Science.gov

Sample records for ac electrical resistivity

  1. Electrical resistivity and AC-calorimetric measurements of PrRu 4P 12 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, A.; Holmes, A. T.; Kagayama, T.; Shimizu, K.; Sekine, C.; Shirotani, I.; Kikuchi, D.; Sugawara, H.; Sato, H.

    2008-04-01

    We have studied the effect of pressure in the filled skutterudite PrRu 4P 12, which shows a metal-insulator (MI) transition at TMI=63 K, via simultaneous measurements of electrical resistivity ( ρ) and AC-calorimetry ( CAC). Schottky-like anomalies in CAC disappear under pressure, suggesting a change of the ground state. The resistivity below TMI is strongly suppressed with increasing pressure, in contrast to the weak pressure dependence of TMI. Above 10 GPa, ρ(T) shows metallic behavior with small anomalies at TMI. We discuss the likely change of ground state in PrRu 4P 12 with pressure from triplet to singlet.

  2. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  3. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  4. Module Twelve: Series AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers series circuits which contain both resistive and reactive components and methods of solving these circuits for current, voltage, impedance, and phase angle. The module is divided into six lessons: voltage and impedance in AC (alternating current) series circuits, vector computations, rectangular and polar notation, variational…

  5. ac-resistance-measuring instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.J.

    1981-04-22

    An auto-ranging ac resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an ac excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance.

  6. Electrical Effect in Silver-Point Realization Due to Cell Structure and Bias Voltage Based on Resistance Measurement Using AC and DC Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Harada, K.; Yamazawa, K.; Tamba, J.; Arai, M.

    2015-08-01

    Electrical effects related to insulating leakage represent one of the major factors contributing to uncertainties in measurements using high-temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs), especially during the realization of the silver freezing point (). This work is focused on the evaluation of the differences in resistance measurements observed when using AC resistance bridges and DC resistance bridges, hereafter, termed the AC-DC differences, as the result of various electrical effects. The magnitude of the AC-DC difference in several silver-point cells is demonstrated with several HTSPRTs. The effect of the cell structure on the AC-DC difference is evaluated by exchanging some components, part by part, within a silver-point cell. Then, the effect of the bias voltage applied to the heat pipe within the silver-point furnace is evaluated. Through the analysis of the experimental results and comparison with the reports in the literature, the importance of evaluating the AC-DC difference as a means to characterize the underlying electrical effects is discussed, considering that applying a negative bias condition to the furnace with respect to the high-temperature SPRT can minimize the AC-DC difference. Concluding recommendations are proposed on the components used in silver-point cells and the application of a bias voltage to the measurement circuit to minimize the effects of the electrical leakage.

  7. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn about parallel RL (resistive-inductance), RC (resistive-capacitive), and RCL (resistive-capacitive-inductance) circuits and the conditions that exist at resonance. The module is divided into six lessons: solving for quantities in RL parallel circuits; variational analysis of RL parallel circuits; parallel RC…

  8. Successive superconducting transitions in Ta2S2C studied by electrical resistivity and nonlinear ac magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masatsugu; Suzuki, Itsuko S.; Noji, Takashi; Koike, Yoji; Walter, Jürgen

    2007-05-01

    Ta2S2C compound undergoes superconducting transitions at Tcl=3.60±0.02K and Tcu=9.0±0.2K . The nature of successive superconducting transitions has been studied from electrical resistivity and linear and nonlinear ac magnetic susceptibilities. The resistivity ρ at H=0 shows a local maximum near Tcu , a kinklike behavior around Tcl , and reduces to zero at below T0=2.1K . The lnT dependence of ρ is observed at H=50kOe at low temperatures, which is due to a two-dimensional weak-localization effect. Below Tcu , a two-dimensional superconducting phase occurs in each TaC layer. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities χ1″ , χ3' , χ5' , and χ7' as well as the difference δχ (=χFC-χZFC) between the field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) susceptibilities start to appear below 6.0K , the onset temperature of irreversibility. A drastic growth of the in-plane superconducting coherence length below 6.0K gives rise to a three-dimensional superconducting phase below Tcl through interplanar Josephson couplings between adjacent TaC layers. The oscillatory behavior of χ3″ , χ5″ , and χ7″ below Tcl is related to the nonlinear behavior arising from the thermally activated flux flow.

  9. Channel model for AC electric arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, H. L.

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the results from calculations of free-burning AC electric arcs in argon. In order to calculate the arc current and arc voltage, the external electric circuit must be taken into consideration. The external circuit is modeled by an equivalent circuit consisting of an ideal AC voltage source, a loss resistance, and an inductance. The qualitative behavior of the current-voltage characteristic is in agreement with observed characteristics, but experimental data are necessary in order to check whether the calculated power loss is reasonable. Non-symmetry was modeled by introducing different anode and cathode falls in the two half periods. An attempt at taking into account different cathode current densities in the two half periods, depending on whether the electrode or silicon melt is cathode, did not give satisfactory results. Thermionic emission was assumed in both half periods, but this may not be the right mechanism when the silicon melt is cathode. The time delay of the AC arc compared to the DC case is modeled by a time constant. It was shown that this preset time constant must be in agreement with the mean 'mechanical' relaxation time in the arc in order to fulfill the energy balance. By updating the time constant until this is achieved, the time constant is eliminated as a parameter that must be chosen a priori.

  10. Obtaining DC and AC isothermal electrical characteristics for RF MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, A. K.; Fregonese, S.; Scheer, P.; Celi, D.; Juge, A.; Zimmer, T.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a new and simple approach to obtain isothermal electrical characteristics of metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET) from conventional non-isothermal measurements. DC and continuous wave (CW) S-parameter measurements are performed at different chuck temperatures (Tchuck). Knowing the thermal resistance (RTH) of the device the variation of DC and AC characteristic due to self-heating can be de-embedded and all the isothermal DC data and AC data above isothermal frequency can be determined. The method is validated by comparing the results with pulsed DC and pulsed RF measurements and found to be in good agreements.

  11. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Twelve: Series AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on series alternating current resistive-reactive circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…

  12. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on parallel alternating current resistive-reaction circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian…

  13. AC electrical properties of FeIn2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niftiev, N. N.; Tagiev, O. B.; Muradov, M. B.; Mamedov, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    The frequency and temperature dependences of the ac capacitance and resistivity of FeIn2S4 semiconductors are studied. Resonances are observed at certain temperatures in the frequency range (2.5-5.0) × 105 Hz. The permittivity of the crystals and the activation energy of charge carriers are determined. It is found that electrical conduction in the given temperature interval is governed by an activation mechanism. The activation energy is frequency-dependent, because the relaxation time of barrier layers decreases with rising frequency.

  14. Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

  15. Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical method originally developed within the mining industry where it has been used for decades to explore for and characterize subsurface mineral deposits. It is one of the oldest geophysical methods with the first documented usag...

  16. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  17. Analyses of temperature-dependent interface states, series resistances, and AC electrical conductivities of Al/p—Si and Al/Bi4Ti3O12/p—Si structures by using the admittance spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Yıldırım; Perihan, Durmuş; Şemsettin, Altındal

    2013-10-01

    In this study, Al/p—Si and Al/Bi4Ti3O12/p—Si structures are fabricated and their interface states (Nss), the values of series resistance (Rs), and AC electrical conductivity (σac) are obtained each as a function of temperature using admittance spectroscopy method which includes capacitance—voltage (C—V) and conductance—voltage (G—V) measurements. In addition, the effect of interfacial Bi4Ti3O12 (BTO) layer on the performance of the structure is investigated. The voltage-dependent profiles of Nss and Rs are obtained from the high-low frequency capacitance method and the Nicollian method, respectively. Experimental results show that Nss and Rs, as strong functions of temperature and applied bias voltage, each exhibit a peak, whose position shifts towards the reverse bias region, in the depletion region. Such a peak behavior is attributed to the particular distribution of Nss and the reordering and restructuring of Nss under the effect of temperature. The values of activation energy (Ea), obtained from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, of both structures are obtained to be bias voltage-independent, and the Ea of the metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure is found to be half that of the metal—semiconductor (MS) structure. Furthermore, other main electrical parameters, such as carrier concentration of acceptor atoms (NA), built-in potential (Vbi), Fermi energy (EF), image force barrier lowering (Δ Φb), and barrier height (Φb), are extracted using reverse bias C-2—V characteristics as a function of temperature.

  18. A study of some features of ac and dc electric power systems for a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanania, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    This study analyzes certain selected topics in rival dc and high frequency ac electric power systems for a Space Station. The interaction between the Space Station and the plasma environment is analyzed, leading to a limit on the voltage for the solar array and a potential problem with resonance coupling at high frequencies. Certain problems are pointed out in the concept of a rotary transformer, and further development work is indicated in connection with dc circuit switching, special design of a transmission conductor for the ac system, and electric motors. The question of electric shock hazards, particularly at high frequency, is also explored. and a problem with reduced skin resistance and therefore increased hazard with high frequency ac is pointed out. The study concludes with a comparison of the main advantages and disadvantages of the two rival systems, and it is suggested that the choice between the two should be made after further studies and development work are completed.

  19. AC-electric field dependent electroformation of giant lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Politano, Timothy J; Froude, Victoria E; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi

    2010-08-01

    Giant vesicles of larger than 5 microm, which have been of intense interest for their potential as drug delivery vehicles and as a model system for cell membranes, can be rapidly formed from a spin-coated lipid thin film under an electric field. In this work, we explore the AC-field dependent electroformation of giant lipid vesicles in aqueous media over a wide range of AC-frequency from 1 Hz to 1 MHz and peak-to-peak field strength from 0.212 V/mm to 40 V/mm between two parallel conducting electrode surfaces. By using fluorescence microscopy, we perform in-situ microscopic observations of the structural evolution of giant vesicles formed from spin-coated lipid films under varied uniform AC-electric fields. The real-time observation of bilayer bulging from the lipid film, vesicle growth and fusing further examine the critical role of AC-induced electroosmotic flow of surrounding fluids for giant vesicle formation. A rich AC-frequency and field strength phase diagram is obtained experimentally to predict the AC-electroformation of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) of l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine, where a weak dependence of vesicle size on AC-frequency is observed at low AC-field voltages, showing decreased vesicle size with a narrowed size distribution with increased AC-frequency. Formation of vesicles was shown to be constrained by an upper field strength of 10 V/mm and an upper AC-frequency of 10 kHz. Within these parameters, giant lipid vesicles were formed predominantly unilamellar and prevalent across the entire electrode surfaces.

  20. Trapping of Rb Atoms by ac Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Schlunk, Sophie; Marian, Adela; Geng, Peter; Meijer, Gerard; Schoellkopf, Wieland; Mosk, Allard P.

    2007-06-01

    We demonstrate trapping of an ultracold gas of neutral atoms in a macroscopic ac electric trap. Three-dimensional confinement is obtained by switching between two saddle-point configurations of the electric field. Stable trapping is observed in a narrow range of switching frequencies around 60 Hz. The dynamic confinement of the atoms is directly visualized at different phases of the ac switching cycle. We observe about 10{sup 5} Rb atoms in the 1 mm{sup 3} large and several microkelvins deep trap with a lifetime of approximately 5 s.

  1. Cascading failures in ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Rohden, Martin; Jung, Daniel; Tamrakar, Samyak; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Sudden failure of a single transmission element in a power grid can induce a domino effect of cascading failures, which can lead to the isolation of a large number of consumers or even to the failure of the entire grid. Here we present results of the simulation of cascading failures in power grids, using an alternating current (AC) model. We first apply this model to a regular square grid topology. For a random placement of consumers and generators on the grid, the probability to find more than a certain number of unsupplied consumers decays as a power law and obeys a scaling law with respect to system size. Varying the transmitted power threshold above which a transmission line fails does not seem to change the power-law exponent q≈1.6. Furthermore, we study the influence of the placement of generators and consumers on the number of affected consumers and demonstrate that large clusters of generators and consumers are especially vulnerable to cascading failures. As a real-world topology, we consider the German high-voltage transmission grid. Applying the dynamic AC model and considering a random placement of consumers, we find that the probability to disconnect more than a certain number of consumers depends strongly on the threshold. For large thresholds the decay is clearly exponential, while for small ones the decay is slow, indicating a power-law decay.

  2. Cascading failures in ac electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohden, Martin; Jung, Daniel; Tamrakar, Samyak; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Sudden failure of a single transmission element in a power grid can induce a domino effect of cascading failures, which can lead to the isolation of a large number of consumers or even to the failure of the entire grid. Here we present results of the simulation of cascading failures in power grids, using an alternating current (AC) model. We first apply this model to a regular square grid topology. For a random placement of consumers and generators on the grid, the probability to find more than a certain number of unsupplied consumers decays as a power law and obeys a scaling law with respect to system size. Varying the transmitted power threshold above which a transmission line fails does not seem to change the power-law exponent q ≈1.6 . Furthermore, we study the influence of the placement of generators and consumers on the number of affected consumers and demonstrate that large clusters of generators and consumers are especially vulnerable to cascading failures. As a real-world topology, we consider the German high-voltage transmission grid. Applying the dynamic AC model and considering a random placement of consumers, we find that the probability to disconnect more than a certain number of consumers depends strongly on the threshold. For large thresholds the decay is clearly exponential, while for small ones the decay is slow, indicating a power-law decay.

  3. Electrical Resistivity Measurements: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yadunath

    World-wide interest on the use of ceramic materials for aerospace and other advanced engineering applications, has led to the need for inspection techniques capable of detecting unusually electrical and thermal anomalies in these compounds. Modern ceramic materials offer many attractive physical, electrical and mechanical properties for a wide and rapidly growing range of industrial applications; moreover specific use may be made of their electrical resistance, chemical resistance, and thermal barrier properties. In this review, we report the development and various techniques for the resistivity measurement of solid kind of samples.

  4. Assessment of US electric vehicle programs with ac powertrains

    SciTech Connect

    Kevala, R.J. . Transportation Consulting Div.)

    1990-02-01

    AC powertrain technology is a promising approach to improving the performance of electric vehicles. Four major programs are now under way in the United States to develop ac powertrains: the Ford/General Electric single-shaft electric propulsion system (ETX-II), the Eaton dual-shaft electric propulsion system (DSEP), the Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) integrated ac motor drive and recharge system, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) variable reluctance motor (VRM) drive. The JPL program is sponsored by EPRI; the other three programs are funded by the US Department of Energy. This preliminary assessment of the four powertrain programs focuses on potential performance, costs, safety, and commercial feasibility. Interviews with program personnel were supplemented by computer simulations of electric vehicle performance using the four systems. Each of the four powertrains appears superior to standard dc powertrain technology in terms of performance and weight. The powertrain technologies studied in this assessment are at varying degrees of technological maturity. One or more of the systems may be ready for incorporation into an advanced electric vehicle during the early 1990s. Each individual report will have a separate abstract. 5 refs., 37 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Performance testing of the AC propulsion ELX electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1994-06-01

    Performance testing of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle is described. Test data are presented and analyzed. The ELX vehicle is the first of a series of electric vehicles of interest to the California Air Resources Board. The test series is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of energy and the California Air Resources Board. The tests which were conducted showed that the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle has exceptional acceleration and range performance. when the vehicle`s battery was fully charged, the vehicle can accelerate from 0 to 96 km/h in about 10 seconds. Energy consumption and range tests using consecutive FUDS and HWFET Driving cycles (the all-electric cycle) indicate that the energy economy of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle with regenerative braking is 97 W{center_dot}h/km, with a range of 153 km (95 miles). Computer simulations performed using the SIMPLEV Program indicate that the vehicle would have a range of 327 km (203 miles) on the all-electric cycle if the lead acid batteries were replaced with NiMH batteries having an energy density of 67 W{center_dot}h/kg. Comparisons of FUDS test data with and without regenerative braking indicated that regenerative braking reduced the energy consumption of the ELX vehicle by approximately 25%.

  6. Electric-Field Instrument With Ac-Biased Corona Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markson, R.; Anderson, B.; Govaert, J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements indicative of incipient lightning yield additional information. New instrument gives reliable readings. High-voltage ac bias applied to needle point through high-resistance capacitance network provides corona discharge at all times, enabling more-slowly-varying component of electrostatic potential of needle to come to equilibrium with surrounding air. High resistance of high-voltage coupling makes instrument insensitive to wind. Improved corona-point instrument expected to yield additional information assisting in safety-oriented forecasting of lighting.

  7. The ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1981-01-01

    A functional prototype of an electric vehicle ac propulsion system was built consisting of a 18.65 kW rated ac induction traction motor, pulse width modulated (PWM) transistorized inverter, two speed mechanically shifted automatic transmission, and an overall drive/vehicle controller. Design developmental steps, and test results of individual components and the complex system on an instrumented test frame are described. Computer models were developed for the inverter, motor and a representative vehicle. A preliminary reliability model and failure modes effects analysis are given.

  8. Electrically Variable Resistive Memory Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Shangqing; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex; Charlson, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonvolatile electronic memory devices that store data in the form of electrical- resistance values, and memory circuits based on such devices, have been invented. These devices and circuits exploit an electrically-variable-resistance phenomenon that occurs in thin films of certain oxides that exhibit the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) effect. It is worth emphasizing that, as stated in the immediately preceding article, these devices function at room temperature and do not depend on externally applied magnetic fields. A device of this type is basically a thin film resistor: it consists of a thin film of a CMR material located between, and in contact with, two electrical conductors. The application of a short-duration, low-voltage current pulse via the terminals changes the electrical resistance of the film. The amount of the change in resistance depends on the size of the pulse. The direction of change (increase or decrease of resistance) depends on the polarity of the pulse. Hence, a datum can be written (or a prior datum overwritten) in the memory device by applying a pulse of size and polarity tailored to set the resistance at a value that represents a specific numerical value. To read the datum, one applies a smaller pulse - one that is large enough to enable accurate measurement of resistance, but small enough so as not to change the resistance. In writing, the resistance can be set to any value within the dynamic range of the CMR film. Typically, the value would be one of several discrete resistance values that represent logic levels or digits. Because the number of levels can exceed 2, a memory device of this type is not limited to binary data. Like other memory devices, devices of this type can be incorporated into a memory integrated circuit by laying them out on a substrate in rows and columns, along with row and column conductors for electrically addressing them individually or collectively.

  9. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  10. An MRI-Compatible High Frequency AC Resistive Heating System for Homeothermic Maintenance in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ana L.; Kinchesh, Paul; Kersemans, Veerle; Allen, Philip D.; Smart, Sean C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop an MRI-compatible resistive heater, using high frequency alternating current (AC), for temperature maintenance of anaesthetised animals. Materials and Methods An MRI-compatible resistive electrical heater was formed from narrow gauge wire connected to a high frequency (10–100 kHz) AC power source. Multiple gradient echo images covering a range of echo times, and pulse-acquire spectra were acquired with the wire heater powered using high frequency AC or DC power sources and without any current flowing in order to assess the sensitivity of the MRI acquisitions to the presence of current flow through the heater wire. The efficacy of temperature maintenance using the AC heater was assessed by measuring rectal temperature immediately following induction of general anaesthesia for a period of 30 minutes in three different mice. Results Images and spectra acquired in the presence and absence of 50–100 kHz AC through the wire heater were indistinguishable, whereas DC power created field shifts and lineshape distortions. Temperature lost during induction of anaesthesia was recovered within approximately 20 minutes and a stable temperature was reached as the mouse’s temperature approached the set target. Conclusion The AC-powered wire heater maintains adequate heat input to the animal to maintain body temperature, and does not compromise image quality. PMID:27806062

  11. Electrical Resistivity of Alkali Elements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    rubidium, cesium, and francium ) and contains recommended reference values (or provisional or typical values). The compiled data include all the...and information on the electrical resistivity of alkali elements (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium ) and contains...107Ic. Magnetic Flux Density Dependence o.. .. ... .... 112 4.6. Francium ..........................115j a. Temperature Dependence

  12. Electrical resistivity of composite superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.; Lee, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to its superconducting properties, a superconductor is usually characterized by poor thermal conductivity and relatively high electrical resistivity in the normal state. To remedy this situation a study of superconducting properties of Cu-rich CU-Nb wires prepared by directionally solidified and cold-rolled technique was conducted. Some of the specimens were prepared by melting, directional solidification and diffusing in Tin. A total of 12 wire specimens was tested. Each specimen was analyzed by plotting experimental data into the following curves: the graph of the residual resistivity as a function of the specimen current at 4.3 K; and the graph of the electrical resistivity as a function of the temperature at a constant current.

  13. Measurement of AC electrical characteristics of SSC superconducting dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley, K M; Shafer, R E

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the AC electrical characteristics of SSC superconducting dipole magnets over the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz. A magnet equivalent circuit representing the magnet DC inductance, eddy current losses, coil-to-ground and turn-to-turn capacitance, was synthesized from the experimental data. This magnet equivalent circuit can be used to predict the current ripple distribution along the superconducting magnet string and can provide dynamic information for the design of the collider current regulation loop.

  14. A PWM transistor inverter for an ac electric vehicle drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype system consisting of closely integrated motor, inverter, and transaxle has been built in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a three-phase ac transistorized inverter for electric vehicle applications. The microprocessor-controlled inverter employs monolithic power transistors to drive an oil-cooled, three-phase induction traction motor at a peak output power of 30 kW from a 144 V battery pack. Transistor safe switching requirements are discussed, and a circuit is presented for recovering trapped snubber inductor energy at transistor turn-off.

  15. Electrical contact resistance in filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Fa; Zhou, Zhengping; Zhou, Wang-Min

    2012-05-01

    Electrical contact resistance (ECR) influences the electrochemical performance of porous electrodes made of stacked discrete materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, etc.) for use in supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries. This study establishes a simple elasticity-conductivity model for the ECR of filaments in adhesive contact. The elastic deformation and size of electrical contact zone of the filaments are determined by using an adhesive contact model of filaments, and the ECR of adhesive filaments is obtained in explicit form. Dependencies of the ECR upon the filament geometries, surface energy, and elasticity are examined.

  16. Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Willén, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and more underground transmission and distribution will be put up. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables provides solutions to many of the future grid problems caused by these trends. In this paper we present an electrical model of a balanced 6 km-long three phase triaxial HTS power cable for the Dutch project being developed by a consortium of Alliander, Ultera™ and TUD. The cable currents in all three phases are balanced by selecting proper twist pitches and insulation thickness. The paper focuses on determining inductances, capacitances and AC losses of the balanced cable. Using the developed model, we also determine the voltage drop as function of the cable length, the neutral current and the effect of the imbalanced capacitances on the current distribution of the Dutch distribution cable. The model is validated and it can be used for accurate simulation of the electrical behaviour of triaxial HTS cables in electrical grids.

  17. Long-range response in ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013)EPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology-for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions-a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014)1951-635510.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found.

  18. Long-range response in ac electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013), 10.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology—for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions—a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014), 10.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found.

  19. Electrical resistivity survey in eastern Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.

    2010-12-01

    Electrical resistivity survey was conducted to acquire basic geological layer information for regional hydrogeologic application by our own developed system in eastern Jeju island. The system mainly consists of a stand-alone TX(transmitter) module, of which the excitation current into the earth has been increased very much using a portable AC generator instead of batteries, a digital stacking RX(receiver), and a pair of programmable synchronization clock modules to achieve the initial synchronization between TX and RX. The waveform of the excitation current into the earth at transmitter side is double bipolar, and the power is 1000V-1A or 800V-5A with a portable AC generator. At the receiver part controlled through a notebook PC's serial port, the operator can observe the exact waveform and the averaged value with 24-bit A/D resolution and gain 1-10-100. The small portable synchronization clocks, operated by 12V/2A sealed battery, provides the precise basic measurement cycles and initial triggering. The control and measurement software which acquires the earth resistivity data was developed user-interactively. The system was field-tested in eastern part of Jeju Island with dipole spacing a=300m and 600m, to n=10, and stations=43, by the array of which the exploration depth has been increased to about 2,400 m. By the developed portable system we could conduct very easy and fast field work and acquire very satisfactory data. The inversion of measured data gave us the useful information about the sub-surface resistivity structure to about 2,400 m depth along a 13km survey profile. Further study will be focused on simultaneous multi receiver data acquisition system.

  20. Particle Agglomeration in Bipolar Barb Agglomerator Under AC Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; Ma, Xiuqin; Sun, Youshan; Wang, Meiyan; Zhang, Changping; Lou, Yueya

    2015-04-01

    The development of an efficient technology for removing fine particles in flue gas is essential as the haze is becoming more and more serious. To improve agglomeration effectiveness of fine particles, a dual zone electric agglomeration device consisting of a charging chamber and an agglomeration chamber with bipolar barb electrodes was developed. The bipolar barb electric agglomerator with a polar distance of 200 mm demonstrates good agglomeration effectiveness for particles with a size less than 8.0 μm under applied AC electric field. An optimal condition for achieving better agglomeration effectiveness was found to be as follows: flue gas flow velocity of 3.00 m/s, particle concentration of 2.00 g/m3, output voltage of 35 kV and length of the barb of 16 mm. In addition, 4.0-6.0 μm particles have the best effectiveness with the variation of particle volume occupancy of -3.2. supported by the Key Technology R&D Program of Hebei, China (No. 13211207D)

  1. AC Electric Field Activated Shape Memory Polymer Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Siochi, Emilie J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory materials have drawn interest for applications like intelligent medical devices, deployable space structures and morphing structures. Compared to other shape memory materials like shape memory alloys (SMAs) or shape memory ceramics (SMCs), shape memory polymers (SMPs) have high elastic deformation that is amenable to tailored of mechanical properties, have lower density, and are easily processed. However, SMPs have low recovery stress and long response times. A new shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive fillers to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. A new composition of shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. The elastic modulus of LaRC-SMPC is approximately 2.7 GPa at room temperature and 4.3 MPa above its glass transition temperature. Conductive FGSs-doped LaRC-SMPC exhibited higher conductivity compared to pristine LaRC SMP. Applying an electric field at between 0.1 Hz and 1 kHz induced faster heating to activate the LaRC-SMPC s shape memory effect relative to applying DC electric field or AC electric field at frequencies exceeding1 kHz.

  2. Delocalization of disturbances and the stability of ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    In order to study how local disturbances affect the ac grid stability, we start from nonlinear power balance equations and map them to complex linear wave equations. Having obtained stationary solutions with phases φ_{i} at generator and consumer nodes i, we next study the dynamics of deviations. Starting with an initially localized perturbation, it is found to spread in a periodic grid diffusively throughout the grid. We find the parametric dependence of diffusion constant D. We apply the same solution strategy to general grid topologies and analyze their stability against local perturbations. The perturbation remains either localized or becomes delocalized, depending on grid topology, power capacity, and distribution of consumers and generator power P_{i}. Delocalization is found to increase the lifetime of perturbations and thereby their influence on grid stability, whereas localization results in an exponentially fast decay of perturbations at all grid sites. These results may therefore lead to new strategies to control the stability of electricity grids.

  3. Delocalization of disturbances and the stability of ac electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    In order to study how local disturbances affect the ac grid stability, we start from nonlinear power balance equations and map them to complex linear wave equations. Having obtained stationary solutions with phases φi at generator and consumer nodes i , we next study the dynamics of deviations. Starting with an initially localized perturbation, it is found to spread in a periodic grid diffusively throughout the grid. We find the parametric dependence of diffusion constant D . We apply the same solution strategy to general grid topologies and analyze their stability against local perturbations. The perturbation remains either localized or becomes delocalized, depending on grid topology, power capacity, and distribution of consumers and generator power Pi. Delocalization is found to increase the lifetime of perturbations and thereby their influence on grid stability, whereas localization results in an exponentially fast decay of perturbations at all grid sites. These results may therefore lead to new strategies to control the stability of electricity grids.

  4. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  5. AC losses in multifilamentary Bi(2223) tapes with an interfilamentary resistive carbonate barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelmann, H.; Quilitz, M.; Oomen, M.; Leghissa, M.; Goldacker, W.

    1998-12-01

    For the most common AC application frequencies, the main component of the AC losses in multifilamentary Bi(2223) tapes are caused by hysteresis- and coupling losses. These losses can be reduced enhancing the matrix resistivity and applying a twist to the filaments. We report on the AC loss properties of 37-filament tapes with AgAu (8 wt.%) matrix, and novel 19-filament tapes with SrCO 3 barriers between the filaments. We performed transport AC loss and magnetic AC loss measurements in parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields. Both kinds of tapes were also prepared with filament twists below a twist pitch of 20 mm. The influence of the different tape modifications on the AC loss behaviour is presented and compared with theoretical models to understand the effect of the resistive matrix. In the case of magnetic AC loss measurements, reduced AC losses due to decoupled filaments were observed for the twisted tapes with a resistive matrix in low parallel fields.

  6. New Resistance Mechanism in Helicoverpa armigera Threatens Transgenic Crops Expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Gunning, Robin V.; Dang, Ho T.; Kemp, Fred C.; Nicholson, Ian C.; Moores, Graham D.

    2005-01-01

    In Australia, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, has a long history of resistance to conventional insecticides. Transgenic cotton (expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac) has been grown for H. armigera control since 1996. It is demonstrated here that a population of Australian H. armigera has developed resistance to Cry1Ac toxin (275-fold). Some 70% of resistant H. armigera larvae were able to survive on Cry1Ac transgenic cotton (Ingard) The resistance phenotype is inherited as an autosomal semidominant trait. Resistance was associated with elevated esterase levels, which cosegregated with resistance. In vitro studies employing surface plasmon resonance technology and other biochemical techniques demonstrated that resistant strain esterase could bind to Cry1Ac protoxin and activated toxin. In vivo studies showed that Cry1Ac-resistant larvae fed Cy1Ac transgenic cotton or Cry1Ac-treated artificial diet had lower esterase activity than non-Cry1Ac-fed larvae. A resistance mechanism in which esterase sequesters Cry1Ac is proposed. PMID:15870346

  7. New resistance mechanism in Helicoverpa armigera threatens transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Robin V; Dang, Ho T; Kemp, Fred C; Nicholson, Ian C; Moores, Graham D

    2005-05-01

    In Australia, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, has a long history of resistance to conventional insecticides. Transgenic cotton (expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac) has been grown for H. armigera control since 1996. It is demonstrated here that a population of Australian H. armigera has developed resistance to Cry1Ac toxin (275-fold). Some 70% of resistant H. armigera larvae were able to survive on Cry1Ac transgenic cotton (Ingard) The resistance phenotype is inherited as an autosomal semidominant trait. Resistance was associated with elevated esterase levels, which cosegregated with resistance. In vitro studies employing surface plasmon resonance technology and other biochemical techniques demonstrated that resistant strain esterase could bind to Cry1Ac protoxin and activated toxin. In vivo studies showed that Cry1Ac-resistant larvae fed Cy1Ac transgenic cotton or Cry1Ac-treated artificial diet had lower esterase activity than non-Cry1Ac-fed larvae. A resistance mechanism in which esterase sequesters Cry1Ac is proposed.

  8. Concentrating membrane proteins using asymmetric traps and AC electric fields.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Matthew R; Bramble, Jonathan P; McMillan, Duncan G G; Krzeminski, Lukasz; Han, Xiaojun; Johnson, Benjamin R G; Bushby, Richard J; Olmsted, Peter D; Jeuken, Lars J C; Marritt, Sophie J; Butt, Julea N; Evans, Stephen D

    2011-05-04

    Membrane proteins are key components of the plasma membrane and are responsible for control of chemical ionic gradients, metabolite and nutrient transfer, and signal transduction between the interior of cells and the external environment. Of the genes in the human genome, 30% code for membrane proteins (Krogh et al. J. Mol. Biol.2001, 305, 567). Furthermore, many FDA-approved drugs target such proteins (Overington et al. Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 2006, 5, 993). However, the structure-function relationships of these are notably sparse because of difficulties in their purification and handling outside of their membranous environment. Methods that permit the manipulation of membrane components while they are still in the membrane would find widespread application in separation, purification, and eventual structure-function determination of these species (Poo et al. Nature 1977, 265, 602). Here we show that asymmetrically patterned supported lipid bilayers in combination with AC electric fields can lead to efficient manipulation of charged components. We demonstrate the concentration and trapping of such components through the use of a "nested trap" and show that this method is capable of yielding an approximately 30-fold increase in the average protein concentration. Upon removal of the field, the material remains trapped for several hours as a result of topographically restricted diffusion. Our results indicate that this method can be used for concentrating and trapping charged membrane components while they are still within their membranous environment. We anticipate that our approach could find widespread application in the manipulation and study of membrane proteins.

  9. Space charge and charge trapping characteristics of cross-linked polyethylene subjected to ac electric stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Y. L.; Chen, G.; Miyake, H.; Matsui, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Takada, T.

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports on the result of space charge evolution in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) planar samples approximately 220 µm thick. The space charge measurement technique used in this study is the pulsed electroacoustic method. There are two phases to this experiment. In the first phase, the samples were subjected to dc 30 kVdc mm-1 and ac (sinusoidal) electric stress levels of 30 kVpk mm-1 at frequencies of 1, 10 and 50 Hz ac. In addition, ac space charge under 30 kVrms mm-1 and 60 kVpk mm-1 electric stress at 50 Hz was also investigated. The volts-off results showed that the amount of charge trapped in XLPE sample under dc electric stress is significantly bigger than samples under ac stress even when the applied ac stresses are substantially higher. The second phase of the experiment involves studying the dc space charge evolution in samples that were tested under ac stress during the first phase of the experiment. Ac ageing causes positive charge to become more dominant over negative charge. It was also discovered that ac ageing creates deeper traps, particularly for negative charge. This paper also gives a brief overview of the data processing methods used to analyse space charge under ac electric stress.

  10. Study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms in an epoxy polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-11-01

    The AC conductivity of an epoxy resin was investigated in the frequency range 10^{-1} - 106 Hz at temperatures ranging from -100 to 120 °C. The frequency dependence of σ_{ac} was described by the law: σ_{ac}=ω \\varepsilon0\\varepsilon^''_{HN}+Aωs. The study of temperature variation of the exponent (s) reveals two conduction models: the AC conduction dependence upon temperature is governed by the small polaron tunneling mechanism (SPTM) at low temperature (-100 -60 °C) and the correlated barrier hopping (CHB) model at high temperature (80-120 °C).

  11. Power-law resistivity, magnetic relaxation and ac susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrist, J.; van der Beek, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    The nonlinear diffusion of magnetic flux into a superconducting sample can be studied by measuring the relaxation of the magnetisation after application of a step field or by measuring the ac susceptibility, {chi}{sub 1} and its third harmonic, {chi}{sub 3}, or preferably both methods covering different time scales. Each has been analysed recently for a field-cooled sample of a material whose creep activation energy depends logarithmically on current density, J corresponding to a power-law relation between electric field, E and J. Here, results are compared, using a universal scaling depth. Maximum {chi}{sub 1}{double_prime} {vert_bar}{chi}{sub 3}{vert_bar} and values occur, and also the magnetisation has relaxed to half its initial value when the scaling depth is comparable to the sample half-thickness.

  12. Droplet condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with enhanced dewetting under a tangential AC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xinzhu; Li, Jian; Li, Licheng; Huang, Zhengyong; Wang, Feipeng; Wei, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    In this Letter, the dewetting behavior of superhydrophobic condensing surfaces under a tangential AC electric field is reported. The surface coverage of condensed droplets only exhibits a negligible increase with time. The jumping frequency of droplets is enhanced. The AC electric field motivates the dynamic transition of droplets from stretch to recoil, resulting in the counterforce propelling droplet jumping. The considerable horizontal component of jumping velocity facilitates droplet departure from superhydrophobic surfaces. Both the amplitude and frequency of AC voltage are important factors for droplet departure and dewetting effect. Thereby, the tangential electric field provides a unique and easily implementable approach to enhance droplet removal from superhydrophobic condensing surfaces.

  13. Fast electric dipole transitions in Ra-Ac nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime of levels in /sup 225/Ra, /sup 225/Ac, and /sup 227/Ac have been measured by delayed coincidence techniques and these have been used to determine the E1 gamma-ray transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities in /sup 225/Ra and /sup 225/Ac are about two orders of magnitude larger than the values in mid-actinide nuclei. On the other hand, the E1 rate in /sup 227/Ac is similar to those measured in heavier actinides. Previous studies suggest the presence of octupole deformation in all the three nuclei. The present investigation indicates that fast E1 transitions occur for nuclei with octupole deformation. However, the studies also show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between E1 rate and octupole deformation. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Measuring Electrical Resistivity Of Compacted Powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Slightly modified micrometer used in conjunction with special cup to measure electrical resistance of specimen of powder as function of packing fraction. Powder pressed between anvils of micrometer, which make electrical contact with specimen. Device used in manufacturing batteries to determine effective electrical conductivities of powders loaded into plastic sheets to make battery substrates. Coupled with good mathematical description of expected conductivity of particulate composite as function of packing density. Also serves as tool for evaluating conductivity of dispersed phase, as well as evaluating electrical resistances of interparticle contacts.

  15. Sub-micrometer particles produced by a low-powered AC electric arc in liquids.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Jacek A; Fleury, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the report of the production of composites of sub-micrometer metal particles in matrix consisted of the metal compounds by means of an AC electric arc in water and paraffin solutions using electrodes carbon-metal and metal-metal (metal: Ni, Fe, Co, Cu). The advantage of this method is the low electric power (from 5 to 10 W) needed in comparison to standard DC arc-discharge methods (0.8 to 3 kW). This method enables the production of particles from conductive material also in wide range of temperature and in solvent which could be either transparent to light or opaque. Moreover the solvent can be electrolyte or insulating liquid. The microstructure of the composite layer was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray. During particles production in water metal oxides were created. Additionally using cobalt-copper, nickel-copper as couple electrodes, insoluble in water copper (II) hydroxide crystal grains were created additionally which crystals shape was depended on transition metal. For iron-copper couple electrodes system the copper (II) hydroxide was not formed. Experiments with sequence production of Ni and Fe particles with C electrode assisting in molten paraffin let to obtain both Ni and Fe particles surrounded by paraffin. After solidification the material was insulator but if locally magnetic field influenced on the liquid solution in that place after solidification a new composite was created which was electric current conductor with resistivity around 0.1 omega x m, was attracted by magnetic field and presented magneto resistance around 0.4% in changing magnetic field in a range 150 mT. After mixing the concentrated paraffin with normal paraffin resistivity of the mixture increased and it became photosensitive and created small voltage under light influence.

  16. Characterisation of a Selection of AC and DC Resistance Bridges for Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. V.; Gray, J.; Veltcheva, R. I.

    2016-11-01

    Accurate resistance bridges are used to measure the ratio between the resistance of standard platinum resistance thermometers and a reference (standard) resistor at the level of microkelvin in temperature terms and as such play a critical role in the realisation and dissemination of the ITS-90. For AC bridges, the ratio test unit has been available for some time, and for both AC and DC bridges, the increasing availability of resistance bridge calibrators based on combinatorial calibration has increased the ease with which the accuracy and linearity of resistance bridges may be determined, under conditions which provide a realistic representation of the actual measurement set-up. In this study, the performance of 14 resistance bridges, which were available for testing at NPL, consisting of a range of manufacturers and types, has been evaluated and expressed in terms of the standard deviation of the bridge errors over a given range of ratios, namely s. In general, the bridges are found to comply with the manufacturers' specifications. The uncertainty of s has also been determined using Monte Carlo techniques and is found to be of the order of 10 % of s for most bridge types.

