide lamps. The heart of the experimental set-up is a high-speed photodiode array detector, which is able to follow real-time variations of electrode tip temperature and near-electrode plasma emissions in ac-operated experimental YAG lamps, enabling discrimination between the anode and cathode effects. Electrode tip temperature ripples have been measured for 100 Hz square wave operation and simulated with an existing electrode model. By using the electrode work function as main fit parameter for the simulations it is found that the measured cooling effect of the electrode tip in a NaTlDy-iodide lamp is caused by a gas-phase emitter effect of Dy. It is concluded that Dy coverage of the electrode tip causes an effective work function reduction of 0.3 eV at 100 Hz square wave operation, considerably less than the 1.0 eV reduction measured earlier for dc operation.

  20. The AC photovoltaic module is here!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Steven J.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Wills, Robert H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and performance results of a large-area photovoltaic module whose electrical output is ac power suitable for direct connection to the utility grid. The large-area ac PV module features a dedicated, integrally mounted, high-efficiency dc-to-ac power inverter with a nominal output of 250 watts (STC) at 120 Vac, 60 H, that is fully compatible with utility power. The module's output is connected directly to the building's conventional ac distribution system without need for any dc wiring, string combiners, dc ground-fault protection or additional power-conditioning equipment. With its advantages, the ac photovoltaic module promises to become a universal building block for use in all utility-interactive PV systems. This paper discusses AC Module design aspects and utility interface issues (including islanding).

  1. RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller

    SciTech Connect

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.

  2. ac electroosmosis in rectangular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Michele; Accoto, Dino; Dario, Paolo

    2005-11-22

    Motivated by the growing interest in ac electroosmosis as a reliable no moving parts strategy to control fluid motion in microfluidic devices for biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip, we study transient and steady-state electrokinetic phenomena (electroosmosis and streaming currents) in infinitely extended rectangular charged microchannels. With the aid of Fourier series and Laplace transforms we provide a general formal solution of the problem, which is used to study the time-dependent response to sudden ac applied voltage differences in case of finite electric double layer. The Debye-Huckel approximation has been adopted to allow for an algebraic solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann problem in Fourier space. We obtain the expressions of flow velocity profiles, flow rates, streaming currents, as well as expressions of the complex hydraulic and electrokinetic conductances. We analyze in detail the dependence of the electrokinetic conductance on the extension of linear dimensions relative to the Debye length, with an eye on finite electric double layer effects. PMID:16351310

  3. Single event AC - DC electrospraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachewicz, U.; Dijksman, J. F.; Marijnissen, J. C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Electrospraying is an innovative method to deposit very small amounts of, for example, biofluids (far less than 1 p1) that include DNA or protein molecules. An electric potential is applied between a nozzle filled with liquid and a counter electrode placed at 1-2 millimeter distance from the nozzle. In our set-up we use an AC field superposed on a DC field to control the droplet generation process. Our approach is to create single events of electrospraying triggered by one single AC pulse. During this pulse, the equilibrium meniscus (determined by surface tension, static pressure and the DC field) of the liquid changes rapidly into a cone and subsequently into a jet formed at the cone apex. Next, the jet breaks-up into fine droplets and the spraying stops. The meniscus returns to its equilibrium shape again. So far we obtained a stable and reproducible single event process for ethanol and ethylene glycol with water using glass pipettes. The results will be used to generate droplets on demand in a controlled way and deposit them on a pre-defined place on the substrate.

  4. NORTH CAROLINA ASTHMA, CHILDHOOD, AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIES (NCACES); THE NORTH CAROLINA DIABETES AND THE ENVIRONMENT PANEL STUDY (NC DEPS); AND AMBIENT-BASED DATA COLLECTIONS FOR NHEERL SOURCE APPORTIONMENT NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task is designed to evaluate particulate matter exposure and numerous physiological outcomes/responses involving the use of several medical devices, instruments and procedures. The NC ACES and the NC DEPS builds upon the existing knowledge of asthma exacerbation and seeks t...

  5. The multiphoton AC Stark effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, T. G.; Ficek, Z.; Freedhoff, H. S.

    1998-02-01

    We study the interaction of a two-level atom with two intense lasers: a strong laser of Rabi frequency 2Ω on resonance with the atomic transition, and a weaker laser detuned by 2Ω/n, i.e. by a subharmonic of the Rabi frequency of the first. The second laser "dresses" the dressed states created by the first in an n-photon process. We calculate the energy levels and eigenstates of this "doubly-dressed" atom, and find a new phenomenon: the splitting of the energy levels due to an n-photon coupling between them, resulting in a multiphoton AC Stark effect. We illustrate this effect in the fluorescence spectrum, and show that the spectrum contains triplets at the subharmonic as well as harmonic resonance frequencies with a clear dependence on the order n of the resonance and the ratio α of the Rabi frequencies of the lasers

  6. Protection of superconducting AC windings

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaege, T.; Agnoux, C.; Tavergnier, J.P. ); Lacaze, A. ); Collet, M. )

    1992-01-01

    Recent progresses on multifilamentary wires open new prospects of 50-60 Hz applications for superconductivity. The problem of AC windings protection is more critical than that of DC windings, because of high current densities, and of high matrix resistivity: one should not allow the quenched wire to carry it nominal current for longer than a few milliseconds, otherwise permanent damage could occur. After a quench initiation, the protection system therefore has to switch off or drastically reduce the current very rapidly. In this paper, the authors propose various schemes, applicable when the conductor is made of several wires: active protection involves an ultra-rapid quench detection. It is based on the measurement of the current passing through the central resistive wire, and/or of unbalanced currents in the different superconducting wires. About 20 milliseconds after detection, a fast circuit-breaker switched off the current. A complementary passive protection is provided by the resistance developing during normal phase propagation.

  7. Enhancement of continuous-flow separation of viable/nonviable yeast cells using a nonuniform alternating current electric field with complex spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Tada, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Arisa; Eguchi, Masanori; Ochi, Kengo; Baba, Megumi; Tsukamoto, Akira

    2016-05-01

    The variability in cell response to AC electric fields is selective enough to separate not only the cell types but also the activation states of similar cells. In this work, we use dielectrophoresis (DEP), which exploits the differences in the dielectric properties of cells, to separate nonviable and viable cells. A parallel-plate DEP device consisting of a bottom face with an array of micro-fabricated interdigitated electrodes and a top face with a plane electrode was proposed to facilitate the separation of cells by creating a nonuniform electric field throughout the flow channel. The operation and performance of the device were evaluated using live and dead yeast cells as model biological particles. Further, numerical simulations were conducted for the cell suspensions flowing in a channel with a nonuniform AC electric field, modeled on the basis of the equation of motion of particles, to characterize the separation efficiency by changing the frequency of applied AC voltage. Results demonstrated that dead cells traveling through the channel were focused onto a site around the minimum electric field gradient in the middle of the flow stream, while live cells were trapped on the bottom face. Cells were thus successfully separated under the appropriately tuned frequency of 1 MHz. Predictions showed good agreement with the observation. The proposed DEP device provides a new approach to, for instance, hematological analysis or the separation of different cancer cells for application in circulating tumor cell identification. PMID:27279934

  8. Isolation and measurement of the features of arrays of cell aggregates formed by dielectrophoresis using the user-specified Multi Regions Masking (MRM) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusvana, Rama; Headon, Denis; Markx, Gerard H.

    2009-08-01

    The use of dielectrophoresis for the construction of artificial skin tissue with skin cells in follicle-like 3D cell aggregates in well-defined patterns is demonstrated. To analyse the patterns produced and to study their development after their formation a Virtual Instrument (VI) system was developed using the LabVIEW IMAQ Vision Development Module. A series of programming functions (algorithms) was used to isolate the features on the image (in our case; the patterned aggregates) and separate them from all other unwanted regions on the image. The image was subsequently converted into a binary version, covering only the desired microarray regions which could then be analysed by computer for automatic object measurements. The analysis utilized the simple and easy-to-use User-Specified Multi-Regions Masking (MRM) technique, which allows one to concentrate the analysis on the desired regions specified in the mask. This simplified the algorithms for the analysis of images of cell arrays having similar geometrical properties. By having a collection of scripts containing masks of different patterns, it was possible to quickly and efficiently develop sets of custom virtual instruments for the offline or online analysis of images of cell arrays in the database.

  9. A novel micro/nano fabrication process based on the combined use of dielectrophoresis, electroosmotic flow, and electrodeposition for surface patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Victor H.; Ho, Vinh; Vazquez-Pinon, Matias; Martinez-Chapa, Sergio O.; Kulinsky, Lawrence

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a novel application of electrokinetic forces is presented. Employing a gold interdigitated electrode array (IDEA), dielectrophoresis (a force acting on polarizable material) and electroosmosis (a force acting on ionic fluids) were utilized as microfabrication tools. Through electroosmotic flow, particles were dragged toward dielectrophoretic trapping zones, where they were held. Then polypyrrole, an electroconductive material with good mechanical and electrical properties, wide electrochemical window, and ease of fabrication, was electrodeposited onto the gold IDEA surface, permanently entrapping the microparticles within the structure. The process was tested employing organic (polystyrene), inorganic (silicon), and biologic (yeast cells) microparticles, all of which were successfully trapped. Computational models were developed to predict the electrokinetic response of the microparticles and compared to experimental observations. It was demonstrated that this process can be used to produce hierarchical structures through sequential repetition of entrapment cycles. Additionally, it is compatible with the Carbon-MEMS process. The fabrication process presented in this paper opens a wide range of applications that include: energy storage devices, scaffolds for cell culture, biomedical devices, electrochemical sensors, electrokinetic devices, among many others.

  10. Superconductor coil geometry and ac losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, T. V., Jr.; Zapata, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical relation is presented which allows simple computation of volume-averaged winding fields from central fields for coils of small rectangular cross sections. This relation suggests that, in certain applications, ac-loss minimization can be accomplished by use of low winding densities, provided that hysteresis losses are independent of winding density. The ac-loss measurements on coils wound of twisted multifilamentary composite superconductors show no significant dependence on ac losses on winding density, thus permitting the use of winding density as an independent design parameter in loss minimization.

  11. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  12. Tevatron optics measurements using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to study beam optics of hadron synchrotrons. It can produce sustained large amplitude oscillations with virtually no emittance growth. A vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is recently implemented and a maximum oscillation amplitude of 2{sigma} (4{sigma}) at 980 GeV (150 GeV) is achieved [1]. When such large oscillations are measured with the BPM system of the Tevatron (20 {micro}m resolution), not only linear but even nonlinear optics can be directly measured. This paper shows how to measure {beta} function using an AC dipole and the result is compared to the other measurement. The paper also shows a test to detect optics changes when small changes are made in the Tevatron. Since an AC dipole is nondestructive, it allows frequent measurements of the optics which is necessary for such an test.

  13. The AC-120: The advanced commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, David; Griffin, Ernest; Mendoza, Saul; Nguyen, Son; Pickett, Tim; Noernberg, Clemm

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this design was to fulfill a need for a new airplane to replace the aging 100 to 150 passenger, 1500 nautical mile range aircraft such as the Douglas DC9 and Boeing 737-100 airplanes. After researching the future aircraft market, conducting extensive trade studies, and analysis on different configurations, the AC-120 Advanced Commercial Transport final design was achieved. The AC-120's main design features include the incorporation of a three lifting surface configuration which is powered by two turboprop engines. The AC-120 is an economically sensitive aircraft which meets the new FM Stage Three noise requirements, and has lower NO(x) emissions than current turbofan powered airplanes. The AC-120 also improves on its contemporaries in passenger comfort, manufacturing, and operating cost.

  14. New ACS Guidelines Approved by CPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polik, William F.; Larive, Cynthia K.

    2008-04-01

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Guidelines for Bachelor's Degree Programs have been revised in 2008 by the Committee on Professional Training (CPT) to reflect changes that are occurring in the chemistry profession and chemistry education. The goals of these changes are to promote modern and innovative chemistry curricula, encourage pedagogical innovation that enhances student learning and success, define faculty and infrastructure attributes of excellent chemistry programs, and streamline the procedures for program approval and review by ACS. The curriculum guidelines for an ACS-certified bachelor's degree are described in terms of foundation coursework, in-depth coursework, and laboratory requirements. Chemistry departments are encouraged to develop degree tracks to target emerging areas of interest within chemistry. The importance of developing student skills and regular program self-evaluation is emphasized. Finally, the procedures for approving and reviewing chemistry programs by ACS are summarized.

  15. A dielectrophoretic-gravity driven particle focusing technique for digital microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiei, Ehsan; Rezaei Nejad, Hojatollah; Hoorfar, Mina

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, a particle focusing technique functioning based on the cumulative effects of gravity and negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) is developed for digital microfluidic (DMF) systems. This technique works using the conventional electrodes used for droplet manipulation without a need for geometrical modification. Particle manipulation is performed by applying an AC voltage to the electrode above which there is the droplet containing the non-buoyant particles. The particles sediment due to the difference between the gravitational and the vertical component of the nDEP forces, while the horizontal component of the nDEP force concentrates them on the center of the electrode. Therefore, the magnitude of the voltage must be kept within an effective range to have simultaneous effects of sedimentation (dominated by gravity) and concentration (due to the horizontal component of the nDEP force). The physics of the phenomenon is explained using simulation. The effects of the magnitude of the applied voltage, the particle size and density, and the electrode size on the focusing behavior of the particles are studied. Finally, a potential application of the present technique is illustrated for particle concentration in DMF.

  16. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  18. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  19. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  1. NOTE: Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, L.; Shelmerdine, H.; Hughes, M. P.; Coley, H. M.; Hübner, Y.; Labeed, F. H.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)—the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields—has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K+ and Ca2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl- were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function.

  2. Experimental AC (Asphalt Concrete) overlays of PCC pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. D.

    1983-11-01

    A series of experimental asphalt concrete (AC) overlays was constructed over an existing distressed portland cement concrete pavement on Interstate 80 near Boca, California. The experimental overlays included rubberized dense-graded AC, rubberized open-graded AC, a rubber flush coat interlayer, dense-graded AC with short polyester fibers and Bituthene interlayer strips. The report presents a description and discussion of AC mix batching, construction observations, laboratory testing, overlay covering, and initial performance evaluation.

  3. Numerical simulation on the opto-electro-kinetic patterning for rapid concentration of particles in a microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong; Shim, Jaesool; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for laser-induced rapid electro-kinetic patterning (REP) to elucidate the mechanism for concentrating particles in a microchannel non-destructively and non-invasively. COMSOL®(v4.2a) multiphysics software was used to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the focusing performance of the REP. A mathematical model of the REP was developed based on the AC electrothermal flow (ACET) equations, the dielectrophoresis (DEP) equation, the energy balance equation, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the concentration-distribution equation. The medium was assumed to be a diluted solute, and different electric potentials and laser illumination were applied to the desired place. Gold (Au) electrodes were used at the top and bottom of a microchannel. For model validation, the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The results revealed the formation of a toroidal microvortex via the ACET effect, which was generated due to laser illumination and joule-heating in the area of interest. In addition, under some conditions, such as the frequency of AC, the DEP velocity, and the particle size, the ACET force enhances and compresses resulting in the concentration of particles. The conditions of the DEP velocity and the ACET velocity are presented in detail with a comparison of the experimental results. PMID:26015839

  4. Numerical simulation on the opto-electro-kinetic patterning for rapid concentration of particles in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong; Shim, Jaesool; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for laser-induced rapid electro-kinetic patterning (REP) to elucidate the mechanism for concentrating particles in a microchannel non-destructively and non-invasively. COMSOL(®)(v4.2a) multiphysics software was used to examine the effect of a variety of parameters on the focusing performance of the REP. A mathematical model of the REP was developed based on the AC electrothermal flow (ACET) equations, the dielectrophoresis (DEP) equation, the energy balance equation, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the concentration-distribution equation. The medium was assumed to be a diluted solute, and different electric potentials and laser illumination were applied to the desired place. Gold (Au) electrodes were used at the top and bottom of a microchannel. For model validation, the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The results revealed the formation of a toroidal microvortex via the ACET effect, which was generated due to laser illumination and joule-heating in the area of interest. In addition, under some conditions, such as the frequency of AC, the DEP velocity, and the particle size, the ACET force enhances and compresses resulting in the concentration of particles. The conditions of the DEP velocity and the ACET velocity are presented in detail with a comparison of the experimental results. PMID:26015839

  5. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    PubMed

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney. PMID:19135381

  6. Dielectrophoretic lab-on-CMOS platform for trapping and manipulation of cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoungchul; Kabiri, Shideh; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-02-01

    Trapping and manipulation of cells are essential operations in numerous studies in biology and life sciences. We discuss the realization of a Lab-on-a-Chip platform for dielectrophoretic trapping and repositioning of cells and microorganisms on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, which we define here as Lab-on-CMOS (LoC). The LoC platform is based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) which is the force experienced by any dielectric particle including biological entities in non-uniform AC electrical field. DEP force depends on the permittivity of the cells, its size and shape and also on the permittivity of the medium and therefore it enables selective targeting of cells based on their phenotype. In this paper, we address an important matter that of electrode design for DEP for which we propose a three-dimensional (3D) octapole geometry to create highly confined electric fields for trapping and manipulation of cells. Conventional DEP-based platforms are implemented stand-alone on glass, silicon or polymers connected to external infrastructure for electronics and optics, making it bulky and expensive. In this paper, the use of CMOS as a platform provides a pathway to truly miniaturized lab-on-CMOS or LoC platform, where DEP electrodes are designed using built-in multiple metal layers of the CMOS process for effective trapping of cells, with built-in electronics for in-situ impedance monitoring of the cell position. We present electromagnetic simulation results of DEP force for this unique 3D octapole geometry on CMOS. Experimental results with yeast cells validate the design. These preliminary results indicate the promise of using CMOS technology for truly compact miniaturized lab-on-chip platform for cell biotechnology applications. PMID:26780441

  7. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  8. ACS Data Handbook v.6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2011-03-01

    ACS was designed to provide a deep, wide-field survey capability from the visible to near-IR using the Wide Field Camera (WFC), high resolution imaging from the near-UV to near-IR with the now-defunct High Resolution Camera (HRC), and solar-blind far-UV imaging using the Solar Blind Camera (SBC). The discovery efficiency of ACS's Wide Field Channel (i.e., the product of WFC's field of view and throughput) is 10 times greater than that of WFPC2. The failure of ACS's CCD electronics in January 2007 brought a temporary halt to CCD imaging until Servicing Mission 4 in May 2009, when WFC functionality was restored. Unfortunately, the high-resolution optical imaging capability of HRC was not recovered.