  17. Production and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie).

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Konasale J; Rodrigo-Simón, Ana; Ferré, Juan; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Sivasupramaniam, Sakuntala; Moar, William J

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-selected Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant colonies are important tools for elucidating B. thuringiensis resistance mechanisms. However, cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, a target pest of transgenic corn and cotton expressing B. thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt corn and cotton), has proven difficult to select for stable resistance. Two populations of H. zea (AR and MR), resistant to the B. thuringiensis protein found in all commercial Bt cotton varieties (Cry1Ac), were established by selection with Cry1Ac activated toxin (AR) or MVP II (MR). Cry1Ac toxin reflects the form ingested by H. zea when feeding on Bt cotton, whereas MVP II is a Cry1Ac formulation used for resistance selection and monitoring. The resistance ratio (RR) for AR exceeded 100-fold after 11 generations and has been maintained at this level for nine generations. This is the first report of stable Cry1Ac resistance in H. zea. MR crashed after 11 generations, reaching only an RR of 12. AR was only partially cross-resistant to MVP II, suggesting that MVP II does not have the same Cry1Ac selection pressure as Cry1Ac toxin against H. zea and that proteases may be involved with resistance. AR was highly cross-resistant to Cry1Ab toxin but only slightly cross-resistant to Cry1Ab expressing corn leaf powder. AR was not cross-resistant to Cry2Aa2, Cry2Ab2-expressing corn leaf powder, Vip3A, and cypermethrin. Toxin-binding assays showed no significant differences, indicating that resistance was not linked to a reduction in binding. These results aid in understanding why this pest has not evolved B. thuringiensis resistance, and highlight the need to choose carefully the form of B. thuringiensis protein used in experiments.

  18. Variations of electric field and electric resistivity of air caused by dust motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seran, E.; Godefroy, M.; Renno, N.; Elliott, H.

    2013-08-01

    report results of a field campaign conducted in the Nevada desert with a suite of electric field instruments consisting of a field mill (FM) and a short dipole antenna (SDA). Furthermore, we show that a combination of the measurements of these two instruments allows the estimation of the electric resistivity of air, an important quantity that is extremely difficult to measure near the Earth's surface. The electric resistivity of air is found to vary between 1.5 · 1013 and 6 · 1013 Ω m and to correlate with changes in electric field. Vertical DC electric fields with amplitudes up to 6 kV m-1 were observed to correspond to clouds of dust blowing through the measurement site. Enhanced DC and AC electric fields are measured during periods when horizontal wind speed exceeds 7 m s-1, or around twice the background value. We suggest that low-frequency emissions, below ~200 Hz, are generated by the motion of electrically charged particles in the vicinity of the SDA electrode and propose a simple model to reproduce the observed spectra. According to this model, the spectral response is controlled by three parameters, (i) the speed of the charged particles, (ii) the charge concentration, and (iii) the minimum distance between the particle and the electrode. In order to explain the electric fields measured with the FM sensors at different heights, we developed a multilayer model that relates the electric field to the charge distribution. For example, a nonlinear variation of the electric field observed by the FM sensors below 50 cm is simulated by a near-surface layer of tens of centimeters that is filled with electrically charged particles that carry a predominantly negative charge in the vicinity of the soil. The charge concentration inside this layer is estimated to vary between 1012 and 5 · 1013 electrons m-3.

  19. Anisotropic electric surface resistance of Cu(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, A.; Lilie, P.; Dumas, P.; Hirschmugl, C.; Pilling, M.; Williams, Gwyn P.

    2007-08-01

    The electric surface resistance is measured without contacts by grazing incidence of p-polarized infrared (IR) radiation for the adsorbates CO and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, which settle on top of the close packed atomic ridges of Cu(110) in the <1, -1, 0> direction. Surface resistance has only been observed for the IR electric currents in this direction. This can be explained by the assumption that IR induced currents in the <001> direction can only flow in the second and deeper layers of Cu(110). Therefore, in this direction, there is no friction with the adsorbates and hence no surface resistance.

  20. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Zhang, Pinjia; Theisen, Peter J.

    2011-05-31

    A system and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor. The circuit includes at least one contactor and at least one switch to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor. The system also includes a controller connected to the circuit and configured to modify a switching time of the at least one switch to create a DC component in an output of the system corresponding to an input to the AC motor and determine a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the injected DC component of the voltage and current.

  1. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  2. Electric field in an AC dielectric barrier discharge overlapped with a nanosecond pulse discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ns discharge pulses on the AC barrier discharge in hydrogen in plane-to-plane geometry is studied using time-resolved measurements of the electric field in the plasma. The AC discharge was operated at a pressure of 300 Torr at frequencies of 500 and 1750 Hz, with ns pulses generated when the AC voltage was near zero. The electric field vector is measured by ps four-wave mixing technique, which generates coherent IR signal proportional to the square of electric field. Absolute calibration was done using an electrostatic (sub-breakdown) field applied to the discharge electrodes, when no plasma was generated. The results are compared with one-dimensional kinetic modeling of the AC discharge and the nanosecond pulse discharge, predicting behavior of both individual micro-discharges and their cumulative effect on the electric field distribution in the electrode gap, using stochastic averaging based on the experimental micro-discharge temporal probability distribution during the AC period. Time evolution of the electric field in the AC discharge without ns pulses, controlled by a superposition of random micro-discharges, exhibits a nearly ‘flat top’ distribution with the maximum near breakdown threshold, reproduced quite well by kinetic modeling. Adding ns pulse discharges on top of the AC voltage waveform changes the AC discharge behavior in a dramatic way, inducing transition from random micro-discharges to a more regular, near-1D discharge. In this case, reproducible volumetric AC breakdown is produced at a well-defined moment after each ns pulse discharge. During the reproducible AC breakdown, the electric field in the plasma exhibits a sudden drop, which coincides in time with a well-defined current pulse. This trend is also predicted by the kinetic model. Analysis of kinetic modeling predictions shows that this effect is caused by large-volume ionization and neutralization of surface charges on the dielectrics by ns discharge pulses. The present

  3. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Offringa, W.; Bergen, A.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; Dhallé, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Nijhuis, A.

    2013-02-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage-current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and magnetization measurements at 4.2 K. With the aid of finite element method simulations, the filament-to-matrix contact resistance and effective transverse resistivity are derived from direct intra-wire resistance measurements. The effective transverse resistivity values are in good agreement with those analytically derived from the AC coupling loss measurements. Surprisingly, very high values of filament-to-matrix contact resistivity are found, being 2 or 3 orders higher than commonly found for NbTi or Nb3Sn wires.

  4. Calculation of the ac to dc resistance ratio of conductive nonmagnetic straight conductors by applying FEM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riba, Jordi-Roger

    2015-09-01

    This paper analyzes the skin and proximity effects in different conductive nonmagnetic straight conductor configurations subjected to applied alternating currents and voltages. These effects have important consequences, including a rise of the ac resistance, which in turn increases power loss, thus limiting the rating for the conductor. Alternating current (ac) resistance is important in power conductors and bus bars for line frequency applications, as well as in smaller conductors for high frequency applications. Despite the importance of this topic, it is not usually analyzed in detail in undergraduate and even in graduate studies. To address this, this paper compares the results provided by available exact formulas for simple geometries with those obtained by means of two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental results. The paper also shows that FEM results are very accurate and more general than those provided by the formulas, since FEM models can be applied in a wide range of electrical frequencies and configurations.

  5. Test plan for performance testing of the Eaton AC-3 electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Heiselmann, H.W.

    1985-04-01

    An alternating current (ac) propulsion system for an electric vehicle has been developed and tested by the Eaton Corporation. The test bed vehicle is a modified 1981 Mercury Lynx. The test plan has been prepared specifically for the third modification to this test bed and identified as the Eaton AC-3. The scope of the EG and G testing at INEL to be done on the Eaton AC-3 will include coastdown and dynamometer tests but will not include environmental, on-road, or track testing. Coastdown testing will be performed in accordance with SAE J-1263 (SAE Recommended Practice for Road Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques).

  6. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  7. Synergistic interactions between Cry1Ac and natural cotton defenses limit survival of Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt cotton.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Konasale J; Sivasupramaniam, Sakuntala; Head, Graham; Orth, Robert; Van Santen, Edzard; Moar, William J

    2009-07-01

    Larvae of the bollworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) show some tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac, and can survive on Cry1Ac-expressing Bt cotton, which should increase resistance development concerns. However, field-evolved resistance has not yet been observed. In a previous study, a population of H. zea was selected for stable resistance to Cry1Ac toxin. In the present study, we determined in laboratory bioassays if larvae of the Cry1Ac toxin-resistant H. zea population show higher survival rates on field-cultivated Bt cotton squares (= flower buds) collected prebloom-bloom than susceptible H. zea. Our results show that Cry1Ac toxin-resistant H. zea cannot complete larval development on Cry1Ac-expressing Bt cotton, despite being more than 150-fold resistant to Cry1Ac toxin and able to survive until pupation on Cry1Ac toxin concentrations greater than present in Bt cotton squares. Since mortality observed for Cry1Ac-resistant H. zea on Bt cotton was higher than expected, we investigated whether Cry1Ac interacts with gossypol and or other compounds offered with cotton powder in artificial diet. Diet incorporation bioassays were conducted with Cry1Ac toxin alone, and with gossypol and 4% cotton powder in the presence and absence of Cry1Ac. Cry1Ac toxin was significantly more lethal to susceptible H. zea than to resistant H. zea, but no difference in susceptibility to gossypol was observed between strains. However, combinations of Cry1Ac with gossypol or cotton powder were synergistic against resistant, but not against susceptible H. zea. Gossypol concentrations in individual larvae showed no significant differences between insect strains, or between larvae fed gossypol alone vs. those fed gossypol plus Cry1Ac. These results may help explain the inability of Cry1Ac-resistant H. zea to complete development on Bt cotton, and the absence of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton by this pest.

  8. The photon: EM fields, electrical potentials, and AC charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.

    2015-09-01

    Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore potentials, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and potentials lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.

  9. Resistance after firing protected electric match

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, Arsenio P.

    1981-11-10

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  10. Electrical resistivity of thin bismuth films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Katyal, O. P.

    1990-05-01

    The effect of the film thickness of a bismuth film deposited on glass substrate on its electrical resistivity was investigated for films from 41 to 225 nm thickness, in the temperature range 77-350 K. Results show that the electrical resistivity decreases with increasing temperature and that, for films 98.3 and 225.9 nm thick there exists a minimum (between 260 and 350 K) in resistivity at some temperature, Tc. This minimum shifts toward higher temperature for thinner samples, and lies above 350 K. The thickness dependence of the bismuth film resistivity, obtained at 77, 150, and 300 K, can be explained by a modified Fuchs model, which takes into account the thickness dependence of carrier density.

  11. Electric properties of carbon nano-onion/polyaniline composites: a combined electric modulus and ac conductivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanassiou, Anthony N.; Mykhailiv, Olena; Echegoyen, Luis; Sakellis, Ilias; Plonska-Brzezinska, Marta E.

    2016-07-01

    The complex electric modulus and the ac conductivity of carbon nano-onion/polyaniline composites were studied from 1 mHz to 1 MHz at isothermal conditions ranging from 15 K to room temperature. The temperature dependence of the electric modulus and the dc conductivity analyses indicate a couple of hopping mechanisms. The distinction between thermally activated processes and the determination of cross-over temperature were achieved by exploring the temperature dependence of the fractional exponent of the dispersive ac conductivity and the bifurcation of the scaled ac conductivity isotherms. The results are analyzed by combining the granular metal model (inter-grain charge tunneling of extended electron states located within mesoscopic highly conducting polyaniline grains) and a 3D Mott variable range hopping model (phonon assisted tunneling within the carbon nano-onions and clusters).

  12. Electrical test methods for on-line fuel cell ohmic resistance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, K. R.; Smith, M.

    The principles and trade-offs of four electrical test methods suitable for on-line measurement of the ohmic resistance (R Ω) of fuel cells is presented: current interrupt, AC resistance, high frequency resistance (HFR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The internal resistance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell determined with the current interrupt, HFR and EIS techniques is compared. The influence of the AC amplitude and frequency of the HFR measurement on the observed ohmic resistance is examined, as is the ohmic resistance extracted from the EIS data by modeling the spectra with a transmission line model for porous electrodes. The ohmic resistance of a H 2/O 2 PEM fuel cell determined via the three methods was within 10-30% of each other. The current interrupt technique consistently produced measured cell resistances that exceeded those of the other two techniques. For the HFR technique, the frequency at which the measurement was conducted influenced the measured resistance (i.e., higher frequency providing smaller R Ω), whereas the AC amplitude did not effect the observed value. The difference in measured ohmic resistance between these techniques exceeds that reasonably accounted for by measurement error. The source of the discrepancy between current interrupt and impedance-based methods is attributed to the difference in the response of a non-uniformly polarized electrode, such as a porous electrode with non-negligible ohmic resistance, to a large perturbation (current interrupt event) as compared to a small perturbation (impedance measurement).

  13. Simulational studies of epitaxial semiconductor superlattices: Quantum dynamical phenomena in ac and dc electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Joseph

    1997-10-08

    Using high-accuracy numerical methods the author investigates the dynamics of independent electrons in both ideal and realistic superlattices subject to arbitrary ac and/or dc electric fields. For a variety of superlattice potentials, optically excited initial wave packets, and combinations of ac and dc electric fields, he numerically solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. In the case of ideal periodic superlattice potentials, he investigates a long list of dynamical phenomena involving multiple miniband transitions and time-dependent electric fields. These include acceleration effects associated with interminiband transitions in strong fields, Zener resonances between minibands, dynamic localization with ac fields, increased single-miniband transport with an auxiliary resonant ac field, and enhanced or suppressed interminiband probability exchange using an auxiliary ac field. For all of the cases studied, the resulting time-dependent wave function is analyzed by projecting the data onto convenient orthonormal bases. This allows a detailed comparison with approximately analytic treatments. In an effort to explain the rapid decay of experimentally measured Bloch oscillation (BO) signals the author incorporates a one-dimensional representation of interface roughness (IR) into their superlattice potential. He shows that as a result of IR, the electron dynamics can be characterized in terms of many discrete, incommensurate frequencies near the Block frequency. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 have been removed from this report and will be processed separately.

  14. Pedotransfer functions in soil electrical resistivity estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is recognized as a powerful non-invasive soil survey and monitoring method. Relationships between ER and soil water contents that are needed to infer the spatial distribution of soil moisture from the ERT results, are known to reflect soil properties. ...

  15. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Reber, Cathleen A.

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic flow of generalized Maxwell fluids in a rectangular micropump under an AC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangpu; Jian, Yongjun; Chang, Long; Buren, Mandula

    2015-08-01

    By using the method of separation of variables, an analytical solution for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field through a two-dimensional rectangular micropump is reduced. By the numerical computation, the variations of velocity profiles with the electrical oscillating Reynolds number Re, the Hartmann number Ha, the dimensionless relaxation time De are studied graphically. Further, the comparison with available experimental data and relevant researches is presented.

  17. Theoretical and experimental study of meniscus behavior under AC electric field for Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Si Bui Quang; Byun, Doyoung

    2009-11-01

    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spraying technique has been utilized in applications such as inkjet printing and mass spectrometry technologies. In this paper, the role of electrical potential signals in jetting and on the oscillation of the meniscus is evaluated. The jetting and meniscus oscillation behavior are experimentally investigated under ac voltage, ac voltage superimposed on dc voltage, and pulsed dc voltage. Furthermore, the analytical simulation about the oscillation of an anchored edge hemispherical meniscus located on a conductive flat plate under a uniform ac electric field is presented. The mutual interaction between the electric field and the hydrodynamics is iteratively solved. As a result, the simulation can calculate the meniscus shapes, contours of voltage outside the meniscus and the velocity profile of liquid inside the meniscus during the period of the oscillation according to the applied frequency. Based on the present theory, one can predict the oscillation mode with a certain applied frequency. The present theory can also be applied to investigate the oscillation of a free conductive drop in a uniform ac electric field.

  18. Magneto-electric response of iron garnet film micromagnetic structure on combined action of AC and DC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koronovskyy, Vadim; Vakyla, Yuri

    2015-11-01

    Changes in the domain structure of epitaxial ferrite-garnet films under joint action of DC and AC electric fields and DC magnetic field were investigated by the optical polarimetry method. The effect of broadening of the domain wall image was found under specified combined influences. The investigations revealed that visual manifestation of the effect strongly depends on the curvature of the domain walls and the orientation of the magnetic field relative to the sample plane. Analyzing our results, we note that reaction of the domain structure to influence of external electric fields was caused by changing the magnetic anisotropy parameters of ferrite garnets in an electric field. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Electrical resistance tomography for imaging concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, M.; Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.

    1995-11-08

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) has been used to non-destructively examine the interior of reinforced concrete pillars in the laboratory during a water infiltration experiment. ERT is a technique for determining the electrical resistivity distribution within a volume from measurement of injected currents and the resulting electrical potential distribution on the surface. The transfer resistance (ratio of potential to injected current) data are inverted using an algorithm based on a finite element forward solution which is iteratively adjusted in a least squares sense until the measured and calculated transfer resistances agree to within some predetermined value. Laboratory specimens of concrete pillars, 61.0 cm (24 in) in length and 20.3 cm (8 in) on a side, were prepared with various combinations of steel reinforcing bars and voids (1.27 cm diameter) which ran along the length of the pillars. An array of electrodes was placed around the pillar to allow for injecting current and measuring the resulting potentials. After the baseline resistivity distribution was determined, water was added to a void near one comer of the pillar. ERT was used to determine the resistivity distribution of the pillar at regular time intervals as water was added. The ERT images show very clearly that the water was gradually imbibed into the concrete pillar during the course of the experiment. The resistivity decreased by nearly an order of magnitude near the point of water addition in the first hour, and by nearly two orders of magnitude by the end of the experiment. Other applications for this technology include monitoring of curing in concrete structures, detecting cracks in concrete structures, detecting rebar location and corrosion state, monitoring slope stability and the stability of footings, detecting and monitoring leaks from storage tanks, monitoring thermal processes during environmental remediation, and for detecting and monitoring contaminants in soil and groundwater.

  20. Truthful Mechanisms for Combinatorial AC Electric Power Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 In mechanism design setting...axis and c2 on the imaginary axis. This table can be filled-up by standard dynamic programming; we de- note such a program by Multi-2DKP-Exact[·]. For...REFERENCES [1] National Electrical Code (NEC) NFPA 70-2005. [2] P. Briest, P. Krysta, and B. Vocking. Approximation techniques for utilitarian mechanism

  1. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  2. Structure in the DC and AC electric fields associated with the dayside cusp region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.

    1985-01-01

    The cusp region as seen in the AC and DC electric fields is one of intense variation. The intensity peaks within the soft particle precipitation. The only AC signal that appears to be unique to the cusp is broadband ULF-ELF magnetic noise. Other types of emissions are also found at other local times at high latitudes. The pattern of these signals, especially that of ULF-ELF broadband electrostatic noise (BEN), distinguishes the cusp region from other regions. BEN signatures are indicators of magnetosheath-like soft particle precipitation but not necessarily of open field lines. In addition, large spike-like features in the DC electric field are seen near local magnetic noon which appear to be related to the large convective electric fields that have been observed at the magnetopause. These features are not necessarily tied to convection reversals, but may appear within broader regions of zonal convective flow.

  3. Estimating soil suction from electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegari, E.; Di Maio, R.

    2013-09-01

    Soil suction and resistivity strongly depend on the degree of soil saturation and, therefore, both are used for estimating water content variations. The main difference between them is that soil suction is measured using tensiometers, which give point information, while resistivity is obtained by tomography surveys, which provide distributions of resistivity values in large volumes, although with less accuracy. In this paper, we have related soil suction to electrical resistivity with the aim of obtaining information about soil suction changes in large volumes, and not only for small areas around soil suction probes. We derived analytical relationships between soil matric suction and electrical resistivity by combining the empirical laws of van Genuchten and Archie. The obtained relationships were used to evaluate maps of soil suction values in different ashy layers originating in the explosive activity of the Mt Somma-Vesuvius volcano (southern Italy). Our findings provided a further example of the high potential of geophysical methods in contributing to more effective monitoring of soil stress conditions; this is of primary importance in areas where rainfall-induced landslides occur periodically.

  4. Electrical Resistivity of Alkaline Earth Elements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    and Alloys ," Volume 12 of Thermophysical Properties of Matter - The TPRC Data Series, Plenum Press, New York, 1440 pp., 1975. (T80643) 2. Matthiessen, A...1964. (E17556) 48. Seth, R. S. and Woods, S. B., "Electrical Resistivity and Deviations from Matthiessen’s Rule in Dilute Alloys of Aluminum , Cadmium...Resistance of Dilute Magnesium and Aluminum Alloys at Low Temperature," Can. J. of Phys. 38(3), 376-84, 1960. (E14737) 57. Schofield, F. H., "The

  5. ac powertrain for an electric vehicle. Phase 2 and Phase 3 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes work relating to Phases 2 and 3 development and testing of an ac powertrain for a 25 hp four-passenger electric vehicle. The system, which consists of a two-speed automatic mechanical transaxle, 18.6 kW ac induction traction motor, 33.6 kW inverter and overall logic controller, was installed and evaluated in a converted Mercury Lynx rolling test bed vehicle. An on-board charger and an auxiliary dc-to-dc converter were integrated into the inverter/controller package.

  6. Electrical resistance tomography of concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; Binley, A.; Henry-Poulter, S.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the feasibility of using Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to nondestructively examine the interior of concrete structures such as bridge pillars and roadways. We report the results of experiments wherein ERT is used to image the two concrete specimens in the laboratory. Each specimen is 5 inches square and 12 inches long and contained steel reinforcing rods along its length. Twenty electrodes were placed on each sample and an-image of electrical resistivity distribution was generated from current and voltage measurements. We found that the images show the general location of the reinforcing steel and, what`s more important, delineate the absence of the steel. The method may therefore be useful for determining if such steel has been destroyed by corrosion, however to make it useful, the technique must have better resolution so that individual reinforcing steel units are resolved.

  7. Soil Identification using Field Electrical Resistivity Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Chitral, W. D.; Fauziah, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Ismail, B.

    2015-06-01

    Geotechnical site investigation with particular reference to soil identification was important in civil engineering works since it reports the soil condition in order to relate the design and construction of the proposed works. In the past, electrical resistivity method (ERM) has widely being used in soil characterization but experienced several black boxes which related to its results and interpretations. Hence, this study performed a field electrical resistivity method (ERM) using ABEM SAS (4000) at two different types of soils (Gravelly SAND and Silty SAND) in order to discover the behavior of electrical resistivity values (ERV) with type of soils studied. Soil basic physical properties was determine thru density (p), moisture content (w) and particle size distribution (d) in order to verify the ERV obtained from each type of soil investigated. It was found that the ERV of Gravelly SAND (278 Ωm & 285 Ωm) was slightly higher than SiltySAND (223 Ωm & 199 Ωm) due to the uncertainties nature of soils. This finding has showed that the results obtained from ERM need to be interpreted based on strong supported findings such as using direct test from soil laboratory data. Furthermore, this study was able to prove that the ERM can be established as an alternative tool in soil identification provided it was being verified thru other relevance information such as using geotechnical properties.

  8. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  9. Delineation of graves using electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nero, Callistus; Aning, Akwasi Acheampong; Danuor, Sylvester K.; Noye, Reginald M.

    2016-03-01

    A suspected old royal cemetery has been surveyed at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus, Kumasi, Ghana using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with the objective of detecting graves in order to make informed decisions with regard to the future use of the area. The survey was conducted on a 10,000 m2 area. Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding (CVES) was combined with the roll along technique for 51 profiles with 1 m probe separation separated by 2 m. Inverted data results indicated wide resistivity variations ranging between 9.34 Ωm and 600 Ωm in the near surface. Such heterogeneity suggests a disturbance of the soil at this level. Both high (≥ 600 Ωm) and low resistivity (≤ 74.7 Ωm) anomalies, relative to background levels, were identified within the first 4 m of the subsurface. These were suspected to be burial tombs because of their rectangular geometries and resistivity contrasts. The results were validated with forward numerical modeling results. The study area is therefore an old cemetery and should be preserved as a cultural heritage site.

  10. Improved SCR ac Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latos, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery would provide a complete electric vehicle power train with the exception of the mechanical transmission and drive wheels was designed. In such a system, the motor controller converts the dc electrical power available at the battery terminals to ac electrical power for the induction motor in response to the drivers commands. The performance requirements of a hypothetical electric vehicle with an upper weight bound of 1590 kg (3500 lb) were used to determine the power rating of the controller. Vehicle acceleration capability, top speed, and gradeability requisites were contained in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Schedule 227a(d) driving cycle. The important capabilities contained in this driving cycle are a vehicle acceleration requirement of 0 to 72.4 kmph (0 to 45 mph) in 28 seconds a top speed of 88.5 kmph (55 mph), and the ability to negotiate a 10% grade at 48 kmph (30 mph). A 10% grade is defined as one foot of vertical rise per 10 feet of horizontal distance.

  11. Dielectric behavior and ac electrical conductivity in samarium substituted Mg-Ni ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melagiriyappa, E.; Veena, M.; Somashekarappa, A.; Shankaramurthy, G. J.; Jayanna, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    Samarium substituted MgNi ferrites with composition Mg1-xNixFe2-ySmyO4 ( x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0; y = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1) have been prepared by ceramic method. Dielectric measurements of the samples have been carried out at room temperature as a function of frequency and composition. X-ray diffraction patterns have confirmed the single-phase spinel cubic structure for all the samples. Dielectric constant ( ɛ') and dielectric loss (tan δ) decrease while ac electrical conductivity ( σ ac ) increases with increase in frequency. Dielectric properties have been explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner's two layer model. The conduction mechanism in these ferrites is due to electron hopping between Ni2+ and Ni3+ as well as Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions on octahedral sites. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity increases and decreases respectively with nickel content. A significant reduction in the values of dielectric constant and ac electrical conductivity has been observed in Sm3+ ions substituted samples.

  12. Complex Electrical Resistivity for Monitoring DNAPL Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen R. Brown; David Lesmes; John Fourkas

    2003-09-12

    Nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have landfills and buried waste areas. Of the various contaminants present at these sites, dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) are particularly hard to locate and remove. There is an increasing need for external or non-invasive sensing techniques to locate DNAPLs in the subsurface and to track their spread and monitor their breakdown or removal by natural or engineered means. G. Olhoeft and colleagues have published several reports based on laboratory studies using the complex resistivity method which indicate that organic solvents, notably toluene, PCE, and TCE, residing in clay-bearing soils have distinctive electrical signatures. These results have suggested to many researchers the basis of an ideal new measurement technique for geophysical characterization of DNAPL pollution. Encouraged by these results we proposed to bring the field measurement of complex resistivity as a means of pollution characterization from the conceptual stage to practice. We planned to document the detectability of clay-organic solvent interactions with geophysical measurements in the laboratory, develop further understanding of the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms, and then apply these observations to develop field techniques. As with any new research endeavor we note the extreme importance of trying to reproduce the work of previous researchers to ensure that any effects observed are due to the physical phenomena occurring in the specimen and not due to the particular experimental apparatus or method used. To this end, we independently designed and built a laboratory system, including a sample holder, electrodes, electronics, and data analysis software, for the measurement of the complex electrical resistivity properties of soil contaminated with organic solvents. The capabilities and reliability of this technique were documented. Using various standards we performed measurement accuracy, repeatability, and noise immunity

  13. Comprehensive analysis of particle motion under non-uniform AC electric fields in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jonghyun; Hart, Robert; Capurro, Jorge; Noh, Hongseok Moses

    2009-01-07

    AC electrokinetics is rapidly becoming a foundational tool for lab-on-a-chip systems due to its versatility and the simplicity of the components capable of generating them. Predicting the behavior of fluids and particles under non-uniform AC electric fields is important for the design of next generation devices. Though there are several important phenomena that contribute to the overall behavior of particles and fluids, current predictive techniques consider special conditions where only a single phenomenon may be considered. We report a 2D numerical simulation, using COMSOL Multiphysics, which incorporates the three major AC electrokinetic phenomena (dielectrophoresis, AC electroosmosis and electrothermal effect) and is valid for a wide range of operational conditions. Corroboration has been performed using experimental conditions that mimic those of the simulation and shows good qualitative agreement. Furthermore, a broad range of experiments has been performed using four of the most widely reported devices under varying conditions in order to show their behavior as it relates to the simulation. The large number of experimental conditions reported, together with the comprehensive numerical simulation, will help provide guidelines for scientists and engineers interested in incorporating AC electrokinetics into their lab-on-a-chip systems.

  14. Lamin A/C deficiency reduces circulating tumor cell resistance to fluid shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Denais, Celine; Chan, Maxine F.; Wang, Zhexiao; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis contributes to over 90% of cancer-related deaths and is initiated when cancer cells detach from the primary tumor, invade the basement membrane, and enter the circulation as circulating tumor cells (CTCs). While metastasis is viewed as an inefficient process with most CTCs dying within the bloodstream, it is evident that some CTCs are capable of resisting hemodynamic shear forces to form secondary tumors in distant tissues. We hypothesized that nuclear lamins A and C (A/C) act as key structural components within CTCs necessary to resist destruction from elevated shear forces of the bloodstream. Herein, we show that, compared with nonmalignant epithelial cells, tumor cells are resistant to elevated fluid shear forces in vitro that mimic those within the bloodstream, as evidenced by significant decreases in cellular apoptosis and necrosis. Knockdown of lamin A/C significantly reduced tumor cell resistance to fluid shear stress, with significantly increased cell death compared with parental tumor cell and nontargeting controls. Interestingly, lamin A/C knockdown increased shear stress-induced tumor cell apoptosis, but did not significantly affect cellular necrosis. These data demonstrate that lamin A/C is an important structural component that enables tumor cell resistance to fluid shear stress-mediated death in the bloodstream, and may thus facilitate survival and hematogenous metastasis of CTCs. PMID:26447202

  15. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  16. Graphene-coated coupling coil for AC resistance reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John M

    2014-03-04

    At least one graphene layer is formed to laterally surround a tube so that the basal plane of each graphene layer is tangential to the local surface of the tube on which the graphene layer is formed. An electrically conductive path is provided around the tube for providing high conductivity electrical path provided by the basal plane of each graphene layer. The high conductivity path can be employed for high frequency applications such as coupling coils for wireless power transmission to overcome skin depth effects and proximity effects prevalent in high frequency alternating current paths.

  17. Cone-based electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidlisecky, Adam

    Determining the 3-D spatial distribution of subsurface properties is a critical part of managing the clean-up of contaminated sites. Most standard hydrologic methods sample small regions immediately adjacent to wells or testing devices. This provides data which are not representative of the entire region of interest. Furthermore, at many contaminated sites invasive methods are not acceptable, due to the risks associated with contacting and spreading the contaminants. To address these issues, I have developed a minimally invasive technology that provides information about the 3-D distribution of electrical conductivity. This new technique, cone-based electrical resistivity tomography (C-bert), integrates the existing technologies of resistivity cone penetration testing (RCPT) with electrical resistivity tomography. Development of this tool included the creation of new software and modeling algorithms, the design of field equipment, field testing, and processing and interpretation of the resulting data. I present a 2.5-D forward modeling algorithm that incorporates an effective correction for the errors caused by boundary effects and source singularities. The algorithm includes an optimization technique for acquiring the Fourier coefficients required for the solution. A 3-D inversion algorithm is presented that has two major improvements over existing algorithms. First, it includes a 3-D version of the boundary correction/source singularity correction developed for the 2.5-D problem. Second, the algorithm can handle any type of acquisition geometry; this was a requirement for the development of C-bert. C-bert involves placing several permanent current electrodes in the subsurface and using electrodes mounted on a cone penetrometer and at the surface to measure the resultant potential field. In addition to these measurements, we obtain the standard suite of RCPT data, including high resolution resistivity logs. The RCPT data can be used to generate a realistic

  18. Electro-worming: The behaviors of Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans in DC and AC electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Raizen, David M.; Dabbish, Nooreen; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-09-01

    The video showcases how C. elegans worms respond to DC and AC electrical stimulations. Gabel et al (2007) demonstrated that in the presence of DC and low frequency AC fields, worms of stage L2 and larger propel themselves towards the cathode. Rezai et al (2010) have demonstrated that this phenomenon, dubbed electrotaxis, can be used to control the motion of worms. In the video, we reproduce Rezai's experimental results. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that worms can be trapped with high frequency, nonuniform electric fields. We studied the effect of the electric field on the nematode as a function of field intensity and frequency and identified a range of electric field intensities and frequencies that trap worms without apparent adverse effect on their viability. Worms tethered by dielectrophoresis (DEP) avoid blue light, indicating that at least some of the nervous system functions remain unimpaired in the presence of the electric field. DEP is useful to dynamically confine nematodes for observations, sort them according to size, and separate dead worms from live ones.

  19. Polycrystalline configurations that maximize electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesi, Vincenzo; Milton, Graeme W.

    A lower bound on the effective conductivity tensor of polycrystalline aggregates formed from a single basic crystal of conductivity σ was recently established by Avellaneda. Cherkaev, Lurie and Milton. The bound holds for any basic crystal, but for isotropic aggregates of a uniaxial crystal, the bound is achieved by a sphere assemblage model of Schulgasser. This left open the question of attainability of the bound when the crystal is not uniaxial. The present work establishes that the bound is always attained by a rather large class of polycrystalline materials. These polycrystalline materials, with maximal electrical resistivity, are constructed by sequential lamination of the basic crystal and rotations of itself on widely separated length scales. The analysis is facilitated by introducing a tensor S = 0( 0I + σ) -1 where 0 > 0 is chosen so that Tr S = 1. This tensor s is related to the electric field in the optimal polycrystalline configurations.

  20. Electrical Resistance Tomography imaging of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Karhunen, Kimmo; Seppaenen, Aku; Lehikoinen, Anssi; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Kaipio, Jari P.

    2010-01-15

    We apply Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) for three dimensional imaging of concrete. In ERT, alternating currents are injected into the target using an array of electrodes attached to the target surface, and the resulting voltages are measured using the same electrodes. These boundary measurements are used for reconstructing the internal (3D) conductivity distribution of the target. In reinforced concrete, the metallic phases (reinforcing bars and fibers), cracks and air voids, moisture gradients, and the chloride distribution in the matrix carry contrast with respect to conductivity. While electrical measurements have been widely used to characterize the properties of concrete, only preliminary results of applying ERT to concrete imaging have been published so far. The aim of this paper is to carry out a feasibility evaluation with specifically cast samples. The results indicate that ERT may be a feasible modality for non-destructive evaluation of concrete.

  1. AC electric field induced dipole-based on-chip 3D cell rotation.

    PubMed

    Benhal, Prateek; Chase, J Geoffrey; Gaynor, Paul; Oback, Björn; Wang, Wenhui

    2014-08-07

    The precise rotation of suspended cells is one of the many fundamental manipulations used in a wide range of biotechnological applications such as cell injection and enucleation in nuclear transfer (NT) cloning. Noticeably scarce among the existing rotation techniques is the three-dimensional (3D) rotation of cells on a single chip. Here we present an alternating current (ac) induced electric field-based biochip platform, which has an open-top sub-mm square chamber enclosed by four sidewall electrodes and two bottom electrodes, to achieve rotation about the two axes, thus 3D cell rotation. By applying an ac potential to the four sidewall electrodes, an in-plane (yaw) rotating electric field is generated and in-plane rotation is achieved. Similarly, by applying an ac potential to two opposite sidewall electrodes and the two bottom electrodes, an out-of-plane (pitch) rotating electric field is generated and rolling rotation is achieved. As a prompt proof-of-concept, bottom electrodes were constructed with transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) using the standard lift-off process and the sidewall electrodes were constructed using a low-cost micro-milling process and then assembled to form the chip. Through experiments, we demonstrate rotation of bovine oocytes of ~120 μm diameter about two axes, with the capability of controlling the rotation direction and the rate for each axis through control of the ac potential amplitude, frequency, and phase shift, and cell medium conductivity. The maximum observed rotation rate reached nearly 140° s⁻¹, while a consistent rotation rate reached up to 40° s⁻¹. Rotation rate spectra for zona pellucida-intact and zona pellucida-free oocytes were further compared and found to have no effective difference. This simple, transparent, cheap-to-manufacture, and open-top platform allows additional functional modules to be integrated to become a more powerful cell manipulation system.

  2. Cross-resistance and interactions between Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against the cotton bollworm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jizhen; Guo, Yuyuan; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Zhang, Jie; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-14

    To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. We conducted laboratory diet experiments with the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to evaluate cross-resistance and interactions between two toxins in pyramided Bt cotton (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab). Selection with Cry1Ac for 125 generations produced 1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac and 6.8-fold cross-resistance to Cry2Ab. Selection with Cry2Ab for 29 generations caused 5.6-fold resistance to Cry2Ab and 61-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Without exposure to Bt toxins, resistance to both toxins decreased. For each of the four resistant strains examined, 67 to 100% of the combinations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab tested yielded higher than expected mortality, reflecting synergism between these two toxins. Results showing minor cross-resistance to Cry2Ab caused by selection with Cry1Ac and synergism between these two toxins against resistant insects suggest that plants producing both toxins could prolong the efficacy of Bt cotton against this pest in China. Including toxins against which no cross-resistance occurs and integrating Bt cotton with other control tactics could also increase the sustainability of management strategies.

  3. Cross-resistance and interactions between Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against the cotton bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jizhen; Guo, Yuyuan; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Zhang, Jie; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. We conducted laboratory diet experiments with the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to evaluate cross-resistance and interactions between two toxins in pyramided Bt cotton (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab). Selection with Cry1Ac for 125 generations produced 1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac and 6.8-fold cross-resistance to Cry2Ab. Selection with Cry2Ab for 29 generations caused 5.6-fold resistance to Cry2Ab and 61-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Without exposure to Bt toxins, resistance to both toxins decreased. For each of the four resistant strains examined, 67 to 100% of the combinations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab tested yielded higher than expected mortality, reflecting synergism between these two toxins. Results showing minor cross-resistance to Cry2Ab caused by selection with Cry1Ac and synergism between these two toxins against resistant insects suggest that plants producing both toxins could prolong the efficacy of Bt cotton against this pest in China. Including toxins against which no cross-resistance occurs and integrating Bt cotton with other control tactics could also increase the sustainability of management strategies. PMID:25586723

  4. DC and AC Electric Field Measurements by Spin-Plane Double Probes Onboard MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Nakamura, R.

    2015-12-01

    The four spacecraft of the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) were launched on 12 March 2015 into a 1.2 x 12 Re equatorial orbit to study energy conversion processes in Earth's magnetosphere. After a 5-month commissioning period the first scientific phase starts on 1 September as the orbit enters the dusk magnetopause region. The Spin-plane Double Probe electric field instrument (SDP), part of the electric and magnetic fields instrument suite FIELDS, measures the electric field in the range 0.3 - 500 mV/m with a continuous time resolution up to 8192 samples/s. The instrument features adjustable bias currents and guard voltages to optimize the measurement performance. SDP also measures the spacecraft potential, which can be controlled by the Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) ion emitter, and under certain conditions can be used to determine plasma density. We present observations of DC and AC electric fields in different plasma regions covered by MMS since launch including the night side flow braking region, reconnection regions at the dusk and dayside magnetopause, and in the magnetosheath. We compare the electric field measurements by SDP to other, independent determinations of the electric field, in particular by the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI), in order to assess the accuracy of the electric field measurement under different plasma conditions. We also study the influence of the currents emitted by ASPOC and EDI on the SDP measurements.

  5. Propelling and spinning of microsheets in nematic liquid crystals driven by ac electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasna, M. V.; Ramudu, U. V.; Chandrasekar, R.; Dhara, Surajit

    2017-01-01

    Dynamics of microparticles in isotropic liquids by transducing the energy of an applied electric field have been studied for decades. Recently, such studies in anisotropic media like liquid crystals have opened up new perspectives in colloid science. Here, we report studies on ac-electric-field-driven dynamics of microsheets in nematic liquid crystals. In planar aligned liquid crystals, with negative dielectric anisotropy, the microsheets are propelled parallel to the director. A steady spinning of the microsheets is observed in homeotropic cells with positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals. The velocity of propelling and the angular frequency of spinning depends on the amplitude and the frequency of the applied electric field. The electrokinetic studies of anisotropic microparticles are important as they are potential for applications in microfluidics and in areas where the controlled transport or rotation is required.

  6. The ac and dc electric field meters developed for the US Department of Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.; Johnston, A.; Jackson, S.; Sheu, K.

    1987-01-01

    Two space-potential electric field meters developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy are described. One of the meters was designed to measure dc fields, the other ac fields. Both meters use fiber optics to couple a small measuring probe to a remote readout device, so as to minimize field perturbation due to the presence of the probe. By using coherent detection, it has been possible to produce instruments whose operating range extends from about 10 V/m up to about 2.5 kV/cm, without the need for range switching on the probe. The electrical and mechanical design of both meters are described in detail. Data from laboratory tests are presented, as well as the results of the tests at the National Bureau of Standards and the Electric Power Research Institute's High Voltage Transmission Research Facility.

  7. Determination of Electrical Resistivity of Dry Coke Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidem, P. A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J. A.

    2008-02-01

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500 °C to 1600 °C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450 °C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  8. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A.

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  9. Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such systems representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are presented. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system uses an ac induction motor controlled by transistorized pulse width modulated inverter which drives through a two speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

  10. Keratinocyte galvanotaxis in combined DC and AC electric fields supports an electromechanical transduction sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hart, Francis X; Laird, Mhairi; Riding, Aimie; Pullar, Christine E

    2013-02-01

    Sedentary keratinocytes at the edge of a skin wound migrate into the wound, guided by the generation of an endogenous electric field (EF) generated by the collapse of the transepithelial potential. The center of the wound quickly becomes more negative than the surrounding tissue and remains the cathode of the endogenous EF until the wound is completely re-epithelialized. This endogenous guidance cue can be studied in vitro. When placed in a direct current (DC) EF of physiological strength, 100 V/m, keratinocytes migrate directionally toward the cathode in a process known as galvanotaxis. Although a number of membrane-bound (e.g., epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), integrins) and cytosolic proteins (cAMP, ERK, PI3K) are known to play a role in the downstream signaling mechanisms underpinning galvanotaxis, the initial sensing mechanism for this response is not understood. To investigate the EF sensor, we studied the migration of keratinocytes in a DC EF of 100 V/m, alternating current (AC) EFs of 40 V/m at either 1.6 or 160 Hz, and combinations of DC and AC EFs. In the AC EFs alone, keratinocytes migrated randomly. The 1.6 Hz AC EF combined with the DC EF suppressed the direction of migration but had no effect on speed. In contrast, the 160 Hz AC EF combined with the DC EF did not affect the direction of migration but increased the migration speed compared to the DC EF alone. These results can be understood in terms of an electromechanical transduction model, but not an electrodiffusion/osmosis or a voltage-gated channel model.

  11. Evaluation of pozzolanic activity by the electric resistance measurement method

    SciTech Connect

    Tashiro, Chuichi; Ikeda, Ko . Dept. of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering); Inoue, Yoshihiro )

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of electric resistance and amount of consumption of portlandite were carried out in accelerated curing conditions by preparing pastes of Fine Ceraments, fly ash, silica fume, kaolin, acid clay, zeolite and quartz activated with portlandite. Electric resistances of reactive pozzolans showed sharp rises except that of kaolin, whereas that of inactive material, quartz, showed no sharp rise. Electric resistances are proportional to the consumptions of portlandite except for fly ashes. The electric resistance measurement method combined with portlandite consumption measurement is useful to the rapid evaluation of pozzolanic activity.

  12. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  13. Measurement of electrical resistance after nerve injuries of the hand.

    PubMed

    Egyed, B; Eory, A; Veres, T; Manninger, J

    1980-10-01

    The authors measured electrical resistance of skin to define the sensory loss. A significant increase of the skin resistance was observed in the zone of sensory loss, as compared with the skin surfaces of normal innervation. The sensory map, sweating map (ninhydrine test) and the skin resistance map were also compared by the authors. The main advantages of the electrical skin resistance test are that it is a quantitative one, and takes less time than the other methods.

  14. AC electrical transport properties and current-voltage hysteresis behavior of PVA-CNT nanocomposite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amit Kumar; Sinha, Subhojyoti; Meikap, Ajit Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - Carbon nanotube (CNT) composite has been prepared and its electric modulus, ac conductivity, impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage characteristics have been studied, at and above room temperature, to understand the prevailing charge transport mechanism. Non-Debye type relaxation behavior was observed with activation energy of 1.27 eV whereas correlated barrier hopping was found to be the dominant charge transport mechanism with maximum barrier height of 48.7 meV above room temperature. The sample, under ±80 V applied voltage, exhibits hysteresis behavior in its current - voltage characteristics.

  15. TUTORIAL: Electrical resistance: an atomistic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Supriyo

    2004-07-01

    This tutorial article presents a 'bottom-up' view of electrical resistance starting from something really small, like a molecule, and then discussing the issues that arise as we move to bigger conductors. Remarkably, no serious quantum mechanics is needed to understand electrical conduction through something really small, except for unusual things like the Kondo effect that are seen only for a special range of parameters. This article starts with energy level diagrams (section 2), shows that the broadening that accompanies coupling limits the conductance to a maximum of q2/h per level (sections 3, 4), describes how a change in the shape of the self-consistent potential profile can turn a symmetric current-voltage characteristic into a rectifying one (sections 5, 6), shows that many interesting effects in molecular electronics can be understood in terms of a simple model (section 7), introduces the non-equilibrium Green function (NEGF) formalism as a sophisticated version of this simple model with ordinary numbers replaced by appropriate matrices (section 8) and ends with a personal view of unsolved problems in the field of nanoscale electron transport (section 9). Appendix A discusses the Coulomb blockade regime of transport, while appendix B presents a formal derivation of the NEGF equations. MATLAB codes for numerical examples are listed in appendix C. (The appendices are available in the online version only.)

  16. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. AC losses and transverse resistivity in filamentary MgB 2 tape with Ti barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polák, M.; Demenčík, E.; Hušek, I.; Kopera, L.; Kováč, P.; Mozola, P.; Takács, S.

    2011-07-01

    We measured and analyzed AC losses of MgB 2 tape with 19 filaments surrounded by Ti barriers and embedded in copper stabilization, exposed to external magnetic field with frequencies from 30 mHz up to 1.4 Hz and amplitudes up to 0.8 T at 4.2 K. Using the measured frequency dependence of the total AC losses we determined the contribution of hysteresis and coupling losses. The transverse resistivity determined from the coupling losses is considerably higher than that corresponding to the resistivity of copper stabilization before the tape processing due to diffusion of Ti. From the measured penetration field critical current densities were determined using results of theories for circular as well as rectangular filaments.

  18. Development of dielectrophoresis separator with an insulating porous membrane using DC-Offset AC Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, Masaru

    2016-09-01

    Our previous studies revealed that the dielectrophoresis method is effective for separating cells having different dielectric properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the separation characteristics of two kinds of cells by direct current (DC) voltage offset/alternating current (AC) voltage using an insulating porous membrane dielectrophoretic separator. The separation device gives dielectrophoretic (DEP) force and electrophoretic (EP) force to dispersed particles by applying the DC-offset AC voltage. This device separates cells of different DEP properties by adopting a structure in which only the parallel plate electrodes and the insulating porous membrane are disposed in the flow path through which the cell-suspension flows. The difference in the retention ratios of electrically homogeneous 4.5 μm or 20.0 μm diameter standard particles was a maximum of 82 points. Furthermore, the influences of the AC voltage or offset voltage on the retention ratios of mouse hybridoma 3-2H3 cells and horse red blood cells (HRBC) were investigated. The difference in the retention ratio of the two kinds of cells was a maximum of 56 points. The separation efficiency of this device is expected to be improved by changing the device shape, number of pores, and pore placement. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1292-1300, 2016.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of human cells motion under an irrotational AC electric field in an electro-microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Vaillier, Clarisse; Honegger, Thibault; Kermarrec, Frédérique; Gidrol, Xavier; Peyrade, David

    2014-01-01

    AC electrokinetics is a versatile tool for contact-less manipulation or characterization of cells and has been widely used for separation based on genotype translation to electrical phenotypes. Cells responses to an AC electric field result in a complex combination of electrokinetic phenomena, mainly dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamic forces. Human cells behaviors to AC electrokinetics remain unclear over a large frequency spectrum as illustrated by the self-rotation effect observed recently. We here report and analyze human cells behaviors in different conditions of medium conductivity, electric field frequency and magnitude. We also observe the self-rotation of human cells, in the absence of a rotational electric field. Based on an analytical competitive model of electrokinetic forces, we propose an explanation of the cell self-rotation. These experimental results, coupled with our model, lead to the exploitation of the cell behaviors to measure the intrinsic dielectric properties of JURKAT, HEK and PC3 human cell lines.

  20. Comprehensive Analysis of Human Cells Motion under an Irrotational AC Electric Field in an Electro-Microfluidic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Kermarrec, Frédérique; Gidrol, Xavier; Peyrade, David

    2014-01-01

    AC electrokinetics is a versatile tool for contact-less manipulation or characterization of cells and has been widely used for separation based on genotype translation to electrical phenotypes. Cells responses to an AC electric field result in a complex combination of electrokinetic phenomena, mainly dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamic forces. Human cells behaviors to AC electrokinetics remain unclear over a large frequency spectrum as illustrated by the self-rotation effect observed recently. We here report and analyze human cells behaviors in different conditions of medium conductivity, electric field frequency and magnitude. We also observe the self-rotation of human cells, in the absence of a rotational electric field. Based on an analytical competitive model of electrokinetic forces, we propose an explanation of the cell self-rotation. These experimental results, coupled with our model, lead to the exploitation of the cell behaviors to measure the intrinsic dielectric properties of JURKAT, HEK and PC3 human cell lines. PMID:24736275

  1. AC electrical breakdown phenomena of epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite in needle-plate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    Epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite for the insulation of heavy electric equipments were prepared by dispersing 1 wt% of a layered silicate into an epoxy matrix with a homogenizing mixer and then AC electrical treeing and breakdown tests were carried out. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation showed that nano-sized monolayers were exfoliated from a multilayered silicate in the epoxy matrix. When the nano-sized silicate layers were incorporated into the epoxy matrix, the breakdown rate in needle-plate electrode geometry was 10.6 times lowered than that of the neat epoxy resin under the applied electrical field of 520.9 kV/mm at 30 degrees C, and electrical tree propagated with much more branches in the epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite. These results showed that well-dispersed nano-sized silicate layers retarded the electrical tree growth rate. The effects of applied voltage and ambient temperature on the tree initiation, growth, and breakdown rate were also studied, and it was found that the breakdown rate was largely increased, as the applied voltage and ambient temperature increased.

  2. Spectral response of atmospheric electric field measurements near AC high voltage power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Matthews, J. C.; Wright, M. D.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-10-01

    To understand the influence of corona ion emission on the atmospheric electrical field, measurements were made near to two AC high voltage power lines. A JCI 131 field-mill recorded the atmospheric electric field over one year. Meteorological measurements were also taken. The data series is divided in four zones (dependent on wind direction): whole zones, Z0; zone 1, Z1; zone 2, Z2; zone 3, Z3. Z3 is the least affected by corona ion emission and for that reason it is used as a reference against Z1 and Z2, which are strongly influenced by this phenomena. Analysis was undertaken for all weather days and dry days only. The Lomb-Scargle strategy developed for unevenly spaced time-series is used to calculate the spectral response of the aforementioned zones. Only frequencies above 1 minute are considered.

  3. The movement of actin-myosin biomolecular linear motor under AC electric fields: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongkuk; Famouri, Parviz

    2013-03-15

    The role of actin-myosin as a biomolecular linear motor is considered a transport system at nanoscale because of their size, efficiency and functionality. To utilize the ability to transport, it is essential to control the random movement of actin filaments (F-actin) on myosin coated substrate. In the presence of an alternating current (AC) electric field, the direction of F-actin movement is regulated by electro-orientation torque and, as a result, its movement is perpendicularly toward the electrode edges. Our data confirm such aligned movement is proportional to the strength of applied electric field. Interestingly, the aligned movement is found frequency-dependent and the electrothermal effect is observed by means of the velocity measurement of aligned F-actin movement. The findings in this study may provide constructive information for manipulating actin-myosin nanotransport system to build functional nanodevices in future work.

  4. Analysis of resistance to Cry1Ac in field-collected pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae), populations.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Abhishek; Sree, K Sowjanya; Sachdev, Bindiya; Rashmi, M A; Ravi, K C; Suresh, P J; Mohan, Komarlingam S; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    High survivorship of pink bollworrm, Pectinophora gossypiella in bolls of Bollgard® cotton hybrids and resistance to Cry1Ac protein, expressed in Bollgard cotton were reported in field-populations collected from the state of Gujarat (western India) in 2010. We have found Cry1Ac-resistance in pink bollworm populations sourced from Bollgard and non-Bt cotton fields in the adjoining states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Further, we observed reduced binding of labeled Cry1Ac protein to receptors localized on the brush-border membrane of pink bollworm larval strains with high tolerance to Cry1Ac. These strains were sourced from Bollgard and conventional cotton fields. A pooled Cry1Ac-resistant strain, further selected on Cry1Ac diet also showed significantly reduced binding to Cry1Ac protein. The reduced binding of Cry1Ac to receptors could be an underlying mechanism for the observed resistance in pink bollworm populations feeding on Bollgard hybrids.

  5. The AC (Alternating Current) Electrical Behavior of Multi-layered Thermoelectric Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Budak, Satilmis; Bhattacharjee, Sudip

    2016-11-01

    In this study the ac (alternating current) small-signal electrical data in the frequency range 5 Hz ≤ f ≤ 13 MHz are obtained for the multi-layered thermoelectric (TE) devices to extract underlying operative mechanisms via an equivalent circuit model. This model is developed from the complex plane plots in conjunction with the Bode plot. It is observed that the inductive behavior is prevalent for both unbombarded and bombarded TE devices regardless of the doses as both types are observed as somewhat weak in thermoelectric properties. The bombarded multi-layered devices followed a systematic pattern in ac behavior via semicircular relaxation both in the impedance and admittance planes for the same measured data. This pattern is attributed to the transition from one lumped behavior to two distinct mechanisms. It is observed that the conductive nature of the equivalent circuit model via non-blocking (non-capacitive) elements, attributed to the underlying operative electrical paths between the two opposite electrodes across the multi-layered device exists, satisfying direct current conditions of the equivalent circuit model. The inductive behavior at high frequencies originates from the conductive aspect of the lumped response of the device in addition to the contribution of the electrode leads. Thus, the proposed equivalent circuit model contains external inductance that verifies a meaningful representation of the multi-layered TE device, though weak in thermoelectric properties.

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms of semicrystalline parylene C thin films.

    PubMed

    Kahouli, Abdelkader; Sylvestre, Alain; Jomni, Fethi; Yangui, Béchir; Legrand, Julien

    2012-01-26

    The electrical conduction mechanisms of semicrystalline thermoplastic parylene C (-H(2)C-C(6)H(3)Cl-CH(2)-)(n) thin films were studied in large temperature and frequency regions. The alternative current (AC) electrical conduction in parylene C is governed by two processes which can be ascribed to a hopping transport mechanism: correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model at low [77-155 K] and high [473-533 K] temperature and the small polaron tunneling mechanism (SPTM) from 193 to 413 K within the framework of the universal law of dielectric response. The conduction mechanism is explained with the help of Elliot's theory, and the Elliot's parameters are determined. From frequency- and temperature-conductivity characteristics, the activation energy is found to be 1.27 eV for direct current (DC) conduction interpreted in terms of ionic conduction mechanism. The power law dependence of AC conductivity is interpreted in terms of electron hopping with a density N(E(F)) (~10(18) eV cm(-3)) over a 0.023-0.03 eV high barrier across a distance of 1.46-1.54 Å.

  7. Asymmetrical cross-resistance between Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in pink bollworm.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Masson, Luke; Crowder, David W; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

    2009-07-21

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests and can reduce reliance on insecticide sprays. Sustainable use of such crops requires methods for delaying evolution of resistance by pests. To thwart pest resistance, some transgenic crops produce 2 different Bt toxins targeting the same pest. This "pyramid" strategy is expected to work best when selection for resistance to 1 toxin does not cause cross-resistance to the other toxin. The most widely used pyramid is transgenic cotton producing Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Cross-resistance between these toxins was presumed unlikely because they bind to different larval midgut target sites. Previous results showed that laboratory selection with Cry1Ac caused little or no cross-resistance to Cry2A toxins in pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), a major cotton pest. We show here, however, that laboratory selection of pink bollworm with Cry2Ab caused up to 420-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac as well as 240-fold resistance to Cry2Ab. Inheritance of resistance to high concentrations of Cry2Ab was recessive. Larvae from a laboratory strain resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in diet bioassays survived on cotton bolls producing only Cry1Ac, but not on cotton bolls producing both toxins. Thus, the asymmetrical cross-resistance seen here does not threaten the efficacy of pyramided Bt cotton against pink bollworm. Nonetheless, the results here and previous evidence indicate that cross-resistance occurs between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in some key cotton pests. Incorporating the potential effects of such cross-resistance in resistance management plans may help to sustain the efficacy of pyramided Bt crops.

  8. Soil spatial heterogeneity effect on soil electrical resistivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical resistivity (ER) is growing in popularity due to its ease of use and because of its non-invasive techniques, which are used to reveal and map soil heterogeneity. The objective of this work was to evaluate how differing soil properties affect the electric resistivity and to observe these e...

  9. Electrical Resistivity Imaging to Quantify Spatial Soil Heterogeneit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical resistivity (ER) sounding is increasingly being used as non-invasive technique to reveal and map soil heterogeneity. The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of soil properties on the electric resistivity and to observe these effects in spatial context in coarse-textured soil. T...

  10. Effect of interaction between AC electric field and phonon oscillation of metal cluster on tip-growth of carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeidi, Mohammadreza

    2015-06-01

    The paper reports effect of interaction between AC electric field and metal cluster sitting at tip end of the carbon nanotube (CNT) on CNT tip-growth in CVD theoretically. For this purpose, a theoretical model based on phonon oscillations of the metal catalyst and influence of AC electric field on these oscillations is presented. Results show that there is an optimum AC electric field which optimizes growth of ultra-long CNTs. Then it is demonstrated that, in comparison with CNTs in the absence of field, CNTs under optimum electric field grow more. In addition, relation between optimum temperature and amplitude of AC electric field is investigated and it is shown that increasing electric field leads to higher optimum temperature. Finally, Investigation of effect of catalyst type on optimum electric field demonstrates the optimum field for various catalysts is different due to their different characteristics including van der Waals interaction with carbon, atomic mass and number of free charge carriers per each atom. All results are discussed and interpreted.

  11. DC-AC Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter With No Inductors for Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Du, Zhong; Chiasson, John N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dc-dc boost converter to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. The present HEV traction drive inverters have low power density, are expensive, and have low efficiency because they need a bulky inductor. A cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter design for EV and HEV applications implemented without the use of inductors is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, each H-bridge needs a dc power supply. The proposed design uses a standard three-leg inverter (one leg for each phase) and an H-bridge in series with each inverter leg which uses a capacitor as the dc power source. A fundamental switching scheme is used to do modulation control and to produce a five-level phase voltage. Experiments show that the proposed dc-ac cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter can output a boosted ac voltage without the use of inductors.

  12. Common, but complex, mode of resistance of Plutella xylostella to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Gatsi, Roxani; Ibiza-Palacios, M Sales; Escriche, Baltasar; Wright, Denis J; Crickmore, Neil

    2005-11-01

    A field collected population of Plutella xylostella (SERD4) was selected in the laboratory with Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins Cry1Ac (Cry1Ac-SEL) and Cry1Ab (Cry1Ab-SEL). Both subpopulations showed similar phenotypes: high resistance to the Cry1A toxins and little cross-resistance to Cry1Ca or Cry1D. A previous analysis of the Cry1Ac-SEL showed incompletely dominant resistance to Cry1Ac with more than one factor, at least one of which was sex influenced. In the present study reciprocal mass crosses between Cry1Ab-SEL and a laboratory susceptible population (ROTH) provided evidence that Cry1Ab resistance was also inherited as incompletely dominant trait with more than one factor, and at least one of the factors was sex influenced. Analysis of single pair mating indicated that Cry1Ab-SEL was still heterogeneous for Cry1Ab resistance genes, showing genes with different degrees of dominance. Binding studies showed a large reduction of specific binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac to midgut membrane vesicles of the Cry1Ab-SEL subpopulation. Cry1Ab-SEL was found to be more susceptible to trypsin-activated Cry1Ab toxin than protoxin, although no defect in toxin activation was found. Present and previous results indicate a common basis of resistance to both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac in selected subpopulations and suggest that a similar set of resistance genes are responsible for resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac and are selected whichever toxin was used. The possibility of an incompletely dominant trait of resistant to these toxins should be taken into account when considering refuge resistance management strategies.

  13. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Vail III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2003-06-10

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  14. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  15. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  16. Theoretical relationship between elastic wave velocity and electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Yoon, Hyung-Koo

    2015-05-01

    Elastic wave velocity and electrical resistivity have been commonly applied to estimate stratum structures and obtain subsurface soil design parameters. Both elastic wave velocity and electrical resistivity are related to the void ratio; the objective of this study is therefore to suggest a theoretical relationship between the two physical parameters. Gassmann theory and Archie's equation are applied to propose a new theoretical equation, which relates the compressional wave velocity to shear wave velocity and electrical resistivity. The piezo disk element (PDE) and bender element (BE) are used to measure the compressional and shear wave velocities, respectively. In addition, the electrical resistivity is obtained by using the electrical resistivity probe (ERP). The elastic wave velocity and electrical resistivity are recorded in several types of soils including sand, silty sand, silty clay, silt, and clay-sand mixture. The appropriate input parameters are determined based on the error norm in order to increase the reliability of the proposed relationship. The predicted compressional wave velocities from the shear wave velocity and electrical resistivity are similar to the measured compressional velocities. This study demonstrates that the new theoretical relationship may be effectively used to predict the unknown geophysical property from the measured values.

  17. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1997-04-15

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {<=}1% Cr and either {>=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

  18. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  19. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  20. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  1. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  2. Hall-Effect Based Semi-Fast AC On-Board Charging Equipment for Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented. PMID:22163697

  3. Concentration-tuned interactions and structures in flowing suspensions under a gradient AC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Shigeru; Qiu, Zhiyong; Shen, Yan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, numerical simulations of suspensions of Al2O3 particles in corn oil at various volume fractions were performed to explore the mechanisms involved in the electro-mechanical behavior of positive polarized particles suspended in an insulated suspending medium traveling through a rotating flow channel while exposed to a nonuniform AC electric field. A theoretical model was developed to simulate the trajectories of individual particles under the action of dielectrophoretic (DEP), dipole-dipole interparticle, viscous, and gravitational forces in a laminar flow. The results demonstrated that particles began to aggregate along the edges of electrodes with electric field application. New particles coming from more distant regions then gradually joined the vertices of particle aggregates, leading to the growth of chain-like clusters along the electric field gradient. Predictions showed good agreement with the results observed in a previous experiment. The new findings of this study are that the DEP force always tends to confine particles near the electrode edges, whereas the clustering of particles on the electrodes arises from the competition between particle interaction due to the DEP force and the long-range dipole-dipole interparticle interaction with neighboring particles. This process became more apparent with higher volume fractions of particle.

  4. Dynamics of particle chain formation in a liquid polymer under ac electric field: modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belijar, G.; Valdez-Nava, Z.; Diaham, S.; Laudebat, L.; Jones, T. B.; Lebey, T.

    2017-01-01

    Polymer/ceramic composite materials are of great interest for their many potential applications because of their ability to combine at least two properties of the constitutive elements: particles and matrix. In most cases, such enhanced properties are required only in one direction. Orthotropic materials can be elaborated by applying an ac electric field to form particle chain structures in the direction of the electric field due to the dielectrophoretic interactions affecting the particles. However, there is still a lack in the understanding of the impact of the structures on the properties of the material. The aim of this study is to propose a predictive model for the evolution of the permittivity during the chain formation, by including micro- and macroscopic phenomena. The chaining model is based on dipole-dipole interactions and the dielectric permittivity is computed through a finite element method. In parallel, an experimental study is performed with online permittivity measurements of composites during chaining. The developed model is able to predict the experimental results from 1 vol% while taking into account parameters such as the resin viscosity and permittivity and the transient evolution of the applied electric field. The formation of particle chains inside a material has applications in many domains such as electrorheological fluids, anisotropic composites, self-recovery materials etc. Such a developed model is a valuable tool for the tailoring of materials.

  5. Electrical Resistivity and Thermodynamic Properties of Iron Under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, Ho Khac; Hai, Tran Thi; Hong, Nguyen Thi; Sang, Ngo Dinh; Tuyen, Nguyen Viet

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the electrical resistivity and thermodynamic properties of iron under high pressure have been investigated by using the semi-empirical approach. The recently well-established Grüneisen parameter expressions have been applied to derive the Debye frequency and temperature under compression. Using these results combined with the Bloch-Grüneisen law, the resistivity of iron has also been determined up to Earth's core pressures. We show that the electrical resistivity diminished gradually with pressure and saturates at high pressure. Our model gives low electrical resistivity values which are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. The low resistivity may be attributed to the well-known resistivity saturation effect at high temperature, which was not considered in earlier models of core conductivity.

  6. Resistivity and AC calorimetry measurements on CeNiGe2 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, A. T.; Muramatsu, T.; Miyake, A.; Kaczorowski, D.; Bukowski, Z.; Kagayama, T.; Shimizu, K.

    2007-03-01

    We present resistivity and AC calorimetry measurements of single crystalline CeNiGe2 under high pressure and low temperature in a diamond anvil cell. CeNiGe2 is a highly anisotropic, antiferromagnetic Kondo system at ambient pressure, located close to the boundary with non-magnetic systems. It has two ordering temperatures, T=3.9 K and T=3.2 K, which are suppressed under pressure. Between 0.7 and 1.4 GPa only a single transition was identified, with TN reaching 1.9 K by 1.4 GPa. At 1.9 GPa two transitions could again be seen by AC calorimetry at 2.0 and 1.3 K, accompanied by a qualitative change in the behaviour of the resistivity. The Sommerfeld coefficient showed a maximum of 755 mJ mol-1 K-2 at 1.4 GPa, up from 448 mJ mol-1 K-2 at close to ambient pressure. The residual resistivity was found to decrease sharply above 1.4 GPa after an initial increase with pressure.

  7. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin to Aminopeptidase in Susceptible and Resistant Diamondback Moths (Plutella xylostella)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, K.; Tabashnik, B. E.; Adang, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin bound to a 120-kDa protein isolated from the brush border membranes of both susceptible and resistant larvae of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth. The 120-kDa protein was purified by Cry1Ac toxin affinity chromatography. Like Cry1Ac-binding aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) from other insects, this protein was eluted from the affinity column with 200 mM N-acetylgalactosamine. The purified protein had aminopeptidase activity and bound Cry1Ac toxin on ligand blots. Purified aminopeptidase was recognized by antibodies to the cross-reacting determinant found on phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-solubilized proteins. The results show that the presence of Cry1Ac-binding aminopeptidase in the brush border membrane is not sufficient to confer susceptibility to Cry1Ac. Furthermore, the results do not support the hypothesis that resistance to Cry1Ac was caused by lack of a Cry1Ac-binding aminopeptidase. PMID:16535536

  8. Electro-dewatering of activated sludge: Electrical resistance analysis.

    PubMed

    Conrardy, Jean-Baptiste; Vaxelaire, Jean; Olivier, Jérémy

    2016-09-01

    The significant risk of ohmic heating and the high electric energy consumption at terminal stages of the dewatering are two problems that hamper the development of the electro-dewatering (EDW) technology. In the future prospect of studying these two issues, it is important to provide and analyse quantitative data relative to the behavior of the electric resistance in EDW. It was the main goal of this study. It showed that the electric resistance of the complete system (cake + filter cloth) depended on the cake dryness. It increased sharply when the solids content exceeded around 45%.The solids loading also influenced the apparent resistance at the beginning of the process. The electric resistance of the filter cloth represented about 20% of the total resistance. It remained relatively constant over the process except at the terminal stage where it generally increased sharply. The use of conductive filter, such as metallic cloth, enabled to decrease the electric resistance and reduce the energy consumption of the process. The electric resistance decreased across the cake from the anode to the cathode. This behavior may be explained by several phenomena such as the ions migration and their interaction with the solid, the decrease of dry solids content from the anode to the cathode and the gas presence at the anode (due to electrolysis reaction).

  9. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  10. Human aquaporin 4 gating dynamics in dc and ac electric fields: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garate, J.-A.; English, Niall J.; MacElroy, J. M. D.

    2011-02-01

    Water self-diffusion within human aquaporin 4 has been studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the absence and presence of external ac and dc electric fields. The computed diffusive (pd) and osmotic (pf) permeabilities under zero-field conditions are (0.718 ± 0.24) × 10-14 cm3 s-1 and (2.94 ± 0.47) × 10-14 cm3 s-1, respectively; our pf agrees with the experimental value of (1.50 ± 0.6) × 10-14 cm3 s-1. A gating mechanism has been proposed in which side-chain dynamics of residue H201, located in the selectivity filter, play an essential role. In addition, for nonequilibrium MD in external fields, it was found that water dipole orientation within the constriction region of the channel is affected by electric fields (e-fields) and that this governs the permeability. It was also found that the rate of side-chain flipping motion of residue H201 is increased in the presence of e-fields, which influences water conductivity further.

  11. Tuning polymer nanocomposite morphology: AC electric field manipulation of epoxy-montmorillonite (clay) suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner,H.; Jacobs, D.; Tomlin, D.; Busbee, J.; Vaia, R.

    2004-01-01

    The next revolutionary leap forward for polymer nano-'composites' necessitates the development of tools to transform the currently random or ill-defined nanoscale morphologies into compositionally and spatially engineered hierarchal structures, paralleling that underpinning conventional continuous fiber reinforced composites and enabling experimental verification of morphology-mechanical property correlations. Here in, utilization of AC electric fields of modest strength (1-10 V/micron) is demonstrated as a general approach to align organically modified layered silicates (OLS) parallel to the electric field-enhancing CTE, modulus and optical clarity in the reinforced direction. Interfacial polarization arising from electrophoric motion of the organic-modifier on the layer surface induces a dipole parallel to the plane of the layer, which couples to the external field. Comparably, application of a static magnetic field (0.5-2 T) induces alignment of the layers parallel or perpendicular to the field, depending on the chemical composition of the OLS. The impact of field magnitude, field frequency, dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the system is discussed to elucidate the molecular characteristics of induced dipole formation and establish the limits of the process.

  12. Tuning Polymer Nanocomposite Morphology: Magnetic and AC Electric Field Manipulation of Epoxy - Montmorillonite (Clay) Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaia, Richard; Koerner, Hilmar; Jacobs, J. David; Busbee, John; Hampton, Edwin; Dean, Derrick

    2004-03-01

    The next revolutionary leap forward for polymer nano-'composites' necessitates the development of tools to transform the currently random or ill-defined nanoscale morphologies into compositionally and spatially engineered hierarchal structures, paralleling that underpinning conventional continuous fiber reinforced composites and enabling experimental verification of morphology-mechanical property correlations. Here in, utilization of AC electric fields of modest strength (1-10 V/micron) is demonstrated as a general approach to align organically modified layered silicates (OLS) parallel to the electric field - enhancing CTE, modulus and optical clarity in the reinforced direction. Interfacial polarization arising from electrophoric motion of the organic-modifier on the layer surface induces a dipole parallel to the plane of the layer, which couples to the external field. Comparably, application of a static magnetic field (0.5-2 T) induces alignment of the layers parallel or perpendicular to the field, depending on the chemical composition of the OLS. The impact of field magnitude, field frequency, dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the system is discussed to elucidate the molecular characteristics of induced dipole formation and establish the limits of the process.

  13. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  14. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  15. Particle segregation in suspensions subject to high-gradient ac electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussaud, Anne D.; Khusid, Boris; Acrivos, Andreas

    2000-11-01

    An experimental and theoretical study is described dealing with the dielectrophoretic motion of individual particles in a static as well as in a flowing suspension subject to high-gradient ac electric fields. The experiments were performed on very dilute suspensions of neutrally buoyant hollow ceramic spheres in a specially designed device in which the electric-field lines and the dielectrophoretic force were along the plane perpendicular to the streamlines of the main flow. Upon application of a high-gradient field (˜several kV/mm) to a quiescent suspension, the particles were found to move away from the electrodes and then to concentrate above the grounded electrodes, forming a distinct boundary between the clean fluid and the remaining suspension. This same field, when applied to a flowing suspension, caused the particles to concentrate within thin stripes parallel to the flow above the grounded electrodes and to travel with the suspending fluid within these stripes. The theoretical model for the particle motion included only the dielectrophoretic force and the viscous drag, and required no fitting parameters because the particle polarizability was calculated independently by measuring the concentration dependence of the complex permittivity of the suspension in a spatially uniform electric field of low strength (˜several V/mm). The computed particle motions and pattern formations were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. These results demonstrate that the expression for the dielectrophoretic force which employs the value of the particle polarization measured in fields of low strength can be used for describing the particle motions in fields of high strength. This approach enables one to model a broad range of electro-hydrodynamic phenomena in suspensions irrespective of whether or not they are perfectly insulating or perfectly conducting.

  16. Study of electrical resistivity of lithium-indium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Gyanesh; Katyal, O. P.

    1984-12-01

    Experimental results are presented on the electrical resistivity of lithium-indium films. The resistivity has been studied as a function of temperature (150-300 K), thickness of the films (570-3300 Å) and concentration of Li (11.0-58.7 at. %). The resistivity is observed to be minimum for samples having a Li concentration of 25 and 50 at. %. In general, resistivity varies linearly with temperature but resistivity versus temperature plot shows two distinct regions which have different slopes, i.e., dρ/dT. The role of lithium in indium-lithium films is discussed.

  17. Electron-radiation effects on the ac and dc electrical properties and unpaired electron densities of three aerospace polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Sheila Ann T.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Ries, Heidi R.; Harries, Wynford L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of gigarad-level total absorbed doses from 1-MeV electrons on the post-irradiation alternating-current (ac) and direct-current (dc) electrical properties and the unpaired electron densities have been studied for Kapton, Ultem, and Mylar. The unpaired electron densities (determined from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy) and the dc electrical conductivities of the irradiated materials were monitored as functions of time following the exposures to determine their decay characteristics at room temperature. The elevated-temperature ac electrical dissipations of the Ultem and Mylar were affected by the radiation. The dc conductivity of the Kapton increased by five orders of magnitude, while the dc conductivities of the Ultem and Mylar increased by less than an order of magnitude, due to the radiation. The observed radiation-generated changes in the ac electrical dissipations are explained in terms of known radiation-generated changes in the molecular structures of the three materials. A preliminary model relating the dc electrical conductivity and the unpaired electron density in the Kapton is proposed.

  18. Inheritance patterns, dominance and cross-resistance of Cry1Ab- and Cry1Ac-selected Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiantao; He, Mingxia; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Wang, Zhenying; Edwards, Martin G; Li, Qing; He, Kanglai

    2014-09-11

    Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS) for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR) and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR) toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR) of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively), indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased.

  19. Targeting ACLY sensitizes castration-resistant prostate cancer cells to AR antagonism by impinging on an ACLY-AMPK-AR feedback mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shah, Supriya; Carriveau, Whitney J; Li, Jinyang; Campbell, Sydney L; Kopinski, Piotr K; Lim, Hee-Woong; Daurio, Natalie; Trefely, Sophie; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Wallace, Douglas C; Koumenis, Constantinos; Mancuso, Anthony; Wellen, Kathryn E

    2016-07-12

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in prostate tumor growth. Inappropriate reactivation of the AR after androgen deprivation therapy promotes development of incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In this study, we provide evidence that metabolic features of prostate cancer cells can be exploited to sensitize CRPC cells to AR antagonism. We identify a feedback loop between ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY)-dependent fatty acid synthesis, AMPK, and the AR in prostate cancer cells that could contribute to therapeutic resistance by maintaining AR levels. When combined with an AR antagonist, ACLY inhibition in CRPC cells promotes energetic stress and AMPK activation, resulting in further suppression of AR levels and target gene expression, inhibition of proliferation, and apoptosis. Supplying exogenous fatty acids can restore energetic homeostasis; however, this rescue does not occur through increased β-oxidation to support mitochondrial ATP production. Instead, concurrent inhibition of ACLY and AR may drive excess ATP consumption as cells attempt to cope with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is prevented by fatty acid supplementation. Thus, fatty acid metabolism plays a key role in coordinating ER and energetic homeostasis in CRPC cells, thereby sustaining AR action and promoting proliferation. Consistent with a role for fatty acid metabolism in sustaining AR levels in prostate cancer in vivo, AR mRNA levels in human prostate tumors correlate positively with expression of ACLY and other fatty acid synthesis genes. The ACLY-AMPK-AR network can be exploited to sensitize CRPC cells to AR antagonism, suggesting novel therapeutic opportunities for prostate cancer.

  20. Chronic lead exposure reduces junctional resistance at an electrical synapse.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T

    1984-01-01

    Both acute and chronic lead exposure have been found to inhibit transmission at chemical synapses, possibly by interfering with inward calcium current. We have found that chronic lead exposure slightly reduces input resistance and greatly reduces the junctional resistance between two strongly electrically coupled neurons in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The net effect is to increase the strength of electrical coupling. A reduction in gap junctional resistance would also be expected to increase the flow of small molecules between cells. However, Lucifer Yellow injections did not reveal dye-coupling between the cells. Lead exposure also increases the capacitance of the neurons.

  1. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  2. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  3. Thermal treatment of low permeability soils using electrical resistance heating

    SciTech Connect

    Udell, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by increasing the soil and ground water temperature. Electrical heating with AC current is one method of increasing the soil and groundwater temperature and has particular applicability to low permeability soils. Several mechanisms have been identified that account for the enhanced removal of the contaminants during electrical heating. These are vaporization of liquid contaminants with low boiling points, temperature-enhanced evaporation rates of semi-volatile components, and removal of residual contaminants by the boiling of residual water. Field scale studies of electrical heating and fluid extraction show the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found both above and below the water table and within low permeability soils. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Mesoscopic turbulence and local order in Janus particles self-propelling under an ac electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Daiki; Sano, Masaki

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate mechanisms of mesoscopic turbulence exhibited by active particles, we experimentally study turbulent states of nonliving self-propelled particles. We realize an experimental system with dense suspensions of asymmetrical colloidal particles (Janus particles) self-propelling on a two-dimensional surface under an ac electric field. Velocity fields of the Janus particles in the crowded situation can be regarded as a sort of turbulence because it contains many vortices and their velocities change abruptly. Correlation functions of their velocity field reveal the coexistence of polar alignment and antiparallel alignment interactions, which is considered to trigger mesoscopic turbulence. Probability distributions of local order parameters for polar and nematic orders indicate the formation of local clusters with particles moving in the same direction. A broad peak in the energy spectrum of the velocity field appears at the spatial scales where the polar alignment and the cluster formation are observed. Energy is injected at the particle scale and conserved quantities such as energy could be cascading toward the larger clusters.

  5. Performance criteria guideline for three explosion protection methods of electrical equipment rated up to 15,000 volts AC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linley, L. J.; Luper, A. B.; Dunn, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is reviewing explosion protection methods for use in gassy coal mines. This performance criteria guideline is an evaluation of three explosion protection methods of machines electrically powered with voltages up to 15,000 volts ac. A sufficient amount of basic research has been accomplished to verify that the explosion proof and pressurized enclosure methods can provide adequate explosion protection with the present state of the art up to 15,000 volts ac. This routine application of the potted enclosure as a stand alone protection method requires further investigation or development in order to clarify performance criteria and verification certification requirements. An extensive literature search, a series of high voltage tests, and a design evaluation of the three explosion protection methods indicate that the explosion proof, pressurized, and potted enclosures can all be used to enclose up to 15,000 volts ac.

  6. Electrical resistivity of iron at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Seagle, C.; Fei, Y.; Shahar, A.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of thermal conductivity of iron under high-pressure and temperature conditions is crucial to understand the heat transport and the thermal evolution of planetary interior. However, measurements of thermal conductivity at high pressure and temperature are challenging and experimental data are limited. In this study, we report the measured electrical resistivity of iron at high pressure and temperature. The data are then translated to thermal conductivity through Wiedemann-Franz law. A four-probe method was employed to measure the resistances of a cylindrical wire during heating cycles at high pressure. Experiments at 5, 7 and 13 GPa were performed on an iron wire sample by using a multi-anvil apparatus at the Geophysical Laboratory. At 5, 7 and 13 GPa, the measured electrical resistivity of iron at room temperature are 9.06 mΩ-cm (bcc phase), 8.85 mΩ-cm (bcc phase) and 12.72 mΩ-cm (hcp phase), respectively. The results are in a good agreement with reported room-temperature data. The kinks in electrical resistivity associated with the phase transitions of iron were clearly observed in each run. At 5 and 7 GPa, kinks in the electrical resistivity can be noticed at 677 oC and 652 oC, respectively, due to the bcc to fcc phase transition. At 5 GPa and 1687 oC, melting led to a discontinuous change in electrical resistivity. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity for bcc, fcc, and hcp iron are well constrained from these measurements. The hcp iron displays the strongest temperature dependence compared with that of the bcc and fcc phases. Our results provide critical thermodynamic parameters to constrain heat transport in the planetary cores.