  9. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomen, Marijn Pieter

    High-temperature superconductors are developed for use in power-transmission cables, transformers and motors. The alternating magnetic field in these devices causes AC loss, which is a critical factor in the design. The study focuses on multi-filament Bi-2223/Ag tapes exposed to a 50-Hz magnetic field at 77 K. The AC loss is measured with magnetic, electric and calorimetric methods. The results are compared to theoretical predictions based mainly on the Critical-State Model. The loss in high- temperature superconductors is affected by their characteristic properties: increased flux creep, high aspect ratio and inhomogeneties. Filament intergrowths and a low matrix resistivity cause a high coupling-current loss especially when the filaments are fully coupled. When the wide side of the tape is parallel to the external magnetic field, the filaments are decoupled by twisting. In a perpendicular field the filaments can be decoupled only by combining a short twist pitch with a transverse resistivity much higher than that of silver. The arrangement of the inner filaments determines the transverse resistivity. Ceramic barriers around the filaments cause partial decoupling in perpendicular magnetic fields at power frequencies. The resultant decrease in AC loss is greater than the accompanying decrease in critical current. With direct transport current in alternating magnetic field, the transport-current loss is well described with a new model for the dynamic resistance. The Critical- State Model describes well the magnetisation and total AC loss in parallel magnetic fields, at transport currents up to 0.7 times the critical current. When tapes are stacked face-to-face in a winding, the AC-loss density in perpendicular fields is greatly decreased due to the mutual shielding of the tapes. Coupling currents between the tapes in a cable cause an extra AC loss, which is reduced by a careful cable design. The total AC loss in complex devices with many tapes is generally well

  10. Brazilian Angiostrongylus cantonensis haplotypes, ac8 and ac9, have two different biological and morphological profiles

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Tainá CC; Gentile, Rosana; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Ester; Santos, Jeannie N; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Cases have been recorded in many parts of the world, including Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the biology and morphology of two different Brazilian haplotypes of A. : ac8 and ac9. A significantly larger number of L1 larvae eliminated in the faeces of rodents at the beginning of the patent period was observed for ac9 haplotype and compared to the total of L1 larvae eliminated, there was a significant difference between the two haplotypes. The ac9 haplotype showed a significant difference in the proportion of female and male specimens (0.6:1), but the same was not observed for ac8 (1.2:1). The morphometric analysis showed that male and female specimens isolated from ac8 haplotype were significantly larger with respect to body length, oesophagus length, spicule length (male) and distance from the anus to the rear end (female) compared to specimens from ac9. The morphological analysis by light microscopy showed little variation in the level of bifurcations at the lateral rays in the right lobe of the copulatory bursa between the two haplotypes. The biological, morphological and morphometric variations observed between the two haplotypes agree with the observed variation at the molecular level using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I marker and reinforce the possible influence of geographical isolation on the development of these haplotypes. PMID:25591110

  11. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  12. MASSACHUSETTS DEP EELGRASS VERIFIED POINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field verified points showing presence or absence of submerged rooted vascular plants along Massachusetts coastline. In addition to the photo interpreted eelgrass coverage (EELGRASS), this point coverage (EGRASVPT) was generated based on field-verified sites as well as all field...

  13. DNA- and AC electric field-assisted assembly of two-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals and their controlled defect insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sejong

    Photonic crystals (PC) are structures in which the refractive index is a periodic function in space. The ability of photonic crystals to localize and manipulate electromagnetic waves has attracted considerable attention from the scientific community. The self-assembly of monodisperse micrometer scale colloidal spheres into hexagonal closed-packed colloidal crystals provides a simple, fast, and cheap materials chemistry approach to PCs. Employing DNA supramolecular recognition, 2-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal monolayer was fabricated with monodisperse polystyrene colloidal microspheres. Amine-terminated DNA oligomers were covalently attached onto carboxy-decorated microspheres and enabled their DNA-functionalization while preserving their colloidal stability and organization properties. Following a capillary-force-assisted organization of DNA-decorated microspheres into close-packed 2D opaline arrays, the first monolayer was immobilized by DNA hybridization. Insertion of vacancies at predetermined sites within the lattice of colloidal crystals is a prerequisite in order to realize high-quality, opaline-based photonic devices. The previously obtained DNA-hybridization type binding of 2D-opaline arrays provides a heat-sensitive "adhesive" between substrate and microspheres within a surrounding aqueous medium that enables tuning the hybridization strength of DNA linker as well as a mechanism to facilitate the removal of unbound microspheres. Focusing a laser beam onto a single microsphere of the opaline array induces localized heating that enables the microsphere to detach, leaving behind vacancies. By repeating this process, line vacancies were successfully obtained. The effects of salt concentration, laser power, light-absorbing dyes, DNA length and refractive index mismatch were investigated and found to correlate with heat-induced DNA dehybridization. In addition, AC (alternating current) electrokinetic force was also utilized to obtain assembly of colloidal

  14. Manipulating Flames with AC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kyle

    2013-11-01

    Time-oscillating electric fields applied to plasmas present in flames create steady flows of gas capable of shaping, directing, enhancing, or even extinguishing flames. Interestingly, electric winds induced by AC electric fields can be stronger that those due to static fields of comparable magnitude. Furthermore, unlike static fields, the electric force due to AC fields is localized near the surface of the flame. Consequently, the AC response depends only on the local field at the surface of the flame - not on the position of the electrodes used to generate the field. These results suggest that oscillating electric fields can be used to manipulate and control combustion processes at a distance. To characterize and explain these effects, we investigate a simple experimental system comprising a laminar methane-air flame positioned between two parallel-plate electrodes. We quantify both the electric and hydrodynamic response of the flame as a function of frequency and magnitude of the applied field. A theoretical model shows how steady gas flows emerge from the time-averaged electrical force due to the field-induced motion of ions generated within the flame and by their disappearance by recombination. These results provide useful insights into the application of AC fields to direct combustion processes.

  15. AC electric trapping of neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, Adela; Schlunk, Sophie; Schoellkopf, Wieland; Meijer, Gerard

    2008-05-01

    We have demonstrated trapping of ultracold ground-state ^87Rb atoms in a macroscopic ac electric trap [1]. Trapping by ac electric fields has been previously achieved for polar molecules [2], as well as Sr atoms on a chip [3], and recently for Rb atoms in a three-phase electric trap [4]. Similar to trapping of ions in a Paul trap, three-dimensional confinement in an ac electric trap is obtained by switching between two saddle-point configurations of the electric field. For the first time, this dynamic confinement is directly visualized with absorption images taken at different phases of the ac switching cycle. Stable electric trapping is observed in a narrow range of switching frequencies around 60 Hz, in agreement with trajectory calculations. In a typical experiment, about 3 x 10^5 Rb atoms are trapped with lifetimes on the order of 9 s and trap depths of about 10 μK. Additionally, we show that the atoms can be used to sensitively probe the electric fields in the trap by imaging the cloud while the fields are still on. References: 1. S. Schlunk et al., PRL 98, 223002 (2007) 2. H. L. Bethlem et al., PRA 74, 063403 (2006) 3. T. Kishimoto et al., PRL 96, 123001 (2006) 4. T. Rieger et al., PRL 99, 063001 (2007)

  16. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, O.L.

    1996-07-15

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal.

  17. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  18. AC magnetic susceptibility of Bi2223-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimishima, Y.; Inagaki, K.; Tanabe, K.; Nagata, N.; Ichiyanagi, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The AC magnetic susceptibilities χ AC of a Bi2223 sintered sample were measured by the Hartshorn bridge method. The linear AC χ' 0 showed the two-steps behavior at T C1 and T C2, where T C1 > T C2. The χ'0-data between T C1 and T C2 has no H AC-dependence and agreed well with those of powder specimen, and they can be regarded as the intragrain magnetic susceptibility. Below the inter-grain transition temperature T C2 the χ″ 0 showed a positive peak. The temperature dependence of χ' 0 and χ″ 0 were analyzed by the Bean's critical-state model. As a result, the temperature dependence of critical current density J C ∝ (1 - T/T C2) β was obtained with β = 2.3-2.6. The non-linear χ' 2 and χ″ 2 below T C2 resemble the behaviors derived from the Bean model, but the negative divergence of χ' 2 may show the evidence of d-wave paring in the present Bi2223-system.

  19. 76 FR 65633 - RIN 1904-AC43

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... FR 56678 (September 14, 2011) to make available and invite comments on the framework document for... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC43 Energy Conservation Program: Framework Document for General Service Fluorescent... general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflector lamps energy conservation standards in...

  20. ACS Task Force Frames Recommendations on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses findings and recommendations of an American Chemical Society (ACS) task force study on the status of chemical education in the United States. Recommendations relate to national concerns; all educational levels; elementary, secondary, university, college, and two-year college chemistry and science; chemistry careers; and industry and…

  1. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  2. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  3. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  4. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  5. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  6. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  7. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  8. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area. (b... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered photostimulator. 886.1630 Section 886.1630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus...

  10. Methods for Addressing Missing Data with Applications from ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandriet, Alexandra; Holme, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ACS Examinations Institute (ACS-EI) national norming process, student performance data sets are collected from professors at colleges and universities from around the United States. Because the data sets are collected on a volunteer basis, the ACS-EI often receives data sets with only students' total scores and without the students'…

  11. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered photostimulator. 886.1630 Section 886.1630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus...

  12. Level structure and reflection asymmetric shape in sup 223 Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P. )

    1990-07-20

    Mass separated sources of {sup 227}Pa (separated as PaF{sub 4}{sup +} ions) were used to study the level structure of {sup 223}Ac following alpha decay. The levels in {sup 223}Ac are interpreted as K = 5/2{sup {plus minus}} parity doublet bands which occur naturally in reflection asymmetric models and the multiphonon octupole model. The anomalous structure of the K = 3/2{sup {minus}} band is explained in terms of Coriolis coupling. The low lying parity doublet bands in {sup 223}Ac, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 227}Ac are compared and contrasted.

  13. RHIC AC DIPOLE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; METH,M.; PAI,C.; PARKER,B.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SANDERS,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2001-06-18

    Two ac dipoles with vertical and horizontal magnetic field have been proposed at RHIC for applications in linear and non-linear beam dynamics and spin manipulations. A magnetic field amplitude of 380 Gm is required to produce a coherent oscillation of 5 times the rms beam size at the top energy. We take the ac dipole frequency to be 1.0% of the revolution frequency away from the betatron frequency. To achieve the strong magnetic field with minimum power loss, an air-core magnet with two seven turn winding of low loss Litz wire resonating at 64 kHz is designed. The system is also designed to allow one to connect the two magnet winding in series to resonate at 37 kHz for the spin manipulation. Measurements of a half length prototype magnet are also presented.

  14. Initial Implementation Strategy for Drizzle with ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Hack, W.; Hook, R. N.

    2001-04-01

    In order to provide geometric correction for single pointing ACS images, and to provide geometric correction together with simple image combination for associations of ACS images, we describe plans to implement the "drizzle" code by means of a python wrapper, and to use this wrapper in calacs. The initial strategy will endeavour to be robust and scientifically accurate, although not necessarily optimal. An upgrade path is outlined which could lead to significantly improved processing, involving an iterative pass through the data. The tools will be available stand-alone, offering a greater degree of flexibility than in pipeline implementation. The output product will be a multiple extension fits file containing the data (units counts per second), a weight image and a context image. The latter are provided by the drizzle program and are related to the variance and data quality arrays respectively.

  15. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY

    SciTech Connect

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Christensen, Charlotte; Gilbert, Karoline; Hodge, Paul; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Olsen, Knut; Freeman, Ken; Gallart, Carme; De Jong, Roelof S. E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu E-mail: stephanie@astro.washington.edu E-mail: fabio@astro.washington.edu E-mail: aseth@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-07-15

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D < 4 Mpc). The survey volume encompasses 69 galaxies in diverse environments, including close pairs, small and large groups, filaments, and truly isolated regions. The galaxies include a nearly complete range of morphological types spanning a factor of {approx}10{sup 4} in luminosity and star formation rate. The survey data consist of images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), supplemented with archival data and new Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging taken after the failure of ACS. Survey images include wide field tilings covering the full radial extent of each galaxy, and single deep pointings in uncrowded regions of the most massive galaxies in the volume. The new wide field imaging in ANGST reaches median 50% completenesses of m {sub F475W} = 28.0 mag, m {sub F606W} = 27.3 mag, and m {sub F814W} = 27.3 mag, several magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). The deep fields reach magnitudes sufficient to fully resolve the structure in the red clump. The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly accessible and contain over 34 million photometric measurements of >14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  16. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal. PMID:20208642

  17. Highlights of the Dallas ACS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeman, Thomas R.; Freilich, Mark; Kelter, Paul B.

    1998-06-01

    Without a doubt, a primary feature of the 1998 Spring National Meeting in Dallas was the High School Program, which was organized by George Hague, and the impact that the Texas teachers had on other participants. Over 150 teachers registered for the meeting and participated in the program. Their organizational skills were used to reinstitute the High School/College Interface Luncheon. (The High School/College Interface Luncheon will also be held at the Fall ACS Meeting in Boston.)

  18. Graphs for Isotopes of 89-Ac (Actinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 89-Ac (Actinium, atomic number Z = 89).

  19. [A novel Fe/AC desulphurizer at low temperature].

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Liu, S; Liu, Z; Zhu, Z; An, M; Yan, B

    2001-11-01

    Activated coke was used to support Fe2O3(Fe/AC) for flue gas SO2 removal. Reaction conditions on DeSOx activity were investigated. The results show that Fe/AC had higher activity than AC or Fe2O3 at temperature of 120 degrees C-250 degrees C. H2SO4 and Fe2(SO4)3 were formed after Fe/AC sorbed SO2, H2O and O2 increased the amount of SO2 adsorption. Fe/AC derived from AC of higher BET surface area had higher DeSOx activity. Fe/AC was suitable to be used at GHSV below 800 L/(kg.h). PMID:11855176

  20. D2 dopamine receptors colocalize regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP domain, and RGS9 knock-out mice develop dyskinesias associated with dopamine pathways.

    PubMed

    Kovoor, Abraham; Seyffarth, Petra; Ebert, Jana; Barghshoon, Sami; Chen, Ching-Kang; Schwarz, Sigrid; Axelrod, Jeffrey D; Cheyette, Benjamin N R; Simon, Melvin I; Lester, Henry A; Schwarz, Johannes

    2005-02-23

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2), a member of the RGS family of G GTPase accelerating proteins, is expressed specifically in the striatum, which participates in antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and in levodopa-induced dyskinesia. We report that RGS9 knock-out mice develop abnormal involuntary movements when inhibition of dopaminergic transmission is followed by activation of D2-like dopamine receptors (DRs). These abnormal movements resemble drug-induced dyskinesia more closely than other rodent models. Recordings from striatal neurons of these mice establish that activation of D2-like DRs abnormally inhibits glutamate-elicited currents. We show that RGS9-2, via its DEP domain (for Disheveled, EGL-10, Pleckstrin homology), colocalizes with D2DRs when coexpressed in mammalian cells. Recordings from oocytes coexpressing D2DR or the m2 muscarinic receptor and G-protein-gated inward rectifier potassium channels show that RGS9-2, via its DEP domain, preferentially accelerates the termination of D2DR signals. Thus, alterations in RGS9-2 may be a key factor in the pathway leading from D2DRs to the side effects associated with the treatment both of psychoses and Parkinson's disease. PMID:15728856

  1. Development of a hardware-based AC microgrid for AC stability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Robert R.

    As more power electronic-based devices enable the development of high-bandwidth AC microgrids, the topic of microgrid power distribution stability has become of increased interest. Recently, researchers have proposed a relatively straightforward method to assess the stability of AC systems based upon the time-constants of sources, the net bus capacitance, and the rate limits of sources. In this research, a focus has been to develop a hardware test system to evaluate AC system stability. As a first step, a time domain model of a two converter microgrid was established in which a three phase inverter acts as a power source and an active rectifier serves as an adjustable constant power AC load. The constant power load can be utilized to create rapid power flow transients to the generating system. As a second step, the inverter and active rectifier were designed using a Smart Power Module IGBT for switching and an embedded microcontroller as a processor for algorithm implementation. The inverter and active rectifier were designed to operate simultaneously using a synchronization signal to ensure each respective local controller operates in a common reference frame. Finally, the physical system was created and initial testing performed to validate the hardware functionality as a variable amplitude and variable frequency AC system.

  2. The Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00 μm, with a dispersion of 40 Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80 Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47 919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32 149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2 - 4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects

  3. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A.

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc{sup 109KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc{sup 109KO} results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc{sup 109KO}-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID{sub 50} showed that vAc{sup 109KO} produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc{sup 109KO} BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  4. Rapid identification of bacteria utilizing amplified dielectrophoretic force-assisted nanoparticle-induced surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, I.-Fang; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Lu, Rong-Ji; Wu, Hung-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely used to manipulate, separate, and concentrate microscale particles. Unfortunately, DEP force is difficult to be used in regard to the manipulation of nanoscale molecules/particles. For manipulation of 50- to 100-nm particles, the electrical field strength must be higher than 3 × 106 V/m, and with a low applied voltage of 10 Vp-p, the electrode gap needs to be reduced to submicrons. Our research consists of a novel and simple approach, using a several tens micrometers scale electrode (low cost and easy to fabricate) to generate a dielectrophoretic microparticle assembly to form nanogaps with a locally amplified alternating current (AC) electric field gradient, which is used to rapidly trap nanocolloids. The results show that the amplified DEP force could effectively trap 20-nm colloids in the nanogaps between the 5-μm particle aggregates. The concentration factor at the local detection region was shown to be approximately 5 orders of magnitude higher than the bulk solution. This approach was also successfully used in bead-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for the rapid identification of bacteria from diluted blood.

  5. Trapping Single Molecules by Dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölzel, Ralph; Calander, Nils; Chiragwandi, Zackary; Willander, Magnus; Bier, Frank F.

    2005-09-01

    We have trapped single protein molecules of R-phycoerythrin in an aqueous solution by an alternating electric field. A radio frequency voltage is applied to sharp nanoelectrodes and hence produces a strong electric field gradient. The resulting dielectrophoretic forces attract freely diffusing protein molecules. Trapping takes place at the electrode tips. Switching off the field immediately releases the molecules. The electric field distribution is computed, and from this the dielectrophoretic response of the molecules is calculated using a standard polarization model. The resulting forces are compared to the impact of Brownian motion. Finally, we discuss the experimental observations on the basis of the model calculations.

  6. High-frequency ac power distribution in Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Lee, Fred C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    A utility-type 20-kHz ac power distribution system for the Space Station, employing resonant power-conversion techniques, is presented. The system converts raw dc voltage from photovoltaic cells or three-phase LF ac voltage from a solar dynamic generator into a regulated 20-kHz ac voltage for distribution among various loads. The results of EASY5 computer simulations of the local and global performance show that the system has fast response and good transient behavior. The ac bus voltage is effectively regulated using the phase-control scheme, which is demonstrated with both line and load variations. The feasibility of paralleling the driver-module outputs is illustrated with the driver modules synchronized and sharing a common feedback loop. An HF sinusoidal ac voltage is generated in the three-phase ac input case, when the driver modules are phased 120 deg away from one another and their outputs are connected in series.

  7. Study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms in an epoxy polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-11-01

    The AC conductivity of an epoxy resin was investigated in the frequency range 10^{-1} - 106 Hz at temperatures ranging from -100 to 120 °C. The frequency dependence of σ_{ac} was described by the law: σ_{ac}=ω \\varepsilon0\\varepsilon^''_{HN}+Aωs. The study of temperature variation of the exponent (s) reveals two conduction models: the AC conduction dependence upon temperature is governed by the small polaron tunneling mechanism (SPTM) at low temperature (-100 -60 °C) and the correlated barrier hopping (CHB) model at high temperature (80-120 °C).

  8. AC Electroosmotic Pumping in Nanofluidic Funnels.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Andrew R; Haywood, Daniel G; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2016-06-21

    We report efficient pumping of fluids through nanofluidic funnels when a symmetric AC waveform is applied. The asymmetric geometry of the nanofluidic funnel induces not only ion current rectification but also electroosmotic flow rectification. In the base-to-tip direction, the funnel exhibits a lower ion conductance and a higher electroosmotic flow velocity, whereas, in the tip-to-base direction, the funnel has a higher ion conductance and a lower electroosmotic flow velocity. Consequently, symmetric AC waveforms easily pump fluid through the nanofunnels over a range of frequencies, e.g., 5 Hz to 5 kHz. In our experiments, the nanofunnels were milled into glass substrates with a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument, and the funnel design had a constant 5° taper with aspect ratios (funnel tip width to funnel depth) of 0.1 to 1.0. We tracked ion current rectification by current-voltage (I-V) response and electroosmotic flow rectification by transport of a zwitterionic fluorescent probe. Rectification of ion current and electroosmotic flow increased with increasing electric field applied to the nanofunnel. Our results support three-dimensional simulations of ion transport and electroosmotic transport through nanofunnels, which suggest the asymmetric electroosmotic transport stems from an induced pressure at the junction of the nanochannel and nanofunnel tip. PMID:27230495

  9. Ac45 silencing mediated by AAV-sh-Ac45-RNAi prevents both bone loss and inflammation caused by periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Wei; Hao, Liang; Zhu, Guochun; Lu, Yun; Li, Sheng; Wang, Lin; Li, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Aim Periodontitis induced by oral pathogens leads to severe periodontal tissue damage and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption caused by inflammation. Based on the importance of Ac45 in osteoclast formation and function, we performed this study to evaluate the therapeutic potential of periodontitis by local adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Ac45 gene knockdown. Material and Methods We used AAV-mediated short hairpin RNAi knockdown of Ac45 gene expression (AAV-sh-Ac45) to inhibit bone erosion and gingival inflammation simultaneously in a well-established periodontitis mouse model induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis W50. Histological studies were performed to evaluate the bone protection of AAV-sh-Ac45. Immunochemistry, ELISA and qRT-PCR were performed to reveal the role of Ac45 knockdown on inflammation, immune response and expression of cytokine. Results We found that Ac45 knockdown impaired osteoclast-mediated extracellular acidification and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, local administration of AAV-sh-Ac45 protected mice from bone erosion by >85% and attenuated inflammation and decreased infiltration of T-cells, dendritic cells and macrophages in the periodontal lesion. Notably, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also reduced. Conclusions Local AAV-sh-Ac45 gene therapy efficiently protects against periodontal tissue damage and bone erosion through both inhibition of osteoclast function and attenuating inflammation, and may represent a powerful new treatment strategy for periodontitis. PMID:25952706

  10. Public Understanding of Chemistry, ACS National Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettys, Nancy S.

    2000-06-01

    Three public events for area school-aged children were held on Saturday, March 25, 2000, prior to the opening of the 219th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society. All took place at the Moscone Convention Center in downtown San Francisco. The photographs tell the story: the programs were successful and a good time was had by all. Readers may be encouraged to try these ideas in their own area. If so, the local organizers of Carver Kidvention have additional information at www.scvacs.org/Carver/index.html or contact Howard Peters (Santa Clara Valley Section, ACS), peters4pa@aol.com. Additional photos of the Kidvention event may also be seen as supplemental material.

  11. An ac bridge readout for bolometric detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, F. M.; Lange, A. E.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a bolometer readout circuit which greatly improves the low-frequency stability of bolometric detectors. The circuit uses an ac bias voltage and two matched bolometers and allows stable dc bolometer operation for integration times greater than 10 s. In astronomical applications the readout allows for qualitatively different observation modes (e.g. staring or slow-drift scanning) which are particularly well suited for space observations and for the use of arrays. In many applications the readout can increase sensitivity. The authors present noise spectra for 4He temperature bolometers with no excess noise at frequencies greater than 0.1 Hz. The measured optical responsivity of a bolometer operated with the present readout is the same as that of a bolometer operated with a conventional readout.

  12. Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

  13. Fuzzy efficiency optimization of AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant; Sousa, Gilberto; Turner, Wayne; Spiegel, Ron; Chappell, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the early states of work to implement a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the efficiency of AC induction motor/adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems running at less than optimal speed and torque conditions. In this paper, the process by which the membership functions of the controller were tuned is discussed and a controller which operates on frequency as well as voltage is proposed. The membership functions for this dual-variable controller are sketched. Additional topics include an approach for fuzzy logic to motor current control which can be used with vector-controlled drives. Incorporation of a fuzzy controller as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) microchip is planned.

  14. Modeling of ac dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, J. S.; Huang, P. G.

    2010-06-15

    The qualitative electrodynamic field of the dielectric barrier discharge in air is studied by a three-component, drift-diffusion plasma model including the Poisson equation of plasmadynamics. The critical media interface boundary conditions independent of the detailed mechanisms of surface absorption, diffusion, recombination, and charge accumulation on electrode or dielectrics are developed from the theory of electromagnetics. The computational simulation duplicates the self-limiting feature of dielectric barrier discharge for preventing corona-to-spark transition, and the numerical results of the breakdown voltage are compared very well with data. According to the present modeling, the periodic electrodynamic force due to charge separation over the electrodes also exerts on alternative directions from the exposed to encapsulated electrodes over a complete ac cycle as experimental observations.

  15. Undergraduate Chemistry Education: Report of an ACS Presidential Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polik, William F.

    2006-01-01

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Presidential Symposium, Envisioning Undergraduate Chemistry Education in 2015 was organized by the ACS Committee on Professional Training (CPT), in response to the challenge to envision the chemistry enterprise in 2015. The need for more diverse role models at all levels is emphasized, including high school…

  16. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  17. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  18. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  19. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  20. 24 CFR Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A...

  1. Equivalent circuit models for ac impedance data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    A least-squares fitting routine has been developed for the analysis of ac impedance data. It has been determined that the checking of the derived equations for a particular circuit with a commercially available electronics circuit program is essential. As a result of the investigation described, three equivalent circuit models were selected for use in the analysis of ac impedance data.

  2. Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Hovarongkura, A. David; Henry, Jr., Joseph D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

  3. A Hyperactive Transposase of the Maize Transposable Element Activator (Ac)

    PubMed Central

    Lazarow, Katina; Du, My-Linh; Weimer, Ruth; Kunze, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable elements from maize are widely used as insertional mutagenesis and gene isolation tools in plants and more recently also in medaka and zebrafish. They are particularly valuable for plant species that are transformation-recalcitrant and have long generation cycles or large genomes with low gene densities. Ac/Ds transposition frequencies vary widely, however, and in some species they are too low for large-scale mutagenesis. We discovered a hyperactive Ac transposase derivative, AcTPase4x, that catalyzes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 100-fold more frequent Ds excisions than the wild-type transposase, whereas the reintegration frequency of excised Ds elements is unchanged (57%). Comparable to the wild-type transposase in plants, AcTPase4x catalyzes Ds insertion preferentially into coding regions and to genetically linked sites, but the mutant protein apparently has lost the weak bias of the wild-type protein for insertion sites with elevated guanine–cytosine content and nonrandom protein-DNA twist. AcTPase4x exhibits hyperactivity also in Arabidopsis thaliana where it effects a more than sixfold increase in Ds excision relative to wild-type AcTPase and thus may be useful to facilitate Ac/Ds-based insertion mutagenesis approaches. PMID:22562933

  4. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current(AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For…

  5. 40 CFR Appendixes A-C to Part 403 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true A Appendixes A-C to Part 403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION Appendixes A-C to Part 403...

  6. 40 CFR Appendixes A-C to Part 403 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true A Appendixes A-C to Part 403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION Appendixes A-C to Part 403...

  7. Measurement of coupling resonance driving terms with the AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.

    2010-10-01

    Resonance driving terms for linear coupled betatron motion in a synchrotron ring can be determined from corresponding spectral lines of an excited coherent beam motion. An AC dipole is one of instruments to excite such a motion. When a coherent motion is excited with an AC dipole, measured Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron phase advance have apparent modulations, as if there is an additional quadrupole field at the location of the AC dipole. Hence, measurements of these parameters using the AC dipole require a proper interpretation of observed quantities. The situation is similar in measurements of resonance driving terms using the AC dipole. In this note, we derive an expression of coupled betatron motion excited with two AC dipoles in presence of skew quadrupole fields, discuss an impact of this quadrupole like effect of the AC dipole on a measurement of coupling resonance driving terms, and present an analytical method to determine the coupling resonance driving terms from quantities observed using the AC dipole.

  8. Microfluidic device with asymmetric electrodes for cell and reagent delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daniel; Xu, Guolin; Tay, Hong Kiat; Yang, Chun; Ying, Jackie Y.

    2006-12-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device for cell and particle delivery using a combination of AC electrokinetic fluidic flow and negative dielectrophoresis (DEP) force. An array of interdigitated asymmetric microelectrode pairs were used in the planar device. The electrodes produced a net charge in the surrounding fluid, generating an AC electrokinetic fluidic motion. A non-uniform electric field with low actuation frequency from the microelectrode pairs resulted in a negative DEP force, which was responsible for pushing delivery particles away from sedimentation. The experimental results showed that the flow velocity increased rapidly from 267 μm/min to 394 μm/min when the applied frequency was increased from 10 kHz to 70 kHz for a cell-suspending medium buffer solution with a conductivity of 4.7 μS/cm. A maximum delivery velocity of 801 μm/min was obtained when the buffer conductivity was increased to 47 μS/cm with an actuation frequency of 100 kHz.

  9. ACS Internal CTE Monitor and Short Darks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2012-10-01

    This is a continuation of Program 12386 and is to be executed once a cycle for internal CTE and short darks, respectively.INTERNAL CTE MONITOR:The charge transfer efficiency {CTE} of the ACS CCD detectors will decline as damage due to on-orbit radiation exposure accumulates. This degradation will be monitored once a cycle to determine the useful lifetime of the CCDs. All the data for this program is acquired using internal targets {lamps} only, so all of the exposures should be taken during Earth occultation time {but not during SAA passages}. This program emulates the ACS pre-flight ground calibration and post-launch SMOV testing {program 8948}, so that results from each epoch can be directly compared. Extended Pixel Edge Response {EPER} data will be obtained over a range of signal levels for the Wide Field Channel {WFC}. The signal levels are 125, 500, 1620, 5000, 10000, and 60000 electrons at gain 2.Since Cycle 18, this monitoring program was reduced {compared to 11881} considering that there is also an external CTE monitoring program.SHORT DARKS:To improve the pixel-based CTE model at signals below 10 DN, short dark frames are needed to obtain a statistically useful sample of clean, warm pixel trails. This program obtains a set of dark frames for each of the following exposure times: 66 s {60 s for some subarrays} and 339 s. These short darks and the 1040 s darks obtained from the CCD Daily Monitor will sample warm and hot pixels over logarithmically increasing brightness. Subarray short darks were newly added in Cycle 19 to study CTE tails in different subarray readout modes.

  10. ACS Internal CTE Monitor and Short Darks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2013-10-01

    This is a continuation of Program 13156 and is to be executed once a cycle for internal CTE and short darks, respectively.INTERNAL CTE MONITOR:The charge transfer efficiency {CTE} of the ACS CCD detectors will decline as damage due to on-orbit radiation exposure accumulates. This degradation will be monitored once a cycle to determine the useful lifetime of the CCDs. All the data for this program is acquired using internal targets {lamps} only, so all of the exposures should be taken during Earth occultation time {but not during SAA passages}. This program emulates the ACS pre-flight ground calibration and post-launch SMOV testing {program 8948}, so that results from each epoch can be directly compared. Extended Pixel Edge Response {EPER} data will be obtained over a range of signal levels for the Wide Field Channel {WFC}. The signal levels are 125, 500, 1620, 5000, 10000, and 60000 electrons at gain 2.Since Cycle 18, this monitoring program was reduced {compared to 11881} considering that there is also an external CTE monitoring program.SHORT DARKS:To improve the pixel-based CTE model at signals below 10 DN, short dark frames are needed to obtain a statistically useful sample of clean, warm pixel trails. This program obtains a set of dark frames for each of the following exposure times: 66 s {60 s for some subarrays} and 339 s. These short darks and the 1040 s darks obtained from the CCD Daily Monitor will sample warm and hot pixels over logarithmically increasing brightness. Subarray short darks were added in Cycle 19 to study CTE tails in different subarray readout modes.

  11. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  12. Preliminary Geologic Mapping of the Ac-S-1 Hemisphere of Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mest, S. C.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Scully, J. E. C.; Crown, D. A.; Yingst, R. A.; Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft [1], launched in September 2007, spent ~1 year (2011-2012) investigating Vesta and recently (March 6, 2015) arrived at dwarf planet Ceres. The first images of Ceres' surface were acquired by Dawn's Framing Camera (FC) [2] as it made optical navigation and rotation characterization observations during the Approach phase. The Dawn Science Team will conduct a geological mapping campaign at Ceres during the Nominal Mission, which will include iterative mapping using data obtained during each orbital phase. Iterative geologic mapping was previously successfully conducted during Dawn's mission to Vesta [3,4]. This abstract describes the preliminary geologic mapping results for quadrangle Ac-S-1 (55-90°N, 0-360°E), the northern hemisphere of Ceres.