  7. Construction Of Electrical Resistivity Images For Medical Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. C.; Brown, B. H.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of various tissues is known to cover a wide range of values and images of resistivity distribution within a patient should show good contrast and may prove to have some diagnostic use. Data on the internal distribution of resistivity within a patient may be obtained by applying current between electrodes attached to the patient and measuring the voltage developed across the surface of the patient. After collection of a complete set of data a tomographic image of resistivity may be constructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm. Some likely clinical uses are in the assessment of respiratory function and cardiopulmonary dynamics.

  8. Electrical resistance tomography for monitoring the infiltration of water into a pavement section

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, M.; Daily, B.; Ramirez, A.

    1997-07-03

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to follow the infiltration of water into pavement section at the UC Berkeley Richmond Field Station. A volume of pavement 1m square and 1.29 m deep was sampled by an ERT array consisting of electrodes in 9 drilled holes plus 8 surface electrodes. The data were collected using a computer controlled data acquisition system capable of collecting a full data set in under 1 hour, allowing for nearly real time sampling of the infiltration. The infiltration was conducted in two phases. During the first phase, water was introduced into the asphalt-concrete (AC) layers at a slow rate of about 8 ml per hour for a period of about 6 days. In the second phase, water was introduced into the asphalt-treated-permeable base (ATPB) layer at a more rapid rate of about 100 ml/h for about 2 days. The ERT images show that water introduced into the upper AC layers shows up as a decrease in resistivity which grows with time. The images also appear to show that when water moves into the layers below the ATPB, the resistivity increases; an unexpected result. There are some indications that the water moved laterally as well as down into the deeper ATPB and the aggregate base. The images also show that when water is introduced directly into the ATPB and aggregate layer, the water moves into the the underlying materials much more quickly.

  9. Research on temperature control with numerical regulators in electric resistance furnaces with indirect heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2016-02-01

    The paper is an analysis of two-positions (hysteresis) regulators, self-tuned PID controller and PID controller for temperature control used for indirect heat resistance furnaces. For PID controller was used three methods of tuning: Ziegler-Nichols step response model, Cohen-Coon tuning rules and Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules. In experiments it used an electric furnace with indirect heating with active power of resistance of 1 kW/230V AC and a numerical temperature regulator AT-503 type (ANLY). It got a much better temperature control when using the Cohen-Coon tuning rules method than those of Ziegler-Nichols step response method and Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules method.

  10. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  11. Influence of Electrical Resistivity and Machining Parameters on Electrical Discharge Machining Performance of Engineering Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  12. Controller for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply, and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Cantin, Luc; Deschenes, Mario; D'Amours, Mario

    1995-08-15

    A controller is provided for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply having a typical frequency, the AC supply being provided via power transformers by an electrical power distribution grid. The controller is associated with the load and comprises an input interface for coupling the controller to the grid, a frequency detector for detecting the frequency of the AC supply and producing a signal indicative of the frequency, memory modules for storing preprogrammed commands, a frequency monitor for reading the signal indicative of the frequency and producing frequency data derived thereof, a selector for selecting at least one of the preprogrammed commands with respect to the frequency data, a control unit for producing at least one command signal representative of the selected preprogrammed commands, and an output interface including a device responsive to the command signal for controlling the load. Therefore, the load can be controlled by means of the controller depending on the frequency of the AC supply.

  13. Electrical resistivity borehole measurements: application to an urban tunnel site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, A.; Marache, A.; Obellianne, T.; Breysse, D.

    2002-06-01

    This paper shows how it is possible to use wells drilled during geotechnical pre-investigation of a tunneling site to obtain a 2-D image of the resistivity close to a tunnel boring machine. An experimental apparatus is presented which makes it possible to perform single and borehole-to-borehole electrical measurements independent of the geological and hydrogeological context, which can be activated at any moment during the building of the tunnel. This apparatus is first demonstrated through its use on a test site. Numerical simulations and data inversion are used to analyse the experimental results. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography and single-borehole measurements on a tunneling site are presented. Experimental results show the viability of the apparatus and the efficiency of the inverse algorithm, and also highlight the limitations of the electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for geotechnical investigation in urban areas.

  14. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  15. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines.

  16. Influences of internal resistance and specific surface area of electrode materials on characteristics of electric double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Mizutani, Akitaka; Harigai, Toru; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Ue, Hitoshi; Umeda, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    We fabricated electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) using particulate and fibrous types of carbon nanomaterials with a wide range of specific surface areas and resistivity as an active material. The carbon nanomaterials used in this study are carbon nanoballoons (CNBs), onion-like carbon (OLC), and carbon nanocoils (CNCs). A commercially used activated carbon (AC) combined with a conductive agent was used as a comparison. We compared the EDLC performance using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge testing, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). OLC showed a poor EDLC performance, although it has the lowest resistivity among the carbon nanomaterials. CNB, which has a 1/16 lower specific surface area than AC but higher specific surface area than CNC and OLC, had a higher specific capacitance than CNC and OLC. Moreover, at current densities of 1.5 Ag-1 and larger, the specific capacitance of the EDLC using CNB was almost the same as that using AC. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the EDLCs revealed that the CNB and CNC electrodes had a much lower internal resistance than the AC electrode, which correlated with a low capacitance maintenance factor as the current density increased.

  17. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  18. Electrical resistivity of Au-ZnO nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argibay, N.; Goeke, R. S.; Dugger, M. T.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Michael, J. R.; Prasad, S. V.

    2013-04-01

    The electrical resistivity of electron beam codeposited gold and zinc oxide (Au-ZnO) films was investigated over the full composition range. The electrical resistivity was shown to increase monotonically with increasing ZnO content, with three characteristic regimes of behavior associated primarily with (1) grain boundary electron scattering due to grain refinement at ZnO volume fractions below 0.3, (2) percolation theory for ZnO volume fractions at and above the percolation threshold (fc = 0.85), and (3) a transition region between these where it was proposed that resistivity was influenced by the formation of Au-Zn complexes due to an oxygen deficiency in the deposited ZnO. The electrical resistivity of the composite films remained below 100 μΩ cm for ZnO volume fractions below 0.5. A model combining the general effective media equation and Mayadas-Shatzkes grain boundary electron scattering model was shown to generally describe the composition dependence of electrical resistivity for the investigated oxide dispersion hardened metal-matrix composite thin films.

  19. Electrical resistivity of Au-ZnO nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Argibay, N.; Goeke, R. S.; Dugger, M. T.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Michael, J. R.; Prasad, S. V.

    2013-04-14

    The electrical resistivity of electron beam codeposited gold and zinc oxide (Au-ZnO) films was investigated over the full composition range. The electrical resistivity was shown to increase monotonically with increasing ZnO content, with three characteristic regimes of behavior associated primarily with (1) grain boundary electron scattering due to grain refinement at ZnO volume fractions below 0.3, (2) percolation theory for ZnO volume fractions at and above the percolation threshold (f{sub c} = 0.85), and (3) a transition region between these where it was proposed that resistivity was influenced by the formation of Au-Zn complexes due to an oxygen deficiency in the deposited ZnO. The electrical resistivity of the composite films remained below 100 {mu}{Omega} cm for ZnO volume fractions below 0.5. A model combining the general effective media equation and Mayadas-Shatzkes grain boundary electron scattering model was shown to generally describe the composition dependence of electrical resistivity for the investigated oxide dispersion hardened metal-matrix composite thin films.

  20. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Daily, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations.

  1. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Ramirez, A.L.; Chesnut, D.A.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-09-13

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations. 1 fig.

  2. Modeling the Electrical Contact Resistance at Steel-Carbon Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimmo, Ayoola T.; Hassan, Mohamed I.

    2016-01-01

    In the aluminum smelting industry, electrical contact resistance at the stub-carbon (steel-carbon) interface has been recurrently reported to be of magnitudes that legitimately necessitate concern. Mitigating this via finite element modeling has been the focus of a number of investigations, with the pressure- and temperature-dependent contact resistance relation frequently cited as a factor that limits the accuracy of such models. In this study, pressure- and temperature-dependent relations are derived from the most extensively cited works that have experimentally characterized the electrical contact resistance at these contacts. These relations are applied in a validated thermo-electro-mechanical finite element model used to estimate the voltage drop across a steel-carbon laboratory setup. By comparing the models' estimate of the contact electrical resistance with experimental measurements, we deduce the applicability of the different relations over a range of temperatures. The ultimate goal of this study is to apply mathematical modeling in providing pressure- and temperature-dependent relations that best describe the steel-carbon electrical contact resistance and identify the best fit relation at specific thermodynamic conditions.

  3. Electrical resistance tomography experiments at the Oregon Graduate Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; LaBrecque, D.; Barber, W.

    1995-04-01

    Three controlled experiments were conducted at the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) with the purpose of evaluating electrical resistance tomography for imaging underground processes associated with in-situ site assessment and remediation. The OGI facilities are unique: a double-wall tank 10 m square and 5 m deep, filled with river bottom sediments and instrumented for geophysical and hydrological studies. At this facility, liquid contaminants could be released into the confined soil at a scale sufficiently large to represent real-world physical phenomena. In the first test, images of electrical resistivity were made before and during a controlled spill of gasoline into a sandy soil. The primary purpose was to determine if electrical resistivity images could detect the hydrocarbon in either the vadose or saturated zone. Definite changes in electrical resistivity were observed in both the vadose and saturated soils. The effects were an increase in resistivity of as much as 10% above pre-release values. A single resistive anomaly was imaged, directly below the release point, principally within the vadose zone but extending below the phreatic surface. The anomaly remained identifiable in tomograms taken two days after the release ended with clear indications of lateral spreading along the water table. The second test involved electrical resistance measurements before, during, and after air sparging in a saturated soil. The primary purpose was to determine if the electrical images could be used to detect and delineate the extent of the zone influenced by sparging. The images showed an increase of about 20% in resistivity over background values within the sparged zone and the extent of the imaged zone agreed with that inferred from other information. Electrical resistivity tomography measurements were made under a simulated oil storage tank in the third test. Comparison of images taken before and during separate releases of brine and water showed effects of changes

  4. Recent advances in the mitigation of AC voltages occurring in pipelines located close to electric transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Southey, R.D.; Dawalibi, F.P. ); Vukonich, W. )

    1994-04-01

    In joint-use corridors where both pipelines and AC electric transmission lines are present, a portion of the energy contained in the electromagnetic field surrounding the electric transmission lines is captured by each pipeline, resulting in induced AC voltages which vary in magnitude throughout the length of each pipeline. During a fault on any of the transmission lines, energization of the earth by supporting structures near the fault can result in large voltages appearing locally between the earth and the steel wall of any nearby pipeline. Some form of mitigation is usually required to reduce these voltages to acceptable levels for the protection of personnel and of the pipeline itself. This paper presents a new mitigation design approach which not only reduces AC voltages effectively and economically, but also provides cathodic protection for the protected pipeline. Performance of this new mitigation method is illustrated with results from computer simulations, which show how important it is to have an accurate electrical model of the soil structure in any interference study. Results from large-scale mitigation design studies performed for ANR Pipeline Company and other gas transmission companies are presented.

  5. High electrical resistivity carbon/graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, F. L.; Forsman, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon/graphite fibers were chemically oxidized in the liquid phase to fibers of graphite oxide. Resistivity increases as high as 10,000 times were obtained, the oxidized fiber decomposed on exposure to atmosphere. A factor of 1,000 remained as a stable increment. The largest change observed was 1,000,000 times. Best results were obtained on the most highly graphitized fibers. Electrochemical oxidation yielded a lower increase--about 10 times, but provided a controllable method of synthesis and insight to the mechanism of reaction. Tensile tests indicated that the strength of the fiber on oxidation was decreased by no more than 25 percent.

  6. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials by electrical resistance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Zhen

    This dissertation investigates electrical resistance measurement for nondestructive evaluation of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polymer matrix composites. The method involves measuring the DC electrical resistance in either the longitudinal or through thickness direction. The thermal history and thermal properties of thermoplastic/CF composites were studied by longitudinal and through-thickness resistance measurements. The resistance results were consistent with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) results. The resistance measurements gave more information on the melting of the polymer matrix than TMA. They were more sensitive to the glass transition of the polymer matrix than DSC. The through-thickness resistance decreased as autohesion progressed. The activation energy of autohesion was 21.2 kJ/mol for both nylon-6 and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)/CF composites. Adhesive bonding and debonding were monitored in real-time by measurement of the through-thickness resistance between the adherends in an adhesive joint during heating and subsequent cooling. Debonding occurred during cooling when the pressure or temperature during prior bonding was not sufficiently high. A long heating time below the melting temperature (T m) was found to be detrimental to subsequent PPS adhesive joint development above Tm, due to curing reactions below Tm and consequent reduced mass flow response above Tm. A high heating rate (small heating time) enhanced the bonding more than a high pressure. The longitudinal resistance measurement was used to investigate the effects of temperature and stress on the interface between a concrete substrate and its epoxy/CF composite retrofit. The resistance of the retrofit was increased by bond degradation, whether the degradation was due to heat or stress. The degradation was reversible. Irreversible disturbance in the fiber arrangement occurred slightly as thermal or load cycling occurred, as indicated by the

  7. Observer-based higher order sliding mode control of power factor in three-phase AC/DC converter for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianxing; Laghrouche, Salah; Wack, Maxime

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a full-bridge boost power converter topology is studied for power factor control, using output higher order sliding mode control. The AC/DC converters are used for charging the battery and super-capacitor in hybrid electric vehicles from the utility. The proposed control forces the input currents to track the desired values, which can control the output voltage while keeping the power factor close to one. Super-twisting sliding mode observer is employed to estimate the input currents and load resistance only from the measurement of output voltage. Lyapunov analysis shows the asymptotic convergence of the closed-loop system to zero. Multi-rate simulation illustrates the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller in the presence of measurement noise.

  8. Electrical Resistivity Changes in Saturated Rock under Stress.

    PubMed

    Brace, W F; Orange, A S

    1966-09-23

    Electrical resistivity of water-saturated crystalline rock such as granite, diabase, dunite, or quartzite changes by an order of magnitude prior to fracture of the rock in compression. The effect observed even under high confining pressure is due to formation of open cracks which first appear at one-third to two-thirds the fracture stress.

  9. Using electrical resistance probes for moisture determination in switchgrass windrows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining moisture levels in windrowed biomass is important for both forage producers and researchers. Energy crops such as switchgrass have been troublesome when using the standard methods set for electrical resistance meters. The objectives of this study were to i) develop the methodologies need...

  10. Seasonal Variations in Subsurface Electrical Resistivity in a Floodplain Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esker, A.; Marshall, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to create a three-dimensional model of a floodplain aquifer along the New River in western North Carolina, we have collected numerous DC electrical resistivity profiles over the course of six years. Unfortunately, the electrical resistivity of geologic materials can be partially controlled by temperature and water content which both vary temporally. To determine the extent to which resistivity data is affected by temporal variations at our site, we conducted multiple DC electrical resistivity surveys collected at the same location at various times of the year to quantify changes in the resistivity patterns. We use a Wenner array that offers a large signal to noise ratio, but relatively few data points, and a Dipole-Dipole array that produces more data, but is more sensitive to noise. For each data acquisition date, we measure the depth to water at seven boreholes parallel to the survey to determine if any of the collected resistivity surveys can be independently used to detect the water table and if any changes affect subsurface resistivities. We created a stacked model of all surveys of the same array type, and compare to each survey to qualitatively and quantitatively identify changes in the subsurface patterns. Results indicate there are few major changes in the qualitative subsurface patterns with time. RMS errors between the stacked model and different surveys range from 56 to 201 Ohm-m and percent differences range from 5.84% to 21.50%. The surveys with largest RMS errors correspond to days that had a significant change of water table level from the static level. Our preliminary results suggest that so long as surveys are collected during similar water table conditions, data from multiple years should yield similar results. Furthermore, the subsurface resistivity values and GPR surveys do not clearly delineate the water table levels, suggesting that near surface geophysical methods many not be able to detect the water table at our site.

  11. Electrical resistance of complex two-dimensional structures of loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, M. A. F.; Hora, R. R.; Brito, V. P.

    2011-06-01

    This work presents a study of the dc electrical resistance of a recently discovered hierarchical two-dimensional system which has a complex topology consisting of a distribution of disordered macroscopic loops with no characteristic size and a distribution of several types of contacts between loops. In addition to its intrinsic interest in the important context of low-dimensional systems and crumpled systems, the structures under study are of relevance in a number of areas including soft condensed matter and packing of DNA in viral capsids. In the particular case discussed here, the loops are made of layers of graphite with a height of tens of nanometers deposited on a substrate of cellulose. Experiments with these systems indicate an anomalous electrical resistance of sub-diffusive type. The results reported here are explained with scaling arguments and computer simulation. A comparison with the dc electrical properties of percolation clusters is made, and some other experimental issues as future prospects are commented.

  12. Structural, magnetic, DC-AC electrical conductivities and thermo electric studies of MgCuZn Ferrites for microinductor applications.

    PubMed

    Varalaxmi, N; Sivakumar, K V

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer chip inductors (MLCIs) have been rapidly developed for electromagnetic applications. NiCuZn ferrites are the most preferred ferrite materials to produce MLCIs. MgCuZn ferrites have similar properties to those of NiCuZn ferrites. MgCuZn ferrites owing to their superior properties like low magnetostriction, environmental stability, low stress sensitivity, high resistivity and low cost can replace NiCuZn ferrites, which have a wide range of electronic applications. In view of this, a series of polycrystalline MgCuZn ferrites with generic formula MgxCu0.5Zn0.5-xFe2O4 (X=0.0 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) are successfully synthesized by conventional double sintering technique. The samples were then characterized by the X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) microstructural studies and the grain size was estimated using SEM micrographs. The sintered ferrites have been investigated in their magnetic, electrical and thermoelectric effect studies, which were carried out in the temperature range from 30 °C to 490 °C. The investigated ferrites are found to exhibit excellent properties that are suitable for the core materials in multilayer chip inductors, and the results are discussed.

  13. Causal Analysis of the Inadvertent Contact with an Uncontrolled Electrical Hazardous Energy Source (120 Volts AC)

    SciTech Connect

    David E. James; Dennis E. Raunig; Sean S. Cunningham

    2014-10-01

    On September 25, 2013, a Health Physics Technician (HPT) was performing preparations to support a pneumatic transfer from the HFEF Decon Cell to the Room 130 Glovebox in HFEF, per HFEF OI 3165 section 3.5, Field Preparations. This activity involves an HPT setting up and climbing a portable ladder to remove the 14-C meter probe from above ball valve HBV-7. The HPT source checks the meter and probe and then replaces the probe above HBV-7, which is located above Hood ID# 130 HP. At approximately 13:20, while reaching past the HBV-7 valve position indicator switches in an attempt to place the 14-C meter probe in the desired location, the HPT’s left forearm came in contact with one of the three sets of exposed terminals on the valve position indication switches for HBV 7. This resulted in the HPT receiving an electrical shock from a 120 Volt AC source. Upon moving the arm, following the electrical shock, the HPT noticed two exposed electrical connections on a switch. The HPT then notified the HFEF HPT Supervisor, who in turn notified the MFC Radiological Controls Manager and HFEF Operations Manager of the situation. Work was stopped in the area and the hazard was roped off and posted to prevent access to the hazard. The HPT was escorted by the HPT Supervisor to the MFC Dispensary and then preceded to CFA medical for further evaluation. The individual was evaluated and released without any medical restrictions. Causal Factor (Root Cause) A3B3C01/A5B2C08: - Knowledge based error/Attention was given to wrong issues - Written Communication content LTA, Incomplete/situation not covered The Causal Factor (root cause) was attention being given to the wrong issues during the creation, reviews, verifications, and actual performance of HFEF OI-3165, which covers the need to perform the weekly source check and ensure placement of the probe prior to performing a “rabbit” transfer. This resulted in the hazard not being identified and mitigated in the procedure. Work activities

  14. Introducing AC Inductive Reactance with a Power Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Wesley; Baker, Blane

    2016-01-01

    The concept of reactance in AC electrical circuits is often non-intuitive and difficult for students to grasp. In order to address this lack of conceptual understanding, classroom exercises compare the predicted resistance of a power tool, based on electrical specifications, to measured resistance. Once students discover that measured resistance…

  15. High Susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Low Resistance Allele Frequency Reduce the Risk of Resistance of Helicoverpa armigera to Bt Soybean in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bacalhau, Fabiana B.; Amado, Douglas; Carvalho, Renato A.; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced into Brazil, where it has caused extensive damage to cotton and soybean crops. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, which expresses the Bt protein Cry1Ac, was recently deployed in Brazil, providing high levels of control against H. armigera. To assess the risk of resistance to the Cry1Ac protein expressed by MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil, we conducted studies to evaluate the baseline susceptibility of H. armigera to Cry1Ac, in planta efficacy including the assessment of the high-dose criterion, and the initial resistance allele frequency based on an F2 screen. The mean Cry1Ac lethal concentration (LC50) ranged from 0.11 to 1.82 μg·mL−1 of diet among all H. armigera field populations collected from crop seasons 2013/14 to 2014/15, which indicated about 16.5-fold variation. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean exhibited a high level of efficacy against H. armigera and most likely met the high dose criterion against this target species in leaf tissue dilution bioassays up to 50 times. A total of 212 F2 family lines of H. armigera were established from field collections sampled from seven locations across Brazil and were screened for the presence of MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean resistance alleles. None of the 212 families survived on MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean leaf tissue (estimated allele frequency = 0.0011). The responses of H. armigera to Cry1Ac protein, high susceptibility to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, and low frequency of resistance alleles across the main soybean-producing regions support the assumptions of a high-dose/refuge strategy. However, maintenance of reasonable compliance with the refuge recommendation will be essential to delay the evolution of resistance in H. armigera to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil. PMID:27532632

  16. High Susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Low Resistance Allele Frequency Reduce the Risk of Resistance of Helicoverpa armigers to Bt Soybean in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Patrick M; Bacalhau, Fabiana B; Amado, Douglas; Carvalho, Renato A; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced into Brazil, where it has caused extensive damage to cotton and soybean crops. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, which expresses the Bt protein Cry1Ac, was recently deployed in Brazil, providing high levels of control against H. armigera. To assess the risk of resistance to the Cry1Ac protein expressed by MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil, we conducted studies to evaluate the baseline susceptibility of H. armigera to Cry1Ac, in planta efficacy including the assessment of the high-dose criterion, and the initial resistance allele frequency based on an F2 screen. The mean Cry1Ac lethal concentration (LC50) ranged from 0.11 to 1.82 μg·mL-1 of diet among all H. armigera field populations collected from crop seasons 2013/14 to 2014/15, which indicated about 16.5-fold variation. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean exhibited a high level of efficacy against H. armigera and most likely met the high dose criterion against this target species in leaf tissue dilution bioassays up to 50 times. A total of 212 F2 family lines of H. armigera were established from field collections sampled from seven locations across Brazil and were screened for the presence of MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean resistance alleles. None of the 212 families survived on MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean leaf tissue (estimated allele frequency = 0.0011). The responses of H. armigera to Cry1Ac protein, high susceptibility to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, and low frequency of resistance alleles across the main soybean-producing regions support the assumptions of a high-dose/refuge strategy. However, maintenance of reasonable compliance with the refuge recommendation will be essential to delay the evolution of resistance in H. armigera to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil.

  17. Similar genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Boll-selected and diet-selected strains of pink bollworm.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Genetically engineered cotton and corn plants producing insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests. Yet, evolution of resistance by pests threatens long-term insect control by these transgenic Bt crops. We compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in two independently derived, laboratory-selected strains of a major cotton pest, the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella [Saunders]). The Arizona pooled resistant strain (AZP-R) was started with pink bollworm from 10 field populations and selected with Cry1Ac in diet. The Bt4R resistant strain was started with a long-term susceptible laboratory strain and selected first with Bt cotton bolls and later with Cry1Ac in diet. Previous work showed that AZP-R had three recessive mutations (r1, r2, and r3) in the pink bollworm cadherin gene (PgCad1) linked with resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac. Here we report that inheritance of resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was recessive in Bt4R. In interstrain complementation tests for allelism, F(1) progeny from crosses between AZP-R and Bt4R were resistant to Cry1Ac, indicating a shared resistance locus in the two strains. Molecular analysis of the Bt4R cadherin gene identified a novel 15-bp deletion (r4) predicted to cause the loss of five amino acids upstream of the Cry1Ac-binding region of the cadherin protein. Four recessive mutations in PgCad1 are now implicated in resistance in five different strains, showing that mutations in cadherin are the primary mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona.

  18. DC and ac electrical properties of the chalcogenide semiconductor Se0.9In0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hakim, S. A.; El-Wahab, F. A.; Mohamed, A. S.; Kotkata, M. F.

    2003-07-01

    Se0.9In0.1 samples were prepared from their highly pure constituents, by ice-water quenching from the melts. Structural characterization using XRD and DTA has revealed a stable phase consisting of some crystalline clusters embedded in a glassy matrix with a single glass transition (Tg) at a temperature 320 K, an onset exothermic crystallization peak at 361 K, and a melting endotherm with a melting point at 473 K. The dc (ohmic contact region) and ac (50 Hz-80 kHz) conductivities were measured under vacuum as a function of temperature (from T < Tg down to LN2) for massive samples, 0.3-0.6 mm thick. Results of the space-charge-limited current and the electrical characteristics of both dc and ac conduction are given and discussed in the light of the temperature dependence of the conduction mechanism.

  19. Electrical Resistance Technique to Monitor SiC Composite Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Morscher, Gregory; Xia, Zhenhai

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are suitable for high temperature structural applications such as turbine airfoils and hypersonic thermal protection systems. The employment of these materials in such applications is limited by the ability to process components reliable and to accurately monitor and predict damage evolution that leads to failure under stressed-oxidation conditions. Current nondestructive methods such as ultrasound, x-ray, and thermal imaging are limited in their ability to quantify small scale, transverse, in-plane, matrix cracks developed over long-time creep and fatigue conditions. Electrical resistance of SiC/SiC composites is one technique that shows special promise towards this end. Since both the matrix and the fibers are conductive, changes in matrix or fiber properties should relate to changes in electrical conductivity along the length of a specimen or part. The effect of matrix cracking on electrical resistivity for several composite systems will be presented and some initial measurements performed at elevated temperatures under stress-rupture conditions. The implications towards electrical resistance as a technique applied to composite processing, damage detection (health monitoring), and life-modeling will be discussed.

  20. Novel Positive Temperature Coefficient Effect of Electrical Resistivity in Ni Particles Filled Two Semi-Crystalline Polymer Intermixture Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiping; Yang, Dandan; Wu, Yihua; Wang, Jingrong

    2015-04-01

    A novel positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect nanocomposite by employing both of polyvinylidene fluoride (PP) and polypropylene (PVDF) intermixture in 1-1 volume ratio as host materials and Ni nanoparticles as conductive filler was prepared via a simple hot compaction method. This study focused on the effect of Ni content on percolation threshold and temperature dependence of direct current (DC) resistivity, as well as frequency dependence of alternating current (AC) resistivity of nanocomposites. This kind of material showed a very small percolation threshold value (about 6.0 vol% of Ni) and a novel strong PTC effect of electrical resistivity between temperatures ranging 150-167 °C, which coincided with the both melting temperatures of PP and PVDF. Close to the percolation threshold, abnormal electrical behavior was observed and interpreted based on the tunnel conductivity between Ni clusters. The curves of the AC resistivity versus the frequency, at different loadings of Ni and at different temperatures, offered a further image of the arrangement of conducting clusters within the host.

  1. Recent Advances in Electrical Resistance Preheating of Aluminum Reduction Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed Mahmoud; Kvande, Halvor

    2017-02-01

    There are two mainpreheating methods that are used nowadays for aluminum reduction cells. One is based on electrical resistance preheating with a thin bed of small coke and/or graphite particles between the anodes and the cathode carbon blocks. The other is flame preheating, where two or more gas or oil burners are used. Electrical resistance preheating is the oldest method, but is still frequently used by different aluminum producers. Many improvements have been made to this method by different companies over the last decade. In this paper, important points pertaining to the preparation and preheating of these cells, as well as measurements made during the preheating process and evaluation of the performance of the preheating, are illustrated. The preheating times of these cells were found to be between 36 h and 96 h for cell currents between 176 kA and 406 kA, while the resistance bed thickness was between 13 mm and 60 mm. The average cathode surface temperature at the end of the preheating was usually between 800°C and 950°C. The effect of the preheating methods on cell life is unclear and no quantifiable conclusions can be drawn. Some works carried out in the mathematical modeling area are also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for more studies with real situations for preheated cells on the basis of actual measurements. The expected development in electrical resistance preheating of aluminum reduction cells is also summarized.

  2. Recent Advances in Electrical Resistance Preheating of Aluminum Reduction Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed Mahmoud; Kvande, Halvor

    2016-06-01

    ABSTRACT There are two mainpreheating methods that are used nowadays for aluminum reduction cells. One is based on electrical resistance preheating with a thin bed of small coke and/or graphite particles between the anodes and the cathode carbon blocks. The other is flame preheating, where two or more gas or oil burners are used. Electrical resistance preheating is the oldest method, but is still frequently used by different aluminum producers. Many improvements have been made to this method by different companies over the last decade. In this paper, important points pertaining to the preparation and preheating of these cells, as well as measurements made during the preheating process and evaluation of the performance of the preheating, are illustrated. The preheating times of these cells were found to be between 36 h and 96 h for cell currents between 176 kA and 406 kA, while the resistance bed thickness was between 13 mm and 60 mm. The average cathode surface temperature at the end of the preheating was usually between 800°C and 950°C. The effect of the preheating methods on cell life is unclear and no quantifiable conclusions can be drawn. Some works carried out in the mathematical modeling area are also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for more studies with real situations for preheated cells on the basis of actual measurements. The expected development in electrical resistance preheating of aluminum reduction cells is also summarized.

  3. Forensic Assessment on Ground Instability Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Fauzan, S. M. S. A.; Ikhwan, J. M.; Aishah, M. A. N.

    2017-02-01

    Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to evaluate the ground settlement in local scale at housing areas. ERI and Borehole results were used to interpret the condition of the problematic subsurface profile due to its differential stiffness. Electrical resistivity of the subsurface profile was measured using ABEM SAS4000 equipment set. ERI results using electrical resistivity anomaly on subsurface materials resistivity shows the subsurface profile exhibited low (1 – 100 Ωm) and medium (> 100 Ωm) value (ERV) representing weak to firm materials. The occurrences of soft to medium cohesive material (SPT N value = 2 – 7) and stiff cohesive material (SPT N ≥ 8) in local scale has created inconsistency of the ground stability condition. Moreover, it was found that a layer of organic decayed wood (ERV = 43 ∼ 29 Ωm & SPT N = 15 ∼ 9) has been buried within the subsurface profile thus weaken the ground structure and finally promoting to the ground settlement. The heterogeneous of the subsurface material presented using integrated analysis of ERI and borehole data enabled ground settlement in this area to be evaluated. This is the major factor evaluating ground instability in the local scale. The result was applicable to assist in planning a strategy for sustainable ground improvement of local scale in fast, low cost, and large data coverage.

  4. Soil characterization using electrical resistivity tomography and geotechnical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha, Kumari; Israil, M.; Mittal, S.; Rai, J.

    2009-01-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been used in association with Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT) for Geotechnical investigations at two sites, proposed for thermal power plants, in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. SPT and DCPT tests were conducted at 28 points and two ERT profiles, each measuring 355 m long, were recorded using 72 electrodes deployed at 5 m spacing. Electrical characterization of subsurface soil was done using borehole data and grain size analysis of the soil samples collected from boreholes. The concept of electrical resistivity variation with soil strength related to the grain size distribution, cementation, porosity and saturation has been used to correlate the transverse resistance of soil with the number of blow counts ( N-values) obtained from SPT and DCPT data. It was thus observed that the transverse resistance of soil column is linearly related with the number of blow counts ( N-values) at these sites. The linear relationships are site-specific and the coefficients of linear relation are sensitive to the lithology of subsurface formation, which was verified by borehole data. The study demonstrates the usefulness of the ERT method in geotechnical investigations, which is economic, efficient and less time consuming in comparison to the other geotechnical methods, such as SPT and DCPT, used for the purpose.

  5. Electrical carotid sinus stimulation in treatment resistant arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Heusser, Karsten; Brinkmann, Julia; Tank, Jens

    2012-12-24

    Treatment resistant arterial hypertension is commonly defined as blood pressure that remains above goal in spite of the concurrent use of three antihypertensive agents of different classes. The sympathetic nervous system promotes arterial hypertension and cardiovascular as well as renal damage, thus, providing a logical treatment target in these patients. Recent physiological studies suggest that baroreflex mechanisms contribute to long-term control of sympathetic activity and blood pressure providing an impetus for the development of electrical carotid sinus stimulators. The concept behind electrical stimulation of baroreceptors or baroreflex afferent nerves is that the stimulus is sensed by the brain as blood pressure increase. Then, baroreflex efferent structures are adjusted to counteract the perceived blood pressure increase. Electrical stimulators directly activating afferent baroreflex nerves were developed years earlier but failed for technical reasons. Recently, a novel implantable device was developed that produces an electrical field stimulation of the carotid sinus wall. Carefully conducted experiments in dogs provided important insight in mechanisms mediating the depressor response to electrical carotid sinus stimulation. Moreover, these studies showed that the treatment success may depend on the underlying pathophysiology of the hypertension. Clinical studies suggest that electrical carotid sinus stimulation attenuates sympathetic activation of vasculature, heart, and kidney while augmenting cardiac vagal regulation, thus lowering blood pressure. Yet, not all patients respond to treatment. Additional clinical trials are required. Patients equipped with an electrical carotid sinus stimulator provide a unique opportunity gaining insight in human baroreflex physiology.

  6. Electrical resistivity characterization of anisotropy in the Biscayne Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yeboah-Forson, Albert; Whitman, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Electrical anisotropy occurs when electric current flow varies with azimuth. In porous media, this may correspond to anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity resulting from sedimentary fabric, fractures, or dissolution. In this study, a 28-electrode resistivity imaging system was used to investigate electrical anisotropy at 13 sites in the Biscayne Aquifer of SE Florida using the rotated square array method. The measured coefficient of electrical anisotropy generally ranged from 1.01 to 1.12 with values as high as 1.36 found at one site. The observed electrical anisotropy was used to estimate hydraulic anisotropy (ratio of maximum to minimum hydraulic conductivity) which ranged from 1.18 to 2.83. The largest values generally were located on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge while the lowest values were in low elevation areas on the margin of the Everglades to the west. The higher values of anisotropy found on the ridge may be due to increased dissolution rates of the oolitic facies of the Miami formation limestone compared with the bryozoan facies to the west. The predominate trend of minimum resistivity and maximum hydraulic conductivity was E-W/SE-NW beneath the ridge and E-W/SW-NE farther west. The anisotropy directions are similar to the predevelopment groundwater flow direction as indicated in published studies. This suggests that the observed anisotropy is related to the paleo-groundwater flow in the Biscayne Aquifer.

  7. Small-scale electrical resistivity tomography of wet fractured rocks.

    PubMed

    LaBrecque, Douglas J; Sharpe, Roger; Wood, Thomas; Heath, Gail

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments that tested the ability of the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method to locate correctly wet and dry fractures in a meso-scale model. The goal was to develop a method of monitoring the flow of water through a fractured rock matrix. The model was a four by six array of limestone blocks equipped with 28 stainless steel electrodes. Dry fractures were created by placing pieces of vinyl between one or more blocks. Wet fractures were created by injecting tap water into a joint between blocks. In electrical terms, the dry fractures are resistive and the wet fractures are conductive. The quantities measured by the ERT system are current and voltage around the outside edge of the model. The raw ERT data were translated to resistivity values inside the model using a three-dimensional Occam's inversion routine. This routine was one of the key components of ERT being tested. The model presented several challenges. First, the resistivity of both the blocks and the joints was highly variable. Second, the resistive targets introduced extreme changes the software could not precisely quantify. Third, the abrupt changes inherent in a fracture system were contrary to the smoothly varying changes expected by the Occam's inversion routine. Fourth, the response of the conductive fractures was small compared to the background variability. In general, ERT was able to locate correctly resistive fractures. Problems occurred, however, when the resistive fracture was near the edges of the model or when multiple fractures were close together. In particular, ERT tended to position the fracture closer to the model center than its true location. Conductive fractures yielded much smaller responses than the resistive case. A difference-inversion method was able to correctly locate these targets.

  8. Dielectric properties and study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms by non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in Bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II) compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkari, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, the synthesis and characterization of the Bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II) compound are presented. The structure of this compound is analyzed by X-ray diffraction which confirms the formation of single phase and is in good agreement the literature. Indeed, the Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA) shows that the decomposition of the compound is observed in the range of 420-520 K. However, the differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicates the presence of a phase transition at T=363 k. Furthermore, the dielectric properties and AC conductivity were studied over a temperature range (338-413 K) and frequency range (200 Hz-5 MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopy. Dielectric measurements confirmed such thermal analyses by exhibiting the presence of an anomaly in the temperature range of 358-373 K. The complex impedance plots are analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of resistance, constant phase element (CPE) and capacitance. The activation energy values of two distinct regions are obtained from log σT vs 1000/T plot and are found to be E=1.27 eV (T<363 K) and E=1.09 eV (363 Kac conductivity, σac, has been analyzed by Jonscher's universal power law σ(ω)=σdc+Aωs. The value of s is to be temperature-dependent, which has a tendency to increase with temperature and the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling (NSPT) model is the most applicable conduction mechanism in the title compound. Complex impedance spectra of [C8H10NO]2CuCl4 at different temperatures.

  9. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  10. An effective electrical sensing scheme using AC electrothermal flow on a biosensor platform based on a carbon nanotube network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Cheol; Lee, Hoseok; Lim, Jaeheung; Park, Young June

    2016-11-01

    We report a simple and efficient electrical sensing scheme that can be used to overcome the "diffusion limit" of affinity-based biosensors by incorporating the structural advantage of a concentric electrode biosensor platform and the microstirring effect of AC electrothermal flow (ACEF). To prove the effect of ACEF on the biosensor performance, we performed both simulations and experiments for the detection of cardiac troponin-I, which is a biomarker for acute myocardial infarction. The finite element simulation results indicate that AC bias to the electrode (which has a concentric structure in our device) can induce fast convection flow, which facilitates the transport of the target molecules to the binding region located between the two electrodes. In our device, the channel region made of a carbon nanotube network decorated with gold nanoparticles, which act as the attaching sites of the probe molecules, is used as a highly sensitive electrical channel. We find that the electrical sensing method exhibited extremely fast sensing speeds compared with those under no bias (diffusion-limited) conditions.

  11. Monitoring an underground steam injection process using electrical resistance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Owen, E.; Chesnut, D. ); LaBrecque, D. )

    1993-01-01

    We used electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to map the subsurface distribution of a steam flood as a function of time as part of a prototype environmental restoration process performed by the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project. We evaluated the capability of ERT to monitor changes in the soil resistivity during the steam injection process using a dipole-dipole measurement technique to measure the bulk electrical resistivity distribution in the soil mass. The injected steam caused changes in the soil's resistivity because the steam displaced some of the native pore water, increased the pore water and soil temperatures and changed the ionic content of the pore water. We could detect the effects of steam invasion by mapping changes in the soil resistivity as a function of space and time. The ERT tomographs are compared with induction well logs, formation temperature logs and lithologic logs. These comparisons suggest that the ERT tomographs mapped the formation regions invaded by the steam flood. The data also suggest that steam invasion was limited in vertical extent to a gravel horizon at depth of approximately 43 m. The tomographs show that with time, the steam invasion zone extended laterally to all areas monitored by the ERT technique.

  12. Electrical resistance tomography used to monitor subsurface steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Owen, E.; Chesnut, D.; LaBrecque, D.

    1992-04-01

    We used electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to map the subsurface distribution of a steam flood as function of time as part of a prototype environmental restoration process performed by the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project. We evaluated the capability of ERT to monitor changes in the soil resistivity during the steam injection process using a dipole-dipole measurement technique to measure the bulk electrical resistivity distribution in the soil mass. The injected steam caused changes in the soil`s resistivity because the steam displaced some of the native pore water, increased the pore water and soil temperatures and changed the ionic content of the pore water. We could detect the effects of steam invasion by mapping changes in the soil resistivity as a function of space and time. The ERT tomographs are compared with induction well logs, formation temperature logs and lithologic logs. These comparisons suggest that the ERT tomographs mapped the formation regions invaded by the steam flood. The data also suggest that steam invasion was limited in vertical extent to a gravel horizon at depth of approximately 43 m. The tomographs show that with time, the steam invasion zone extended laterally to all areas monitored by the ERT technique.

  13. A unique data acquisition system for electrical resistance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; Zonge, K.

    1996-01-04

    Unique capabilities are needed in instrumentation used for acquiring data to do electrical resistance tomography (ERT). A data acquisition system is described which has a good combination of the required capabilities and yet is field rugged and user friendly. The system is a multichannel detector for high data rates, can operate over a wide range of load conditions, will measure both in phase and quadrature resistance at frequencies between 0.0007 Hz and 8 kHz. The system has been used in both the field and laboratory to collect data with a typical accuracy between 1 and 10%.

  14. Electric field and losses at AC self field mode in MF composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, S.; Hlasnik, I.; Tsukamoto, O.; Amemiya, N. ); Polak, M.; Kottman, P. . Inst. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    Studies of the current-voltage characteristics of typical superconducting wires under static and dynamic conditions up to 50 Hz frequency have revealed much higher instantaneous local loss power densities in an external DC magnetic field than those which occur by magnetization in a transverse AC magnetic field. In this paper, the measured loss characteristics are compared with theoretical ones derived from the critical state model, and the self field AC loss are also estimated. Possible errors that can result by applying the critical state model are discussed.

  15. Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of porous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. C. Y.; Fortini, A.

    1971-01-01

    Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of porous materials, including 304L stainless steel Rigimesh, 304L stainless steel sintered spherical powders, and OFHC sintered spherical powders at different porosities and temperatures are reported and correlated. It was found that the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity can be related to the solid material properties and the porosity of the porous matrix regardless of the matrix structure. It was also found that the Wiedermann-Franz-Lorenz relationship is valid for the porous materials under consideration. For high conductivity materials, the Lorenz constant and the lattice component of conductivity depend on the material and are independent of the porosity. For low conductivity, the lattice component depends on the porosity as well.

  16. Development of a Landslide Monitoring System using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen-Jones, R. M.; Hughes, P. N.; Glendinning, S.; Gunn, D.; Chambers, J.; Stirling, R.

    2015-12-01

    Current assessments of slope stability rely on the use of point sensors, the results of which are often difficult to interpret, have relatively high associated installation and maintenance costs, and do not provide large-area coverage. A new system is currently under development, based on the use of integrated geophysical - geotechnical sensors to monitor ground water conditions via electrical resistivity tomography. This study presents the results of an in-situ electrical resistivity tomography survey, gathered over a two year investigation period at a full-scale clay test embankment in Northumberland, UK. The 3D resistivity array comprised 288 electrodes, at 0.7m grid spacing, covering an area of approximately 90 m2. The first year of investigation involved baseline data collection, followed by a second year which saw a series of deliberate interventions targeted at weakening the slope, to determine whether corresponding geotechnical property changes would be reflected in resistivity images derived from ERT. These interventions included the manual extension of four tension cracks already present in the slope, and the installation of a sprinkler system, eight months later. Laboratory methods were employed to derive a system of equations for relating resistivity to geotechnical parameters more directly relevant to slope stability, including moisture content, suction and shear strength. These equations were then applied to resistivity data gathered over the baseline and intervention periods, yielding geotechnical images of the subsurface which compared well with in-situ geotechnical point sensors. During the intervention period, no slope movement was recorded, however, tensiometers at 0.5 m and 1.0 m depths showed elevated pore pressures, with positive pressures being recorded at depths less than 0.5 m. Resistivity images were successful in capturing the extension of the tension cracks, and in identifying the development of a potential shear failure plane as water

  17. Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to the Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in Australian populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Mahon, R J; Olsen, K M; Downes, S; Addison, S

    2007-12-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important lepidopteran pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in Australia and the Old World. From 2002, F2 screens were used to examine the frequency of resistance alleles in Australian populations of H. armigera to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAc and Cry2Ab, the two insecticidal proteins present in the transgenic cotton Bollgard II. At that time, Ingard (expressing Cry1Ac) cotton had been grown in Australia for seven seasons, and Bollgard II was about to be commercially released. The principal objective of our study was to determine whether sustained exposure caused an elevated frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac in a species with a track record of evolving resistance to conventional insecticides. No major alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac were found. The frequency of resistance alleles for Cry1Ac was <0.0003, with a 95% credibility interval between 0 and 0.0009. In contrast, alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab were found at a frequency of 0.0033 (0.0017, 0.0055). The first isolation of this allele was found before the widespread deployment of Bollgard II. For both toxins the experiment-wise detection probability was 94.4%. Our results suggest that alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac are rare and that a relatively high baseline frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab existed before the introduction of Bt cotton containing this toxin.

  18. Negative differential electrical resistance of a rotational organic nanomotor

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Hatef; Sangtarash, Sara; Al-Galiby, Qusiy; Sparks, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Summary A robust, nanoelectromechanical switch is proposed based upon an asymmetric pendant moiety anchored to an organic backbone between two C60 fullerenes, which in turn are connected to gold electrodes. Ab initio density functional calculations are used to demonstrate that an electric field induces rotation of the pendant group, leading to a nonlinear current–voltage relation. The nonlinearity is strong enough to lead to negative differential resistance at modest source–drain voltages. PMID:26734524

  19. Electrical resistivity of V-Cr-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Gubbi, A.N.; Eatherly, W.S.

    1997-04-01

    Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements have been performed on vanadium alloys containing 3-6%Cr and 3-6%Ti in order to evaluate the microstructural stability of these alloys. A nonlinear dependence on Cr and Ti concentration was observed, which suggests that either short range ordering or solute precipitation (perhaps in concert with interstitial solute clustering) has occurred in V-6Cr-6Ti.

  20. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of electric... to reduce contact resistance. (7) Energize all power conductors of the test specimen with...

  1. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of electric... to reduce contact resistance. (7) Energize all power conductors of the test specimen with...

  2. Electrical resistivity imaging of the architecture of substream sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, N.; Binley, A.; Knight, R.; Robinson, D. A.; Zarnetske, J.; Haggerty, R.

    2008-04-01

    The modeling of fluvial systems is constrained by a lack of spatial information about the continuity and structure of streambed sediments. There are few methods for noninvasive characterization of streambeds. Invasive methods using wells and cores fail to provide detailed spatial information on the prevailing architecture and its continuity. Geophysical techniques play a pivotal role in providing spatial information on subsurface properties and processes across many other environments, and we have applied the use of one of those techniques to streambeds. We demonstrate, through two examples, how electrical resistivity imaging can be utilized for characterization of subchannel architecture. In the first example, electrodes installed in riparian boreholes and on the streambed are used for imaging, under the river bed, the thickness and continuity of a highly permeable alluvial gravel layer overlying chalk. In the second example, electrical resistivity images, determined from data collected using electrodes installed on the river bed, provide a constrained estimate of the sediment volume behind a log jam, vital to modeling biogeochemical exchange, which had eluded measurement using conventional drilling methods owing to the boulder content of the stream. The two examples show that noninvasive electrical resistivity imaging is possible in complex stream environments and provides valuable information about the subsurface architecture beneath the stream channels.

  3. Uncertainty analysis for common Seebeck and electrical resistivity measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Jon; Dynys, Frederick; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2014-08-01

    This work establishes the level of uncertainty for electrical measurements commonly made on thermoelectric samples. The analysis targets measurement systems based on the four probe method. Sources of uncertainty for both electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient were identified and evaluated. Included are reasonable estimates on the magnitude of each source, and cumulative propagation of error. Uncertainty for the Seebeck coefficient includes the cold-finger effect which has been quantified with thermal finite element analysis. The cold-finger effect, which is a result of parasitic heat transfer down the thermocouple probes, leads to an asymmetric over-estimation of the Seebeck coefficient. A silicon germanium thermoelectric sample has been characterized to provide an understanding of the total measurement uncertainty. The electrical resistivity was determined to contain uncertainty of ±7.0% across any measurement temperature. The Seebeck coefficient of the system is +1.0%/-13.1% at high temperature and ±1.0% near room temperature. The power factor has a combined uncertainty of +7.3%/-27.0% at high temperature and ±7.5% near room temperature. These ranges are calculated to be typical values for a general four probe Seebeck and resistivity measurement configuration.

  4. Complex electrical resistance tomography of a subsurface PCE plume

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W,; LeBrecque, D.

    1996-01-01

    A controlled experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of complex electrical resistivity tomography (CERT) for detecting and delineating free product dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in the subsurface. One hundred ninety liters of PCE were released at a rate of 2 liters per hour from a point 0.5 m below ground surface. The spill was conducted within a double walled tank where saturated layers of sand, bentonite and a sand/bentonite mixture were installed. Complex electrical resistance measurements were performed. Data were taken before the release, several times during, and then after the PCE was released. Magnitude and phase were measured at 1 and 64 Hz. Data from before the release were compared with those during the release for the purpose of imaging the changes in conductivity resulting from the plume. Conductivity difference tomographs showed a decrease in electrical conductivity as the DNAPL penetrated the soil. A pancake-shaped anomaly developed on the top of a bentonite layer at 2 m depth. The anomaly grew in magnitude and extent during the release and borehole television surveys data confirmed the anomaly to be free-product PCE whose downward migration was stopped by the low permeability clay. The tomographs clearly delineated the plume as a resistive anomaly.

  5. Structural elucidation and evaluation of multidrug-resistance modulatory capability of amarissinins A-C, diterpenes derived from Salvia amarissima.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Elihú; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Ortiz-Pastrana, Naytzé; Toscano, Rubén A; Ortega, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    Three new diterpenes (amarissinins A-C, 1-3) containing several oxygenated functionalities were isolated from the leaves and flowers of Salvia amarissima. The structures of these compounds were established through the analysis of their NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 2 was identified as a C-10 epimer of dugesin F (5). The cytotoxic activity of these compounds against five human cancer cell lines was determined. Additionally, the capability to modulate the multidrug resistance (MDR) in the MCF-7 cancer cell line resistant to vinblastine was tested.

  6. Rolling resistance of electric vehicle tires from track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Special low-rolling-resistance tires were made for DOE's ETV-1 electric vehicle. Tests were conducted on these tires and on a set of standard commercial automotive tires to determine the rolling resistance as a function of time during both constant-speed tires and SAE J227a driving cycle tests. The tests were conducted on a test track at ambient temperatures that ranged from 15 to 32 C (59 to 89 F) and with tire pressures of 207 to 276 kPa (30 to 40 psi). At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi) the rolling resistances of the electric vehicle tires and the standard commercial tires, respectively, were 0.0102 and 0.0088 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight. At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 276 kPa (40 psi) the rolling resistances were 0.009 and 0.0074 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight, respectively.

  7. Detecting Cracks in Ceramic Matrix Composites by Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90o fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  8. Detecting Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90 deg fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  9. Module Thirteen: Series AC RLC Circuits and Resonance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will combine RL (resistive-inductance) and RC (resistive-capacitive) circuits and learn some of the phenomena which result. The module is divided into four lessons: solving RLC (resistive-inductance-capacitive) circuits, resonant frequency in series circuits, conditions of series resonance, and experiments with series…

  10. Suitability of Archie's Law For Interpreting Electrical Resistivity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, K.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is examined as a method to provide spatially continuous images of saline tracer concentrations during transport through unconsolidated fluid-saturated media. It is frequently accepted that there exists a quantitative relationship between the electrical conductivity of dilute electrolytes in pore water and bulk electrical conductivity of the subsurface measured using resistivity methods. The assumed relationship is typically Archie's Law. We tested the applicability of Archie's Law to field-scale data collected over a 10 m by 14 m area. A 20-day weak-dipole tracer test was conducted, in which 2 g/L NaCl were introduced into the upper 30 m of the saturated zone in a coarse sand and gravel aquifer. Cross-well ERT data were collected at 4 geophysical monitoring wells and inverted in 3-D. Fluid electrical conductivity was measured directly from a multilevel sampler. The change in the direct measurements of fluid electrical conductivity exceeded the change in bulk conductivity values in the tomograms by an order of magnitude. The estimated Archie formation factor from the field data was not constant with time, due largely to smoothing during the image reconstruction process. We illustrate by modeling synthetic cases over the field site that the ERT response is difficult to match to measured fluid conductivities due to the variability in the effects of regularization, which change in both space and time. Analysis of both the field data and synthetic cases suggest that Archie's Law cannot be used to directly scale ERT conductivities to fluid conductivities.

  11. Electrical penetration graphs of thrips revised: combining DC- and AC-EPG signals.

    PubMed

    Kindt, F; Joosten, N N; Tjallingii, W F

    2006-01-01

    Within thrips feeding behaviour, sequences of four waveforms have been distinguished earlier in the DC-EPG, i.e. P, Q, R and S, representing mandibular stylet insertion, maxillary stylet insertion, ingestion, and repetitive mandibular insertion, respectively. During signal analysis it appeared that transitions from one waveform to the next were difficult to establish, making results ambiguous. In order to improve the quantitative reliability of the thrips' EPG data, the DC-EPGs were recorded concurrently with AC-EPG signals, thus providing two signals from the same activities containing different information. The additional AC information did not solve most quantification problems, however. We now propose to merge waveforms P, Q, and S, into 'puncture phase' (indicated by PQ) and waveforms R, T, and U, into 'feeding phase' (indicated by R), rather than trying to analyse all separate waveforms. This will provide a more reliable and much less laborious analysis of thrips probing behaviour. Waveforms T and U are two novel waveforms identified here by combining DC- and AC-EPG recordings with concurrent video recordings. Waveform T represents a single mandibular thrust embedded in waveform R and waveform U represents the end of a probe, presumably the retraction of the maxillary stylets.

  12. Effect of nanosilica on optical, electric modulus and AC conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol/polyaniline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Somyia; Abel-Baset, Tarob; Elfadl, Azza Abou; Hassen, Arafa

    2015-05-01

    Nanosilica (NS) was synthesized by a sol-gel method and mixed with 0.98 polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/0.02 polyaniline (PANI) in different amounts to produce nanocomposite films. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) revealed the average particle size of the NS to be ca. 15 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the NS was well-dispersed on the surface of the PVA/PNAI films. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the samples showed a significant change in the intensity of the characteristic peak of the functional groups in the composite films with the amount of NS added. The absorbance and refractive index (n) of the composites were studied in the UV-vis range, and the optical energy band gap, Eg, and different optical parameters were calculated. The dielectric loss modulus, M″ and ac conductivity, σac, of the samples were studied within 300-425 K and 0.1 kHz-5 MHz, respectively. Two relaxation peaks were observed in the frequency dependence of the dielectric loss modulus, M″. The behavior of σac(f) for the composite films indicated that the conduction mechanism was correlated barrier hopping (CBH). The results of this work are discussed and compared with those of previous studies of similar composites.

  13. Frequency and voltage dependence dielectric properties, ac electrical conductivity and electric modulus profiles in Al/Co3O4-PVA/p-Si structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilkan, Çiğdem; Azizian-Kalandaragh, Yashar; Altındal, Şemsettin; Shokrani-Havigh, Roya

    2016-11-01

    In this research a simple microwave-assisted method have been used for preparation of cobalt oxide nanostructures. The as-prepared sample has been investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the other hand, frequency and voltage dependence of both the real and imaginary parts of dielectric constants (ε‧, ε″) and electric modulus (M‧ and M″), loss tangent (tanδ), and ac electrical conductivity (σac) values of Al/Co3O4-PVA/p-Si structures were obtained in the wide range of frequency and voltage using capacitance (C) and conductance (G/ω) data at room temperature. The values of ε‧, ε″ and tanδ were found to decrease with increasing frequency almost for each applied bias voltage, but the changes in these parameters become more effective in the depletion region at low frequencies due to the charges at surface states and their relaxation time and polarization effect. While the value of σ is almost constant at low frequency, increases almost as exponentially at high frequency which are corresponding to σdc and σac, respectively. The M‧ and M″ have low values at low frequencies region and then an increase with frequency due to short-range mobility of charge carriers. While the value of M‧ increase with increasing frequency, the value of M″ shows two peak and the peaks positions shifts to higher frequency with increasing applied voltage due to the decrease of the polarization and Nss effects with increasing frequency.

  14. Electrical resistivity tomography to delineate greenhouse soil variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Amato, M.; Bitella, G.; Bochicchio, R.

    2013-03-01

    Appropriate management of soil spatial variability is an important tool for optimizing farming inputs, with the result of yield increase and reduction of the environmental impact in field crops. Under greenhouses, several factors such as non-uniform irrigation and localized soil compaction can severely affect yield and quality. Additionally, if soil spatial variability is not taken into account, yield deficiencies are often compensated by extra-volumes of crop inputs; as a result, over-irrigation and overfertilization in some parts of the field may occur. Technology for spatially sound management of greenhouse crops is therefore needed to increase yield and quality and to address sustainability. In this experiment, 2D-electrical resistivity tomography was used as an exploratory tool to characterize greenhouse soil variability and its relations to wild rocket yield. Soil resistivity well matched biomass variation (R2=0.70), and was linked to differences in soil bulk density (R2=0.90), and clay content (R2=0.77). Electrical resistivity tomography shows a great potential in horticulture where there is a growing demand of sustainability coupled with the necessity of stabilizing yield and product quality.

  15. Cyclic electric field stress on bipolar resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, A.; Acha, C.

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the effects of accumulating cyclic electrical pulses of increasing amplitude on the non-volatile resistance state of interfaces made by sputtering a metal (Au, Pt) on top of the surface of a cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ. We have analyzed the influence of the number of applied pulses N on the relative amplitude of the remnant resistance change between the high (RH) and the low (RL) state [(α=(RH-RL)/RL] at different temperatures (T). We show that the critical voltage (Vc) needed to produce a resistive switching (RS, i.e., α >0) decreases with increasing N or T. We also find a power law relation between the voltage of the pulses and the number of pulses Nα0 required to produce a RS of α =α0. This relation remains very similar to the Basquin equation used to describe the stress-fatigue lifetime curves in mechanical tests. This points out to the similarity between the physics of the RS, associated with the diffusion of oxygen vacancies induced by electrical pulses, and the propagation of defects in materials subjected to repeated mechanical stress.

  16. Connection equation and shaly-sand correction for electrical resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the amount of conductive and nonconductive constituents in the pore space of sediments by using electrical resistivity logs generally loses accuracy where clays are present in the reservoir. Many different methods and clay models have been proposed to account for the conductivity of clay (termed the shaly-sand correction). In this study, the connectivity equation (CE), which is a new approach to model non-Archie rocks, is used to correct for the clay effect and is compared with results using the Waxman and Smits method. The CE presented here requires no parameters other than an adjustable constant, which can be derived from the resistivity of water-saturated sediments. The new approach was applied to estimate water saturation of laboratory data and to estimate gas hydrate saturations at the Mount Elbert well on the Alaska North Slope. Although not as accurate as the Waxman and Smits method to estimate water saturations for the laboratory measurements, gas hydrate saturations estimated at the Mount Elbert well using the proposed CE are comparable to estimates from the Waxman and Smits method. Considering its simplicity, it has high potential to be used to account for the clay effect on electrical resistivity measurement in other systems.

  17. AC losses in perpendicular external magnetic fields in ring bundle barrier multifilamentary BSCCO(2223) tapes with a central resistive barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelmann, H.; Krelaus, J.; Nast, R.; Goldacker, W.

    2001-06-01

    For the most common AC frequencies, the main components of the AC losses in multifilamentary Bi(2223) tapes are caused by both hysteresis and coupling losses. These losses can be reduced by increasing the matrix resistivity, applying a twist to the filaments and by the use of a conductor design optimised for a practical application. In the ring bundle barrier (RBB) conductor design we have bundles of filaments which are twisted around a central resistive core. The RBB structure was prepared via the powder in tube assemble and react (PITAR) route . In these tapes six bundles of seven filaments are twisted around a resistive layer of a mixture of 50% SrCO 3 and 50% SrZrO 3 in the centre of the tape. A series of tapes with twist lengths down to 3.4 mm was prepared. We present the measured AC losses of these tapes in external perpendicular magnetic fields. By using existing models, a description of the losses in the low Ḃ range was possible, leading to a separation into hysteresis, eddy current and coupling current losses. The frequency dependent loss contribution is dominated by the coupling current losses, from which the coupling current decay time constant, the effective permeability, the matrix resistivity and the critical Ḃc for filament coupling were extracted. In tapes with a twist length below 5 mm the typical loss behaviour for decoupled filaments is observed at frequencies up to 500 Hz. Compared to the untwisted tapes, a loss reduction of up to 70% for low field amplitudes (below 10 mT) was achieved.

  18. Efficacy of Genetically Modified Bt Toxins Alone and in Combinations Against Pink Bollworm Resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab

    PubMed Central

    Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Yelich, Alex J.; Masson, Luke; Zhang, Jie; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of resistance in pests threatens the long-term efficacy of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used in sprays and transgenic crops. Previous work showed that genetically modified Bt toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod effectively countered resistance to native Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac in some pests, including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Here we report that Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod were also effective against a laboratory-selected strain of pink bollworm resistant to Cry2Ab as well as to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Resistance ratios based on the concentration of toxin killing 50% of larvae for the resistant strain relative to a susceptible strain were 210 for Cry2Ab, 270 for Cry1Ab, and 310 for Cry1Ac, but only 1.6 for Cry1AbMod and 2.1 for Cry1AcMod. To evaluate the interactions among toxins, we tested combinations of Cry1AbMod, Cry1Ac, and Cry2Ab. For both the resistant and susceptible strains, the net results across all concentrations tested showed slight but significant synergism between Cry1AbMod and Cry2Ab, whereas the other combinations of toxins did not show consistent synergism or antagonism. The results suggest that the modified toxins might be useful for controlling populations of pink bollworm resistant to Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, or both. PMID:24244692

  19. Physics-Based Modeling of Electric Operation, Heat Transfer, and Scrap Melting in an AC Electric Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Electric arc furnaces (EAF) are complex industrial plants whose actual behavior depends upon numerous factors. Due to its energy intensive operation, the EAF process has always been subject to optimization efforts. For these reasons, several models have been proposed in literature to analyze and predict different modes of operation. Most of these models focused on the processes inside the vessel itself. The present paper introduces a dynamic, physics-based model of a complete EAF plant which consists of the four subsystems vessel, electric system, electrode regulation, and off-gas system. Furthermore the solid phase is not treated to be homogenous but a simple spatial discretization is employed. Hence it is possible to simulate the energy input by electric arcs and fossil fuel burners depending on the state of the melting progress. The model is implemented in object-oriented, equation-based language Modelica. The simulation results are compared to literature data.

  20. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1996-01-01

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

  1. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance Bragg reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1996-10-22

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method are disclosed. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors. 16 figs.

  2. Electric and thermal resistivities in dense high-Z plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Hikaru; Ichimaru, Setsuo

    1995-06-01

    Analytic expressions for the electric and thermal resistivities in dense high-Z plasmas have been obtained. The expressions incorporate phase-shift calculations of high-Z ion-sphere-model cross sections as well as existing quantum-mechanical transport calculations for hydrogen plasmas, and are applicable to fluid plasmas with 1<=Z<=26 strong-coupling effects between electrons and ions are particularly clarified. It has been shown that the heat capacity for a dense plasma may have a considerable effect, modifying the rate of thermal conduction. The results are compared with other theoretical predictions for those plasma parameters appropriate to degenerate stars.

  3. Building Better Electrodes for Electrical Resistivity and Induced Polarization Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, P. L.; La Brecque, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    In the third year of a project to understand and mitigate the systematic noise in resistivity and induced polarization measurements, we put a significant effort into understanding and developing better electrodes. The simple metal electrodes commonly used for both transmitting and receiving of electrical geophysical data are likely the Achilles" heal of the resistivity method. Even stainless steel, a commonly used electrode material because of its durability, showed only average results in laboratory tests for electrode noise. Better results have been found with non-polarizing metal-metal salt electrodes, which are widely used as surface electrodes and in IP surveys. But although they produce small measurement errors, they are not durable enough for in-situ borehole resistivity surveys, and often contain compounds that are toxic to the environment. They are also very seldom used as transmitters. In laboratory studies, we are exploring other materials and configurations for low-noise compound electrodes that will be nontoxic, inexpensive, and durable and can be used as both transmitters and receivers. Testing of the electrical noise levels of electrodes is an arduous task involving repeated measurements under varying conditions at field scales. Thus it is important to find methods of sorting out likely candidates from the mass of possible electrode configurations and construction methods. Testing of electrode impedance versus current density appears to provide simple criteria for predicting the suitability of electrodes. The best electrodes show relatively low overall contact impedance, relatively small changes in impedance with increased current density, and relatively small changes in impedance with time. Furthermore it can be shown that resistivity and induced polarization performance of electrodes is strongly correlated, so that methods of finding electrodes with low impedance and good direct current performance usually provide better quality induced

  4. Improvement of resistance to hydrogen induced cracking in electric resistance welded pipes fabricated with slit coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyun Uk; Lee, Jong Bong; Choi, Ho Jin

    2009-02-01

    The optimization of electric resistance welding (ERW) conditions was studied to improve the resistance to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) at the bondline in small diameter API X60 ERW pipes fabricated with slit coils. The results show that HIC is initiated preferentially at the elongated Si, Mn and Al-rich oxide inclusions, normally known as a penetrator on the bondline. However, no evidence was found of any centerline segregation effect. The HIC ratio increases with the fraction of penetrators at the bondline, regardless of the degrees of center segregation. Furthermore, for a satisfactory level of HIC resistance, the fraction of penetrators must be less than 0.03 % and most of the penetrators should be circular-shaped. The design of experimental (DOE) method was used to determine the optimum ERW condition for minimization of the penetrator ratio. Finally, guideline is suggested for the optimum ERW condition for achieving excellent HIC resistance.

  5. Theoretical analysis of AC electric field transmission into biological tissue through frozen saline for electroporation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chunyan; Rubinsky, Boris

    2014-12-01

    An analytical model was used to explore the feasibility of sinusoidal electric field transmission across a frozen saline layer into biological tissue. The study is relevant to electroporation and permeabilization of the cell membrane by electric fields. The concept was analyzed for frequencies in the range of conventional electroporation frequencies and electric field intensity. Theoretical analysis for a variety of tissues show that the transmission of electroporation type electric fields through a layer of frozen saline into tissue is feasible and the behavior of this composite system depends on tissue type, frozen domain temperature, and frequency. Freezing could become a valuable method for adherence of electroporation electrodes to moving tissue surfaces, such as the heart in the treatment of atrial fibrillation or blood vessels for the treatment of restenosis.

  6. Enhanced absorption performance of carbon nanostructure based metamaterials and tuning impedance matching behavior by an external AC electric field.

    PubMed

    Gholipur, Reza; Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali

    2017-03-27

    Metamaterials have surprisingly broadened the range of available practical applications in new devices such as shielding, microwave absorbing, and novel antenna. More researches are related to the tuning DNG frequency bands of ordered or disordered metamaterials, and far less research has focused on the importance of impedance matching behavior, and is not effort and attention in adjusting the magnitude of negative permittivity values. This is particularly important if devices deal with low amplitude signals such as radio or TV antenna. The carbon/hafnium nickel oxide (C/Hf0.9Ni0.1Oy) nanocomposites with simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability, excellent metamaterial performance and good impedance matching could become an efficient alternative for the ordered metamaterials in wave-transparent, microwave absorbing, and solar energy harvesting fields. In this study, we prepared C/Hf0.9Ni0.1Oy nanocomposites by solvothermal method, and we clarified how the impedance matching and double negative (DNG) behaviors of C/Hf0.9Ni0.1Oy can be tuned by an external AC electric field created by electric quadrupole system. External electric field allows for the alignment of the well-dispersed nanoparticles of carbon with long-range orientations order. We believe that this finding broadens our understanding of moderate conductive material-based random metamaterials (MCMRMs), and provides a novel strategy for replacing high loss ordered or disordered metamaterials with MCMRMs.

  7. Investigation of ac-magnetic field stimulated nanoelectroporation of magneto-electric nano-drug-carrier inside CNS cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Nikkhah-Moshaie, Roozbeh; Sinha, Raju; Bhardwaj, Vinay; Atluri, Venkata; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Yndart, Adriana; Kateb, Babak; Pala, Nezih; Nair, Madhavan

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we demonstrate cell uptake of magneto-electric nanoparticles (MENPs) through nanoelectroporation (NEP) using alternating current (ac)-magnetic field stimulation. Uptake of MENPs was confirmed using focused-ion-beam assisted transmission electron microscopy (FIB-TEM) and validated by a numerical simulation model. The NEP was performed in microglial (MG) brain cells, which are highly sensitive for neuro-viral infection and were selected as target for nano-neuro-therapeutics. When the ac-magnetic field optimized (60 Oe at 1 kHz), MENPs were taken up by MG cells without affecting cell health (viability > 92%). FIB-TEM analysis of porated MG cells confirmed the non-agglomerated distribution of MENPs inside the cell and no loss of their elemental and crystalline characteristics. The presented NEP method can be adopted as a part of future nanotherapeutics and nanoneurosurgery strategies where a high uptake of a nanomedicine is required for effective and timely treatment of brain diseases. PMID:28374799

  8. Structural, Optical and AC Electrical Properties of Ce3+-Doped TiO2-SiO2 Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyadharan, Viji; Vasudevan, Prathibha; Karthika, S.; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Biju, P. R.

    2015-08-01

    We report the structural, photoluminescence and alternating current (AC) electrical properties of Ce3+-doped titanosilicate matrices prepared by nonhydrolytic sol-gel method, with different annealing temperatures. The structural characterization of the prepared samples was done by x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The thermal stability of the prepared matrices was studied by the differential scanning calorimetric analysis. The photoluminescence spectrum shows two luminescence bands centered at 360 nm and 464 nm corresponding to the transitions 2D3/2 to 2F7/2 and 2F5/2, respectively. The dielectric responses of the samples were investigated for the frequency range 1 kHz-3 MHz at room temperature. The variation of AC conductivity, real part of dielectric constant ɛ' and imaginary part of dielectric constant ɛ″ with frequency were also studied. The Cole-Cole parameters were calculated and the semicircles observed in the plots indicate a single relaxation process which can be modelled by an equivalent parallel resistor-capacitor circuit.

  9. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  10. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  11. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  12. Electrical Resistivity of natural Marcasite at High-pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnarao

    2013-06-01

    Marcasite is considered to be a common iron sulfide in reducing Martian sediments and may enclose microbial remains during growth and hence study of marcasite may have significance in the search for fossil life on Mars. The high-pressure phase stability investigations of marcasite are useful in understanding the sulfide mineralogy of Martian surface, affected by meteorite impacts. The sulfides were characterized by electron microprobe micro analyses (EPMA), powder X-ray diffraction, DTA, and FTIR spectroscopic measurements. The samples were powdered using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The chemical composition of the sample was determined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). High-pressure electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on natural marcasite, and marcasite rich samples (Marcasite 95 mol % pyrite 5 mol %) up to 7 GPa. Marcasite sample shows a discontinuous decrease in the electrical resistivity at 5. 2 (+/- 0.5) GPa indicating a first order phase transition. The Differential thermal analyses and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements on the pressure quenched sample shows the characteristics of pyrite, indicating the pressure induced marcasite-to -pyrite transition of the natural marcasite at 5. 2 (+/- 0.5) GPa. The observation of marcasite to pyrite phase transition may be useful in estimating the pressure experienced by shock events on the Martian surface as well as the meteorites where marcasite- pyrite phases coexist. Financial support from CSIR-SHORE-PSC0205.

  13. Optical, electrical and ac conductivity measurements of nonlinear optical Dimethylaminomethylphthalimide doped with cadmium chloride single crystal for nano applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramani, K.; Joseph, P. S.; Shankar, G.

    2013-07-01

    Single crystals of Dimethylaminomethylphthalimide cadmium chloride (DAMPCC) were grown by a slow evaporation technique. The unit cell parameters and crystal structure were measured by the powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The modes of vibrations of different molecular groups present in the DAMPCC crystal have been identified by FTIR spectral analysis. The UV-vis-NIR spectral analysis is used to study the optical behaviors like absorption and transmission properties of the crystal. The diffuse reflectance spectrum in absorption studies is calculated. The optical band gap of the DAMPCC crystal is calculated to be cut off wavelength 360 nm at photon energy 4.772 eV. The optical conductivity, electrical conductivity and ac conductivity are also calculated. Finally the nonlinear optics (NLO) property of DAMPCC crystal was confirmed by second harmonic generation (SHG) test using the Nd:YAG laser of fundamental wavelength 1064 nm.

  14. Composite rod insulators for ac power lines; Electrical performance of various designs at a coastal testing station

    SciTech Connect

    Houlgate, R.G.; Swift, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The electrical performance of thirty-six composite insulators - of four commercial types for each AC system level of 34.5 kV, 230 kV and 500 kV - has been determined at the CEGB insulator testing station, Brighton, England. The weathershed materials were epoxy-resin, ethylene propylene rubber and silicone rubber; half of the 230 kV insulators had no stress rings. Surface leakage current was recorded for surge levels of 25 mA, 150 mA and 500 mA; a special technique was developed to obtain the flashover statistics of the 500 kV insulators, thereby enabling performance of the composite insulator to be quantified relative to that of a string of cap and pin porcelain insulators of anti-fog design, the deterioration of the insulators was observed by making regular visual inspections. The practical consequences of the findings and the causes of the degradation are discussed.

  15. NEW APPROACHES: Investigating power, work and effective values in an AC resistive circuit through a microcomputer-based laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumper, Ricardo; Gelbman, Moshe

    1997-11-01

    Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) tools have been developed which interface with a great variety of computers. Students use these tools to collect physical data in real time which can later be manipulated and analysed. This new investigative method together with a high standard of precision enables students to investigate many principles of physics that have not previously been feasible. In this article we describe some examples of experiments designed for high-school students with the help of the MBL Explorer. We mainly analyse power, work and effective (RMS) values in an AC resistive circuit.

  16. Resistance of Trichoplusia ni to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac is independent of alteration of the cadherin-like receptor for Cry toxins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Tiewsiri, Kasorn; Kain, Wendy; Huang, Lihua; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of binding sites for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in insect midgut is the major mechanism of high-level resistance to Bt toxins in insects. The midgut cadherin is known to be a major binding protein for Bt Cry1A toxins and linkage of Bt-resistance to cadherin gene mutations has been identified in lepidopterans. The resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac evolved in greenhouse populations of Trichoplusia ni has been identified to be associated with the down-regulation of an aminopeptidase N (APN1) gene by a trans-regulatory mechanism and the resistance gene has been mapped to the locus of an ABC transporter (ABCC2) gene. However, whether cadherin is also involved with Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni requires to be understood. Here we report that the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni is independent of alteration of the cadherin. The T. ni cadherin cDNA was cloned and the cadherin sequence showed characteristic features known to cadherins from Lepidoptera. Various T. ni cadherin gene alleles were identified and genetic linkage analysis of the cadherin alleles with Cry1Ac-resistance showed no association of the cadherin gene with the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni. Analysis of cadherin transcripts showed no quantitative difference between the susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni larvae. Quantitative proteomic analysis of midgut BBMV proteins by iTRAQ-2D-LC-MS/MS determined that there was no quantitative difference in cadherin content between the susceptible and the resistant larvae and the cadherin only accounted for 0.0014% (mol%) of the midgut BBMV proteins, which is 1/300 of APN1 in molar ratio. The cadherin from both the susceptible and resistant larvae showed as a 200-kDa Cry1Ac-binding protein by toxin overlay binding analysis, and nano-LC-MS/MS analysis of the 200-kDa cadherin determined that there is no quantitative difference between the susceptible and resistant larvae. Results from this study indicate that the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni is independent of cadherin

  17. Electrical resistivity tomography at the DOE Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1996-04-04

    Recent work at the DOE Hanford site has established the potential of applying Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) for early leak detection under hazardous waste storage facilities. Several studies have been concluded to test the capabilities and limitations of ERT for two different applications. First, field experiments have been conducted to determine the utility of ERT to detect and map leaks from underground storage tanks during waste removal processes. Second, the use of ERT for long term vadose zone monitoring has been tested under different field conditions of depth, installation design, acquisition mode/equipment and infiltration chemistry. This work involves transferring the technology from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) program at the DOE Hanford Site. This paper covers field training studies relevant to the second application for long term vadose monitoring. Electrical resistivity tomography is a cross-borehole, imaging technique for mapping subsurface resistivity variations. Electrodes are placed at predetermined depths in an array of boreholes. Electrical current is introduced into one electrode pair located in one borehole while the resulting voltage change is detected between electrode pairs in other boreholes similar to a surface dipole-dipole array. These data are topographically inverted to image temporal resistivity contrasts associated with an infiltration event. Thus a dynamic plume is spatially mapped as a function of time. As a long-term vadose zone monitoring method, different field conditions and performance requirements exist than those for short term tank leak detection. To test ERT under these conditions, two vertical electrode arrays were constructed to a depth of 160 feet with a linear surface array between boreholes. The fielding was used to facilitate the technology transfer from LLNL to the Hanford RCRA program. Installation methods, commercial equipment and

  18. Improvement of electrical resistivity tomography for leachate injection monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.; Descloitres, M.; Guenther, T.; Oxarango, L.; Morra, C.

    2010-03-15

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the scope of operating municipal waste landfills as bioreactors, which aims to increase the moisture content to optimize the biodegradation in landfills. Given that liquid flows exhibit a complex behaviour in very heterogeneous porous media, in situ monitoring methods are required. Surface time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is usually proposed. Using numerical modelling with typical 2D and 3D injection plume patterns and 2D and 3D inversion codes, we show that wrong changes of resistivity can be calculated at depth if standard parameters are used for time-lapse ERT inversion. Major artefacts typically exhibit significant increases of resistivity (more than +30%) which can be misinterpreted as gas migration within the waste. In order to eliminate these artefacts, we tested an advanced time-lapse ERT procedure that includes (i) two advanced inversion tools and (ii) two alternative array geometries. The first advanced tool uses invariant regions in the model. The second advanced tool uses an inversion with a 'minimum length' constraint. The alternative arrays focus on (i) a pole-dipole array (2D case), and (ii) a star array (3D case). The results show that these two advanced inversion tools and the two alternative arrays remove almost completely the artefacts within +/-5% both for 2D and 3D situations. As a field application, time-lapse ERT is applied using the star array during a 3D leachate injection in a non-hazardous municipal waste landfill. To evaluate the robustness of the two advanced tools, a synthetic model including both true decrease and increase of resistivity is built. The advanced time-lapse ERT procedure eliminates unwanted artefacts, while keeping a satisfactory image of true resistivity variations. This study demonstrates that significant and robust improvements can be obtained for time-lapse ERT monitoring of leachate recirculation in waste landfills.

  19. Introducing AC inductive reactance with a power tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Wesley; Baker, Blane

    2016-09-01

    The concept of reactance in AC electrical circuits is often non-intuitive and difficult for students to grasp. In order to address this lack of conceptual understanding, classroom exercises compare the predicted resistance of a power tool, based on electrical specifications, to measured resistance. Once students discover that measured resistance is smaller than expected, they are asked to explain these observations using previously studied principles of magnetic induction. Exercises also introduce the notion of inductive reactance and impedance in AC circuits and, ultimately, determine self-inductance of the motor windings within the power tool.