  13. Tribological behavior of electron beam D6ac weldment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shyh-Chi; Tseng, Kuang-Hung; Wen, Hua-Chiang; Wu, Ming-Jhang; Chou, Chang-Pin

    2013-01-01

    A flow formed D6ac steel tubing was joined using electron beam (EB) welding. Thereafter, the EB weldments were treated by tempering at temperatures of 450 °C and 550 °C. After tempering, the microstructural features, mechanical properties, and tribological characteristics of the EB D6ac weldment were studied. This study used a scratch test to evaluate the sliding wear resistance of the tempered weldment. Results indicate that the tempering softens the microstructure by reducing the dislocation density of the flow formed D6ac steel. For the 450 °C/2 h/air cooling tempering treated D6ac steel, the fracture toughness of the EB weldment can be significantly improved. The tribological behavior of the tempered D6ac weldment depended on the tempered microstructures.

  14. Sustainable AC/AC hybrid electrochemical capacitors in aqueous electrolyte approaching the performance of organic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Qamar; Babuchowska, Paulina; Frąckowiak, Elżbieta; Béguin, François

    2016-09-01

    A high energy hybrid AC/AC electrochemical capacitor has been realized in aqueous Li2SO4+KI electrolyte mixture. Owing to the redox processes associated with the 2I-/I2 system, the positive electrode operates in narrow potential range and displays high capacity. During prolonged potentiostatic floating at 1.6 V, the hybrid cell demonstrates remarkably stable capacitance and resistance. Analyses by temperature programmed desorption after floating at 1.6 V proved that oxidation of the positive AC electrode is prevented by the use of Li2SO4+KI, which enables the maximum potential of this electrode to be shifted below the water oxidation potential. When charged at 0.2 A g-1 up to U = 1.6 V, the hybrid cell displays a high capacitance of 75 F g-1 (300 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) compared to 47 F g-1 (188 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) for a symmetric cell in Li2SO4. At 0.2 A g-1 up to 1.6 V, the hybrid capacitor in Li2SO4+KI displays an energy density of 26 Wh kg-1 which approaches the energy density of 30.9 Wh kg-1 measured when the same carbon is implemented in a capacitor using TEABF4/ACN electrolyte and charged up to 2.5 V.

  15. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  16. Ac-Induced Instability at the Xanthophyllic Locus of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, P. W.; Yoder, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    To detect genomic instability caused by Ac elements in transgenic tomatoes, we used the incompletely dominant mutation Xanthophyllic-1 (Xa-1) as a whole plant marker gene. Xa-1 is located on chromosome 10 and in the heterozygote state causes leaves to be yellow. Transgenic Ac-containing tomato plants which differed in the location and number of their Ac elements were crossed to Xa-1 tester lines and F(1) progeny were scored for aberrant somatic sectoring. Of 800 test and control F(1) progeny screened, only four plants had aberrantly high levels of somatic sectors. Three of the plants had twin sectors consisting of green tissue adjacent to white tissue, and the other had twin sectors comprised of green tissue adjacent to tissue more yellow than the heterozygote background. Sectoring was inherited and the two sectoring phenotypes mapped to opposite homologs of chromosome 10; the green/yellow sectoring phenotype mapped in coupling to Xa-1 while the green/white sectoring phenotype mapped in repulsion. The two sectoring phenotypes cosegregated with different single, non-rearranged Acs, and loss of these Acs from the genome corresponded to the loss of sectoring. Sectoring was still observed after transposition of the Ac to a new site which indicated that sectoring was not limited to a single locus. In both sectored lines, meiotic recombination of the sectoring Ac to the opposite homolog caused the phenotype to switch between the green/yellow and the green/white phenotypes. Thus the two different sectoring phenotypes arose from the same Ac-induced mechanism; the phenotype depended on which chromosome 10 homolog the Ac was on. We believe that the twin sectors resulted from chromosome breakage mediated by a single intact, transposition-competent Ac element. PMID:8394266

  17. 78 FR 49318 - Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-167A

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... Systems (78 FR 34935-34958) (Docket No.: FAA-2013-0485; Notice No. 1209). AC 90-106A, Enhanced Flight...), Synthetic Vision System (SVS), and Combined Vision System (CVS) equipment installation. AC 90-106A is...

  18. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For educational purposes, however, an LED-based rectifier is ideal because it allows students to literally see the rectifier operating. Here I'll discuss the practical aspects of building a full AC adapter incorporating an LED-based rectifier and ideas on how to use it in class.

  19. Dielectrophoretic particle-particle interaction under AC electrohydrodynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh-Hyoung; Yu, Chengjie; Papazoglou, Elisabeth; Farouk, Bakhtier; Noh, Hongseok M

    2011-09-01

    We used the Maxwell stress tensor method to understand dielectrophoretic particle-particle interactions and applied the results to the interpretation of particle behaviors under alternating current (AC) electrohydrodynamic conditions such as AC electroosmosis (ACEO) and electrothermal flow (ETF). Distinct particle behaviors were observed under ACEO and ETF. Diverse particle-particle interactions observed in experiments such as particle clustering, particles keeping a certain distance from each other, chain and disc formation and their rotation, are explained based on the numerical simulation data. The improved understanding of particle behaviors in AC electrohydrodynamic flows presented here will enable researchers to design better particle manipulation strategies for lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:21823132

  20. Stochastic Dynamics of DC and AC Driven Dislocation Kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, A.; Kteyan, A.

    2013-02-01

    Dynamics of a pinned dislocation kink controlled by the acting DC and AC forces is studied analytically. The motion of the kink, described by sine-Gordon (sG) equation, is explored within the framework of McLaughlin-Scott perturbation theory. Assuming weakness of the acting AC force, the equation of motion of the dislocation kink in the pinning potential is linearized. Based on the equations derived, we study stochastic behavior of the kink, and determine the probability of its depinning. The dependencies of the depinning probability on DC and AC forces are analyzed in detail.

  1. The application of Halbach cylinders to brushless ac servo motors

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, K.; Howe, D.

    1998-07-01

    Halbach cylinders are applied to brushless ac servo motors. It is shown that a sinusoidal back-emf waveform and a low cogging torque can be achieved without recourse to conventional design features such as distributed windings and/or stator/rotor skew. A technique for imparting a multipole Halbach magnetization distribution on an isotropic permanent magnet cylinder is described, and it is shown that the torque capability of a Halbach ac servo motor can be up to 33% higher than conventional brushless permanent magnet ac motors.

  2. Critical field measurements in superconductors using ac inductive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S. A.; Ketterson, J. B.; Crabtree, G. W.

    1983-09-01

    The ac in-phase and out-of-phase response of type II superconductors is discussed in terms of dc magnetization curves. Hysteresis in the dc magnetization is shown to lead to a dependence of the ac response on the rate at which an external field is swept. This effect allows both Hc1 and Hc2 to be measured by ac techniques. A relatively simple mutual inductance bridge for making such measurements is described in the text, and factors affecting bridge sensitivity are discussed in the Appendix. Data for the magnetic superconductor ErRh4B4 obtained using this bridge are reported.

  3. Cyclotron production of Ac-225 for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, C; Molinet, R; McGinley, J; Abbas, K; Möllenbeck, J; Morgenstern, A

    2005-03-01

    The feasibility of producing Ac-225 by proton irradiation of Ra-226 in a cyclotron through the reaction Ra-226(p,2n)Ac-225 has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Proton energies were varied from 8.8 to 24.8 MeV and cross-sections were determined by radiochemical analysis of reaction yields. Maximum yields were reached at incident proton energies of 16.8 MeV. Radiochemical separation of Ac-225 from the irradiated target yielded a product suitable for targeted alpha therapy of cancer. PMID:15607913

  4. ACS (Alma Common Software) operating a set of robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhues, C.; Ramolla, M.; Lemke, R.; Haas, M.; Drass, H.; Chini, R.

    2014-07-01

    We use the ALMA Common Software (ACS) to establish a unified middleware for robotic observations with the 40cm Optical, 80cm Infrared and 1.5m Hexapod telescopes located at OCA (Observatorio Cerro Armazones) and the ESO 1-m located at La Silla. ACS permits to hide from the observer the technical specifications, like mount-type or camera-model. Furthermore ACS provides a uniform interface to the different telescopes, allowing us to run the same planning program for each telescope. Observations are carried out for long-term monitoring campaigns to study the variability of stars and AGN. We present here the specific implementation to the different telescopes.

  5. An electrohydrodynamic flow in ac electrowetting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Horim; Yun, Sungchan; Ko, Sung Hee; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2009-01-01

    In ac electrowetting, hydrodynamic flows occur within a droplet. Two distinct flow patterns were observed, depending on the frequency of the applied electrical signal. The flow at low-frequency range was explained in terms of shape oscillation and a steady streaming process in conjunction with contact line oscillation. The origin of the flow at high-frequency range has not yet been explained. We suggest that the high-frequency flow originated mainly from the electrothermal effect, in which electrical charge is generated due to the gradient of electrical conductivity and permittivity, which is induced by the Joule heating of fluid medium. To support our argument, we analyzed the flow field numerically while considering the electrical body force generated by the electrothermal effect. We visualized the flow pattern and measured the flow velocity inside the droplet. The numerical results show qualitative agreement with experimental results with respect to electric field and frequency dependence of flow velocity. The effects of induced-charge electro-osmosis, natural convection, and the Marangoni flow are discussed. PMID:20216975

  6. An electrohydrodynamic flow in ac electrowetting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Horim; Yun, Sungchan; Ko, Sung Hee; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2009-01-01

    In ac electrowetting, hydrodynamic flows occur within a droplet. Two distinct flow patterns were observed, depending on the frequency of the applied electrical signal. The flow at low-frequency range was explained in terms of shape oscillation and a steady streaming process in conjunction with contact line oscillation. The origin of the flow at high-frequency range has not yet been explained. We suggest that the high-frequency flow originated mainly from the electrothermal effect, in which electrical charge is generated due to the gradient of electrical conductivity and permittivity, which is induced by the Joule heating of fluid medium. To support our argument, we analyzed the flow field numerically while considering the electrical body force generated by the electrothermal effect. We visualized the flow pattern and measured the flow velocity inside the droplet. The numerical results show qualitative agreement with experimental results with respect to electric field and frequency dependence of flow velocity. The effects of induced-charge electro-osmosis, natural convection, and the Marangoni flow are discussed. PMID:20216975

  7. Regulation of the activities of African cassava mosaic virus promoters by the AC1, AC2, and AC3 gene products.

    PubMed

    Haley, A; Zhan, X; Richardson, K; Head, K; Morris, B

    1992-06-01

    DNA fragments comprising each of the promoter regions from the geminivirus African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) were cloned into the pUC18-based vector, pG1, producing transcriptional fusions with the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and nopaline synthase terminator sequence. The relative activity of each promoter construct was analyzed by a GUS expression assay of extracts from Nicotiana clevelandii protoplasts coelectroporated with the GUS reporter constructs and constructs in which individual ACMV open reading frames (ORFs) were placed under control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S promoter. Results suggest repression of the AC1 gene by its gene product, which is required for ACMV DNA synthesis. The promoter activity observed for the single promoter for the DNA A genes encoding functions of spread and the regulation of replication (AC2 and AC3 ORFs) was unaffected by coelectroporation with any of the ACMV ORF constructs. Promoters for the AV1 (coat protein) gene and the two DNA B genes (BV1 and BC1) were activated by electroporation of the AC2 ORF construct. To a lesser extent promoters for the AV1 and BV1 genes were activated with the AC3 ORF construct. The same pattern of promoter repression and activation was observed when transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing the GUS reporter constructions were inoculated with ACMV DNA A. PMID:1585657

  8. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  9. Dielectrophoretic separation of mouse melanoma clones

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncu, Ahmet C.; Liu, Jie A.; Beebe, Stephen J.; Beskok, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is employed to differentiate clones of mouse melanoma B16F10 cells. Five clones were tested on microelectrodes. At a specific excitation frequency, clone 1 showed a different DEP response than the other four. Growth rate, melanin content, recovery from cryopreservation, and in vitro invasive studies were performed. Clone 1 is shown to have significantly different melanin content and recovery rate from cryopreservation. This paper reports the ability of DEP to differentiate between two malignant cells of the same origin. Different DEP responses of the two clones could be linked to their melanin content. PMID:20697600

  10. 7. VIEW OF THREE BOATHOUSES FROM 'PENN AC ROWING ASSN' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF THREE BOATHOUSES FROM 'PENN AC ROWING ASSN' TO NORTH END OF 'VESPER,' LOOKING EAST FROM WEST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER - Boathouse Row, East River Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Dc to ac converter operates efficiently at low input voltages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Self-oscillating dc to ac converter with transistor switching to produce a square wave output is used for low and high voltage power sources. The converter has a high efficiency throughout a wide range of loads.

  12. Initial tests of an AC dipole for the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Jansson, A.; Kopp, S.; Syphers, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to diagnose transverse motions of a beam. It can achieve large-amplitude oscillations without two inevitable problems of conventional kicker/pinger magnets: decoherence and emittance growth. While not the first synchrotron to operate with an AC dipole, the Tevatron can now make use of its recently upgraded BPM system, providing unprecedented resolution for use with an AC dipole, to measure both linear and nonlinear properties of the accelerator. Plans are to provide AC dipole systems for both transverse degrees of freedom. Preliminary tests have been done using an audio power amplifier with an existing vertical pinger magnet, producing oscillation amplitudes up to 2{sigma} at 150 GeV. In this paper, we will present the configuration of this system. We also show the analysis of a first few data sets, including the direct measurement of beta functions at BPM locations.

  13. ACS Algorithm in Discrete Ordinates for Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, William; Haghighat, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    The Adaptive Collision Source (ACS) method can solve the Linear Boltzmann Equation (LBE) more efficiently by adaptation of the angular quadrature order. This is similar to, and essentially an extension of, the first collision source method. Previously, the ACS methodology has been implemented into the TITAN discrete ordinates code, and has shown speedups of 2-4 on a simple test problem, with very little loss of accuracy (within a provided adaptive tolerance). This work examines the use of the ACS method for a more realistic problem: pressure vessel dosimetry with the VENUS-2 MOX-fuelled reactor dosimetry benchmark. The ACS method proved to be able to obtain accurate results while being approximately twice as efficient as using a constant quadrature in a standard source iteration scheme.

  14. Reentrant ac Magnetic Susceptibility in Josephson-Junction Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Moreira, F.M.; Barbara, P.; Cawthorne, A.B.; Lobb, C.J.

    1997-06-01

    We have measured the complex ac magnetic susceptibility of unshunted Josephson-junction arrays as a function of temperature T , amplitude of the excitation field h{sub ac} , and external magnetic field H{sub dc} . For small h{sub ac} Meissner screening occurs. For larger h{sub ac} , however, the screening is reentrant in T . This reentrance is not thermodynamic but dynamic and arises from the paramagnetic contribution of multijunction loops. This result gives an alternative explanation of the paramagnetic Meissner effect observed in granular superconductors. Experimental results are in agreement with a simplified model based on a single loop containing four junctions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O

    2015-03-31

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  16. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient

    PubMed Central

    kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  17. Methanolysis of polycarbonate catalysed by ionic liquid [Bmim][Ac].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fusheng; Li, Lei; Yu, Shitao; Lv, Zhiguo; Ge, Xiaoping

    2011-05-15

    The methanolysis of polycarbonate (PC) was studied using ionic liquid [Bmim][Ac] as a catalyst. The effects of temperature, time, methanol dosage and [Bmim][Ac] dosage on the methanolysis reaction were examined. It was shown that the conversion of PC was nearly 100%, and the yield of bisphenol A (BPA) was over 95% under the following conditions: m([Bmim][Ac]):m(PC) = 0.75:1;m(methanol):m(PC) = 0.75:1; a reaction temperature of 90 °C and a total time of 2.5h. The ionic liquid could be reused up to 6 times with no apparent decrease in the conversion of PC and yield of BPA. The kinetics of the reaction was also investigated. The results indicated that the methanolysis of PC in [Bmim][Ac] was a first-order kinetic reaction with an activation energy of 167 kJ/mol. PMID:21402441

  18. Hydrolysis of polycarbonate catalyzed by ionic liquid [Bmim][Ac].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiuyan; Liu, Fusheng; Li, Lei; Yang, Xuequn; Yu, Shitao; Ge, Xiaoping

    2013-01-15

    Hydrolysis of polycarbonate (PC) was studied using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Bmim][Ac]) as a catalyst. The influences of temperature, time, water dosage and [Bmim][Ac] dosage on the hydrolysis reaction were examined. Under the conditions of temperature 140°C, reaction time 3.0 h, m([Bmim][Ac]):m(PC)=1.5:1 and m(H(2)O):m(PC)=0.35:1, the conversion of PC was nearly 100% and the yield of bisphenol A (BPA) was over 96%. The ionic liquid could be reused up to 6 times without apparent decrease in the conversion of PC and yield of BPA. The kinetics of the reaction was also investigated. The results showed that the hydrolysis of PC in [Bmim][Ac] was a first-order kinetic reaction with an activation energy of 228 kJ/mol. PMID:23246956

  19. Fast electric dipole transitions in Ra-Ac nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime of levels in /sup 225/Ra, /sup 225/Ac, and /sup 227/Ac have been measured by delayed coincidence techniques and these have been used to determine the E1 gamma-ray transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities in /sup 225/Ra and /sup 225/Ac are about two orders of magnitude larger than the values in mid-actinide nuclei. On the other hand, the E1 rate in /sup 227/Ac is similar to those measured in heavier actinides. Previous studies suggest the presence of octupole deformation in all the three nuclei. The present investigation indicates that fast E1 transitions occur for nuclei with octupole deformation. However, the studies also show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between E1 rate and octupole deformation. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  20. High-Frequency ac Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Mildice, James

    1987-01-01

    Loads managed automatically under cycle-by-cycle control. 440-V rms, 20-kHz ac power system developed. System flexible, versatile, and "transparent" to user equipment, while maintaining high efficiency and low weight. Electrical source, from dc to 2,200-Hz ac converted to 440-V rms, 20-kHz, single-phase ac. Power distributed through low-inductance cables. Output power either dc or variable ac. Energy transferred per cycle reduced by factor of 50. Number of parts reduced by factor of about 5 and power loss reduced by two-thirds. Factors result in increased reliability and reduced costs. Used in any power-distribution system requiring high efficiency, high reliability, low weight, and flexibility to handle variety of sources and loads.

  1. Accelerator Production of 225Ac For Alpha-Immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, J. W.; Nortier, F. M.; Bach, H. T.; John, K. D.; Couture, A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Fassbender, M. E.; Goff, G. S.; Taylor, W.; Valdez, F.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Cisneros, M.; Dry, D.; Gallegos, M.; Gritzo, R.; Bitteker, L. J.; Wender, S.; Baty, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    225Ac has tremendous potential for the treatment of metastatic cancer due to the four alpha-particles emitted during its decay to stable 209Bi. Additionally, it is one of the few alpha-emitters being considered for clinical trials. The anticipated 225Ac demand for these trials is expected to far exceed the annual worldwide supply of approximately 1,000 mCi/yr. Consequently, the DOE Office of Science has funded investigations into accelerator-based production of 225Ac. Existing 232Th(p,x)225Ac cross section data indicate that up to 480 mCi/day of 225Ac could be created by bombarding a thick target of natural thorium with 100 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility. To verify these predictions, experiments are underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to measure the 232Th(p,x)225Ac production cross sections for protons in the energy range 40-200 MeV, and at 800 MeV. For 800 MeV protons, preliminary results indicate that the 225Ac production cross section is 12.4±0.6 mb and the 225Ra production cross section is 3.2±0.2 mb. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the 227Ac production cross section is 16±1 mb. Experiments to measure these same cross sections at proton energies below 200 MeV are planned for the last half of calendar year 2010.

  2. An AC magnetohydrodynamic micropump: towards a true integrated microfluidic system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A P; Lemoff, A V; McConaghy, C F; Miles, R R

    1999-03-01

    An AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump has been demonstrated in which the Lorentz force is used to propel an electrolytic solution along a microchannel etched in silicon. This micropump has no moving parts, produces a continuous (not pulsatile) flow, and is compatible with solutions containing biological specimens. micropump, using the Lorentz force as the pumping mechanism for biological analysis. The AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump investigated produces a continuous flow and allows for complex microchannel design.

  3. Diffusive suppression of AC-Stark shifts in atomic magnetometers

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, I. A.; Wyllie, R.; Kauer, M.; Smetana, G. S.; Wakai, R. T.; Walker, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    In atomic magnetometers, the vector AC-Stark shift associated with circularly polarized light generates spatially varying effective magnetic fields, which limit the magnetometer response and serve as sources of noise. We describe a scheme whereby optically pumping a small subvolume of the magnetometer cell and relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms allows a magnetometer to be operated with minimal sensitivity to the AC-Stark field. © 2013 Optical Society of America PMID:23503278

  4. Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell

    2012-06-15

    The GreenRay Inc. program focused on simplifying solar electricity and making it affordable and accessible to the mainstream population. This was accomplished by integrating a solar module, micro-inverter, mounting and monitoring into a reliable, 'plug and play' AC system for residential rooftops, offering the following advantages: (1) Reduced Cost: Reduction in installation labor with fewer components, faster mounting, faster wiring. (2) Maximized Energy Production: Each AC Module operates at its maximum, reducing overall losses from shading, mismatch, or module downtime. (3) Increased Safety. Electrical and fire safety experts agree that AC Modules have significant benefits, with no energized wiring or live connections during installation, maintenance or emergency conditions. (4) Simplified PV for a Broader Group of Installers. Dramatic simplification of design and installation of a solar power system, enabling faster and more efficient delivery of the product into the market through well-established, mainstream channels. This makes solar more accessible to the public. (5) Broadened the Rooftop Market: AC Modules enable solar for many homes that have shading, split roofs, or obstructions. In addition, due to the smaller building block size of 200W vs. 1000W, homeowners with budget limitations can start small and add to their systems over time. Through this DOE program GreenRay developed the all-in-one AC Module system with an integrated PV Module and microinverter, custom residential mounting and performance monitoring. Development efforts took the product from its initial concept, through prototypes, to a commercial product sold and deployed in the residential market. This pilot deployment has demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the AC Module system in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the residential market. While more expensive than the traditional central inverter systems at the pilot scale, the economics of AC Modules become more and more

  5. Procedures used in the calibration of AC calibrators

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.T.

    1991-02-01

    This report describes an automatic calibration system used in the calibration of all precision AC calibrators. The system includes an AC-DC Transfer Standard, a DC Voltage Standard, and a high-resolution digital multimeter, with an IBM-XT Personal Computer for data acquisition and analysis. Specialized instrumentation and measurement techniques make it possible to achieve high accuracy measurements with repeatability. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  7. Search for {beta}-delayed fission of {sup 228}Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yanbing; Ding Huajie; Yuan Shuanggui; Yang Weifan; Niu Yanning; Li Yingjun; Xiao Yonghou; Zhang Shengdong; Lu Xiting

    2006-10-15

    Radium was radiochemically separated from natural thorium. Thin {sup 228}Ra{yields}{beta}{sup -228}Ac sources were prepared and exposed to mica fission track detectors, and measured by an HPGe {gamma}-ray detector. The {beta}-delayed fission events of {sup 228}Ac were observed and its {beta}-delayed fission probability was found to be (5{+-}2)x10{sup -12}.

  8. Accelerator Production of {sup 225}Ac For Alpha-Immunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J. W.; Nortier, F. M.; Bach, H. T.; John, K. D.; Couture, A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Fassbender, M. E.; Goff, G. S.; Taylor, W.; Valdez, F.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Cisneros, M.; Dry, D.; Gallegos, M.; Gritzo, R.; Bitteker, L. J.; Wender, S.; Baty, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    {sup 225}Ac has tremendous potential for the treatment of metastatic cancer due to the four alpha-particles emitted during its decay to stable {sup 209}Bi. Additionally, it is one of the few alpha-emitters being considered for clinical trials. The anticipated {sup 225}Ac demand for these trials is expected to far exceed the annual worldwide supply of approximately 1,000 mCi/yr. Consequently, the DOE Office of Science has funded investigations into accelerator-based production of {sup 225}Ac. Existing {sup 232}Th(p,x){sup 225}Ac cross section data indicate that up to 480 mCi/day of {sup 225}Ac could be created by bombarding a thick target of natural thorium with 100 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility. To verify these predictions, experiments are underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to measure the {sup 232}Th(p,x){sup 225}Ac production cross sections for protons in the energy range 40-200 MeV, and at 800 MeV. For 800 MeV protons, preliminary results indicate that the {sup 225}Ac production cross section is 12.4{+-}0.6 mb and the {sup 225}Ra production cross section is 3.2{+-}0.2 mb. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the {sup 227}Ac production cross section is 16{+-}1 mb. Experiments to measure these same cross sections at proton energies below 200 MeV are planned for the last half of calendar year 2010.

  9. AC Josephson effect applications in microwave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Serguey Y.

    1996-12-01

    analysis allow to get the picture of temperature distribution along the plasma cord diameter in accordance with dynamics of thermonuclear process development. Modem raclioastronomic research gives scientists the unique information on the world tructure. It is also necessary to analyze Space microwave radiation providing exclusive sensitivity of the equipment. In both cases equipment is required to be superwide band, to have high sensitivity and ability to operate at more than 300 GHz frequencies. Today all these requirements are met by the devices using the ac Josephson effect. The Josephson junctions are used as an active transforming element in such devices. At the end of 20 century the sphere of their utilization embraces medicine, communications, radiophysics, space exploration, ecology, military use, etc. The State Research Center "Fonon" ( SRC "Fonon") of the State Committee on Science and Technology of Ukraine was founded in 1991. The main aim of its creation was to concentrate the scientific and financial efforts for development and production of unique devices based on the results of fundamental study in physics of high T superconductivity. First of all we were interested in technological research on the obtaining of low impedance Josephson junctions out of the High T thin films. Using such junctions in combination with our original techniques developed in our Center we have succeed in creating the following new generation equipment: industrial set-up of the frequency meter in the range of 60 ... 600 GHz; experimental set-up of the spectrum analyzer operating in the range of 50 250 GHz; experimental model of radiometric receiver in 180...260 GHz range. All the above devices are based on the using ac Josephson effect for the receiving and processing mm- and submm- microwave signals.

  10. ISTTOK upgrade towards AC and remote operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Carvalho, B.; Sousa, J.; Valcárcel, D.; Neto, A.; Fortunato, J.; Carvalho, I.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    2006-12-01

    ISTTOK has performed one of the earliest experiments of AC tokamak operation showing that long discharges could be produced merely with inductive current drive. However, due to the design of the machine, the data acquisition system and the power supplies, a limit of 250 ms (six times the nominal forward shot duration) is currently imposed. In this paper the relevant constrains to attain current operation up to the limit of the stable toroidal magnetic field (3s) are discussed and the work being carried out to achieve this goal is presented. The conditions that shall be accomplished are: (i) removing the power deposited on the limiters; (ii) density control through gas puffing and monitoring the recycling from the walls; (iii) assessment of the free magnetic flux available on the iron core (Wmax=0.2 Vs); (iv) reformulation of the data acquisition system towards an event driven philosophy maintaining the actual distributed architecture but allowing a real-time control; (v) active control of the equilibrium magnetic fields implementing a digital plasma position estimator and actuator through new power supplies for the poloidal magnetic fields. As a new high level software was needed to implement all this features, the ISTTOK data acquisition system and control has been totally redesigned in JAVA/SQL database technology and time stamps events were adopted to catalogue the data. This software has been design keeping in mind the needs for remote participation and operation of the machine. Therefore, a cooperative environment has been implemented where several persons can be connected together to the platform, programming their own devices and exchanging knowledge or opinions through an embedded chat.

  11. ISTTOK upgrade towards AC and remote operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Carvalho, B.; Sousa, J.; Valcarcel, D.; Neto, A.; Fortunato, J.; Carvalho, I.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    2006-12-04

    ISTTOK has performed one of the earliest experiments of AC tokamak operation showing that long discharges could be produced merely with inductive current drive. However, due to the design of the machine, the data acquisition system and the power supplies, a limit of 250 ms (six times the nominal forward shot duration) is currently imposed.In this paper the relevant constrains to attain current operation up to the limit of the stable toroidal magnetic field (3s) are discussed and the work being carried out to achieve this goal is presented.The conditions that shall be accomplished are: (i) removing the power deposited on the limiters; (ii) density control through gas puffing and monitoring the recycling from the walls; (iii) assessment of the free magnetic flux available on the iron core (Wmax=0.2 Vs); (iv) reformulation of the data acquisition system towards an event driven philosophy maintaining the actual distributed architecture but allowing a real-time control; (v) active control of the equilibrium magnetic fields implementing a digital plasma position estimator and actuator through new power supplies for the poloidal magnetic fields. As a new high level software was needed to implement all this features, the ISTTOK data acquisition system and control has been totally redesigned in JAVA/SQL database technology and time stamps events were adopted to catalogue the data. This software has been design keeping in mind the needs for remote participation and operation of the machine. Therefore, a cooperative environment has been implemented where several persons can be connected together to the platform, programming their own devices and exchanging knowledge or opinions through an embedded chat.

  12. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials. PMID:23218240

  13. Sequential control by speed drive for ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2012-11-01

    The speed drive for ac motor is widely used in the industrial field to allow direct control for the speed and torque without any feedback from the motor shaft. By using the ABB ACS800 speed drive unit, the speed and torque can be controlled using sequential control method. Sequential control is one of the application control method provided in the ABB ACS800 Drive, where a set of events or action performed in a particular order one after the other to control the speed and torque of the ac motor. It was claimed that sequential control method is using the preset seven constant speeds being provided in ABB ACS800 drive to control the speed and torque in a continuous and sequential manner. The characteristics and features of controlling the speed and torque using sequential control method can be investigated by observing the graphs and curves plotted which are obtained from the practical result. Sequential control can run either in the Direct Torque Control (DTC) or Scalar motor control mode. By using sequential control method, the ABB ACS800 drive can be programmed to run the motor automatically according to the time setting of the seven preset constant speeds. Besides, the intention of this project is to generate a new form of the experimental set up.

  14. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi

    2008-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f ~ 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  15. Equivalent Electrical Circuit Representations of AC Quantized Hall Resistance Standards

    PubMed Central

    Cage, M. E.; Jeffery, A.; Matthews, J.

    1999-01-01

    We use equivalent electrical circuits to analyze the effects of large parasitic impedances existing in all sample probes on four-terminal-pair measurements of the ac quantized Hall resistance RH. The circuit components include the externally measurable parasitic capacitances, inductances, lead resistances, and leakage resistances of ac quantized Hall resistance standards, as well as components that represent the electrical characteristics of the quantum Hall effect device (QHE). Two kinds of electrical circuit connections to the QHE are described and considered: single-series “offset” and quadruple-series. (We eliminated other connections in earlier analyses because they did not provide the desired accuracy with all sample probe leads attached at the device.) Exact, but complicated, algebraic equations are derived for the currents and measured quantized Hall voltages for these two circuits. Only the quadruple-series connection circuit meets our desired goal of measuring RH for both ac and dc currents with a one-standard-deviation uncertainty of 10−8 RH or less during the same cool-down with all leads attached at the device. The single-series “offset” connection circuit meets our other desired goal of also measuring the longitudinal resistance Rx for both ac and dc currents during that same cool-down. We will use these predictions to apply small measurable corrections, and uncertainties of the corrections, to ac measurements of RH in order to realize an intrinsic ac quantized Hall resistance standard of 10−8 RH uncertainty or less.

  16. Quenching characteristics of a.c. superconducting coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, S.; Kasahara, H.; Torii, S.

    Quenching characteristics of two superconducting coils for a.c. use are investigated at different frequencies. One is impregnated with epoxy resin and the other is not. Both coils have experienced over 40 quenches in a.c. and d.c. The impregnated coil shows steady quenching currents for a.c. and the values are nearly the same as for d.c. On the other hand, quenching currents for a.c. in the non-impregnated coil are almost 80% of the trained-up d.c. quenching current and are scattered. Furthermore, the relationship between quenching currents and the estimated a.c. losses of the superconducting cable at the highest magnetic field point is investigated. According to the results of this investigation, the cause of quench in the impregnated coil is assumed to be the temperature rise of the winding due to a.c. losses, while the cause in the non-impregnated coil might be wire motion.

  17. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f˜20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  18. Three-phase ac-to-ac series-resonant power converter with a reduced number of thyristors

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassens, J.B.; de Beer, F. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that ac-ac series-resonant converters have been proven to be functional and useful. Power pulse modulation with internal frequencies of tens of kHz and suited for multikilowatt power levels is applied to a series-resonant converter system for generating synthesized multiphase bipolar waveforms with reversible power flow and flow distortion. The use of a series-resonant circuit for power transfer and control obtains natural current commutation of the thyristors and the prevention of excessive stresses on components. Switches are required which have bidirectional current conduction and voltage blocking ability. The conventional series-resonant ac-ac converter applies a total for 24 anti-parallel thyristors. An alternative circuit configuration for the series-resonant ac-ac converter with only 12 thyristors is also presented. The alternative power circuit has three neutrals, related to the polyphase source, the load and the converter, which may be interconnected. If they are connected, the high-frequency component of the source and load currents will flow through the connection between the neutrals. The test results of a converter system generating three-phase sinusoidal input and output waveforms have demonstrated the significant aspects of this type of power interfaces.

  19. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  20. ac electroosmotic pumping induced by noncontact external electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shau-Chun; Chen, Hsiao-Ping; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2007-01-01

    Electroosmotic (EO) pumps based on dc electroosmosis is plagued by bubble generation and other electrochemical reactions at the electrodes at voltages beyond 1 V for electrolytes. These disadvantages limit their throughput and offset their portability advantage over mechanical syringe or pneumatic pumps. ac electroosmotic pumps at high frequency (>100 kHz) circumvent the bubble problem by inducing polarization and slip velocity on embedded electrodes,1 but they require complex electrode designs to produce a net flow. We report a new high-throughput ac EO pump design based on induced-polarization on the entire channel surface instead of just on the electrodes. Like dc EO pumps, our pump electrodes are outside of the load section and form a cm-long pump unit consisting of three circular reservoirs (3 mm in diameter) connected by a 1×1 mm channel. The field-induced polarization can produce an effective Zeta potential exceeding 1 V and an ac slip velocity estimated as 1 mm∕sec or higher, both one order of magnitude higher than earlier dc and ac pumps, giving rise to a maximum throughput of 1 μl∕sec. Polarization over the entire channel surface, quadratic scaling with respect to the field and high voltage at high frequency without electrode bubble generation are the reasons why the current pump is superior to earlier dc and ac EO pumps. PMID:19693362

  1. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  2. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    2015-03-01

    Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  3. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-06-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  4. Muc5ac Mucin Expression During Rat Skin Development

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, V.; Segal-Eiras, A.; Barbeito, C.G.; Croce, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during pre- and post-natal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days after birth when the surface epidermis became negative and the reaction was restricted to secreting sebum cells. In coincidence with IHC findings, WB analysis showed a band at approximately 200KDa at the same periods of development. Results were also confirmed by RT-PCR. Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report that confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development. PMID:25820562

  5. Oxidative coupling of methane with ac and dc corona discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Marafee, A.; Hill, B.; Xu, G.; Mallinson, R.; Lobban, L.