  20. Simulation and mathematical analyses of AC electric field driven apoptosis via microtubule disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Pawan K.

    2015-09-01

    The moderate intensity alternating current electric fields with frequencies ranging between a few tens of kilohertz and a few tens of megahertz, also known as tumor treating fields (TTFs) are utilized as a modality in the electrotherapeutic treatment of the cancer cells. The application of sub-MHz TTF on the cancer cell results in the inducement of higher electric field at the furrow between the daughter cells, and such apoptosis stimulating phenomenon is investigated through the Maxwell two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulations. A furrow distance of the order of size of the nucleus accounts for the intense electric field inducement disintegrating the microtubule via the processes of its surface disruption and tubulin dimer detachment. A simulation and mathematical analyses of the microtubule disintegration mechanism is formulated to ascertain one of the factors causing an apoptosis of the cancer cells, and consequently checking their proliferation.

  1. Time dependence of electrical bioimpedance on porcine liver and kidney under a 50 Hz ac current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spottorno, J.; Multigner, M.; Rivero, G.; Álvarez, L.; de la Venta, J.; Santos, M.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the changes of the bioimpedance from its 'in vivo' value to the values measured in a few hours after the excision from the body. The evolution of electrical impedance with time after surgical extraction has been studied on two porcine organs: the liver and the kidney. Both in vivo and ex vivo measurements of electrical impedance, measuring its real and imaginary components, have been performed. The in vivo measurements have been carried out with the animal anaesthetized. The ex vivo measurements have been made more than 2 h after the extraction of the organ. The latter experiment has been carried out at two different stabilized temperatures: at normal body temperature and at the standard preservation temperature for transplant surgery. The measurements show a correlation between the biological evolution and the electrical bioimpedance of the organs, which increases from its in vivo value immediately after excision, multiplying its value by 2 in a few hours.

  2. Time dependence of electrical bioimpedance on porcine liver and kidney under a 50 Hz ac current.

    PubMed

    Spottorno, J; Multigner, M; Rivero, G; Alvarez, L; de la Venta, J; Santos, M

    2008-03-21

    The purpose of this work is to study the changes of the bioimpedance from its 'in vivo' value to the values measured in a few hours after the excision from the body. The evolution of electrical impedance with time after surgical extraction has been studied on two porcine organs: the liver and the kidney. Both in vivo and ex vivo measurements of electrical impedance, measuring its real and imaginary components, have been performed. The in vivo measurements have been carried out with the animal anaesthetized. The ex vivo measurements have been made more than 2 h after the extraction of the organ. The latter experiment has been carried out at two different stabilized temperatures: at normal body temperature and at the standard preservation temperature for transplant surgery. The measurements show a correlation between the biological evolution and the electrical bioimpedance of the organs, which increases from its in vivo value immediately after excision, multiplying its value by 2 in a few hours.

  3. Fabrication of an Electrically-Resistive, Varistor-Polymer Composite

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Fatehi, Asma; Zakaria, Azmi; Mahmud, Shahrom; Mohammadi, Sanaz A.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the fabrication and electrical characterization of a polymer composite based on nano-sized varistor powder. The polymer composite was fabricated by the melt-blending method. The developed nano-composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The XRD pattern revealed the crystallinity of the composite. The XRD study also showed the presence of secondary phases due to the substitution of zinc by other cations, such as bismuth and manganese. The TEM picture of the sample revealed the distribution of the spherical, nano-sized, filler particles throughout the matrix, which were in the 10–50 nm range with an average of approximately 11 nm. The presence of a bismuth-rich phase and a ZnO matrix phase in the ZnO-based varistor powder was confirmed by FeSEM images and EDX spectra. From the current-voltage curves, the non-linear coefficient of the varistor polymer composite with 70 wt% of nano filler was 3.57, and its electrical resistivity after the onset point was 861 KΩ. The non-linear coefficient was 1.11 in the sample with 100 wt% polymer content. Thus, it was concluded that the composites established a better electrical non-linearity at higher filler amounts due to the nano-metric structure and closer particle linkages. PMID:23443085

  4. Down-regulation of a novel ABC transporter gene (Pxwhite) is associated with Cry1Ac resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Biopesticides or transgenic crops based on Cry toxins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) effectively control agricultural insect pests. The sustainable use of Bt biopesticides and Bt crops is threatened, however, by the development of Cry resistance in the target pests. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the first pest that developed resistance to a Bt biopesticide in the field, and a recent study has shown that the resistance of P. xylostella to Cry1Ac is caused by a mutation in an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene (ABCC2). In this study, we report that down-regulation of a novel ABC transporter gene from ABCG subfamily (Pxwhite) is associated with Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. The full-length cDNA sequence of Pxwhite was cloned and analyzed. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that Pxwhite was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in Malpighian tubule tissue and in egg stage. Sequence variation analysis of Pxwhite indicated the absence of constant non-synonymous mutations between susceptible and resistant strains, whereas midgut transcript analysis showed that Pxwhite was remarkably reduced in all resistant strains and further reduced when larvae of the moderately resistant SZ-R strain were subjected to selection with Cry1Ac toxin. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of Pxwhite gene expression significantly reduced larval susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin, and genetic linkage analysis confirmed that down-regulation of Pxwhite gene is tightly linked to Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that Pxwhite gene is involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella.

  5. Monitoring Damage Accumulation in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Xia, Zhenhai H.

    2008-01-01

    The electric resistance of woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites were measured under tensile loading conditions. The results show that the electrical resistance is closely related to damage and that real-time information about the damage state can be obtained through monitoring of the resistance. Such self-sensing capability provides the possibility of on-board/in-situ damage detection and accurate life prediction for high-temperature ceramic matrix composites. Woven silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composites (CMC) possess unique properties such as high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, improved toughness, and good environmental stability (oxidation resistance), making them particularly suitable for hot structure applications. In specific, CMCs could be applied to hot section components of gas turbines [1], aerojet engines [2], thermal protection systems [3], and hot control surfaces [4]. The benefits of implementing these materials include reduced cooling air requirements, lower weight, simpler component design, longer service life, and higher thrust [5]. It has been identified in NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program that the SiC/SiC CMC has the most promise for high temperature, high oxidation applications [6]. One of the critical issues in the successful application of CMCs is on-board or insitu assessment of the damage state and an accurate prediction of the remaining service life of a particular component. This is of great concern, since most CMC components envisioned for aerospace applications will be exposed to harsh environments and play a key role in the vehicle s safety. On-line health monitoring can enable prediction of remaining life; thus resulting in improved safety and reliability of structural components. Monitoring can also allow for appropriate corrections to be made in real time, therefore leading to the prevention of catastrophic failures. Most conventional nondestructive

  6. Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins alone and in combinations against pink bollworm resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution of resistance in pests threatens the long-term success of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Previous work showed that genetically modified Bt toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod effectively countered resistance to native Bt toxins Cry1Ab and ...

  7. Destruction of Emulsions by an AC Electric Field: Importance of Partial Merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Bremond, Nicolas; Bibette, Jerome

    2010-03-01

    Electrocoalescence is basically the process of blending droplets by the application of an electric field. The approach is used in petroleum refineries for the separation of water in oil emulsions (that is, by coalescing water droplets), and more recently in biotechnology industry, for the fusion of micro reactors. In a first step, we will focus on the coalesce condition for two drops under a given electric field. Microfluidics offers a comfortable setup therefore, as we sought to span a range of initial conditions in terms of the distance between the droplets, their sizes, and also a region of the applied electric field. Thus, we could establish a stability diagram according to the initial conditions and droplets' composition, which displays three domains referred to as: coalescence, no coalescence and a third one of partial coalescence, where the droplets coalesce for a brief moment then separate right afterwards. We proceeded then by generalizing the setup to the case of a stream of droplets, and we found that the evolution of the stream can be predicted by the behaviour of the local pairs of droplets, as seen in the previous step. The main outcome of that study is the total destruction of an emulsion above a critical volume fraction for a given amplitude of electric field.

  8. Fault mechanism analysis and simulation for continuity resistance test of electrical components in aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xudong; Yin, Yaping; Wang, Jialin; Sun, Zhaorong

    2017-01-01

    A large number of electrical components are used in civil aircraft engines, whose electrical circuits are usually intricate and complicated. Continuity resistance is an important parameter for the operating state of electrical components. Electrical continuity fault has serious impact on the reliability of the aircraft engine. In this paper, mathematical models of electrical components are established, and simulation is made by Simulink to analyze the electrical continuity fault.

  9. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Chen, Defeng; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella.

  10. Influence of Dopants on Electrical Properties of ZnO-V2O5 Varistors Deduced from AC Impedance and Variable-Temperature Dielectric Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Li, Taotao; Qi, Ting; Qin, Qingwei; Li, Guangqiang; Zhu, Bailin; Wu, Run; Xie, Changsheng

    2012-07-01

    The influence of MnO2, PbO, and a mixture of MnO2, PbO, and B2O3 on the electrical and dielectric properties of ZnO-V2O5 ceramics was studied by alternating-current (AC) impedance and variable-temperature dielectric spectroscopy. The results show that, compared with the resistivity of the intervening layer at the grain boundary, the Schottky barrier present at the grain boundary is much more important for varistor performance, which can be significantly improved by using a mixture of MnO2, PbO, and B2O3. Consequently, better varistor performance is achieved for 94.5 mol.% ZnO + 0.5 mol.% V2O5 + 1.0 mol.% MnO2 + 2.0 mol.% PbO + 2.0 mol.% B2O3 (ZVMPB), i.e., nonlinear coefficient α = 35.3 and leakage current density I l = 2.72 μA/cm2. The activation energy for the characteristic dielectric relaxation process is in the range of 0.339 eV to 0.365 eV, indicating that it is only associated with oxygen vacancy V{O/·}.

  11. Influence of temperature on the electric, dielectric and AC conductivity properties of nano-crystalline zinc substituted cobalt ferrite synthesized by solution combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Ritu; Kumar, Gagan; Batoo, Khalid M.; Singh, M.

    2014-06-01

    Cobalt-zinc nanoferrites with formulae Co ZnFeO, where x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, have been synthesized by solution combustion technique. The variation of DC resistivity with temperature shows the semiconducting behavior of all nanoferrites. The dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss tangent (tan are investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. Dielectric constant and loss tangent are found to be increasing with an increase in temperature while with an increase in frequency both, ' and tan , are found to be decreasing. The dielectric properties have been explained on the basis of space charge polarization according to Maxwell-Wagner's two-layer model and the hopping of charge between Fe and Fe. Further, a very high value of dielectric constant and a low value of tan are the prime achievements of the present work. The AC electrical conductivity ( is studied as a function of temperature as well as frequency and is observed to be increasing with the increase in temperature and frequency.

  12. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Test data of switching times characterization of bipolar transistors, of field effect transistor's switching times on-resistance and characterization, comparative data of field effect transistors, and test data of field effect transistor's parallel operation characterization are given. Data is given in the form of graphs.

  13. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anderson D.; Elgammal, Karim; Niklaus, Frank; Delin, Anna; Fischer, Andreas C.; Vaziri, Sam; Forsberg, Fredrik; Råsander, Mikael; Hugosson, Håkan; Bergqvist, Lars; Schröder, Stephan; Kataria, Satender; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits.We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further

  14. Observation of infiltration experiments with time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Altfelder, Sven; Günther, Thomas; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Grissemann, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    analysed quantitatively. For the first experiment this calculation shows one day after the infiltration about 40% of the infiltrated water being lost to the groundwater. For the second experiment the quantitative interpretation takes into account the increased conductivity of the infiltrating tracer solution compared to the pore water of the vadose zone before infiltration. Another infiltration experiment is done on Loess. Due to the low infiltration rate only about 9l of water could be infiltrated within about 3 h (38mm/h). The time lapse ERT clearly reveals the water remaining close to surface and no sign of resistivity change due to the infiltration is observed to penetrate deeper than 30cm. At this depth the plough pan seems to inhibit the infiltration. The analysis shows the high sensitivity of the ERT method. Although the original water content is quite high and therefore the resistivity changes due to water content changes are small (the flat part of the Archie function) the time lapse ERT inversion depicts the changes of resistivity quite clearly. The experiments show the advantages of ERT measurements to observe the infiltration process in real time. However, the interpretation of such measurements still poses difficulties mainly due to the limited resolution and the ill posedness of the inversion problem of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). These problems are investigated further in order to advance the applicability of the method to infiltration problems showing signs of preferential flow.

  15. Direct simulation of phase delay effects on induced-charge electro-osmosis under large ac electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    The standard theory of induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) often overpredicts experimental values of ICEO velocities. Using a nonsteady direct multiphysics simulation technique based on the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Stokes equations for an electrolyte around a conductive cylinder subject to an ac electric field, we find that a phase delay effect concerning an ion response provides a fundamental mechanism for electrokinetic suppression. A surprising aspect of our findings is that the phase delay effect occurs even at much lower frequencies (e.g., 50 Hz) than the generally believed charging frequency of an electric double layer (typically, 1 kHz) and it can decrease the electrokinetic velocities in one to several orders. In addition, we find that the phase delay effect may also cause a change in the electrokinetic flow directions (i.e., flow reversal) depending on the geometrical conditions. We believe that our findings move toward a more complete understanding of complex experimental nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena.

  16. Electrical resistivity tomography at the DOE Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Narbutovskih, S.M.; Halter, T.D.; Sweeney, M.D.; Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Recent work at the DOE Hanford site has established the potential of applying Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) for early leak detection under hazardous waste storage facilities. Several studies have been concluded to test the capabilities and limitations of ERT for two different applications. First, field experiments have been conducted to determine the utility of ERT to detect and map leaks from underground storage tanks during waste removal processes. Second, the use of ERT for long term vadose zone monitoring has been tested under different field conditions of depth, installation design, acquisition mode/equipment and infiltration chemistry. This work involves transferring the technology from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) program at the DOE Hanford Site. This paper covers field training studies relevant to the second application for long term vadose zone monitoring.

  17. Electrical resistivity behaviors of liquid Pb-Sn binary alloy in the presence of ultrasonic field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Haoyu; Le, Qichi; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Wenyi; Bao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Electrical resistivity behaviors of liquid Pb-Sn alloys have been investigated in the presence of ultrasonic field. The process demonstrated significantly that electrical resistivity could reveal the precise influence caused by ultrasound. Details revealed by applying the resistivity measuring approach to the liquid Pb-Sn alloy show that the short ordered structures in the liquid could be modified by ultrasonic irradiation, and the resistivity approach could have application value in the ultrasonic irradiation process on the specific liquid metals and alloys.

  18. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale (<1m) studying a suction infiltrometer test. The experiment is carried out in a pit filled with a homogenous silty-sandy soil. It is instrumented by 17 resistivity probes and 3 commercial capacitive moisture content probes to provide local measurements of the moisture content variation. The Multiple Inversion and Clustering Strategy (MICS) (Audebert et al 2014) is used to delineate the infiltration patern. A satisfying agreement between infiltration delineation and sensor measurements is obtained with a few centimeter accuracy on the moisture front location. In a second step, the same methodology is applied at a larger scale (> 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  19. Electrical Characteristics, Electrode Sheath and Contamination Layer Behavior of a Meso-Scale Premixed Methane-Air Flame Under AC/DC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Guoxiu

    2016-05-01

    Electrical characteristics of a nozzle-attached meso-scale premixed methane-air flame under low-frequency AC (0-4300 V, 0-500 Hz) and DC (0-3300 V) electric fields were studied. I-V curves were measured under different experimental conditions to estimate the magnitude of the total current 100-102 μA, the electron density 1015-1016 m-3 and further the power dissipation ≤ 0.7 W in the reaction zone. At the same time, the meso-scale premixed flame conductivity 10-4-10-3 Ω-1·m-1 as a function of voltage and frequency was experimentally obtained and was believed to represent a useful order-of magnitude estimate. Moreover, the influence of the collision sheath relating to Debye length (31-98 μm) and the contamination layer of an active electrode on measurements was discussed, based on the combination of simulation and theoretical analysis. As a result, the electrode sheath dimension was evaluated to less than 0.5 mm, which indicated a complex effect of the collision sheath on the current measurements. The surface contamination effect of an active electrode was further analyzed using the SEM imaging method, which showed elements immigration during the contamination layer formation process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51376021), and the Fundamental Research Fund for Major Universities (No. 2013JBM079)

  20. Applications of electrical resistance tomography to subsurface environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-11-15

    We are developing a new imaging technique, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), to map subsurface liquids as flow occurs during natural or clean-up processes and to map geologic structure. Natural processes (such as surface water infiltrating the vadose zone) and man-induced processes (such as tank leaks and clean-up processes such as steam injection), can create changes in a soil`s electrical properties that are readily measured. We have conducted laboratory and a variety of field experiments to investigate the capabilities and limitations of ERT for imaging underground structures and processes. In the last four years we have used ERT to successfully monitor several field processes including: a subsurface steam injection process (for VOC removal), an air injection process (below the water table) for VOC removal, water infiltration through the vadose zone, radio-frequency heating, ohmic heating, and tank and pond leaks. The information derived from ERT can be used by remediation projects to: detect and locate leaks, determine the effectiveness of clean-up processes, select appropriate clean-up alternatives, and to verify the installation and performance of subsurface barriers.

  1. Electrically resistive coating for remediation (regeneration) of a diesel particulate filter and method

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, Amanda C [Malibu, CA; Kirby, Kevin K [Calabasas Hills, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2012-02-14

    A resistively heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The resistively heated DPF includes a DPF having an inlet surface and at least one resistive coating on the inlet surface. The at least one resistive coating is configured to substantially maintain its resistance in an operating range of the DPF. The at least one resistive coating has a first terminal and a second terminal for applying electrical power to resistively heat up the at least one resistive coating in order to increase the temperature of the DPF to a regeneration temperature. The at least one resistive coating includes metal and semiconductor constituents.

  2. High power ac/dc variable R dynamic electrical load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joncas, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    A study program was undertaken to investigate various concepts and techniques for identifying and simulating both the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of electrical loads for use during integrated system test and evaluation. The development of hardware capable of providing the simulation capability is discussed. A general purpose simulator was developed with the capability of realizing a variety of models where element values were discretely variable. The different models, each corresponding to real spacecraft equipment, are set up manually for each case by suitable switching and patching. The models are capable of duplicating the dynamic and steady-state response of real loads at full power.

  3. The effect of electrical conductivity on pore resistance and electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianbo; Lin, Hao

    2008-11-01

    Electroporation is an elegant means to gain access to the cytoplasm, and to deliver molecules into the cell while simultaneously maintaining viability and functionality. In this technique, an applied electric pulse transiently permeabilizes the cell membrane, through which biologically active agents such as DNA, RNA, and amino acids can enter the cell, and perform tasks such as gene and cancer therapy. Despite wide applications, current electroporation technologies fall short of desired efficiency and reliability, in part due to the lack of fundamental understanding and quantitative modeling tools. This work focuses on the modeling of cell membrane conductance due to the formation of aqueous conducting pores. An analytical expression is developed to determine effective pore resistance as a function of the membrane thickness, pore size, and intracellular and extracellular conductivities. The availability of this expression avoids empirical or ad hoc specification of the conductivity of the pore-filling solution which was adopted in previous works. Such pore resistance model is then incorporated into a whole-cell electroporation simulation to investigate the effect of conductivity ratio on membrane permeabilization. The results reveal that the degree of permeabilization strongly depends on the specific values of the extracellular and intracellular conductivities.

  4. Investigations of discontinuous permafrost using electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowicz, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    We have used electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) extensively over the past five years to examine frozen ground characteristics at natural and disturbed sites within the discontinuous permafrost zones of northern Canada. Examples of pure research include investigations to delimit permafrost patch size, to examine changes in permafrost conditions at altitudinal treeline, and to assess permafrost thickness in palsa bogs. Applied research has included hazard mapping where ERT, in association with boreholes, has been used to characterize permafrost conditions in different terrain units at Yukon communities as part of planning for climate change adaptation. ERT has also been used to examine temporal change through repeated surveys at sites equipped with permanent arrays. Rapid change is occurring at sites which were subject to recent forest fire in the Northwest Territories. Gradual reductions in average resistivity at sites along the Alaska Highway in Yukon and northern British Columbia indicate progressive increases in unfrozen moisture while ground temperatures at the same sites have increased only very slightly. We conclude that ERT should become a standard technique for the investigation of discontinuous permafrost sites and should be incorporated as a monitoring technique within international programs such as the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost.

  5. AC electric field for rapid assembly of nanostructured polyaniline onto microsized gap for sensor devices.

    PubMed

    La Ferrara, Vera; Rametta, Gabriella; De Maria, Antonella

    2015-07-01

    Interconnected network of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) is giving strong potential for enhancing device performances than bulk PANI counterparts. For nanostructured device processing, the main challenge is to get prototypes on large area by requiring precision, low cost and high rate assembly. Among processes meeting these requests, the alternate current electric fields are often used for nanostructure assembling. For the first time, we show the assembly of nanostructured PANI onto large electrode gaps (30-60 μm width) by applying alternate current electric fields, at low frequencies, to PANI particles dispersed in acetonitrile (ACN). An important advantage is the short assembly time, limited to 5-10 s, although electrode gaps are microsized. That encouraging result is due to a combination of forces, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP), induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) flow and alternate current electroosmotic (ACEO) flow, which speed up the assembly process when low frequencies and large electrode gaps are used. The main achievement of the present study is the development of ammonia sensors created by direct assembling of nanostructured PANI onto electrodes. Sensors exhibit high sensitivity to low gas concentrations as well as excellent reversibility at room temperature, even after storage in air.

  6. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  7. Contribution of 3-D electrical resistivity tomography for landmines detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwaly, M.; El-Qady, G.; Matsushima, J.; Szalai, S.; Al-Arifi, N. S. N.; Taha, A.

    2008-12-01

    Landmines are a type of inexpensive weapons widely used in the pre-conflicted areas in many countries worldwide. The two main types are the metallic and non-metallic (mostly plastic) landmines. They are most commonly investigated by magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and metal detector (MD) techniques. These geophysical techniques however have significant limitations in resolving the non-metallic landmines and wherever the host materials are conductive. In this work, the 3-D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) technique is evaluated as an alternative and/or confirmation detection system for both landmine types, which are buried in different soil conditions and at different depths. This can be achieved using the capacitive resistivity imaging system, which does not need direct contact with the ground surface. Synthetic models for each case have been introduced using metallic and non-metallic bodies buried in wet and dry environments. The inversion results using the L1 norm least-squares optimization method tend to produce robust blocky models of the landmine body. The dipole axial and the dipole equatorial arrays tend to have the most favorable geometry by applying dynamic capacitive electrode and they show significant signal strength for data sets with up to 5% noise. Increasing the burial depth relative to the electrode spacing as well as the noise percentage in the resistivity data is crucial in resolving the landmines at different environments. The landmine with dimension and burial depth of one electrode separation unit is over estimated while the spatial resolutions decrease as the burial depth and noise percentage increase.

  8. Resistance of Trichoplusia ni Populations Selected by Bacillus thuringiensis Sprays to Cotton Plants Expressing Pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Wendy; Song, Xiaozhao; Janmaat, Alida F.; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Myers, Judith; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Two populations of Trichoplusia ni that had developed resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis sprays (Bt sprays) in commercial greenhouse vegetable production were tested for resistance to Bt cotton (BollGard II) plants expressing pyramided Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The T. ni colonies resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki formulations were not only resistant to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac, as previously reported, but also had a high frequency of Cry2Ab-resistant alleles, exhibiting ca. 20% survival on BollGard II foliage. BollGard II-resistant T. ni strains were established by selection with BollGard II foliage to further remove Cry2Ab-sensitive alleles in the T. ni populations. The BollGard II-resistant strains showed incomplete resistance to BollGard II, with adjusted survival values of 0.50 to 0.78 after 7 days. The resistance to the dual-toxin cotton plants was conferred by two genetically independent resistance mechanisms: one to Cry1Ac and one to Cry2Ab. The 50% lethal concentration of Cry2Ab for the resistant strain was at least 1,467-fold that for the susceptible T. ni strain. The resistance to Cry2Ab in resistant T. ni was an autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive monogenic trait. Results from this study indicate that insect populations under selection by Bt sprays in agriculture can be resistant to multiple Bt toxins and may potentially confer resistance to multitoxin Bt crops. PMID:25480752

  9. Estimation of tree root distribution using electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, Elmar; Uhlemann, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Trees influence soil-mantled slopes mechanically by anchoring in the soil with coarse roots. Forest-stands play an important role in mechanical reinforcement to reduce the susceptibility to slope failures. However, the effect of stabilisation of roots is connected with the distribution of roots in the ground. The architecture and distribution of tree roots is diverse and strongly dependent on species, plant age, stand density, relief, nutrient supply as well as climatic and pedologic conditions. Particularly trees growing on inclined slopes show shape-shifting root systems. Geophysical techniques are commonly used to non-invasively study hydrological and geomorphological subsurface properties, by imaging contrasting physical properties of the ground. This also poses the challenge for geophysical imaging of root systems, as properties, such as electrical resistivity, of dry and wet roots fall within the range of soils. The objective of this study is whether electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) allows a reliable reproduction of root systems of alone-standing trees on diverse inclined slopes. In this regard, we set the focus on the branching of secondary roots of two common walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) that were not disturbed in the adjacencies and thus expected to develop their root systems unhindered. Walnuts show a taproot-cordate root system with a strong tap-root in juvenile age and a rising cordate rooting with increasing age. Hence, mature walnuts can exhibit a root system that appears to be deformed or shifted respectively when growing at hillslope locations. We employed 3D ERT centred on the tree stem, comprising dipole-dipole measurements on a 12-by-41 electrode grid with 0.5 m and 1.0m electrode spacing in x- and y-direction respectively. Data were inverted using a 3D smoothness constrained non-linear least-squares algorithm. First results show that the general root distribution can be estimated from the resistivity models and that shape

  10. High temperature setup for measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of thin films using inductive heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnane, L.; Williams, N.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an automated setup for simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient S(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) of thin film samples from room temperature to ˜650 °C. S and ρ are extracted from current-voltage (I-V) measurements obtained using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and temperature measurements obtained using commercial thermocouples. The slope and the x-axis intercept of the I-V characteristics represent the sample conductance G and the Seebeck voltage, respectively. The measured G(T) can be scaled to ρ(T) by the geometry factor obtained from the room temperature resistivity measurement of the film. The setup uses resistive or inductive heating to control the temperature and temperature gradient on the sample. Inductive heating is achieved with steel plates that surround the test area and a water cooled copper pipe coil underneath that generates an AC magnetic field. The measurements can be performed using resistive heating only or inductive heating only, or a combination of both depending on the desired heating ranges. Inductive heating provides a more uniform heating of the test area, does not require contacts to the sample holder, can be used up to the Curie temperature of the particular magnetic material, and the temperature gradients can be adjusted by the relative positions of the coil and sample. Example results obtained for low doped single-crystal silicon with inductive heating only and with resistive heating only are presented.

  11. Effects of defoliating insect resistance QTLs and a cry1Ac transgene in soybean near-isogenic lines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Walker, D R; Boerma, H R; All, J N; Parrott, W A

    2008-02-01

    The crystal proteins coded by transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have shown considerable value in providing effective insect resistance in a number of crop species, including soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Additional sources of soybean insect resistance would be desirable to manage the development of tolerance/resistance to crystal proteins by defoliating insects and to sustain the deployment of Bt crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and interactions of three insect resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs; QTL-M, QTL-H, and QTL-G) originating from Japanese soybean PI 229358 and a cry1Ac gene in a "Benning" genetic background. A set of 16 BC(6)F(2)-derived near isogenic lines (NILs) was developed using marker-assisted backcrosses and evaluated for resistance to soybean looper [SBL, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)] and corn earworm [CEW, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] in field cage, greenhouse, and detached leaf assays. Both Bt and QTL-M had significantly reduced defoliation by both SBL and CEW and reduced larval weight of CEW. The antibiosis QTL-G had a significant effect on reducing CEW larval weight and also a significant effect on reducing defoliation by SBL and CEW in some assays. The antixenosis QTL-H had no main effect, but it appeared to function through interaction with QTL-M and QTL-G. Adding QTL-H and QTL-G further enhanced the resistance of the Bt and QTL-M combination to CEW in the field cage assay. These results should help guide the development of strategies for effective management of insect pests and for sustainable deployment of Bt genes.

  12. Electrical Resistance Tomography Field Trials to Image CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R.

    2003-12-01

    , telluric noise can be comparable to the signal levels during periods of geomagnetic activity. Finally, instrumentation stability over long periods is necessary to follow trends in reservoir behavior for several years. Solutions to these and other problems will be presented along with results from the first two years of work at a producing field undergoing CO2 flood. If electrical resistance tomography (ERT) imaging can be performed using existing well casings as long electrodes, it will substantially reduce the cost to monitor CO2 sequestration. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. Antimicrobial Peptide P60.4Ac-Containing Creams and Gel for Eradication of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Cultured Skin and Airway Epithelial Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Haisma, Elisabeth M.; Göblyös, Anikó; Ravensbergen, Bep; Adriaans, Alwin E.; Cordfunke, Robert A.; Schrumpf, Jasmijn; Limpens, Ronald W. A. L.; Schimmel, Kirsten J. M.; den Hartigh, Jan; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb

    2016-01-01

    We previously found the LL-37-derived peptide P60.4Ac to be effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on human epidermal models (EMs). The goal of this study was to identify the preferred carrier for this peptide for topical application on skin and mucosal surfaces. We prepared P60.4Ac in three formulations, i.e., a water-in-oil cream with lanolin (Softisan 649), an oil-in-water cream with polyethylene glycol hexadecyl ether (Cetomacrogol), and a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (hypromellose) 4000 gel. We tested the antimicrobial efficacy of the peptide in these formulations against mupirocin-resistant and -sensitive MRSA strains on EMs and bronchial epithelial models (BEMs). The cytotoxic effects of formulated P60.4Ac on these models were determined using histology and WST-1 and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Moreover, we assessed the stability of the peptide in these formulations with storage for up to 3 months. Killing of MRSA by P60.4Ac in the two creams was less effective than that by P60.4Ac in the hypromellose gel. In agreement with those findings, P60.4Ac in the hypromellose gel was highly effective in eradicating the two MRSA strains from EMs. We found that even 0.1% (wt/wt) P60.4Ac in the hypromellose gel killed >99% of the viable planktonic bacteria and >85% of the biofilm-associated bacteria on EMs. Hypromellose gels containing 0.1% and 0.5% (wt/wt) P60.4Ac effectively reduced the numbers of viable MRSA cells from BEMs by >90%. No cytotoxic effects of P60.4Ac in the hypromellose gel with up to 2% (wt/wt) P60.4Ac on keratinocytes in EMs and in the hypromellose gel with up to 0.5% (wt/wt) P60.4Ac on epithelial cells in BEMs were observed. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that P60.4Ac was stable in the Softisan cream and the hypromellose gel but not in the Cetomacrogol cream. We conclude that P60.4Ac formulated in hypromellose gel is both stable and highly effective in eradicating MRSA from colonized EMs and

  14. Effect of crop plants on fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in cabbage loopers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ping

    2016-02-12

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins critically impact the development of resistance in insect populations. In this study, the fitness costs in Trichoplusia ni strains associated with two genetically independent resistance mechanisms to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, individually and in combination, on four crop plants (cabbage, cotton, tobacco and tomato) were analyzed, in comparison with their near-isogenic susceptible strain. The net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the T. ni strains, regardless of their resistance traits, were strongly affected by the host plants. The ABCC2 gene-linked mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance was associated with relatively low fitness costs, while the Cry2Ab resistance mechanism was associated with higher fitness costs. The fitness costs in the presence of both resistance mechanisms in T. ni appeared to be non-additive. The relative fitness of Bt-resistant T. ni depended on the specific resistance mechanisms as well as host plants. In addition to difference in survivorship and fecundity, an asynchrony of adult emergence was observed among T. ni with different resistance mechanisms and on different host plants. Therefore, mechanisms of resistance and host plants available in the field are both important factors affecting development of Bt resistance in insects.

  15. Effect of crop plants on fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in cabbage loopers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins critically impact the development of resistance in insect populations. In this study, the fitness costs in Trichoplusia ni strains associated with two genetically independent resistance mechanisms to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, individually and in combination, on four crop plants (cabbage, cotton, tobacco and tomato) were analyzed, in comparison with their near-isogenic susceptible strain. The net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the T. ni strains, regardless of their resistance traits, were strongly affected by the host plants. The ABCC2 gene-linked mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance was associated with relatively low fitness costs, while the Cry2Ab resistance mechanism was associated with higher fitness costs. The fitness costs in the presence of both resistance mechanisms in T. ni appeared to be non-additive. The relative fitness of Bt-resistant T. ni depended on the specific resistance mechanisms as well as host plants. In addition to difference in survivorship and fecundity, an asynchrony of adult emergence was observed among T. ni with different resistance mechanisms and on different host plants. Therefore, mechanisms of resistance and host plants available in the field are both important factors affecting development of Bt resistance in insects. PMID:26868936

  16. AC Electric Field Enhances Cryopreservation Efficiency of Sprague-Dawley Rat Liver During a Slow Freezing Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ya H; Qin, Guo F; Li, Jing; Ding, Gui R; Xu, Sheng L; Zhou, Yan; Guo, Guo Z

    2016-02-01

    Slow freezing coupled with an AC electric field (ACEF) has been demonstrated to miniaturize the ice crystals of a 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution in a prior study. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ACEF on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat liver in vitro during the slow cooling procedure. SD rat liver exposed to an oscillating electric field was frozen in a programmed freezer initially down to -30°C at a cooling rate of -1°C/min and continuing down to -80°C at a cooling rate of -5°C/min. The cryovials were finally transferred into liquid nitrogen for 7 days. The frequency range was 0-20 MHz, and peak field strength was 1,000 V/m. For the sham and electric-exposed groups, the freezing solution consisted of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, or 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) Dulbecco's modified Eagles' medium culture solution, and fresh tissue was selected as the control group. The changes in cell survival rate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and morphology of fresh and frozen-thawed liver tissue were examined. Compared with the sham group with 5.0% DMSO, the result showed that slow freezing coupled with 2.45 MHz or 5 MHz ACEF significantly increased the relative survival rate by 43.27% and 26.31% (P < 0.001), respectively. However, ACEF exposure increased the ATP content compared with the sham group. Especially in 5% and 10% DMSO with 2.45 MHz ACEF exposure, the ATP content approximated the fresh group (7.3 ± 2.7 nmol/piece), corresponding to 94.52% and 80.82%. In addition, the cellular membrane and some organelles (e.g., mitochondria) in the electric-exposed group appeared to be more intact according to the transmission electron microscopy images. The underlying mechanism might be that the ACEF affects the formation and growth of the ice crystallization, and thus inhibits cryoinjury. These results show that ACEF would provide an efficient method for cryopreservation banking with a low concentration of CPA during the slow freezing process.

  17. Electrical resistivity characteristics of diesel oil-contaminated kaolin clay and a resistivity-based detection method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Liu, Songyu; Cai, Yi; Fang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    As the dielectric constant and conductivity of petroleum products are different from those of the pore water in soil, the electrical resistivity characteristics of oil-contaminated soil will be changed by the corresponding oil type and content. The contaminated soil specimens were manually prepared by static compaction method in the laboratory with commercial kaolin clay and diesel oil. The water content and dry density of the first group of soil specimens were controlled at 10 % and 1.58 g/cm(3). Corresponding electrical resistivities of the contaminated specimens were measured at the curing periods of 7, 14, and 28 and 90, 120, and 210 days on a modified oedometer cell with an LCR meter. Then, the electrical resistivity characteristics of diesel oil-contaminated kaolin clay were discussed. In order to realize a resistivity-based oil detection method, the other group of oil-contaminated kaolin clay specimens was also made and tested, but the initial water content, oil content, and dry density were controlled at 0~18 %, 0~18 %, 1.30~1.95 g/cm(3), respectively. Based on the test data, a resistivity-based artificial neural network (ANN) was developed. It was found that the electrical resistivity of kaolin clay decreased with the increase of oil content. Moreover, there was a good nonlinear relationship between electrical resistivity and corresponding oil content when the water content and dry density were kept constant. The decreasing velocity of the electrical resistivity of oil-contaminated kaolin clay was higher before the oil content of 12 % than after 12 %, which indicated a transition of the soil from pore water-controlled into oil-controlled electrical resistivity characteristics. Through microstructural analysis, the decrease of electrical resistivity could be explained by the increase of saturation degree together with the collapse of the electrical double layer. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) photos indicated that the diesel oil

  18. A novel design of DC-AC electrical machine rotary converter for hybrid solar and wind energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, K. G.; Ramli, A. Q.; Amirulddin, U. A. U.

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes the design of a new bi-directional DC-AC rotary converter machine to convert a d.c. voltage to three-phase voltage and vice-versa using a two-stage energy conversion machine. The rotary converter consists of two main stages which are combined into single frame. These two stages are constructed from three main electromagnetic components. The first inner electromagnetic component represents the input stage that enables the DC power generated by solar energy from photo-voltaic cells to be transformed by the second and third components electro-magnetically to produce multi-phase voltages at the output stage. At the same time, extra kinetic energy from wind, which is sufficiently available, can be added to existing torque on the second electromagnetic component. Both of these input energies will add up to the final energy generated at the output terminals. Therefore, the machine will be able to convert solar and wind energies to the output terminals simultaneously. If the solar energy is low, the available wind energy will be able to provide energy to the output terminals and at the same time charges the batteries which are connected as backup system. At this moment, the machine behaves as wind turbine. The energy output from the machine benefits from two energy sources which are solar and wind. At night when the solar energy is not available and also the load is low, the wind energy is able to charge the batteries and at the same time provides output electrical power to the remaining the load. Therefore, the proposed system will have high usage of available renewable energy as compared to separated wind or solar systems. MATLAB codes are used to calculate the required dimensions, the magnetic and electrical circuits parameters to design of the new bi-directional rotary converter machine.

  19. Ultrahigh Oxidation Resistance and High Electrical Conductivity in Copper-Silver Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaxiang; Li, Yunping; Wang, Zhongchang; Bian, Huakang; Hou, Yuhang; Wang, Fenglin; Xu, Guofu; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of pure Cu powder is typically deteriorated at elevated temperatures due to the oxidation by forming non-conducting oxides on surface, while enhancing oxidation resistance via alloying is often accompanied by a drastic decline of electrical conductivity. Obtaining Cu powder with both a high electrical conductivity and a high oxidation resistance represents one of the key challenges in developing next-generation electrical transferring powder. Here, we fabricate a Cu-Ag powder with a continuous Ag network along grain boundaries of Cu particles and demonstrate that this new structure can inhibit the preferential oxidation in grain boundaries at elevated temperatures. As a result, the Cu-Ag powder displays considerably high electrical conductivity and high oxidation resistance up to approximately 300 °C, which are markedly higher than that of pure Cu powder. This study paves a new pathway for developing novel Cu powders with much enhanced electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance in service.

  20. Ultrahigh Oxidation Resistance and High Electrical Conductivity in Copper-Silver Powder.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaxiang; Li, Yunping; Wang, Zhongchang; Bian, Huakang; Hou, Yuhang; Wang, Fenglin; Xu, Guofu; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong

    2016-12-22

    The electrical conductivity of pure Cu powder is typically deteriorated at elevated temperatures due to the oxidation by forming non-conducting oxides on surface, while enhancing oxidation resistance via alloying is often accompanied by a drastic decline of electrical conductivity. Obtaining Cu powder with both a high electrical conductivity and a high oxidation resistance represents one of the key challenges in developing next-generation electrical transferring powder. Here, we fabricate a Cu-Ag powder with a continuous Ag network along grain boundaries of Cu particles and demonstrate that this new structure can inhibit the preferential oxidation in grain boundaries at elevated temperatures. As a result, the Cu-Ag powder displays considerably high electrical conductivity and high oxidation resistance up to approximately 300 °C, which are markedly higher than that of pure Cu powder. This study paves a new pathway for developing novel Cu powders with much enhanced electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance in service.

  1. Ultrahigh Oxidation Resistance and High Electrical Conductivity in Copper-Silver Powder

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaxiang; Li, Yunping; Wang, Zhongchang; Bian, Huakang; Hou, Yuhang; Wang, Fenglin; Xu, Guofu; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of pure Cu powder is typically deteriorated at elevated temperatures due to the oxidation by forming non-conducting oxides on surface, while enhancing oxidation resistance via alloying is often accompanied by a drastic decline of electrical conductivity. Obtaining Cu powder with both a high electrical conductivity and a high oxidation resistance represents one of the key challenges in developing next-generation electrical transferring powder. Here, we fabricate a Cu-Ag powder with a continuous Ag network along grain boundaries of Cu particles and demonstrate that this new structure can inhibit the preferential oxidation in grain boundaries at elevated temperatures. As a result, the Cu-Ag powder displays considerably high electrical conductivity and high oxidation resistance up to approximately 300 °C, which are markedly higher than that of pure Cu powder. This study paves a new pathway for developing novel Cu powders with much enhanced electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance in service. PMID:28004839

  2. Protein kinase C activity is altered in HL60 cells exposed to 60 Hz AC electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Holian, O.; Reyes, H.M.; Attar, B.M.; Walter, R.J.; Astumian, R.D.; Lee, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The authors examined the effects of electric fields (EFs) on the activity and subcellular distribution of protein kinase C (PKC) of living HL60 cells. Sixty Hertz AC sinusoidal EFs (1.5--1,000 mV/cm p-p) were applied for 1 h to cells (10{sup 7}/ml) in Teflon chambers at 37 C in the presence or absence of 2 {micro}M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). PMA stimulation alone evoked intracellular translocation of PKC from the cytosolic to particulate fractions. In cells that were exposed to EFs (100--1,000 mV/cm) without PMA, a loss of PKC activity from the cytosol, but no concomitant rise in particulate PKC activity, was observed. In the presence of PMA, EFs (33--330 mV/cm) also accentuated the expected loss of PKC activity from the cytosol and augmented the rise in PKC activity in the particulate fraction. These data show that EFs alone or combined with PMA promote down-regulation of cytosolic PKC activity similar to that evoked by mitogens and tumor promoters but that it does not elicit the concomitant rise in particulate activity seen with those agents.

  3. Frequency Domain Analysis of Beat-Less Control Method for Converter-Inverter Driving Systems Applied to AC Electric Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Akira

    In inverter-converter driving systems for AC electric cars, the DC input voltage of an inverter contains a ripple component with a frequency that is twice as high as the line voltage frequency, because of a single-phase converter. The ripple component of the inverter input voltage causes pulsations on torques and currents of driving motors. To decrease the pulsations, a beat-less control method, which modifies a slip frequency depending on the ripple component, is applied to the inverter control. In the present paper, the beat-less control method was analyzed in the frequency domain. In the first step of the analysis, transfer functions, which revealed the relationship among the ripple component of the inverter input voltage, the slip frequency, the motor torque pulsation and the current pulsation, were derived with a synchronous rotating model of induction motors. An analysis model of the beat-less control method was then constructed using the transfer functions. The optimal setting of the control method was obtained according to the analysis model. The transfer functions and the analysis model were verified through simulations.

  4. Electric-field-modulated nonvolatile resistance switching in VO₂/PMN-PT(111) heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Bowen; Gao, Guanyin; Xu, Haoran; Chen, Feng; Tan, Xuelian; Chen, Pingfan; Wang, Lingfei; Wu, Wenbin

    2014-04-09

    The electric-field-modulated resistance switching in VO2 thin films grown on piezoelectric (111)-0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates has been investigated. Large relative change in resistance (10.7%) was observed in VO2/PMN-PT(111) hererostructures at room temperature. For a substrate with a given polarization direction, stable resistive states of VO2 films can be realized even when the applied electric fields are removed from the heterostructures. By sweeping electric fields across the heterostructure appropriately, multiple resistive states can be achieved. These stable resistive states result from the different stable remnant strain states of substrate, which is related to the rearrangements of ferroelectric domain structures in PMN-PT(111) substrate. The resistance switching tuned by electric field in our work may have potential applications for novel electronic devices.

  5. Predicting and tracking spatiotemporal moments in electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, W. O. C.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J.; Bai, L.

    2015-12-01

    Visualisation is an invaluable tool in the study of near sub-surface processes, whether by mathematical modelling or by geophysical imaging. Quantitative analysis can further assist interpretation of the ongoing physical processes, and it is clear that any reliable model should take direct observations into account. Using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), localised areas can be surveyed to produce 2-D and 3-D time-lapse images. This study investigates combining quantitative results obtained via ERT with spatio-temporal motion models in tracer experiments to interpret and predict fluid flow. As with any indirect imaging technique, ERT suffers specific issues with resolution and smoothness as a result of its inversion process. In addition, artefacts are typical in the resulting volumes. Mathematical models are also a source of uncertainty - and in combining these with ERT images, a trade-off must be made between the theoretical and the observed. Using computational imaging, distinct regions of stable resistivity can be directly extracted from a time-slice of an ERT volume. The automated nature, as well the potential for more than one region-of-interest, means that multiple regions can be detected. Using Kalman filters, it is possible to convert the detections into a process state, taking into account pre-defined models and predicting progression. In consecutive time-steps, newly detected features are assigned, where possible, to existing predictions to create tracks that match the tracer model. Preliminary studies looked at a simple motion model, tracking the centre of mass of a tracer plume with assumed constant velocity and mean resistivity. Extending the model to factor in spatial distribution of the plume, an oriented semi-axis is used to represent the centralised second-order moment, with an increasing factor of magnitude to represent the plume dispersion. Initial results demonstrate the efficacy of the approach, significantly improving reliability as the

  6. Electrical resistivity of radiation disordered oxide BaNb sub 4 O sub 6

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, S.A.; Goshchitskii, B.N.; Karkin, A.E.; Mirmelstein, A.V.; Voronin, V.I.; Parkhomenko, V.D. ); Zubkov, V.G.; Perelyaev, V.N.; Berger, I.F.; Kontzevaya, I.A. )

    1990-07-01

    The effect of radiation disorder on the electrical resistivity of the metallic non-superconducting BaNb{sub 4}O{sub 6} oxide has been investigated. It is shown that variation of electrical resistivity {rho} of this compound under disorder is typical of metallic systems, i.e. residual resistivity increases linearly with defect concentration while the temperature dependence of {rho} changes slightly. Such a behavior qualitatively differs from the previously observed unusual behavior of HTSC with similar crystal structure.

  7. Cross-resistance responses of CrylAc-selected Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to the Bacillus thuringiensis protein vip3A.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R E; Marcus, M A; Gould, F; Bradley, J R; Van Duyn, J W

    2007-02-01

    One susceptible and three Cry1Ac-resistant strains of tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were used in laboratory studies to determine the level of cross-resistance between the Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) toxins Cry1Ac and Vip3A by using concentration-mortality and leaf tissue experiments. Concentration-mortality data demonstrated that the three Cry1Ac-resistant H. virescens strains, YHD2, KCBhyb, and CxC, were at least 215- to 316-fold resistant to Cry1Ac compared with the susceptible strain, YDK. Results from Vip3A concentration-mortality tests indicated that mortality was similar among all four H. virescens strains. Relative larval growth on Cry1Ac reflected concentration-mortality test results, because YHD2 larval growth was mostly unaffected by the Cry1Ac concentrations tested. Growth ratios for KCBhyb and CXC indicated that they had a more moderate level of resistance to Cry1Ac than did YHD2. Relative larval growth on Vip3A was highly variable at lower concentrations, but it was more consistent on concentrations of Vip3A above 25 microg/ml. Differences in larval growth among strains on Vip3A were not as pronounced as seen in Cry1Ac experiments. Mortality and larval growth also was assessed in leaf tissue bioassays in which YDK, CxC, and KCBhyb neonates were placed onto leaf disks from non-Bt and Bt cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., for 5 d. Three Bt lines were used in an initial bioassay and consisted of two Vip3A-containing lines, COT203 and COT102, and a Cry1Ac-producing line. Mortality of KCBhyb and CXC was lower than that of YDK larvae in the presence of leaf tissue from the Cry1Ac-producing line. Additionally, increased larval growth and leaf tissue consumption on Cry1Ac-containing leaf disks was observed for KCBhyb and CXC. Mortality and larval weights were similar among strains when larvae were fed leaf tissue of either non-Bt, COT203, or COT102. A subsequent leaf tissue bioassay was conducted that evaluated four

  8. Research on nonlinear feature of electrical resistance of acupuncture points.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianzi; Mao, Huijuan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lina; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Xueyong

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive volt-ampere characteristics detecting system was applied to measure the volt-ampere curves of nine acupuncture points, LU9, HT7, LI4, PC6, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, and SP3, and corresponding nonacupuncture points bilaterally from 42 healthy volunteers. Electric currents intensity was increased from 0 μA to 20 μA and then returned to 0 μA again. The results showed that the volt-ampere curves of acupuncture points had nonlinear property and magnetic hysteresis-like feature. On all acupuncture point spots, the volt-ampere areas of the increasing phase were significantly larger than that of the decreasing phase (P < 0.01). The volt-ampere areas of ten acupuncture point spots were significantly smaller than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots when intensity was increase (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001). And when intensity was decrease, eleven acupuncture point spots showed the same property as above (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001), while two acupuncture point spots showed opposite phenomenon in which the areas of two acupuncture point spots were larger than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.01). These results show that the phenomenon of low skin resistance does not exist to all acupuncture points.

  9. Research on Nonlinear Feature of Electrical Resistance of Acupuncture Points

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianzi; Mao, Huijuan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lina; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Xueyong

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive volt-ampere characteristics detecting system was applied to measure the volt-ampere curves of nine acupuncture points, LU9, HT7, LI4, PC6, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, and SP3, and corresponding nonacupuncture points bilaterally from 42 healthy volunteers. Electric currents intensity was increased from 0 μA to 20 μA and then returned to 0 μA again. The results showed that the volt-ampere curves of acupuncture points had nonlinear property and magnetic hysteresis-like feature. On all acupuncture point spots, the volt-ampere areas of the increasing phase were significantly larger than that of the decreasing phase (P < 0.01). The volt-ampere areas of ten acupuncture point spots were significantly smaller than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots when intensity was increase (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001). And when intensity was decrease, eleven acupuncture point spots showed the same property as above (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.001), while two acupuncture point spots showed opposite phenomenon in which the areas of two acupuncture point spots were larger than those of the corresponding nonacupuncture point spots (P < 0.05 ~ P < 0.01). These results show that the phenomenon of low skin resistance does not exist to all acupuncture points. PMID:23346191

  10. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, E.A.; Monroe, S.A.; Springer, A.E.; Blasch, K.W.; Bills, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  11. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    1999-03-22

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. The first case we investigated used an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. A hybrid case uses traditional point electrode arrays combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes.

  12. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as long electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W; Newmark, R L; Ramirez, A

    1999-07-20

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. Several possibilities can be considered. The first case we investigated uses an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. The second case uses an array of traditional point borehole electrodes combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes but the merits depend strongly on details of each application. Field tests using these configurations are currently being conducted.

  13. Electrical resistance sensors record spring flow timing, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric A; Monroe, Stephen A; Springer, Abraham E; Blasch, Kyle W; Bills, Donald J

    2006-01-01

    Springs along the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, are important ecological and cultural resources in Grand Canyon National Park and are discharge points for regional and local aquifers of the Coconino Plateau. This study evaluated the applicability of electrical resistance (ER) sensors for measuring diffuse, low-stage (<1.0 cm) intermittent and ephemeral flow in the steep, rocky spring-fed tributaries of the south rim. ER sensors were used to conduct a baseline survey of spring flow timing at eight sites in three spring-fed tributaries in Grand Canyon. Sensors were attached to a nearly vertical rock wall at a spring outlet and were installed in alluvial and bedrock channels. Spring flow timing data inferred by the ER sensors were consistent with observations during site visits, with flow events recorded with collocated streamflow gauging stations and with local precipitation gauges. ER sensors were able to distinguish the presence of flow along nearly vertical rock surfaces with flow depths between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the sensors to monitor the timing of diffuse flow on impervious surfaces. A comparison of flow patterns along the stream reaches and at springs identified the timing and location of perennial and intermittent flow, and periods of increased evapotranspiration.

  14. Detecting leaks in hydrocarbon storage tanks using electrical resistance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; LaBrecque, D.; Binley, A.

    1995-04-03

    Large volumes of hydrocarbons are stored worldwide in surface and underground tanks. It is well documented [1] that all too often these tanks are found to leak, resulting in not only a loss of stored inventory but, more importantly, contamination to soil and groundwater. Two field experiments are reported herein to evaluate the utility of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) for detecting and locating leaks as well as delineating any resulting plumes emanating from steel underground storage tanks (UST). Current leak detection methods for single shell tanks require careful inventory monitoring, usually from liquid level sensors within the tank, or placement of chemical sensors in the soil under and around the tank. Liquid level sensors can signal a leak but are limited in sensitivity and, of course, give no information about the location or the leak or the distribution of the resulting plume. External sensors are expensive to retrofit and must be very densely spaced to assure reliable detection, especially in heterogeneous soils. The rational for using subsurface tomography is that it may have none of these shortcomings.

  15. Visualizing Moisture Storage in Basin Lysimeters Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, W.; Munk, J.; Lee, W.

    2010-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was utilized to evaluate soil moisture in two large (10m x 20m x 2m) basin lysimeters over a four-year period in Anchorage, Alaska. The lysimeters were intended to test the efficacy of two competing landfill cover designs, thus water balance information was collected over the entire experimental period. The first lysimeter contained a thin (0.5m) layer of compacted soil within its 2m depth and was planted with local grasses. The second lysimeter contained no compacted soil layer and was planted with deep-rooting woody vegetation to maximize moisture removal via evapotranspiration. After four years of observation, 291mm of moisture percolated through the compacted soil lysimeter compared to 201mm in the evapotranspiration lysimeter. This presentation describes the observed water balance results, discusses efficacy of utilizing compacted soils versus evapotranspiration as the primary means of minimizing infiltration into engineered soil systems, and demonstrates the use of ERT as a technique for visualizing soil moisture storage.

  16. Use of electrical resistivity to detect underground mine voids in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, Rodney A.

    2002-01-01

    Electrical resistivity surveys were completed at two sites along State Route 32 in Jackson and Vinton Counties, Ohio. The surveys were done to determine whether the electrical resistivity method could identify areas where coal was mined, leaving air- or water-filled voids. These voids can be local sources of potable water or acid mine drainage. They could also result in potentially dangerous collapse of roads or buildings that overlie the voids. The resistivity response of air- or water-filled voids compared to the surrounding bedrock may allow electrical resistivity surveys to delineate areas underlain by such voids. Surface deformation along State Route 32 in Jackson County led to a site investigation, which included electrical resistivity surveys. Several highly resistive areas were identified using axial dipole-dipole and Wenner resistivity surveys. Subsequent drilling and excavation led to the discovery of several air-filled abandoned underground mine tunnels. A site along State Route 32 in Vinton County, Ohio, was drilled as part of a mining permit application process. A mine void under the highway was instrumented with a pressure transducer to monitor water levels. During a period of high water level, electrical resistivity surveys were completed. The electrical response was dominated by a thin, low-resistivity layer of iron ore above where the coal was mined out. Nearby overhead powerlines also affected the results.

  17. Method for the formation of cylindrical current and its application to evaluate electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.-C.; Chang, C.-S.; Liang, W.-L.; Tsai, W.-F.; Ai, C.-F.; Lin, J.-F.

    2012-07-01

    A cylindrical current method is developed to obtain a stable and precise electrical resistivity of a specimen with or without a coating film. The electrical resistivity of a standard silicon wafer doped with boron at a concentration can be measured using the proposed method if the experimental results of electrical voltage varying with the distance from the center line of the cylindrical current are available. A comparison of the electrical resistivity obtained using the present method and the theoretical reference value indicates that the proposed method produces reliable and precise measurements. Using four test samples, the experimental results of electrical resistivity measured by the present method are shown to be reproducible and more precise than those measured by the four-terminal sensing method and the van der Pauw method. The electrical voltage and current obtained at various distances from the center line of the cylindrical current are almost independent of the distance and the direction of measurements. The effect of specimen's crystallinity appears to be the governing factor of electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity decreases with increasing crystallinity generally.

  18. Vertical electrical resistivity sounding (VERS) of tundra and forest tundra soils of Yamal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Ivan; Kostecki, Jakub; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine electrical resistivity peculiarities of tundra and forest tundra soils and soil-permafrost layers of the Yamal region. Measurements of electrical resistivity of soil and permafrost strata were performed with a portable device LandMapper (to a depth of 300-500 cm). These measurements allow determination of the values of apparent electrical resistivity of soils and permafrost at different depths and determination of the depths of the permafrost table on each key plot. It was found that there are several trends in vertical distribution of apparent electrical resistivity values. The first trend is a monotonous increase in electrical resistivity values to the depth. It may be explained by the increasing electrical resistivity within the soil depth in relation to the increase in permafrost density. The second trend is a sharp decrease replaced by a gradual increase in electrical resistivity values caused by changing of non-frozen friable debris to frozen massive crystalline rock. These differences were related to the type of landscape: flat lowlands composed of friable grounds underlain by permafrost or friable grounds with permafrost underlain by a rock crystalline layer.

  19. Electrorheology of Dispersions of BaxSr(1-x)TiO3 in Silicone Oil Under AC or DC Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Glauber M. S.; Bombard, Antonio J. F.; Brito, Silvio L. M.; Gouvêa, Douglas; Vieira, Sheila L.

    2012-07-01

    Electrorheology (ER) of ferroelectric materials such as nanometric BaTiO3 is still not fully understood. In this paper, nanoparticles of BaxSr(1-x)TiO3 (where x = 0.8, 0.9 or 1.0) were synthesized using the method of Pechini, calcinated at 950°C, and after, lixiviated under pH 1 or pH 5. A controlled stress rheometer (MCR-301) was used to make the ER characterization of dispersions made of Bax Ti1-xO3 in silicone oil (30% w/w), where (a) shear stress as a function of DC electric field (under constant shear rate) or (b) shear stress as a function of shear rate (under constant AC or DC electric field) were measured. We observed that electrophoresis occurred under electric field DC, creating a concentration gradient which induced phase separation in ER fluid. On the other hand, under AC fields above 1 kV/mm, the ER effect is stronger than for DC field, and almost without electrophoresis. Furthermore, there is an AC frequency, dependent on the disperse phase, where the ER effect has a maximum.

  20. A one-dimensional model of solid-earth electrical resistivity beneath Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blum, Cletus; Love, Jeffrey J.; Pedrie, Kolby; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Rigler, E. Joshua

    2015-11-19

    An estimated one-dimensional layered model of electrical resistivity beneath Florida was developed from published geological and geophysical information. The resistivity of each layer is represented by plausible upper and lower bounds as well as a geometric mean resistivity. Corresponding impedance transfer functions, Schmucker-Weidelt transfer functions, apparent resistivity, and phase responses are calculated for inducing geomagnetic frequencies ranging from 10−5 to 100 hertz. The resulting one-dimensional model and response functions can be used to make general estimates of time-varying electric fields associated with geomagnetic storms such as might represent induction hazards for electric-power grid operation. The plausible upper- and lower-bound resistivity structures show the uncertainty, giving a wide range of plausible time-varying electric fields.

  1. Specific heat, resistivity, and AC susceptibility of the cubic PrX 2 compounds (X = Pt, Ru, Ir, Rh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; Nieuwenhuys, G. J.; de Jongh, L. J.; Huiskamp, W. J.; Capel, H. W.; Buschow, K. H. J.

    1983-04-01

    Specific-heat, differential-susceptibility and electrical-resistivity measurements on PrX 2 (X = Ir, Pt, Rh, Ru) compounds reveal phase transitions at Tc = 11.2±0.5 K, 7.7±0.5 K, 7.9±0.5 Kand 33.9±0.5 K for X = Ir, Pt, Rh, and Ru, respective ly. From earlier neutron inelastic scattering experiments, the crystalline electric field levels of these compounds have been determined. The specific-heat results are compared with the results of a mean-field calculation, assuming bilinear exchange interactions. The presence of broad secondary maxima in the temperature dependence of the specific heat of PrRh 2, PrRu 2 and especially PrIr 2 can qualitatively be explained by the presence of biquadratic (quadrupolar) interactions. The behaviour of the susceptibility is in agreement with ferromagnetic ordering. The electrical resistivity drops markedly below Tc, and the dϱ/d T versus T curve is similar to that of the specific heat.

  2. Electrical resistivity and piezoresistivity of Ni-CNT filled epoxy-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinbao; Xiao, Huigang; Li, Hui

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates properties about electrical resistivity and piezoresistivity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-filled epoxy-based composite and its further use for strain sensing. The MWCNTs dispersed epoxy resin, using MWCNTs in the amount of 1.5~3.0 vol.%, was first prepared by combined high-speed stirring and sonication methods. Then, the MWCNTs dispersed epoxy resin was cast into an aluminum mold to form specimens measuring 10×10×36 mm. After curing, DC electrical resistance measurements were performed along the longitudinal axis using the four-probe method, in which copper nets served as electrical contacts. The percolation threshold zone of resistivity was got as MWCNTs in the amount of 2.00-2.50 vol.%. Further compressive testing of these specimens was conducted with four-probe method for resistance measurements at the same time. Testing results show that the electrical resistivity of the composites changes with the strain's development, namely piezoresistivity. While for practical strain sensing use, signals of electric resistance and current in the acquisition circuits were both studied. Results show that the signal of current, compared with that of resistance, had better linear relationship with the compressive strain, better stability and longer effective section to reflect the whole deformation process of the specimens under pressure. Further works about the effects of low magnetic field on the electrical resistivity and piezoresistivity of Ni-CNTs filled epoxy-based composites were presented briefly at the end of the paper.

  3. The Study of Electron Coherence Effects in Metallic Systems with High Frequency AC Electric Fields: Weak Localization and Mesoscopic Photovoltaic Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    We have studied the effect of a high-frequency microwave electric field on electron phase coherence in thin Sb films and wires. The phase coherence is monitored through the effect of weak localization on the conductance. Through careful experimental design, we were able to calibrate the high frequency electric field. The ac effect was separated from the Joule heating with either dc measurements or the application of a magnetic field. This has made it possible to make a detailed, quantitative comparison with the theory with no free parameters. We have found good agreements between the experiments and the theory for both one and two dimensional cases. We have used the simple dc heating experiment to study the electron heating effects in Sb films. The electron temperature was reflected in the resistance, as an especially striking manner, to be quite different from the lattice temperature. This experiment was also used to study the electron-phonon scattering time in thin Sb films in the temperature range 1-4K. The magnitude of the scattering time is in reasonable accord with the theory, while the temperature dependence is of the form tau_{E_{ph}} ~ T^{-alpha }, with alpha ~ 1.4. The value of alpha appears to be significantly smaller than predicted by the theory, and is not understood. We have also studied the high frequency heating effects of thin AuPd, AuFe, and Au films at low temperatures. The analysis of the experiments yield consistent results with the theory for AuPd films with high values of the sheet resistance. However, for low-sheet-resistance films of AuPd, AuFe, and Au, the analysis suggests either that Joule heating is suppressed at microwave frequencies (as compared with that found for the same field strength at lower frequencies), or that a microwave field enhances the contribution of electron-electron interactions to the resistance. Either of these results would be at odds with current theories. Another experiment in which we were involved was the

  4. Electrical resistivity of some Zintl phase and the precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, L.

    1990-09-21

    Resistivity measurements have been performed for electric characterization of the compounds Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} and Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}Cl, both with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} structure type, along with Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3} and Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}F, both with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} structure type. These measurements were taken as a function of temperature using the four probe method on pressed polycrystalline pellets of the compounds. A sealed apparatus was developed for containing these air-sensitive compounds throughout the experiments. By a simple electron count, one extra electron in both Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} and Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3} should occupy a conduction band, giving these compounds a metallic character. In the cases of Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}Cl and Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}F, the extra electron should bond to the halide, both filling the valence band and giving rise to semiconducting character. Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}, Ca{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}F, and Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}Cl were found to comply with the electron count prediction. Ba{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}, however, was found to be a semiconductor (E{sub g} = 0.30 eV) with a larger band gap than its corresponding chloride (E{sub g} = 0.09 eV).

  5. Direct-current vertical electrical-resistivity soundings in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westjohn, D.B.; Carter, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-three direct-current vertical electrical-resistivity soundings were conducted in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan from June through October 1987. These soundings were made to assist in mapping the depth to brine in areas where borehole resistivity logs and water-quality data are sparse or lacking. The Schlumberger array for placement of current and potential electrodes was used for each sounding. Vertical electrical-resistivity sounding field data, shifted and smoothed sounding data, and electric layers calculated using inverse modeling techniques are presented. Also included is a summary of the near-surface conditions and depths to conductors and resistors for each sounding location.

  6. Procedure for measuring electrical resistivity of anisotropic materials: A revision of the Montgomery method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, C. A. M.; de Campos, A.; da Luz, M. S.; White, B. D.; Neumeier, J. J.; de Lima, B. S.; Shigue, C. Y.

    2011-10-01

    A procedure for determining the electrical resistivity of anisotropic materials is presented. It offers several improvements to the well-known Montgomery method. One improvement, in particular, is the ability to obtain the electrical resistivity for all three axes of an orthorhombic crystal analytically, rather than using the iterative approach suggested by Montgomery for the third axis. All necessary equations are derived and their application in determining the tensor components of the electrical resistivity is explained in detail. Measurements on isotropic specimens were executed in order to test the foundations of the method. Measurements on anisotropic samples are compared with measurements obtained by using the standard four-probe method, revealing good agreement.

  7. Thermal-electrical properties and resistance stability of silver coated yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yafang; Liu, Hao; Li, Xiaojiu

    2017-03-01

    Thermal-electrical properties and resistance stability of silver yarns was researched to evaluate the performance be a heating element. Three samples of silver coated yarns with different linear density and electrical resistivity, which obtained by market. Silver coated yarns were placed at the high temperature condition for ageing. The electrical resistances of yarns were increased with the ageing process. The infrared photography instrument was used to measurement the temperature variation of silver coated yarns by applied different current on. The result shows that the temperature rise with the power increases.

  8. Electrical Properties of Materials for Elevated Temperature Resistance Strain Gage Application. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to study the electrical resistances of materials that are potentially useful as resistance strain gages at 1000 C. Transition metal carbides and nitrides, boron carbide and silicon carbide were selected for the experimental phase of this research. Due to their low temperature coefficient of resistance and good stability, TiC, ZrC, B sub 4 C and beta-SiC are suggested as good candidates for high temperature resistance strain gage applications.

  9. Corrosion-resistant, electrically-conductive plate for use in a fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J. David; Mawdsley, Jennifer R.; Niyogi, Suhas; Wang, Xiaoping; Cruse, Terry; Santos, Lilia

    2010-04-20

    A corrosion resistant, electrically-conductive, durable plate at least partially coated with an anchor coating and a corrosion resistant coating. The corrosion resistant coating made of at least a polymer and a plurality of corrosion resistant particles each having a surface area between about 1-20 m.sup.2/g and a diameter less than about 10 microns. Preferably, the plate is used as a bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cell stack.

  10. Experimental and theoretical study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms of Organic-inorganic hybrid compound Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellibi, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.

    2016-06-01

    A new organic-inorganic bis (4-acetylaniline) tetrachlorocadmate [C8H10NO]2[CdCl4] can be obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallized in an orthorhombic system (Cmca space group). The material electrical properties were characterized by impedance spectroscopy technique in the frequency range from 209 Hz-5 MHz and temperature 413 to 460 K. Besides, the impedance plots show semicircle arcs at different temperatures and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed to interpret the impedance results. The circuits consist of the parallel combination of a resistance (R), capacitance (C) and fractal capacitance (CPE). The variation of the exponent s as a function of temperature suggested that the conduction mechanism in Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate compound is governed by two processes which can be ascribed to a hopping transport mechanism: correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model below 443 K and the small polaron tunneling (SPT) model above 443 K.

  11. High frequency AC response, DC resistivity and magnetic studies of holmium substituted Ni-ferrite: A novel electromagnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervaiz, Erum; Gul, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of holmium substituted nickel ferrites (NiHoxFe2-xO4) with x ranging from 0.0 to 0.15 have been prepared by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. Structural and morphology studies have been performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). XRD patterns revealed the formation of pure spinel phase ferrites without any impurity phase. Lattice parameter increases along with a decrease in crystallite size with increasing the concentration of Ho3+ in the parent nickel ferrite due to large ionic radius of Ho3+ (0.901 Å) as compared to Fe3+ (0.67 Å). SEM shows the spherical, uniformly distributed homogenous nanoparticles grown by controlled reaction parameters of the sol-gel method. Complex permittivity (ɛ*) and complex electric modulus (M*) have been studied for the present nanoferrites in the frequency ranges of 1 MHz-1 GHz. Frequency dependent dielectric parameters (relative permittivity (ɛ'), dielectric loss (ɛ″), dielectric loss tangent (tan δ)) decreases due to holmium substitution in nickel ferrites, showing the electrical conduction is decreasing in the nickel holmium ferrites with increase in the concentration of holmium. Complex modulus plots shows the poorly resolved semi circles and relaxation of nanoferrite is studied in the high frequency region. Also the relaxation time increases due to increase in x (0.0-0.15). DC electrical resistivity increases (107 Ω-cm-1010 Ω-cm) due to holmium ions substitution in nickel ferrites. Magnetic behavior was also characterized using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) under an applied magnetic field of 10 kOe and shows that magnetization decreases with increase in composition of holmium in nickel ferrites. High frequency behavior, low losses and very high DC electrical resistivity made the material a novel one for electromagnetic devices.

  12. Transport AC losses of Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes with different twist-pitch using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, M.-H.; Wong-Ng, W.

    2006-01-01

    A series of Bi-2223 ([Bi, Pb]:Sr:Ca:Cu:O = 2:2:2:3) tapes with 37 superconducting core filaments was investigated in an attempt to correlate critical current and alternating current (AC) losses with twist-pitch. The twist-pitch of these multi-filamentary tapes which were produced by the powder-in-(Ag)tube (PIT) method varies from 8, 10, 13, 30, 50, 70 mm to ∞ mm (non-twist). Critical current (Ic) measurements which were conducted in zero field by a four-probe method under liquid-nitrogen temperature showed that Ic is greater in the non-twist filament than that in twisted filaments. Among these tapes, three (twist-pitch of 10, 13, and 70 mm) were selected for AC loss experiments under a time-varying transport current. The results of AC loss measurements in general agree with that of the AC loss simulation using the ellipse model of the Norris equation. Simulation results show that the hysteretic AC loss is lowest in the non-twist tape and increases as the twist-pitch decreases. A much greater loss was found in tapes with small twist-pitch, i.e. 10 and 8 mm. Among different possible loss contributions to the total AC losses, the hysteretic loss was determined to be the main source. In addition, microstructural damage of tapes with small twist-pitch appears to contribute to the overall AC losses as well.

  13. Determination of the electrical resistivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, O. A.; Il'in, O. I.; Rubashkina, M. V.; Smirnov, V. A.; Fedotov, A. A.; Tsukanova, O. G.

    2015-07-01

    Techniques are developed to determine the resistance per unit length and the electrical resistivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA CNTs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These techniques are used to study the resistance of VA CNTs. The resistance of an individual VA CNT calculated with the AFM-based technique is shown to be higher than the resistance of VA CNTs determined by the STM-based technique by a factor of 200, which is related to the influence of the resistance of the contact of an AFM probe to VA CNTs. The resistance per unit length and the electrical resistivity of an individual VA CNT 118 ± 39 nm in diameter and 2.23 ± 0.37 μm in height that are determined by the STM-based technique are 19.28 ± 3.08 kΩ/μm and 8.32 ± 3.18 × 10-4 Ω m, respectively. The STM-based technique developed to determine the resistance per unit length and the electrical resistivity of VA CNTs can be used to diagnose the electrical parameters of VA CNTs and to create VA CNT-based nanoelectronic elements.

  14. Intrawire resistance, AC loss and strain dependence of critical current in MgB2 wires with and without cold high-pressure densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Gao, P.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; Dhallé, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; Kulich, M.; Senatore, C.; Nijhuis, A.

    2014-07-01

    The intrawire resistance and alternating current (AC) loss of two MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. Relatively high values of filament-to-matrix contact resistivity are found in the MgB2 wires; the values are two or three orders higher than those commonly found in NbTi or Nb3Sn wires. Considering the high porosity of the MgB2 filaments, cold high-pressure densification has been applied on the two MgB2 wires to investigate its impact on intrawire resistance and AC loss. The intrawire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage-current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is measured by vibrating sample magnetometer measurements at 4.2 K. In addition to the intrawire resistance measurements, the critical current of MgB2 wires before and after densification is measured with a U-shaped bending spring at 4.2 K as function of axial strain. The critical current in densified MgB2 wires is found to be higher than that in the same wire without densification; it is also less sensitive to the applied axial strain.

  15. An Ultra-Precise System for Electrical Resistivity Tomography Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    LaBrecque, Douglas J; Adkins, Paula L

    2008-12-09

    The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of building and operating an ERT system that will allow measurement precision that is an order of magnitude better than existing systems on the market today and in particular if this can be done without significantly greater manufacturing or operating costs than existing commercial systems. Under this proposal, we performed an estimation of measurement errors in galvanic resistivity data that arise as a consequence of the type of electrode material used to make the measurements. In our laboratory, measurement errors for both magnitude and induced polarization (IP) were estimated using the reciprocity of data from an array of electrodes as might be used for electrical resistance tomography using 14 different metals as well as one non-metal - carbon. In a second phase of this study, using archival data from two long-term ERT surveys, we examined long-term survivability of electrodes over periods of several years. The survey sites were: the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (which was sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy as part of the civilian radioactive waste management program), and a water infiltration test at a site adjacent to the New Mexico Institute of Mines and Technology in Socorro, New Mexico (sponsored by the Sandia/Tech vadose program). This enabled us to compare recent values with historical values and determine electrode performance over the long-term as well as the percentage of electrodes that have failed entirely. We have constructed a prototype receiver system, made modifications and revised the receiver design. The revised prototype uses a new 24 bit analog to digital converter from Linear Technologies with amplifier chips from Texas Instruments. The input impedance of the system will be increased from 107 Ohms to approximately 1010 Ohms. The input noise level of the system has been decreased to approximately 10 Nanovolts and system resolution to about 1 Nanovolt at

  16. Differential device for the determination of magnetic permeability or electric resistivity inside massive cylindrical samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ursu, D.D.; Bursuc, I.D.

    1985-03-01

    A differential device for the determination of magnetic permeability or electric resistivity of the ferromagnetic cylindrical samples was realized. Our method, which takes into account a simple model of hysteresis, leads to encouraging results.

  17. Chromium-modified a-C films with advanced structural, mechanical and corrosive-resistant characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Miao Yi; Jiang, Xiaohong; Piliptsou, D. G.; Zhuang, Yuzhao; Rogachev, A. V.; Rudenkov, A. S.; Balmakou, A.

    2016-08-01

    To improve structural, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond-like carbon films, we developed amorphous carbon chromium-modified composite films fabricated by means of cathode magnetic filtered arc deposition. The properties were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy for the purpose of the structure characterization, elemental analysis and topology examination. Moreover, we also assessed residual stress, the coefficient of friction, hardness, the elastic modulus and corrosion parameters through X-ray double-crystal surface profilometry, tribo-testing, nanoindenter-testing, as well as contact angle measurements and potentiodynamic polarization analysis. As a result of a comparative analysis, we revealed a substantial improvement in the characteristics of developed composite films in comparison with amorphous carbon films. For example, Cr-modification is resulted, in greater integrated performance, toughness and corrosion resistance; the residual stress was reduced substantially.

  18. Using electrical resistivity imaging to understand surface coal mine hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, E. T.; Greer, B. M.; Burbey, T. J.; Zipper, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the hydrology of disturbed lands is important given the increasing human footprint on earth. Surface coal mining has caused significant land-use change in central Appalachia in the past few decades. The mining process breaks up overburden rock above coal seams, and then replaces that material at the mine location and in adjacent unmined valleys (valley fills). The freshly exposed rock surfaces undergo weathering which often alters water quality and ultimately aquatic communities in effluent streams. One of the most common water quality effects is increased total dissolved solids (TDS), which is usually measured via its surrogate, specific conductance (SC). The SC of valley fill effluent is a function of fill construction methods, materials, and age. Yet hydrologic studies that relate these variables to water quality are sparse due to the difficulty of implementing traditional hydrologic measurements in fill material. We tested the effectiveness of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to monitor subsurface geologic patterns and hydrologic flow paths in a test-case valley fill. We paired ERI with artificial rainfall experiments to track infiltrated water as it moved through the valley fill material. Results indicate that ERI can be used to identify the subsurface geologic structure and track advancing wetting fronts or preferential flow paths. We observed that the upper portion of the fill profile contains significant fines, while the deeper profile is primarily composed of large rocks and void spaces. The artificial rainfall experiments revealed that water ponded on the surface of compacted areas until it reached preferential flow paths, where it infiltrated quickly and deeply. We observed water moving from the surface down to >10 m depth within 75 minutes. In sum, vertical and lateral preferential flow paths were evident at both shallow (through compacted layers) and deep (among boulders) locations. Such extensive preferential flow suggests that a

  19. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    2001-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner or between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid through the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  20. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Laine, D.L.; Laine, E.F.

    1997-08-26

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution. 6 figs.

  1. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  2. The expression patterns of bromelain and AcCYS1 correlate with blackheart resistance in pineapple fruits submitted to postharvest chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Soler, Alain; Mora, Phillipe; Cruz de Carvalho, Maria H

    2013-11-01

    Blackheart is a physiological disorder induced by postharvest chilling storage during pineapple fruit export shipping. The aim of this study was to check the involvement of bromelain, the cysteine protease protein family abundantly present in pineapple fruits, and AcCYS1, an endogenous inhibitor of bromelain, in the development of blackheart. For this we checked the response to postharvest chilling treatment of two pineapple varieties (MD2 and Smooth Cayenne) differing in their resistance to blackheart. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that postharvest chilling treatment induced a down-regulation of bromelain transcript accumulation in both varieties with the most dramatic drop in the resistant variety. Regarding AcCYS1 transcript accumulation, the varieties showed opposite trends with an up-regulation in the case of the resistant variety and a down-regulation in the susceptible one. Taken together our results suggest that the control of bromelain and AcCYS1 expression levels directly correlates to the resistance to blackheart development in pineapple fruits.

  3. Change Of Electrical Resistivity Depending On Water Saturation Of The Concrete Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbaǧ, Nevbahar; Uyanık, Osman

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the changes of electrical apparent resistivity values depending on the water saturation of cubic concrete samples which designed according to different strength were investigated. For this purpose, 3 different concrete design as poor, middle and good strength 150x150x150mm dimensions 9 for each design cubic samples were prepared. After measuring the weight of the prepared samples, in oven were dried at 105 ° C for 24 hours and then the dry weights were measured. Then the samples were placed into the curing pool and saturated weight of the samples were measured in specific time periods during the 90 day take out from the curing pool and the water content were calculated at each stage of these processes. The water content of the samples were obtained during 90 days specific points in time and as well as electrical apparent resistivity method of the different surfaces of the samples the potential difference measurements made by electrical resistivity method and electrical apparent resistivity values of the samples were calculated. Depending on time obtained from this study with respect to time curves of the water content and the apparent resistivity values were constructed. Results showed that the electrical apparent resistivity values increased depends on the water content. This study was supported with OYP05277-DR-14 Project No. by SDU and State Hydraulic Works 13th Regional/2012-01 Project No. Keywords: Concrete, cubic sample, Resistivity, water content, time

  4. Wireless Damage Monitoring of Laminated CFRP Composites using Electrical Resistance Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-25

    Final report Project Title: Wireless Damage Monitoring of Laminated CFRP composites using Electrical Resistance Change Project number...07 NOV 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wireless Damage Monitoring of Laminated CFRP composites using Electrical...strain measuring sensors into laminated composite structures [12, 13]. This approach, however, may cause reductions in static and fatigue strengths

  5. Cost and Performance Review of Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) for Source Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    phase liquid ( DNAPL ) or high concentrations of volatile contaminants. ERH is a remediation technology that involves passing electrical current...Electrical resistant heating (ERH), Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC), remediation, nonaqueous-phase liquid ( DNAPL ) 16. SECURITY...Camp Lejeune. Performance data from these sites indicate that ERH treats dense nonaqueous-phase liquid ( DNAPL ) source zones through a variety of

  6. Silicone oil contamination and electrical contact resistance degradation of low-force gold contacts.

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dickrell, Daniel John, III

    2006-02-01

    Hot-switched low-force gold electrical contact testing was performed using a nanomechanical test apparatus to ascertain the sensitivity of simulated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) contact to silicone oil contamination. The observed cyclic contact resistance degradation was dependent on both closure rate and noncontact applied voltage. The decomposition of silicone oil from electrical arcing was hypothesized as the degradation mechanism.