    1996-10-01

    The oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) is being actively studied for the production of higher hydrocarbons from natural gas. The present study concentrated on the oxidative conversion of methane in an atmospheric pressure, nonthermal plasma formed by ac or dc corona discharges. Methyl radicals are formed by reaction with negatively-charged oxygen species created in the corona discharge. The selectivity to products ethane and ethylene is affected by electrode polarity, frequency, and oxygen partial pressure in the feed. Higher C{sub 2} yields were obtained with the ac corona. All the ac corona discharges are initiated at room temperature (i.e., no oven or other heat source is used), and the temperature increases to 300--500 C due to the exothermic reactions and the discharge itself. The largest C{sub 2} yield is 21% with 43.3% methane conversion and 48.3% C{sub 2} selectivity at a flowrate of 100 cm{sup 3}/min when the ac corona is at 30 Hz, 5 kV (rms) input power was used. The methane conversion may be improved to more than 50% by increasing the residence time, but the C{sub 2} selectivity decreases. A reaction mechanism including the oxidative dehydrogenation (OXD) of ethane to ethylene is presented to explain the observed phenomena. The results suggest that ac and/or dc gas discharge techniques have significant promise for improving the economics of OCM processes.

  6. Impedance, AC conductivity and dielectric behavior Adeninium Trichloromercurate (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fersi, M. Amine; Chaabane, I.; Gargouri, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we report the measurements impedance spectroscopy technique for the organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C5H6N5) HgCl3, 11/2H2O measured in the 209 Hz-5 MHz frequency range from 378 to 428 K. Besides, the Cole-Cole (Z″ versus Z‧) plots were well fitted to an equivalent circuit built up by a parallel combination of resistance (R), fractal capacitance (CPE) and capacitance (C). Furthermore, the AC conductivity was investigated as a function of temperature and frequency in the same range. The experiment results indicated that AC conductivity (σac) was proportional to σdc + A ωS . The obtained results are discussed in terms of the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. An agreement between the experimental and theoretical results suggests that the AC conductivity behavior of Adeninium Trichloromercurate (II) can be successfully explained by CBH model. The contribution of single polaron hopping to AC conductivity in a present alloy was also studied.

  7. AC Zeeman potentials for atom chip-based ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Ziltz, Austin; Aubin, Seth

    2015-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical progress on using the AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-fields from an atom chip to manipulate and eventually trap ultracold atoms. These AC Zeeman potentials are inherently spin-dependent and can be used to apply qualitatively different potentials to different spin states simultaneously. Furthermore, AC Zeeman traps are compatible with the large DC magnetic fields necessary for accessing Feshbach resonances. Applications include spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry and experiments in 1D many-body physics. Initial experiments and results are geared towards observing the bipolar detuning-dependent nature of the AC Zeeman force at 6.8 GHz with ultracold 87Rb atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip. Experimental work is also underway towards working with potassium isotopes at frequencies of 1 GHz and below. Theoretical work is focused on atom chip designs for AC Zeeman traps produced by magnetic near-fields, while also incorporating the effect of the related electric near-fields. Electromagnetic simulations of atom chip circuits are used for mapping microwave propagation in on-chip transmission line structures, accounting for the skin effect, and guiding impedance matching.

  8. AC Loss Measurements on a 2G YBCO Coil

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, Christopher M; Duckworth, Robert C; Schwenterly, S W

    2011-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES) to continue development of HTS power transformers. For compatibility with the existing power grid, a commercially viable HTS transformer will have to operate at high voltages in the range of 138 kV and above, and will have to withstand 550-kV impulse voltages as well. Second-generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors will be required for an economically-competitive design. In order to adequately size the refrigeration system for these transformers, the ac loss of these HTS coils must be characterized. Electrical AC loss measurements were conducted on a prototype high voltage (HV) coil with co-wound stainless steel at 60 Hz in a liquid nitrogen bath using a lock-in amplifier technique. The prototype HV coil consisted of 26 continuous (without splice) single pancake coils concentrically centered on a stainless steel former. For ac loss measurement purposes, voltage tap pairs were soldered across each set of two single pancake coils so that a total of 13 separate voltage measurements could be made across the entire length of the coil. AC loss measurements were taken as a function of ac excitation current. Results show that the loss is primarily concentrated at the ends of the coil where the operating fraction of critical current is the highest and show a distinct difference in current scaling of the losses between low current and high current regimes.

  9. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Conclusions Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and

  10. Dielectrophoretic investigation of Bi2Te3 nanowires—a microfabricated thermoelectric characterization platform for measuring the thermoelectric and structural properties of single nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Kojda, Danny; Peranio, Nicola; Kroener, Michael; Mitdank, Rüdiger; Toellner, William; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fischer, Saskia F.; Gutsch, Sebastian; Zacharias, Margit; Eibl, Oliver; Woias, Peter

    2015-03-01

    In this article a microfabricated thermoelectric nanowire characterization platform to investigate the thermoelectric and structural properties of single nanowires is presented. By means of dielectrophoresis (DEP), a method to manipulate and orient nanowires in a controlled way to assemble them onto our measurement platform is introduced. The thermoelectric platform fabricated with optimally designed DEP electrodes results in a yield of nanowire assembly of approximately 90% under an applied peak-to-peak ac signal Vpp = 10 V and frequency f = 20 MHz within a series of 200 experiments. Ohmic contacts between the aligned single nanowire and the electrodes on the platform are established by electron beam-induced deposition. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of electrochemically synthesized Bi2Te3 nanowires are measured to be -51 μV K-1 and (943 ± 160)/(Ω-1 cm-1), respectively. Chemical composition and crystallographic structure are obtained using transmission electron microscopy. The selected nanowire is observed to be single crystalline over its entire length and no grain boundaries are detected. At the surface of the nanowire, 66.1 ± 1.1 at.% Te and 34.9 ± 1.1 at.% Bi are observed. In contrast, chemical composition of 64.2 at.% Te and 35.8 at.% Bi is detected in the thick center of the nanowire.

  11. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  12. ac conductance of surface layer in lithium tetraborate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chung-Sik; Park, Jong-Ho; Moon, Byung Kee; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Byung-Chun; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae; Kim, Hyung Kook; Kim, Jung Nam

    2003-12-01

    ac conductance for the electrode effect in Li2B4O7 single crystal was investigated by use of a coplanar electrode applied on the surface of a (001) plate. A coplanar electrode in this material more clearly shows conduction of the electrode effect than a conventional parallel planar electrode. The electrode effect in ac conductance is likely to be controlled by the surface layer, which is a poorly conductive depletion layer possibly filled with vacancies of lithium ions. We found that the surface layer is not locally distributed near the electrodes, but, rather, on the broad area of the surface (001) plane of the material. So we conclude that the electrode effect in ac conduction of Li2B4O7 single crystal is mainly due to the poor conductive surface layer distributed over the whole surface of the (001) plane and is not a secondary phase formed by reaction with the electrode material.

  13. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  14. Lamin A/C, laminopathies and premature ageing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baohua; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2008-06-01

    Lamin A/C belongs to type V intermediate filaments and constitutes the nuclear lamina and nuclear matrix, where a variety of nuclear activities occur. Lamin A/C protein is firstly synthesized as a precursor and is further proteolytically processed by the zinc metallo-proteinase Ste24 (Zmpste24). Lamin A/C mutations cause a series of human diseases, collectively called laminopathies, the most severe of which is Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (RD) which arises due to an unsuccessful maturation of prelamin A. Although the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood, genomic instability, defective nuclear mechanics and mechanotransduction, have been hypothesized to be responsible for laminopathy-based premature ageing. Removal of unprocessed prelamin A (progerin) or rescue of defective DNA repair could be potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HGPS in future. PMID:18366013

  15. Superconducting shielded core reactor with reduced AC losses

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Yung S.; Hull, John R.

    2006-04-04

    A superconducting shielded core reactor (SSCR) operates as a passive device for limiting excessive AC current in a circuit operating at a high power level under a fault condition such as shorting. The SSCR includes a ferromagnetic core which may be either closed or open (with an air gap) and extends into and through a superconducting tube or superconducting rings arranged in a stacked array. First and second series connected copper coils each disposed about a portion of the iron core are connected to the circuit to be protected and are respectively wound inside and outside of the superconducting tube or rings. A large impedance is inserted into the circuit by the core when the shielding capability of the superconducting arrangement is exceeded by the applied magnetic field generated by the two coils under a fault condition to limit the AC current in the circuit. The proposed SSCR also affords reduced AC loss compared to conventional SSCRs under continuous normal operation.

  16. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Reddy, C. Narayana; Gowda, Veeranna

    2011-07-01

    Glasses in the system xLi2SO4-20Li2O-(80-x) [80P2O5-20V2O5] (5⩾x⩾20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation σ(ω) = σ(0)+Aωs where `s' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  17. Analysis of ac Surface Photovoltages in Accumulation Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, Chusuke

    1988-05-01

    Equations for ac surface photovoltages (SPVs) excited with a chopped photon beam (PB) in the accumulation region are proposed for such semiconductors as silicon and germanium. Following the previously reported half-sided junction model for the depleted or inverted region, equations for photocurrent density and surface impedance per unit area have been newly deduced. When the surface potential is highly negative in p-type semiconductors, the maximum ac SPV in the accumulation region is limited by the conductance due to majority carrier diffusion flow. This is compared with the strong inversion region, where the mathematically maximum SPV depends upon the minority carrier diffusion flow. The voltage ratio between the two maximum ac SPVs is the same as that previously reported using the different models for dc SPVs excited with a continuous PB.

  18. ac susceptibility of chosen chromium compounds with noncollinear spin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczyk, S.; Gogołowicz, M.

    1993-11-01

    Results from the preliminary ac susceptibility χ ac( T) measurements at H( rms)=80 A/ m and ƒ=1 kHz on the chosen chromate Zn 1- xA xCr 2Se 4 with noncollinear spin structure for A=Cu and Ga {2}/{3} are presented. From the temperature position peak of the in-phase (real, χ') part of the complex susceptibility the transition temperatures from a magnetically ordered phase to a paramagnetic one have been determined. The out-of-phase (imaginary of absorptive, χ″) peak is discussed in terms of different spin-lattice relaxation processes causing a dissipation of energy. A proposal that in both the real and imaginary part of the ac susceptibility a significant role can be played by a skin size effect is also presented.

  19. UPS with input commutation between ac and dc sources of power

    SciTech Connect

    Severinsky, A.J.

    1993-08-31

    An uninterruptible power supply is described, said power supply comprising: AC input terminal means for receiving a first AC voltage from an AC power source; DC input terminal means for receiving a first DC voltage from a DC power source; AC output terminal means for connecting to a load; converter means for converting said first AC voltage to a second DC voltage across electrical charge storage means coupled to said converter means, said second DC voltage being larger than the maximum peak voltage of said first AC voltage and said first DC voltage; switching means coupled to said AC power source and said DC power source for selectively connecting said AC power source or said DC power source to said converter means; inverter means coupled to said electrical charge storage means for receiving said second DC voltage and inverting said second DC voltage to a second AC voltage, said second AC voltage being coupled to said AC output terminal means; and control means coupled to said switching means for controlling the operation of said switching means, said control means operating said switching means to connect said AC power source to said converter means only when said first AC voltage is within a predetermined range and operating to connect said DC power source to said converter means when said first AC voltage is outside of said range.

  20. Encapsulation of α-Particle–Emitting 225Ac3+ Ions Within Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Michael L.; Villa, Carlos H.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Law, Justin J.; Scheinberg, David A.; Wilson, Lon J.

    2016-01-01

    225Ac3+ is a generator of α-particle–emitting radionuclides with 4 net α-particle decays that can be used therapeutically. Targeting 225Ac3+ by use of ligands conjugated to traditional bifunctional chelates limits the amount of 225Ac3+ that can be delivered. Ultrashort, single-walled carbon nanotubes (US-tubes), previously demonstrated as sequestering agents of trivalent lanthanide ions and small molecules, also successfully incorporate 225Ac3+. Methods Aqueous loading of both 225Ac3+ ions and Gd3+ ions via bath sonication was used to construct 225Ac@gadonanotubes (225Ac@GNTs). The 225Ac@GNTs were subsequently challenged with heat, time, and human serum. Results US-tubes internally loaded with both 225Ac3+ ions and Gd3+ ions show 2 distinct populations of 225Ac3+ ions: one rapidly lost in human serum and one that remains bound to the US-tubes despite additional challenge with heat, time, and serum. The presence of the latter population depended on cosequestration of Gd3+ and 225Ac3+ ions. Conclusion US-tubes successfully sequester 225Ac3+ ions in the presence of Gd3+ ions and retain them after a human serum challenge, rendering 225Ac@GNTs candidates for radioimmunotherapy for delivery of 225Ac3+ ions at higher concentrations than is currently possible for traditional ligand carriers. PMID:25931476

  1. Modeling and Correcting the Time-Dependent ACS PSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Albert, Justin; Taylor, James E.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Leauthaud, Alexie

    2006-01-01

    The ability to accurately measure the shapes of faint objects in images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) depends upon detailed knowledge of the Point Spread Function (PSF). We show that thermal fluctuations cause the PSF of the ACS Wide Field Camera (WFC) to vary over time. We describe a modified version of the TinyTim PSF modeling software to create artificial grids of stars across the ACS field of view at a range of telescope focus values. These models closely resemble the stars in real ACS images. Using 10 bright stars in a real image, we have been able to measure HST s apparent focus at the time of the exposure. TinyTim can then be used to model the PSF at any position on the ACS field of view. This obviates the need for images of dense stellar fields at different focus values, or interpolation between the few observed stars. We show that residual differences between our TinyTim models and real data are likely due to the effects of Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) degradation. Furthermore, we discuss stochastic noise that is added to the shape of point sources when distortion is removed, and we present MultiDrizzle parameters that are optimal for weak lensing science. Specifically, we find that reducing the MultiDrizzle output pixel scale and choosing a Gaussian kernel significantly stabilizes the resulting PSF after image combination, while still eliminating cosmic rays/bad pixels, and correcting the large geometric distortion in the ACS. We discuss future plans, which include more detailed study of the effects of CTE degradation on object shapes and releasing our TinyTim models to the astronomical community.

  2. Aligned Immobilization of Proteins Using AC Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Laux, Eva-Maria; Knigge, Xenia; Bier, Frank F; Wenger, Christian; Hölzel, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    Protein molecules are aligned and immobilized from solution by AC electric fields. In a single-step experiment, the enhanced green fluorescent proteins are immobilized on the surface as well as at the edges of planar nanoelectrodes. Alignment is found to follow the molecules' geometrical shape with their longitudinal axes parallel to the electric field. Simultaneous dielectrophoretic attraction and AC electroosmotic flow are identified as the dominant forces causing protein movement and alignment. Molecular orientation is determined by fluorescence microscopy based on polarized excitation of the proteins' chromophores. The chromophores' orientation with respect to the whole molecule supports X-ray crystal data. PMID:26779699

  3. AC Loss Analysis on the Superconducting Coupling Magnet in MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Li; Green, Michael; Li, LanKai; Xu, FengYu; Liu, XiaoKun; Jia, LinXinag

    2008-07-08

    A pair of coupling solenoids is used in MICE experiment to generate magnetic field which keeps the muons within the iris of thin RF cavity windows. The coupling solenoids have a 1.5-meter inner diameter and will produce 7.4 T peak magnetic field. Three types of AC losses in coupling solenoid are discussed. The affect of AC losses on the temperature distribution within the cold mass during charging and rapid discharging process is analyzed also. The analysis result will be further confirmed by the experiment of the prototype solenoid for coupling solenoid, which will be designed, fabricated and tested at ICST.

  4. L’acétaminophène chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Question Je suggère fréquemment aux parents d’utiliser de l’acétaminophène comme traitement de la fièvre et de la douleur pour leurs enfants. J’ai récemment reçu un enfant à mon cabinet qui s’est présenté avec une éruption cutanée sous forme de lésions en cibles une journée après avoir pris de l’acétaminophène. L’éruption s’est résorbée 3 jours après qu’on ait arrêté l’administration d’acétaminophène. L’acétaminophène comporte-t-elle des risques d’événements indésirables comme celui-ci? Réponse Comme les autres médicaments ou substances actives, les préparations d’acétaminophène pourraient poser des risques d’événements indésirables. Au cours des dernières années, on a procédé à une investigation concernant une association potentielle entre l’acétaminophène et l’asthme et la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis a récemment publié un avertissement à propos de réactions cutanées éventuelles, graves mais rares, associées à l’acétaminophène. Même si l’acétaminophène est principalement un médicament sûr, les professionnels de la santé devraient être alertes et informer les parents à propos de la possibilité d’événements indésirables rares mais sévères.

  5. Introducing AC inductive reactance with a power tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Wesley; Baker, Blane

    2016-09-01

    The concept of reactance in AC electrical circuits is often non-intuitive and difficult for students to grasp. In order to address this lack of conceptual understanding, classroom exercises compare the predicted resistance of a power tool, based on electrical specifications, to measured resistance. Once students discover that measured resistance is smaller than expected, they are asked to explain these observations using previously studied principles of magnetic induction. Exercises also introduce the notion of inductive reactance and impedance in AC circuits and, ultimately, determine self-inductance of the motor windings within the power tool.

  6. Interplay between electron overheating and ac Josephson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cecco, A.; Le Calvez, K.; Sacépé, B.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, H.

    2016-05-01

    We study the response of high-critical-current proximity Josephson junctions to a microwave excitation. Electron overheating in such devices is known to create hysteretic dc voltage-current characteristics. Here we demonstrate that it also strongly influences the ac response. The interplay of electron overheating and ac Josephson dynamics is revealed by the evolution of the Shapiro steps with the microwave drive amplitude. Extending the resistively shunted Josephson junction model by including a thermal balance for the electronic bath coupled to phonons, a strong electron overheating is obtained.

  7. The ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1981-01-01

    A functional prototype of an electric vehicle ac propulsion system was built consisting of a 18.65 kW rated ac induction traction motor, pulse width modulated (PWM) transistorized inverter, two speed mechanically shifted automatic transmission, and an overall drive/vehicle controller. Design developmental steps, and test results of individual components and the complex system on an instrumented test frame are described. Computer models were developed for the inverter, motor and a representative vehicle. A preliminary reliability model and failure modes effects analysis are given.

  8. Dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipole implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, W.C.; Meng, W.; Mernick, K.; Pai, C.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    AC-dipole magnets are typically implemented as a parallel LC resonant circuit. To maximize efficiency, it's beneficial to operate at a high Q. This, however, limits the magnet to a narrow frequency range. Current designs therefore operate at a low Q to provide a wider bandwidth at the cost of efficiency. Dynamically tuning a high Q resonant circuit tries to maintain a high efficiency while providing a wide frequency range. The results of ongoing efforts at BNL to implement dynamically tuned high-Q AC dipoles will be presented.

  9. Study of AC/RF properties of SRF ingot niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Tsindlekht, Menachem I; Genkin, Valery M; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to correlate the performance of superconducting radiofrequency cavities made of niobium with the superconducting properties, we present the results of the magnetization and ac susceptibility of the niobium used in the superconducting radiofrequency cavity fabrication. The samples were subjected to buffer chemical polishing (BCP) surface and high temperature heat treatments, typically applied to the cavities fabrications. The analysis of the results show the different surface and bulk ac conductivity for the samples subjected to BCP and heat treatment. Furthermore, the RF surface impedance is measured on the sample using a TE011 microwave cavity for a comparison to the low frequency measurements.

  10. Dynamic conductivity of ac-dc-driven graphene superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhar', E. I.; Kryuchkov, S. V.; Ionkina, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic conductivity of graphene superlattice in the presence of ac electric field and dc electric field with longitudinal and transversal components with respect to superlattice axis was calculated. In the case of strong transversal component of dc field conductivity of graphene superlattice was shown to be such as if the electrons had got the effective mass. In the case of weak transversal component of dc field conductivity was shown to change its sign if the frequency of ac field was an integer multiple of half of Bloch frequency.

  11. AC and Phase Sensing of Nanowires for Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Marco; Rossi, Michele; Ashburn, Peter; Lombardini, Marta; Sangiorgi, Enrico; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are label-free sensors that allow real-time measurements. They are economical and pave the road for point-of-care applications but require complex readout and skilled personnel. We propose a new model and technique for sensing nanowire sensors using alternating currents (AC) to capture both magnitude and phase information from the sensor. This approach combines the advantages of complex impedance spectroscopy with the noise reduction performances of lock-in techniques. Experimental results show how modifications of the sensors with different surface chemistries lead to the same direct-current (DC) response but can be discerned using the AC approach. PMID:27104577

  12. Characterization of pili associated with Escherichia coli O18ac.

    PubMed Central

    Wevers, P; Picken, R; Schmidt, G; Jann, B; Jann, K; Golecki, J R; Kist, M

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Escherichia coli O18ac isolated from the stool sample of a patient with diarrhea was found to agglutinate human erythrocytes. From the results presented it is suggested that this hemagglutination is mediated by pili. Isolated pilus preparations agglutinated human erythrocytes, whereas pilus-negative mutants did not. The serological and chemical analyses indicate that the pili associated with E. coli O18ac are distinct from other types found with E. coli. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6111534

  13. EXT-II: a second generation advanced ac propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, B.; Patil, P.B.; Ciccarelli, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of the concept and includes discussion of the system constraints, including traction battery constraints, and brief descriptions of the major subsystems being developed. The components discussed include: the system controller, dc to ac inverter, an internal permanent magnet ac motor and a two-speed automatic transmission with an integral final drive and differential. The motor and transmission are on a common axis and are integrated into one compact unit that is integral with the rear axle of the vehicle.

  14. Microfluidic pumping optimization in microgrooved channels with ac electrothermal actuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Manoochehri, Souran

    2010-01-01

    An optimization methodology is developed and applied to an ac electrothermal pump design with patterned microgrooved features. The microgrooved configuration can overcome the restrictions of the conventional planar configuration on pumping performance by diminishing fast backward flows and suppressing prolonged streamlines. At all frequency excitations (0.2-1000 MHz) and ion concentration conditions (5×10-3-0.1 M), the optimum microgrooved configuration generates much faster flow rate than planar configuration. This happens without additional increases in the maximum temperature values. The effects of elevated temperature on ac ET flow behavior is investigated and analyzed.

  15. AC and Phase Sensing of Nanowires for Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Marco; Rossi, Michele; Ashburn, Peter; Lombardini, Marta; Sangiorgi, Enrico; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are label-free sensors that allow real-time measurements. They are economical and pave the road for point-of-care applications but require complex readout and skilled personnel. We propose a new model and technique for sensing nanowire sensors using alternating currents (AC) to capture both magnitude and phase information from the sensor. This approach combines the advantages of complex impedance spectroscopy with the noise reduction performances of lock-in techniques. Experimental results show how modifications of the sensors with different surface chemistries lead to the same direct-current (DC) response but can be discerned using the AC approach. PMID:27104577

  16. Cloning of the Aegiceras corniculatum class I chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and the response of AcCHI I mRNA expression to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yeok, Foong Swee

    2015-10-01

    Chitinases in terrestrial plants have been reported these are involved in heavy metal tolerance/detoxification. This is the first attempt to reveal chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and its function on metal detoxification in mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum. RT-PCR and RACE techniques were used to clone AcCHI I, while real-time quantitative PCR was employed to assess AcCHI I mRNA expressions in response to Cadmium (Cd). The deduced AcCHI I protein consists of 316 amino acids, including a signal peptide region, a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a catalytic domain. Protein homology modeling was performed to identify potential features in AcCHI I. The CBD structure of AcCHI I might be critical for metal tolerance/homeostasis of the plant. Clear tissue-specific differences in AcCHI I expression were detected, with higher transcript levels detected in leaves. Results demonstrated that a short duration of Cd exposure (e.g., 3 days) promoted AcCHI I expression in roots. Upregulated expression was also detected in leaves under 10 mg/kg Cd concentration stress. The present study demonstrates that AcCHI I may play an important role in Cd tolerance/homeostasis in the plant. Further studies of the AcCHI I protein, gene overexpression, the promoter and upstream regulation will be necessary for clarifying the functions of AcCHI I. PMID:26044931

  17. Expression profiles of MdACS3 gene suggest function as an accelerator of apple (Malus x domestica) fruit ripening.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene plays an important role in diverse physiological and developmental processes of plants. Ethylene is synthesized by a short pathway and catalyzed by two enzymes, i.e. ACS and ACO. In apple fruit tissues, at least two ACS genes, MdACS1 and MdACS3, are expressed. While MdACS1 expresses only at...

  18. Context based computational analysis and characterization of ARS consensus sequences (ACS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinod Kumar; Krishnamachari, Annangarachari

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide experimental studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that autonomous replicating sequence (ARS) requires an essential consensus sequence (ACS) for replication activity. Computational studies identified thousands of ACS like patterns in the genome. However, only a few hundreds of these sites act as replicating sites and the rest are considered as dormant or evolving sites. In a bid to understand the sequence makeup of replication sites, a content and context-based analysis was performed on a set of replicating ACS sequences that binds to origin-recognition complex (ORC) denoted as ORC-ACS and non-replicating ACS sequences (nrACS), that are not bound by ORC. In this study, DNA properties such as base composition, correlation, sequence dependent thermodynamic and DNA structural profiles, and their positions have been considered for characterizing ORC-ACS and nrACS. Analysis reveals that ORC-ACS depict marked differences in nucleotide composition and context features in its vicinity compared to nrACS. Interestingly, an A-rich motif was also discovered in ORC-ACS sequences within its nucleosome-free region. Profound changes in the conformational features, such as DNA helical twist, inclination angle and stacking energy between ORC-ACS and nrACS were observed. Distribution of ACS motifs in the non-coding segments points to the locations of ORC-ACS which are found far away from the adjacent gene start position compared to nrACS thereby enabling an accessible environment for ORC-proteins. Our attempt is novel in considering the contextual view of ACS and its flanking region along with nucleosome positioning in the S. cerevisiae genome and may be useful for any computational prediction scheme. PMID:27508123

  19. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus gene ac81 is required for nucleocapsid envelopment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Wang, Jinwen; Deng, Riqiang; Wang, Xunzhang

    2016-08-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a highly pathogenic Baculoviridae that targets insects, whose core gene, ac81, has an unknown function. To determine the role of ac81 in the life cycle of AcMNPV, an ac81-knockout (Ac-81KO-GP) was constructed through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. We determined that no budded virions were produced in Ac-81KO-GP-transfected Sf9 cells, while there was no effect on viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy (EM) analysis revealed that occlusion-derived virions (ODVs) envelopment and the subsequent embedding of virions into occlusion bodies (OBs) were aborted due to ac81 deletion. Interestingly, confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Ac81 was predominantly localized to the ring zone of nuclei during the late phase of infection. In addition, Ac81 was localized to the mature and premature ODVs in virus-infected cells within the ring zone as revealed by immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) analysis. Furthermore, we determined that Ac81 contained a functional hydrophobic transmembrane (TM) domain, whose deletion resulted in a phenotype similar to that of Ac-81KO-GP. These results suggest that Ac81 might be a TM protein that played an important role in nucleocapsid envelopment. PMID:27212683

  20. Biocontrol activity of Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 against Pseudomonas syringae and its interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chi Eun; Kwon, Suk Yoon; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-04-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 (AC-1) is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has been used as a soil inoculant for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi and to promote plant growth. In this study, we examine the effects of AC-1 on the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae and internal colonization of AC-1 by counting bacterial populations that colonize plants. AC-1 inhibited the growth of both P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) and P. syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) in a concentration-dependent manner in in vitro assays. Upon treatment of AC-1 dropping at root tip of axenically grown Arabidopsis, we found that most of the AC-1 was detected in interior of leaves of Arabidiopsis plants rather than roots after 5 days post infection, indicating systemic spreading of AC-1 occur. We examined further AC-1 colonization patterns in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in phytohormone signaling pathways. These results indicated that abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways positively and negatively contributed, respectively, to AC-1 colonization of leaves, whereas epiphytic accumulation of AC-1 around root tissues was not affected. This study shows that AC-1 is an effective biocontrol agent to suppress P. syringae growth, possibly owing to its colonization patterns as a leaf-inhabiting endophyte. The results showed in this work will help to expand our understanding of the mode of action of AC-1 as a biological control agent and consequently, its application in agriculture. PMID:26946374

  1. DESIGN OF AN AC-DIPOLE FOR USE IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    PARKER,B.; BAI,M.; JAIN,A.; MCINTYRE,G.; METH,M.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SANDERS,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    1999-03-29

    We present two options for implementing a pair of AC-dipoles in RHIC for spin flipping, measuring linear optical functions and nonlinear diagnostics. AC-dipoles are magnets that can be adiabatically excited and de-excited with a continuous sine-wave in order to coherently move circulating beam out to large betatron amplitudes without incurring emittance blow up [1]. The AGS already uses a similar device for getting polarized proton beams through depolarizing resonances [2]. By placing the magnets in the IP4 common beam region, two AC-dipoles are sufficient to excite both horizontal and vertical motion in both RHIC rings. While we initially investigated an iron-dominated magnet design using available steel tape cores; we now favor a new air coil plus ferrite design featuring mechanical frequency tuning, in order to best match available resources to demanding frequency sweeping requirements. Both magnet designs are presented here along with model magnet test results. The challenge is to make AC-dipoles available for year 2000 RHIC running.

  2. 23. AC GENERATOR, ALLISCHALMERS SN #1246797, MFG. MILWAUKEE, KW 1600 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AC GENERATOR, ALLIS-CHALMERS SN #1246797, MFG. MILWAUKEE, KW 1600 PF 80 C/O VOLTS 2300 AMPS 503 CY 60 PH 3 RMP 164 EXC VOLTS 125 AMPS MAN 300 - Columbia Canal & Power Plant, Waterfront of Broad River, Columbia, Richland County, SC

  3. IMPROVING AC MOTOR EFFICIENCY WITH FUZZY LOGIC ENERGY OPTIMIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's research program to develop fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizers for alternating-current (AC) induction motors driven by Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs). he technical goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of ASD/motor combinations (especially...

  4. Direct Experimental Observation of a Practical AC Zeeman Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Rotunno, Andrew; Du, Shuangli; Aubin, Seth

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of the spin-dependent AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-field gradients on an atom chip. We measure the AC Zeeman force on ultracold 87 Rb atoms by observing its effect on the motion of atoms in free-fall and on those confined in a trap. We have studied the force as a function of microwave frequency detuning from a hyperfine transition at 6.8 GHz at several magnetic field strengths and have observed its characteristic bipolar and resonant features predicted by two-level dressed atom theory. We find that the force is several times the strength of gravity in our setup, and that it can be targeted to a specific hyperfine transition while leaving other hyperfine states and transitions relatively unaffected. We find that our measurements are reasonably consistent with theory and are working towards a parameter-free comparison. AC Zeeman potentials offer the possibility of targeting qualitatively different trapping potentials to different spin states, a capability currently absent from the toolbox of atomic quantum control techniques. In particular, an AC Zeeman potential could be used as the beamsplitter for a spin-dependent atom interferometer or for engineering a quantum gate. Work supported by AFOSR and W&M, and in part by AFRL.

  5. High-power ac/dc variable load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joncas, K. P.; Birnbach, S.; Bruce, L. D.; Smith, L.

    1975-01-01

    Design of medium-power dynamic electrical load simulator has been extended to permit simulation of ac as well as dc loads and to provide for operation at higher power levels. Simulator is internally protected against reverse voltage, overvoltage, overcurrent, and overload conditions.

  6. Ac loss calorimeter for three-phase cable

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; McMurry, D.E.; DeBlanc, B.G.

    1996-10-01

    A calorimeter for measuring ac losses in meter-long lengths of HTS superconducting power transmission line cables is described. The calorimeter, which is based on a temperature difference technique, has a precision of 1 mW and measures single, two-phase (coupling), and three-phase losses. The measurements show significant coupling losses between phases.

  7. Novel dielectric reduces corona breakdown in ac capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehner, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric system was developed which consists of two layers of 25-gage paper separated by one layer of 50-gage polypropylene to reduce corona breakdown in ac capacitors. System can be used in any alternating current application where constant voltage does not exceed 400 V rms. With a little research it could probably be increased to 700 to 800 V rms.

  8. Introducing AC Inductive Reactance with a Power Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Wesley; Baker, Blane

    2016-01-01

    The concept of reactance in AC electrical circuits is often non-intuitive and difficult for students to grasp. In order to address this lack of conceptual understanding, classroom exercises compare the predicted resistance of a power tool, based on electrical specifications, to measured resistance. Once students discover that measured resistance…

  9. ac Stark shift of the Cs microwave atomic clock transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbusch, P.; Ghezali, S.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the ac Stark shift of the Cs microwave atomic clock transition theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical and experimental data are in good agreement with each other. Results indicate the absence of a magic wavelength at which there would be no differential shift of the clock states having zero projections of the total angular momentum.

  10. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  11. 14. VIEW OF AIR COMPRESSOR. 1500 kw Westinghouse AC generator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF AIR COMPRESSOR. 1500 kw Westinghouse AC generator steam-turbine unit; beyond is air compressor of Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, 1920, engineered by Earl E. Know Company, Erie, Pennsylvania. - Juniata Shops, Power Plant & Boiler House, East of Fourth Avenue at Second Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  12. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... current assets including cash, accounts receivable, material, supplies, prepayment and other current assets (``Current Assets''), and (ii) $74.2 million of property and plant and equipment (``PP&E'').\\5\\ Applicant states that many of the assets categorized as Current Assets will remain with ACS Wireless...

  13. Power factor control system for AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A power factor control system for use with ac induction motors was designed which samples lines voltage and current through the motor and decreases power input to the motor proportional to the detected phase displacement between current and voltage. This system provides, less power to the motor, as it is less loaded.

  14. Exchange anisotropy determined by magnetic field dependence of ac susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Vilela Leão, L. H.; de Aguiar, F. M.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2003-10-01

    ac susceptibility measurements of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AF) bilayers are usually performed as a function of the temperature. In this work we describe measurements of transverse biased ac susceptibility (χt) of FM/AF bilayers as a function of the applied magnetic field H0. The measurements were carried out at room temperature by means of an ac magneto-optical Kerr effect susceptometer. The χt-1(H0) dependence, at the saturation magnetization regime, exhibits a linear behavior with the applied field parallel and perpendicular to the exchange bias direction. The linear extrapolation of χt-1 versus H0 cuts the abscissa at asymmetrical values of field due to the exchange bias coupling. The inverse susceptibility is calculated in the saturation regime by a model, which takes into account the free energy of both layers plus a term corresponding to the interfacial coupling. The exchange coupling field (HE) and uniaxial anisotropy (HU) are extracted from the best fit to the experimental results. The results obtained are crosschecked by those obtained from ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and dc magnetometry. The measurements of the exchange bias and the uniaxial field in all of the three analyzed bilayers gave values that are consistently lower when measured by FMR than those obtained by ac and dc magnetometry. It is argued that the apparently discrepant values of HE and HU, obtained by different techniques, might be explained by existence of unstable AF grains at the AF/FM interface.

  15. Measurement of the 225Ac half-life.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Marouli, M; Suliman, G; Dikmen, H; Van Ammel, R; Jobbágy, V; Dirican, A; Stroh, H; Paepen, J; Bruchertseifer, F; Apostolidis, C; Morgenstern, A

    2012-11-01

    The (225)Ac half-life was determined by measuring the activity of (225)Ac sources as a function of time, using various detection techniques: α-particle counting with a planar silicon detector at a defined small solid angle and in a nearly-2π geometry, 4πα+β counting with a windowless CsI sandwich spectrometer and with a pressurised proportional counter, gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector and with a NaI(Tl) well detector. Depending on the technique, the decay was followed for 59-141 d, which is about 6-14 times the (225)Ac half-life. The six measurement results were in good mutual agreement and their mean value is T(1/2)((225)Ac)=9.920 (3)d. This half-life value is more precise and better documented than the currently recommended value of 10.0 d, based on two old measurements lacking uncertainty evaluations. PMID:22940415

  16. Regenerating /sup 227/Ac from highly contaminated preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Volynskii, L.D.; Garbuzov, V.M.; Tsirlin, V.A.

    1988-05-01

    Studies have been made on the conditions for coprecipitation of actinium with calcium, barium, and iron fluorides, as well as on the conditions for the selective separation of actinium and iron on a cation-exchange material by the use of hydrochloric acid in acetone. Several ways of regenerating /sup 337/Ac from highly contaminated preparations are proposed.

  17. 21 CFR 886.1850 - AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. 886.1850 Section 886.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a thin, intense beam of light. (b) Classification. Class II....

  18. 21 CFR 886.1850 - AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. 886.1850 Section 886.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope intended for use in eye examination that projects into a patient's eye through a control...

  19. 78 FR 42567 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application June 25, 2013. Correction In notice document 2013-15658 beginning on page 39345 in the issue of Monday, July 1, 2013, make the following correction: On page...

  20. Methods of attenuating wind turbine ac generator output variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H.

    1978-01-01

    Wind speed variation, tower blockage and structural and inertial factors produce unsteady torque in wind turbines. Methods for modifying the turbine torque so that steady torque is delivered to the coupled ac generator are discussed. The method that may evolve will be influenced by the power use that develops and the trade-offs of cost, weight and complexity.

  1. ACS/WFC Revised Geometric Distortion for DrizzlePac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Borncamp, D.; Anderson, J.; Grogin, N.; Hack, M.

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the ACS/WFC astrometric calibration for DrizzlePac is to provide a coordinate system free of distortion to a precision level of ˜0.1 pixels (˜ 5mas). The astrometric calibration of ACS/WFC is based on the astrometric standard field in the vicinity of globular cluster 47 Tuc. We used a polynomial model to derive the geometric distortion in the WFC channel relative to the distortion-free coordinates, which now accounts for proper motions of stars in the astrometric field. A new and straightforward representation of time-dependent distortion in the linear terms is now implemented in the IDCTAB reference file and in the STScI software DrizzlePac to obtain simultaneously the ACS/WFC geometric distortion and its time-dependent correction. As a result, the geometric distortion can be corrected down to a precision level of 0.02 pix (1mas), which allows now for improvement of the alignment and registration of the ACS/WFC images with accuracy of ˜0.05 pix (2.5mas) or better.

  2. Chronic intermittent mechanical stress increases MUC5AC protein expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Ah; Tschumperlin, Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Increased abundance of mucin secretory cells is a characteristic feature of the epithelium in asthma and other chronic airway diseases. We showed previously that the mechanical stresses of airway constriction, both in the intact mouse lung and a cell culture model, activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known modulator of mucin expression in airway epithelial cells. Here we tested whether chronic, intermittent, short-duration compressive stress (30 cm H(2)O) is sufficient to increase the abundance of MUC5AC-positive cells and intracellular mucin levels in human bronchial epithelial cells cultured at an air-liquid interface. Compressive stress applied for 1 hour per day for 14 days significantly increased the percentage of cells staining positively for MUC5AC protein (22.0 +/- 3.8%, mean +/- SD) relative to unstimulated controls (8.6 +/- 2.6%), and similarly changed intracellular MUC5AC protein levels measured by Western and slot blotting. The effect of compressive stress was gradual, with significant changes in MUC5AC-positive cell numbers evident by Day 7, but required as little as 10 minutes of compressive stress daily. Daily treatment of cells with an EGFR kinase inhibitor (AG1478, 1 muM) significantly but incompletely attenuated the response to compressive stress. Complete attenuation could be accomplished by simultaneous treatment with the combination of AG1478 and a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(2) (1 microg/ml)-neutralizing antibody, or with anti-TGF-beta(2) alone. Our findings demonstrate that short duration episodes of mechanical stress, representative of those occurring during bronchoconstriction, are sufficient to increase goblet cell number and MUC5AC protein expression in bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. We propose that the mechanical environment present in asthma may fundamentally bias the composition of airway epithelial lining in favor of mucin secretory cells. PMID:19168703

  3. Expression characteristics of CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3, three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under carbon dioxide stress.

    PubMed

    Mathooko, F M; Mwaniki, M W; Nakatsuka, A; Shiomi, S; Kubo, Y; Inaba, A; Nakamura, R

    1999-02-01

    We investigated the expression pattern of three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes, CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under CO2 stress. CO2 stress-induced ethylene production paralleled the accumulation of only CS-ACS1 transcripts which disappeared upon withdrawal of CO2. Cycloheximide inhibited the CO2 stress-induced ethylene production but superinduced the accumulation of CS-ACS1 transcript. At higher concentrations, cycloheximide also induced the accumulation of CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 transcripts. In the presence of CO2 and cycloheximide, the accumulation of CS-ACS2 transcript occurred within 1 h, disappeared after 3 h and increased greatly upon withdrawal of CO2. Inhibitors of protein kinase and types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases which inhibited and stimulated, respectively, CO2 stress-induced ethylene production had little effect on the expression of these genes. The results presented here identify CS-ACS1 as the main ACC synthase gene responsible for the increased ethylene biosynthesis in cucumber fruit under CO2 stress and suggest that this gene is a primary response gene and its expression is under negative control since it is expressed by treatment with cycloheximide. The results further suggest that the regulation of CO2 stress-induced ethylene biosynthesis by reversible protein phosphorylation does not result from enhanced ACC synthase transcription. PMID:10202812

  4. A new hobo, Ac, Tam3 transposable element, hopper, from Bactrocera dorsalis is distantly related to hobo and Ac

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new transposable element from the hobo, Ac, TamJ transposon family was isolated as a genomic clone from the oriental fruit fly, BactrOCi!ro dorsalis. It is approximately 3.1 kb in length with 19-bp inverted terminal repeat sequences having a single mismatch.Though sharing several amino acid sequen...

  5. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chao; Li Zhaofei Wu Wenbi; Li Lingling; Yuan Meijin; Pan Lijing; Yang Kai Pang Yi

    2008-12-05

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc{sup ac53KO-PH-GFP}) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc{sup ac53KO-PH-GFP} could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production.

  6. Hysteresis of sextupole and ac loss in Energy Doubler dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, K.

    1982-06-18

    A simple model gave utilized for calculation of magnetization effects on ac loss and sextupole for Energy Doubler dipole magnets. The calculation in the simple model gave an underestimation of ac loss by about 30%. Results of computation on ac harmonics were also described.

  7. AC Losses in the MICE Channel Magnets -- Is This a Curse or aBlessing?

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Wu, H.; Wang, L.; Kai, L.L.; Jia, L.X.; Yang, S.Q.

    2008-01-31

    This report discusses the AC losses in the MICE channelmagnets during magnet charging and discharging. This report talks aboutthe three types of AC losses in the MICE magnets; the hysteretic AC lossin the superconductor, the coupling AC loss in the superconductor and theeddy current AC loss in the magnet mandrel and support structure. AClosses increase the heat load at 4 K. The added heat load increases thetemperature of the second stage of the cooler. In addition, AC losscontributes to the temperature rise between the second stage cold headand the high field point of the magnet, which is usually close to themagnet hot spot. These are the curses of AC loss in the MICE magnet thatcan limit the rate at which the magnet can be charge or discharged. Ifone is willing to allow some of the helium that is around the magnet toboil away during a magnet charge or discharge, AC losses can become ablessing. The boil off helium from the AC losses can be used to cool theupper end of the HTS leads and the surrounding shield. The AC losses arepresented for all three types of MICE magnets. The AC loss temperaturedrops within the coupling magnet are presented as an example of how boththe curse and blessing of the AC losses can be combined.

  8. 21 CFR 880.5100 - AC-powered adjustable hospital bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. 880.5100... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5100 AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. An AC-powered... electric motor and remote controls that can be operated by the patient to adjust the height and...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5100 - AC-powered adjustable hospital bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. 880.5100... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5100 AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. An AC-powered... electric motor and remote controls that can be operated by the patient to adjust the height and...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5100 - AC-powered adjustable hospital bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. 880.5100... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5100 AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. An AC-powered... electric motor and remote controls that can be operated by the patient to adjust the height and...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5100 - AC-powered adjustable hospital bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. 880.5100... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5100 AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. An AC-powered... electric motor and remote controls that can be operated by the patient to adjust the height and...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6320 - AC-powered medical examination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered medical examination light. 880.6320 Section 880.6320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6320 AC-powered medical examination light. (a) Identification. An AC-powered...

  13. 21 CFR 880.6320 - AC-powered medical examination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered medical examination light. 880.6320 Section 880.6320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6320 AC-powered medical examination light. (a) Identification. An AC-powered...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6320 - AC-powered medical examination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered medical examination light. 880.6320 Section 880.6320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6320 AC-powered medical examination light. (a) Identification. An AC-powered...

  15. Characterization of an Ac transposon system based on apt1-m1 (Ac) on the long arm of maize chromosome 9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Pengfei; Tang, Yuanping; Fan, Jun; Xu, Dabin; Guo, Shengming; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2012-09-01

    Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable elements have been used in maize insertional mutagenesis as a complement to Mutator (Mu). In this study, to further improve the efficiency of the Ac/Ds mutagenesis system, we adopted apt1-m1 (Ac) on the long arm of chromosome 9 (9L) as a donor Ac to create an Ac insertion library. This system is based on the negative selection pressure against the donor Ac, and it was highly efficient for isolating new transposition events. We obtained 9,625 transposition events from 1083 F1 ears with an average transposition rate of 8.66 % (rates ranged from 1.11 to 29.73 %). We also adopted a modified PCR-based genome walking strategy to improve the efficiency of the new method for isolating transposon-flanking sequences. This method is more efficient than the Southern-based method that was used in previous studies. A validation step was developed to distinguish transposon tags derived from newly transposed Ac or Ds elements. Using this PCR-based method, we isolated 67 inheritable flanking sequences from the apt1-m1 (Ac) transposition library; of these, 51 were confirmed as tr-Ac-flanking sequences and 11 were tr-Ds-flanking sequences. Similar to other Ac donors from different loci, the apt1-m1 (Ac) system also exhibited a preference for short distance transposition. In this study, we have further improved the Ac mutagenesis system in maize for gene isolation and functional genomics studies. PMID:23054225

  16. Rapid characterization of the biomechanical properties of drug-treated cells in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Chu, Henry K.; Zhang, Yang; Bai, Guohua; Wang, Kaiqun; Tan, Qiulin; Sun, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Cell mechanics is closely related to many cell functions. Recent studies have suggested that the deformability of cells can be an effective biomarker to indicate the onset and progression of diseases. In this paper, a microfluidic chip is designed for rapid characterization of the mechanics of drug-treated cells through stretching with dielectrophoresis (DEP) force. This chip was fabricated using PDMS and micro-electrodes were integrated and patterned on the ITO layer of the chip. Leukemia NB4 cells were considered and the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) drug on NB4 cells were examined via the microfluidic chip. To induce a DEP force onto the cell, a relatively weak ac voltage was utilized to immobilize a cell at one side of the electrodes. The applied voltage was then increased to 3.5 V pp and the cell started to be stretched along the applied electric field lines. The elongation of the cell was observed using an optical microscope and the results showed that both types of cells were deformed by the induced DEP force. The strain of the NB4 cell without the drug treatment was recorded to be about 0.08 (time t = 180 s) and the drug-treated NB4 cell was about 0.21 (time t = 180 s), indicating a decrease in the stiffness after drug treatment. The elastic modulus of the cell was also evaluated and the modulus changed from 140 Pa to 41 Pa after drug treatment. This microfluidic chip can provide a simple and rapid platform for measuring the change in the biomechanical properties of cells and can potentially be used as the tool to determine the biomechanical effects of different drug treatments for drug discovery and development applications.

  17. Dielectrophoretic manipulation of particle mixtures employing asymmetric insulating posts.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Espinosa, Mario A; LaLonde, Alexandra; Gencoglu, Aytug; Romero-Creel, Maria F; Dolas, Jay R; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2016-01-01

    A novel scheme for particle separation with insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) was developed. This technique offers the capability for an inverted order in particle elution, where larger particles leave the system before smaller particles. Asymmetrically shaped insulating posts, coupled with direct current (DC) biased low-frequency alternating current (AC) electric potentials, were used to successfully separate a mixture of 500 nm and 1 μm polystyrene particles (size difference of 0.5 μm in diameter). In this separation, the 1 μm particles were eluted first, demonstrating the discriminatory potential of this methodology. To extend this technique to biological samples, a mixture containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (6.3 μm) and 2 μm polystyrene particles was also separated, with the cells being eluted first. The asymmetric posts featured a shorter sharp half and a longer blunt half; this produced an asymmetry in the forces exerted on the particles. The negative DC offset produced a net displacement of the smaller particles toward the upstream direction, while the post asymmetry produced a net displacement of the larger particles toward the downstream direction. This new iDEP approach provides a setup where larger particles are quickly concentrated at the outlet of the post array and can be released first when in a mixture with smaller particles. This new scheme offers an extra set of parameters (alternating current amplitude, DC offset, post asymmetry, and shape) that can be manipulated to obtain a desired separation. This asymmetric post iDEP technique has potential for separations where it is important to quickly elute and enrich larger and more fragile cells in biological samples. PMID:26497819

  18. Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and toxicological response of Cyperus alternifolius exposed to PhACs in microcosm constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Feng, Guozhong; Gao, Xu; Sun, Chengxiao; Guo, Jin-song; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of selected four pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, and roxithromycin) on the photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of Cyperus alternifolius in constructed wetlands (CWs). Moreover, the removal and kinetics of PhACs in CWs were evaluated to explore the related removal mechanisms. Results showed that C. alternifolius can uptake and withstand certain PhACs. The PhAC tolerance of C. alternifolius might be attributed to their capacity to maintain relatively normal photosynthetic activity and elevated antioxidative defense. CWs offered comparable or even higher removal efficiencies for the selected PhACs compared with conventional WWTPs. The removal of the target PhACs was enhanced in the planted CWs versus the unplanted CWs mostly because of plant uptake and rhizosphere effects. In particular, carbamazepine, which is considered the most recalcitrant of the PhACs, was significantly reduced (p<0.05). The removal of target PhACs fitted into two distinct periods. The initial fast step (within the first 2 h) was essentially attributed to the adsorption onto the CW medium surface. The subsequent slow process (2-12 h) closely followed first-order kinetics probably because of the interaction between microorganisms and plants. The obtained results indicate that C. alternifolius can phytoremediate PhAC-contaminated waters in CWs. PMID:26465971

  19. On the possibility of reduction of Ac{sup 3+} to Ac{sup 2+} in Aqueous-ethanolic solutions of bivalent samarium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Veleshko, I.E.; Kamenskaya, A.N.

    1995-07-01

    In view of contradictory data on the existence of Ac{sup 2+} in aqueous solutions, the possibility of actinium reduction was examined in aqueous-ethanolic solutions in which bivalent f-elements are more stable than in aqueous media. In the presence of bivalent samarium (E{sub Sm}{sup 0}3+/Sm 2+=-1.5 V) Ac(III) is not reduced to Ac(II). These results disagree with the previously published data on the radiopolarographic generation of Ac(II) in aqueous solutions.

  20. QPSK modulation for AC-power-signal-biased visible light communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Feng; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    With the integration of light emitting diode (LED), visible light communication (VLC) can provide wireless communication link using the lightning system. Due to the consideration of power efficiency, AC-LED has the design of reducing energy waste with alternating current from the power outlet. In this work, we propose an AC-power-signalbiased system that provides communication on both DC-LED and AC-LED. The bias circuit is designed to combine ACpower signal and the message signal with QPSK format. This driving scheme needs no AC-to-DC converters and it is suitable for driving AC LED. Synchronization is completed to avoid threshold effect of LED.