  7. Electrical Resistivity of Natural Diamond and Diamond Films Between Room Temperature and 1200 C: Status Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, L. D.

    1993-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of diamond films has been measured between room temperature and 1200 C. The films were grown by either microwave Plasma CVD or combustion flame at three different places. The resistivities of the current films are compared to those measured for both natural IIa diamond and films grown only one to two years ago.

  8. Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging to Evaluate Permanganate Performance During an In Situ Treatment of a RDX-Contaminated Aquifer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    measures the resulting potential field. ERT ( Electrical Resistance Tomography ) is a method of obtaining resistivity measurements using subsurface...Binley, and D. LaBrecque, 2004. Electrical resistance tomography . Leading Edge 23(5):438-442. Defense Environmental Network and Information Exchange...Process Using Electrical Resistance Tomography . Water Resources Research. 29:73-87. 98 Reynolds, J.M., 1997. An Introduction To Applied And

  9. Influence of Ultraviolet/Ozonolysis Treatment of Nanocarbon Filler on the Electrical Resistivity of Epoxy Composites.

    PubMed

    Perets, Yulia; Matzui, Lyudmila; Vovchenko, Lyudmila; Ovsiienko, Irina; Yakovenko, Olena; Lazarenko, Oleksandra; Zhuravkov, Alexander; Brusylovets, Oleksii

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we have investigated concentration and temperature dependences of electrical conductivity of graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composites. The content of nanocarbon filler is varied from 0.01 to 0.05 volume fraction. Before incorporation into the epoxy resin, the graphite nanoplatelets were subjected to ultraviolet ozone treatment at 20-min ultraviolet exposure. The electric resistance of the samples was measured by two- or four-probe method and teraohmmeter E6-13. Several characterization techniques were employed to identify the mechanisms behind the improvements in the electrical properties, including SEM and FTIR spectrum analysis.It is established that the changes of the relative intensities of the bands in FTIR spectra indicate the destruction of the carboxyl group -COOH and group -OH. Electrical conductivity of composites has percolation character and graphite nanoplatelets (ultraviolet ozone treatment for 20 min) addition which leads to a decrease of percolation threshold 0.005 volume fraction and increase values of electrical conductivity (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) above the percolation threshold in comparison with composite materials-graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin. The changes of the value and behavior of temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity of epoxy composites with ultraviolet/ozone-treated graphite nanoparticles have been analyzed within the model of effective electrical conductivity. The model takes into account the own electrical conductivity of the filler and the value of contact electric resistance between the filler particles of the formation of continuous conductive pathways.

  10. Sheet resistance determination of electrically symmetric planar four-terminal devices with extended contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornils, Martin; Paul, Oliver

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports an analytic method to determine the sheet resistance Rsq of symmetric planar four-terminal devices based on resistance measurements. Using the technique of conformal mapping it is first shown that any such device is electrically equivalent to a corresponding symmetric unit disk with the same Rsq and invariant under rotations by 90°. Two independent resistances measurable on these devices are expressed analytically as a function of Rsq and of the contact opening angle α. These two resistances fully characterize the electrical properties of such planar conductive devices. A simple procedure to extract both α and Rsq from the resistance values is then presented. These findings are corroborated by the experimental characterization of four-contact devices of ten different geometries fabricated using a commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor process. From these widely different devices, the sheet resistance of a n-well is extracted to be 1042Ω with a relative uncertainty of only 0.45%.

  11. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, W.

    2016-11-01

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of `bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, MICROMEGAS detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  12. Resistance and internal electric field in cloud-to-ground lightning channel

    SciTech Connect

    Cen, Jianyong; Yuan, Ping Xue, Simin; Wang, Xuejuan

    2015-02-02

    Cloud-to-ground lightning with six return strokes has been recorded by slitless spectrograph and the system of fast antenna and slow antenna. The physical parameters of the discharge channel have been obtained based on the combination of spectra and synchronous radiated electric field. The resistance and internal electric field of the channel are studied as the focus in this paper. The results show that the resistances per unit length of the lightning channel are in the order of 10{sup −2}–10{sup −1 }Ω/m and the internal electric field strengths are in the order of 10{sup 3 }V/m.

  13. On the Loss of Protective Scale Formation in Creep-Resistant, Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels at 900?aC in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Pint, Bruce A; Santella, Michael L; Maziasz, Philip J; Walker, Larry R

    2008-01-01

    A family of creep-resistant, Al2O3-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels was recently developed. The alloys exhibit excellent oxidation resistance up to 800 aC, but are susceptible to internal attack of Al at higher temperatures. In the present work, higher levels of Ni, Cr, Al, and Nb additions were found to correlate with improved oxidation behavior at 900 aC in air. The alloys generally appeared to be initially capable of external Al2O3 scale formation, with a subsequent transition to internal attack of Al (internal oxidation and internal nitridation) that is dependent on alloy composition. Compositional profiles at the alloy/scale interface suggest that the transition to internal oxidation is preceded by subsurface depletion of Al. Alloy design directions to increase the upper-temperature limit of protective Al2O3 scale formation in these alloys are discussed

  14. Modeling the electrical resistance of gold film conductors on uniaxially stretched elastomeric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenzhe; Görrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd

    2011-05-01

    The electrical resistance of gold film conductors on polydimethyl siloxane substrates at stages of uniaxial stretching is measured and modeled. The surface area of a gold conductor is assumed constant during stretching so that the exposed substrate takes up all strain. Sheet resistances are calculated from frames of scanning electron micrographs by numerically solving for the electrical potentials of all pixels in a frame. These sheet resistances agree sufficiently well with values measured on the same conductors to give credence to the model of a stretchable network of gold links defined by microcracks.

  15. Percolation of gallium dominates the electrical resistance of focused ion beam deposited metals

    SciTech Connect

    Faraby, H.; DiBattista, M.; Bandaru, P. R.

    2014-04-28

    Metal deposition through focused ion beam (FIB) based systems is thought to result in material composed of the primary metal from the metallo-organic precursor in addition to carbon, oxygen, and gallium. We determined, through electrical resistance and chemical composition measurements on a wide range of FIB deposited platinum and tungsten lines, that the gallium ion (Ga{sup +}) concentration in the metal lines plays the dominant role in controlling the electrical resistivity. Effective medium theory, based on McLachlan's formalisms, was used to describe the relationship between the Ga{sup +} concentration and the corresponding resistivity.

  16. Electrical Resistance of Ceramic Matrix Composites for Damage Detection and Life-Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Morscher, Gregory N.; Xia, Zhenhai

    2008-01-01

    The electric resistance of woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites were measured under tensile loading conditions. The results show that the electrical resistance is closely related to damage and that real-time information about the damage state can be obtained through monitoring of the resistance. Such self-sensing capability provides the possibility of on-board/in-situ damage detection or inspection of a component during "down time". The correlation of damage with appropriate failure mechanism can then be applied to accurate life prediction for high-temperature ceramic matrix composites.

  17. Design and performance of low-thermal-resistance, high-electrical-isolation heat intercept connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, R. C.; Gonczy, J. D.; Phelan, P. E.; Nicol, T. H.

    Electrical conductors often require the removal of heat produced by normal operation. The heat can be removed by mechanical connection of the conductor to a refrigeration source. Such connections require both effective heat removal (low thermal resistance) and effective electrical isolation (high electrical resistance and high dielectric strength). Fabrication of these connections should be straightforward, and performance must be reliable and independent of operating temperature. The connection method described here involves clamping (by thermal interference fit) an electrically insulating cylinder between an outer metallic ring and an inner metallic disc. Material candidates for insulating cylinders include composites, e.g. epoxy/fibreglass, and ceramics, e.g. alumina. Design factors, including geometry, materials and thermal contact resistance are discussed. The design, construction experience and performance measurements of a heat intercept connection in a high-temperature superconducting lead assembly is presented.

  18. Electrical resistivity tomography at the search of groundwater near Anapa town in the south of Russia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvon, Dina; Vladimir, Shevnin; Boris, Nikulin; Albert, Ryjov; Alexey, Skobelev

    2013-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography at the search of groundwater near Anapa town in the south of Russia. Kvon D. A.(1)*, Shevnin V.A.(1), Nikulin B. A.(1), Ryjov A. A.(2), Skobelev A. O.(1) (1)Geophysical dept., Faculty of Geology, Moscow state university; (2)VSEGINGEO Due to acute shortage of fresh drinking water near Anapa town (not far from the Black Sea), geophysical investigations were performed for searching and mapping aquifers in the area, where, according to rare wells exist probability to find fresh underground water. Geophysical explorations were carried out by Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method and water resistivity measurements. The resistivity of fresh groundwater is 15 Ohm.m, its salinity is 0.4 g/l. The structure of the area has been obtained by previous geological and hydrogeological studies and boreholes drilling. Geological structure of the area consists of two parts: the upper part of cross-section presented by loose lacustrine-alluvial sediments of Upper Pleistocene - Holocene, the lower part presented by hard rocs of carbonate-flysch formation of Upper Cretaceous age consisted of marl and limestone. Prospective areas to find underground water are: water-bearing horizon of upper Pleistocene-Holocene sediments, which is presented by gravel layer (base layer of modern lacustrine-alluvial sediments), and fractured zones in hard rocks of the carbonate-flysch formation of Maastricht age (Supseh formation). Analysis of rocks' resistivity obtained from Electrical resistivity tomography followed by calculation of rock resistivity on known petrophysical parameters (in Petrowin program created by A. A. Ryjov) [Shevnin et al., 2007]. The calculation showed that there is low clay content in carbonate rocks of the studied area, and the rock is limestone, not marl. Measurement of rock samples with X-ray radiometric method showed high calcium content (30-35%) or 75-87.5% limestone. This fact shows that flysch formation of the area is mainly

  19. AC losses in a HTS coil carrying DC current in AC external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, J.; Zushi, Y.; Fukushima, M.; Tsukamoto, O.; Suzuki, E.; Hirakawa, M.; Kikukawa, K.

    2003-10-01

    We electrically measured AC losses in a Bi2223/Ag-sheathed pancake coil excited by a DC current in AC external magnetic field. Losses in the coil contain two kinds of loss components that are the magnetization losses and dynamic resistance losses. In the measurement, current leads to supply a current to the coil were specially arranged to suppress electromagnetic coupling between the coil current and the AC external magnetic field. A double pick-up coils method was used to suppress a large inductive voltage component contained in voltage signal for measuring the magnetization losses. It was observed that the magnetization losses were dependent on the coil current and that a peak of a curve of the loss factor vs. amplitude of the AC external magnetic field shifted to lower amplitude of the AC magnetic field as the coil current increased. This result suggests the full penetration magnetic field of the coil tape decreases as the coil current increases. The dynamic resistance losses were measured by measuring a DC voltage appearing between the coil terminals. It was observed that the DC voltage appearing in the coil subject to the AC external magnetic field was much larger than that in the coil subject to DC magnetic field.

  20. The influence of electrode and separator thickness on the cell resistance of symmetric cellulose-polypyrrole-based electric energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammela, Petter; Olsson, Henrik; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2014-12-01

    The influence of the cell design of symmetric polypyrrole and cellulose-based electric energy storage devices on the cell resistance was investigated using chronopotentiometric and ac impedance measurements with different separator and electrode thicknesses. The cell resistance was found to be dominated by the electrolyte and current collector resistances while the contribution from the composite electrode material was negligible. Due to the electrolyte within the porous electrodes thin separators could be used in combination with thick composite electrodes without loss of performance. The paper separator contributed with a resistance of ∼1.5 Ω mm-1 in a 1.0 M NaNO3 electrolyte and the tortuosity value for the separator was about 2.5. The contribution from the graphite foil current collectors was about ∼0.4-1.1 Ω and this contribution could not be reduced by using platinum foil current collectors due to larger contact resistances. The introduction of chopped carbon fibres into the electrode material or the application of pressure across the cells, however, decreased the charge transfer resistance significantly. As the present results demonstrate that cells with higher charge storage capacities but with the same cell resistance can be obtained by increasing the electrode thickness, the development of paper based energy storage devices is facilitated.

  1. Electrical Resistivity as an Indicator of Saturation in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir Rocks: Experimental Data and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Detwiler, R L; Roberts, J J

    2003-06-23

    The electrical resistivity of rock cores under conditions representative of geothermal reservoirs is strongly influenced by the state and phase (liquid/vapor) of the pore fluid. In fractured samples, phase change (vaporization/condensation) can result in resistivity changes that are more than an order of magnitude greater than those measured in intact samples. These results suggest that electrical resistivity monitoring of geothermal reservoirs may provide a useful tool for remotely detecting the movement of water and steam within fractures, the development and evolution of fracture systems and the formation of steam caps. We measured the electrical resistivity of cores of welded tuff containing fractures of various geometries to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to determine the effects of variable fracture dimensions and surface area on water extraction from the matrix. We then used the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport model (NUFT) (Nitao, 1998) to simulate the propagation of boiling fronts through the samples. The simulated saturation profiles combined with previously reported measurements of resistivity-saturation curves allow us to estimate the evolution of the sample resistivity as the boiling front propagates into the rock matrix. These simulations provide qualitative agreement with experimental measurements suggesting that our modeling approach may be used to estimate resistivity changes induced by boiling in more complex systems.

  2. Modeling Fluid Flow and Electrical Resistivity in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Detwiler, R L; Roberts, J J; Ralph, W; Bonner, B P

    2003-01-14

    Phase change of pore fluid (boiling/condensing) in rock cores under conditions representative of geothermal reservoirs results in alterations of the electrical resistivity of the samples. In fractured samples, phase change can result in resistivity changes that are more than an order of magnitude greater than those measured in intact samples. These results suggest that electrical resistivity monitoring may provide a useful tool for monitoring the movement of water and steam within fractured geothermal reservoirs. We measured the electrical resistivity of cores of welded tuff containing fractures of various geometries to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to determine the effects of variable fracture dimensions and surface area on water extraction. We then used the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport model (NUFT) (Nitao, 1998) to simulate the propagation of boiling fronts through the samples. The simulated saturation profiles combined with previously reported measurements of resistivity-saturation curves allow us to estimate the evolution of the sample resistivity as the boiling front propagates into the rock matrix. These simulations provide qualitative agreement with experimental measurements suggesting that our modeling approach may be used to estimate resistivity changes induced by boiling in more complex systems.

  3. Results of Electrical Resistivity Data Collected near the Town of Guernsey, Platte County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougal, Robert R.; Abraham, Jared D.; Bisdorf, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to investigate subsurface geologic conditions as they relate to ground-water flow in an abandoned landfill near the town of Guernsey, Wyoming, geophysical direct current (DC) resistivity data were collected. Eight vertical resistivity soundings and eight horizontal resistivity profiles were made using single channel and multi-channel DC instruments. Data collected in the field were converted from apparent resistivity to inverted resistivity with depth using a numerical inversion of the data. Results of the inverted resistivity data are presented as horizontal profiles and as profiles derived from the combined horizontal profile and vertical sounding data. The data sets collected using the single-channel and multi-channel DC systems provided for the resistivity investigation to extend to greater depth. Similarity of the electrical properties of the bedrock formations made interpretation of the resistivity profiles more difficult. High resistivity anomalies seen in the profiles are interpreted as quartzite lenses and as limestone or metadolomite structures in the eastern part of the study area. Terrace gravels were mapped as resistive where dry and less resistive in the saturated zone. The DC resistivity methods used in this study illustrate that multi-electrode DC resistivity surveying and more traditional methodologies can be merged and used to efficiently map anomalies of hydrologic interest in geologically complex terrain.

  4. Electrical resistance tests of glass mat type separators

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, A.L.

    1997-12-01

    Resistance measurement of glass mat separators for VRLA batteries is necessary for proper design selection. The equipment described makes sample comparison possible under compression in either flooded or starved condition. The Palico Instrument Labs method operates on the principle of measuring the change in resistance of test cell as electrolyte level is changed, first with and then without the separator sample. Since the separator can only be removed by removing the Model 903 Carrier and then reinserting after separator removal, stability to test readings and accurate measurement of electrolyte level are essential. Measurements are made with a reversing polarity DC current in all of the Palico resistance test equipment which closely match conditions found in the final battery.

  5. Experimental determination of the electrical resistivity of iron at Earth's core conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kenji; Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Kei; Shimizu, Katsuya; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2016-06-02

    Earth continuously generates a dipole magnetic field in its convecting liquid outer core by a self-sustained dynamo action. Metallic iron is a dominant component of the outer core, so its electrical and thermal conductivity controls the dynamics and thermal evolution of Earth's core. However, in spite of extensive research, the transport properties of iron under core conditions are still controversial. Since free electrons are a primary carrier of both electric current and heat, the electron scattering mechanism in iron under high pressure and temperature holds the key to understanding the transport properties of planetary cores. Here we measure the electrical resistivity (the reciprocal of electrical conductivity) of iron at the high temperatures (up to 4,500 kelvin) and pressures (megabars) of Earth's core in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The value measured for the resistivity of iron is even lower than the value extrapolated from high-pressure, low-temperature data using the Bloch-Grüneisen law, which considers only the electron-phonon scattering. This shows that the iron resistivity is strongly suppressed by the resistivity saturation effect at high temperatures. The low electrical resistivity of iron indicates the high thermal conductivity of Earth's core, suggesting rapid core cooling and a young inner core less than 0.7 billion years old. Therefore, an abrupt increase in palaeomagnetic field intensity around 1.3 billion years ago may not be related to the birth of the inner core.

  6. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to leachate infiltration using electrical resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosuro, G. O.; Omosanya, K. O.; Bayewu, O. O.; Oloruntola, M. O.; Laniyan, T. A.; Atobi, O.; Okubena, M.; Popoola, E.; Adekoya, F.

    2016-02-01

    This aim of this work is to assess the degree of leachate infiltration at a dumpsite in Agbara industrial estate, Southwestern Nigeria using electrical resistivity techniques. Around the dumpsite were 45 vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations and 3 electrical resistivity tomography profiles. Current electrode spread varied from 300 to 600 m for the electrical sounding. Electrode configuration includes Schlumberger and Wenner array for sounding and profiling. The state of leachate contamination was tested using parameters such as aquifer vulnerability index, overburden protective capacity and longitudinal unit conductance (Si) derived from the apparent resistivity values. Four principal geoelectric layers inferred from the VES data include the topsoil, sand, clayey sand, and clay/shale. Resistivity values for these layers vary from 3 to 1688, 203 to 3642 123 to 388, and 67 to 2201 Ω m with corresponding thickness of 0.8-2.4, 2.5-140, 3-26 m and infinity, respectively. The leachate plume occurs at a maximum depth of 10 m on the 2-D inverse models of real electrical resistivity with an average depth of infiltration being 6 m in the study area. The correlation between longitudinal conductance and overburden protective capacity show that aquifers around the dumpsite have poor protective capacity and are vulnerable to leachate contamination. Leachate infiltration is favored by the absence of lithological barriers such as clay which in the study area are either mixed with sand or positioned away from the aquifer.

  7. Experimental determination of the electrical resistivity of iron at Earth’s core conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Kenji; Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Kei; Shimizu, Katsuya; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    Earth continuously generates a dipole magnetic field in its convecting liquid outer core by a self-sustained dynamo action. Metallic iron is a dominant component of the outer core, so its electrical and thermal conductivity controls the dynamics and thermal evolution of Earth’s core. However, in spite of extensive research, the transport properties of iron under core conditions are still controversial. Since free electrons are a primary carrier of both electric current and heat, the electron scattering mechanism in iron under high pressure and temperature holds the key to understanding the transport properties of planetary cores. Here we measure the electrical resistivity (the reciprocal of electrical conductivity) of iron at the high temperatures (up to 4,500 kelvin) and pressures (megabars) of Earth’s core in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The value measured for the resistivity of iron is even lower than the value extrapolated from high-pressure, low-temperature data using the Bloch-Grüneisen law, which considers only the electron-phonon scattering. This shows that the iron resistivity is strongly suppressed by the resistivity saturation effect at high temperatures. The low electrical resistivity of iron indicates the high thermal conductivity of Earth’s core, suggesting rapid core cooling and a young inner core less than 0.7 billion years old. Therefore, an abrupt increase in palaeomagnetic field intensity around 1.3 billion years ago may not be related to the birth of the inner core.

  8. The Concept of Electrical Resistance: How Cassirer's Philosophy, and the Early Developments of Electric Circuit Theory, Allow a Better Understanding of Students' Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Jerome; Khantine-Langlois, Francoise

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the difficulties students are confronted with when facing the concept of electrical resistance. Discusses the nature of the electrical resistance concept in light of Cassirer philosophy and its origin in the 19th century. Presents an analysis of the way this concept is taught in French high schools. (SAH)

  9. Physical Modelling on Detecting Buried Object Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of electrical resistivity method (ERM) for buried object detection and its relationship due to the different stiffness of material. In the past, the conventional method to detect the buried structure was face some limitation due to the time and cost. For example, previous approach related to the trial and error excavation has always expose to some risky outcome due to the uncertainties of the buried object location. Hence, this study introduced an alternative technique with particular reference to resistivity method to detect and evaluate the buried object with different strength of stiffness. The experiment was performed based on field miniature model (small scale study) using soil trial embankment made by lateritic soil and various concrete cube strengths (grade 20, 25 and 30) representing buried object with different conditions. 2D electrical resistivity test (electrical resistivity imaging) was perform using ABEM Terrameter SAS4000 during the data acquisition while the raw data was process using RES2DINV software. It was found that the electrical resistivity method was able to detect the buried concrete structures targeted based on the contrast of the electrical resistivity image produced. Moreover, three different strength of concrete cube were able to be differentiated based on the electrical resistivity values (ERV) obtained. This study found that the ERV of concrete cube for grade 20, 25 and 30 were 170 Ωm, 227 Ωm and 503 Ωm, respectively. Hence, this study shows that the ERV has a strong relationship with different stiffness of material thus applicable to be a useful alternative tool in underground structure detection.

  10. Simultaneous electrical resistivity and mass uptake measurements in bromine intercalated fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in mass and electrical resistivity of several types of pitch-based and vapor-grown graphite fibers were monitored during reaction with bromine. The observed threshold pressure dependent reaction suggested that the fibers were intercalated. In the fully brominated compound, the mass was increased by 44 percent and the resistivity was improved by a factor of 17. In the residue compound, the mass was increased by 22 percent and the resistivity was improved by a factor of 5. Fibers possessing different degrees of graphitization had surprisingly similar changes in both mass and resistivity.

  11. Study of Electrical Resistivity on the Location and Identification of Contamination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Pertof te fS.bueuAw the wof Master of Science Approvd by: %Z46L1 iKAiz/4f, -"-°. ., .- .% STUDY OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY ON THE LOCATION AND...Education and Research UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science 1985 by Brian D. McCarty...IF . -9- - - ~ V LIST OF FIGURES Figures 11-3 -Relationship of Resistance to Resistivity Diagram 11-5 - Earth Resistivity Diagram 11-7 -Wenner

  12. INORGANIC PLUME DELINEATION USING SURFACE HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AT THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES SITE HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2007-05-29

    A surface resistivity survey was conducted on the Hanford Site over a waste disposal trench that received a large volume of liquid inorganic waste. The objective of the survey was to map the extent of the plume that resulted from the disposal activities approximately 50 years earlier. The survey included six resistivity transects of at least 200m, where each transect provided two-dimensional profile information of subsurface electrical properties. The results of the survey indicated that a low resistivity plume resides at a depth of approximately 25-44 m below ground surface. The target depth was calibrated with borehole data of pore-water electrical conductivity. Due to the high correlation of the pore-water electrical conductivity to nitrate concentration and the high correlation of measured apparent resistivity to pore-water electrical conductivity, inferences were made that proposed the spatial distribution of the apparent resistivity was due to the distribution of nitrate. Therefore, apparent resistivities were related to nitrate, which was subsequently rendered in three dimensions to show that the nitrate likely did not reach the water table and the bounds of the highest concentrations are directly beneath the collection of waste sites.

  13. Electrical resistivity surveys in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougal, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of naturally occurring and mining related metals to Cement Creek, a tributary of the upper Animas River in southwestern Colorado. Efforts to improve water quality in the watershed have focused on Prospect Gulch because many of its abandoned mines and are located on federal lands. Information on sources and pathways of metals, and related ground-water flow, will be useful to help prioritize and develop remediation strategies. It has been shown that the occurrence of sulfate, aluminum, iron, zinc and other metals associated with historical mining and the natural weathering of pyritic rock is substantial. In this study, direct current resistivity surveys were conducted to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution and to identify faults and fractures that may act as ground-water conduits or barriers to flow. Five lines of resistivity data were collected in the vicinity of Prospect Gulch, and cross-section profiles were constructed from the field data using a two-dimensional inversion algorithm. The conductive anomalies in the profiles are most likely caused by wet or saturated rocks and sediments, clay rich deposits, or high TDS ground water. Resistive anomalies are likely bedrock, dry surficial and sub-surface deposits, or deposits of ferricrete.

  14. Investigation of morphology, electrical behavior (AC and DC) and CO2 gas sensitivity of porous silicon deposited with nanolayers of bromo aluminum phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azim-Araghi, M. E.; Bisadi, Z.

    2012-05-01

    The AC and DC electrical properties of sandwich devices fabricated with silicon (Si), porous silicon (PSi) and nanolayers of bromo aluminum phthalocyanine with aluminum electrodes (Al/Si/Al, Al/Si/PSi/Al, Al/Si/BrAlPc/Al and Al/Si/PSi/BrAlPc/Al) were examined over the voltage, frequency and temperature range of 0-11 mV, 102-105 Hz and 303-423 K respectively. Morphology of the samples was studied via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) micrographs. Capacitance is practically independent of frequency (f) in the range of 102-104 Hz, whereas it is extremely frequency dependent for f > 104 Hz. Dissipation factor decreased with increasing frequency to a minimum value and increased noticeably thereafter. Capacitance and dissipation factor are almost independent of temperature; capacitance increases with increasing temperature for T > 380 K. The AC electrical behavior of sandwich devices has been shown to be in agreement with the model of Goswami and Goswami. According to our data the Al contact in sandwich devices is of ohmic type and the tunneling mechanism is applicable in explaining the DC conduction process. The Al/Si/PSi/BrAlPc/Al device, compared to other devices, exhibits the highest sensitivity to CO2.

  15. Interaction of atomized colloid with an ac electric field in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor used for deposition of nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profili, Jacopo; Dap, Simon; Levasseur, Olivier; Naude, Nicolas; Belinger, Antoine; Stafford, Luc; Gherardi, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Nanocomposite thin films can be obtained by polymerization of a colloidal solution in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. In such a process, the dispersion of nanoparticles into the matrix is driven by the charging, transport, and deposition dynamics of the atomized colloid. This work examines the interaction of atomized TiO2 nanoparticles with ac electric fields in a plane-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Experiments are performed with the discharge off to examine transport and deposition phenomena over a wide range of experimental conditions with a fixed particle charge distribution. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the size distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles collected at different locations along the substrate surface placed on the bottom electrode of the DBD reactor can judiciously be controlled by varying the amplitude and frequency of the ac electric field. These results are also compared to the predictions of a simple particle motion model accounting for the electrostatic force, the gravitational force, and the neutral drag force in the laminar flow. It is found that while the initial charge distribution of atomized particles strongly influences the total deposition yield, its maximal position on the substrate, and the width of the deposited area, the initial size distribution of the particles at the entrance of the reactor mostly changes the size distribution at each position along the substrate surface.

  16. On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

  17. [Numerical simulation and application of electrical resistivity survey in heavy metal contaminated sites].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-ling; Nai, Chang-xin; Wang, Yan-wen; Dong, Lu

    2013-05-01

    In order to analyze the effects of electrical resistivity in heavy metal contaminated sites, we established the resistivity model of typical contaminated sites and simulate the DC resistivity method with Wenner arrays using the finite element method. The simulation results showed that the electrical method was influenced by the contamination concentration and the location of pollution. The more serious the degree of pollution was, the more obvious the low resistivity anomaly, thus the easier the identification of the contaminated area; otherwise, if there was light pollution, Wenner array could not get obvious low resistivity anomalies, so it would be hard to judge the contaminated area. Our simulation results also showed that the closer the contaminated areas were to the surface, the more easily the pollution was detected and the low resistivity anomalies shown in the apparent resistivity diagram were influenced by the Layered medium. The actual field survey results using resistivity method also show that the resistivity method can correctly detect the area with serious pollution.

  18. Electrical resistivity of nanoporous gold modified with thiol self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Kato, Naoki; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-11-01

    The electrical resistivity of nanoporous gold (NPG) modified with thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been measured at 298 K using a four-probe method. We found that the adsorption of thiol SAMs increases the electrical resistivity of NPG by up to 22.2%. Dependence of the electrical resistivity on the atmosphere (air or water) was also observed in SAMs-modified NPG, suggesting that the electronic states of the tail groups affect the electrons of the binding sulfur and adjacent surface gold atoms. The present results suggest that adsorption of thiol molecules can influence the behavior of the conducting electrons in NPG and that modification of NPG with SAMs may be useful for environmental sensing.

  19. Study of frequency and temperature dependent electrical resistivity in heavy fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, P. C.

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on the interplay of Kondo effect and magnetic ordering through a microscopic theory of the frequency and temperature dependent electrical resistivity as well as the dielectric function in heavy fermion systems. It is then analysed in Kondo lattice model in addition to Heisenberg-type interaction between localized f- electrons. The model Hamiltonian is solved by using mean-field approximation (MFA). The study of electrical resistivity is presented by considering phonon interaction to bare f -electrons, c -electrons and to the hybridization between c - and f -electrons and phonon Hamiltonian in harmonic approximation. An attempt has been made to calculate the temperature and frequency dependent electrical resistivity to study the peaks at TK (Kondo temperature) and T_{{ Cor}} (correlation temperature). The evolution of peaks exhibit change in slopes. These findings are compared to the experimental data.

  20. Understanding Electrical Conduction States in WO3 Thin Films Applied for Resistive Random-Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh; Pham, Kim Ngoc; Dao, Thi Bang Tam; Tran, Dai Lam; Phan, Bach Thang

    2016-05-01

    The electrical conduction and associated resistance switching mechanism of top electrode/WO3/bottom electrode devices [top electrode (TE): Ag, Ti; bottom electrode (BE): Pt, fluorine-doped tin oxide] have been investigated. The direction of switching and switching ability depended on both the top and bottom electrode material. Multiple electrical conduction mechanisms control the leakage current of such switching devices, including trap-controlled space-charge, ballistic, Ohmic, and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effects. The transition between electrical conduction states is also linked to the switching (SET-RESET) process. This is the first report of ballistic conduction in research into resistive random-access memory. The associated resistive switching mechanisms are also discussed.

  1. Categorical modeling on electrical anomaly of room-and-pillar coal mine fires and application for field electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wujun; Wang, Yanming; Shao, Zhenlu

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of fire area delineation in coalfield with electrical prospecting, the categorical geoelectric models of coal fires are established according to geological and mining conditions. The room-and-pillar coal mine fires are divided into three types which are coal seam fire, goaf fire and subsidence area fire, respectively, and forward electrical simulations and inversion analysis of each type of coal fire are implemented. Simulation results show that the resistance anomalies of goaf fires exist around one and a half to two times higher than background field, in contrast, coal seam and subsidence area fires performance low resistivity response which are roughly half to two-third of background field resistivity, respectively. Identification of different fire types and delineation of coal fire areas are further presented. The inversion results which are validated by borehole survey prove that the presented method could eliminate the omission of coal fires with high resistance anomaly and provide a novel reference for fire extinguishing in the future.

  2. Fully Electrical Modeling of Thermoelectric Generators with Contact Thermal Resistance Under Different Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siouane, Saima; Jovanović, Slaviša; Poure, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The Seebeck effect is used in thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply electronic circuits by converting the waste thermal into electrical energy. This generated electrical power is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the TEG module's hot and cold sides. Depending on the applications, TEGs can be used either under constant temperature gradient between heat reservoirs or constant heat flow conditions. Moreover, the generated electrical power of a TEG depends not only on these operating conditions, but also on the contact thermal resistance. The influence of the contact thermal resistance on the generated electrical power have already been extensively reported in the literature. However, as reported in Park et al. (Energy Convers Manag 86:233, 2014) and Montecucco and Knox (IEEE Trans Power Electron 30:828, 2015), while designing TEG-powered circuit and systems, a TEG module is mostly modeled with a Thévenin equivalent circuit whose resistance is constant and voltage proportional to the temperature gradient applied to the TEG's terminals. This widely used simplified electrical TEG model is inaccurate and not suitable under constant heat flow conditions or when the contact thermal resistance is considered. Moreover, it does not provide realistic behaviour corresponding to the physical phenomena taking place in a TEG. Therefore, from the circuit designer's point of view, faithful and fully electrical TEG models under different operating conditions are needed. Such models are mainly necessary to design and evaluate the power conditioning electronic stages and the maximum power point tracking algorithms of a TEG power supply. In this study, these fully electrical models with the contact thermal resistance taken into account are presented and the analytical expressions of the Thévenin equivalent circuit parameters are provided.

  3. Characterization of Contact and Bulk Thermal Resistance of Laminations for Electric Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, J. Emily; Bennion, Kevin; DeVoto, Doug; Mihalic, Mark; Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2015-06-30

    The ability to remove heat from an electric machine depends on the passive stack thermal resistances within the machine and the convective cooling performance of the selected cooling technology. This report focuses on the passive thermal design, specifically properties of the stator and rotor lamination stacks. Orthotropic thermal conductivity, specific heat, and density are reported. Four materials commonly used in electric machines were tested, including M19 (29 and 26 gauge), HF10, and Arnon 7 materials.

  4. Electron Acceleration by Cascading Reconnection in the Solar Corona. II. Resistive Electric Field Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Büchner, J.; Bárta, M.; Gan, W.; Liu, S.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate electron acceleration by electric fields induced by cascading reconnections in current sheets trailing coronal mass ejections via a test particle approach in the framework of the guiding-center approximation. Although the resistive electric field is much weaker than the inductive electric field, the electron acceleration is still dominated by the former. Anomalous resistivity η is switched on only in regions where the current carrier’s drift velocity is large enough. As a consequence, electron acceleration is very sensitive to the spatial distribution of the resistive electric fields, and electrons accelerated in different segments of the current sheet have different characteristics. Due to the geometry of the 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic fields and strong resistive electric field accelerations, accelerated high-energy electrons can be trapped in the corona, precipitating into the chromosphere or escaping into interplanetary space. The trapped and precipitating electrons can reach a few MeV within 1 s and have a very hard energy distribution. Spatial structure of the acceleration sites may also introduce breaks in the electron energy distribution. Most of the interplanetary electrons reach hundreds of keV with a softer distribution. To compare with observations of solar flares and electrons in solar energetic particle events, we derive hard X-ray spectra produced by the trapped and precipitating electrons, fluxes of the precipitating and interplanetary electrons, and electron spatial distributions.

  5. Control of Multilevel Resistance in Vanadium Dioxide by Electric Field Using Hybrid Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Kaleem; Hwang, Jaeseok; Bae, Garam; Choi, Hongsoo; Kang, Dae Joon

    2017-04-06

    We investigate the effect of electric field on VO2 back-gated field effect transistor (FET) devices. Using hybrid dielectric layers, we demonstrate the highest resistance modulation on the order of 10(2) in VO2 at a positive gate bias of 80 V (1.6 MV/cm). VO2 FET devices are prepared on SiO2 substrates of different thicknesses (100-300 nm) and hybrid dielectric layers of Al2O3/SiO2 (500 nm). For thicknesses less than 300 nm, no electric-field effects are observed, whereas for a 300 nm thickness, a small decrease in resistance is observed under a 0.2 MV/cm electric field. Under the electrostatic effect, the carrier concentration increases in VO2 devices, decreasing the resistance and the transition temperature from 66.75 to 64 °C. The leakage analysis shows that the interface quality of VO2 films on hybrid dielectric layers can be further improved. These studies suggest a multilevel fast resistance switching with the electric field and give an insight into the gate-source leakage current, which limits the phase transition in VO2 in an electric field.

  6. Electrical resistivity well-logging system with solid-state electronic circuitry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James Henry; Farstad, Arnold J.

    1977-01-01

    An improved 4-channel electrical resistivity well-logging system for use with a passive probe with electrodes arranged in the 'normal' configuration has been designed and fabricated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation to meet technical specifications developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Salient features of the system include solid-state switching and current regulation in the transmitter circuit to produce a constant-current source square wave, and synchronous solid-state switching and sampling of the potential waveform in the receiver circuit to provide an analog dc voltage proportions to the measured resistivity. Technical specifications and design details are included in this report.

  7. Hydrogeophysical estimation of groundwater tracer concentrations from field-scale electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Kamini

    This research has established a systematic procedure to accurately track the migration of a groundwater solute tracer using cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). There are three contributions in this dissertation. First, based on original experimental data collected for this project at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, it is shown that the migration of a saline tracer was readily detected in 3D using ERT, and that the mass, center of mass, and spatial variance of the imaged tracer plume were estimated from modified moment analysis of the electrical resistivity tomograms. Conversion of the inverted electrical resistivities to solute concentrations via Archie's law resulted in significant underestimation of tracer mass and greater apparent dispersion than that suggested by reasonable advection-dispersion simulations. However, the center of mass estimated from ERT inversions was accurately tracked when compared to 3D transport simulation. The second contribution presented in this dissertation is to reveal how the spatially variable resolution of ERT affects electrical resistivity estimates and local solute concentrations. Underestimated tracer mass from ERT and overestimated tracer plume dispersion is shown to be an effect of two properties of ERT surveys: (1) reduced measurement sensitivity to electrical resistivity values with distance from the electrodes and, (2) spatial smoothing (regularization) resulting from tomographic inversion. Analyses suggest that no single petrophysical relation, such as Archie's law, exists between concentration and electrical resistivity. The "correct" petrophysical model must vary both in space and time. Finding this non-stationary petrophysical model is the third contribution of this research. A method is demonstrated that employs numerical simulation of both solute transport and electrical flow to create local non-stationary linear relations between resistivities and tracer concentrations. These relations are used

  8. An electrically resistive sheet of glial cells for amplifying signals of neuronal extracellular recordings.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, R; Yamamoto, H; Niwano, M; Hirano-Iwata, A

    2016-01-11

    Electrical signals of neuronal cells can be recorded non-invasively and with a high degree of temporal resolution using multielectrode arrays (MEAs). However, signals that are recorded with these devices are small, usually 0.01%-0.1% of intracellular recordings. Here, we show that the amplitude of neuronal signals recorded with MEA devices can be amplified by covering neuronal networks with an electrically resistive sheet. The resistive sheet used in this study is a monolayer of glial cells, supportive cells in the brain. The glial cells were grown on a collagen-gel film that is permeable to oxygen and other nutrients. The impedance of the glial sheet was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and equivalent circuit simulations were performed to theoretically investigate the effect of covering the neurons with such a resistive sheet. Finally, the effect of the resistive glial sheet was confirmed experimentally, showing a 6-fold increase in neuronal signals. This technique feasibly amplifies signals of MEA recordings.

  9. An electrically resistive sheet of glial cells for amplifying signals of neuronal extracellular recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Niwano, M.; Hirano-Iwata, A.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical signals of neuronal cells can be recorded non-invasively and with a high degree of temporal resolution using multielectrode arrays (MEAs). However, signals that are recorded with these devices are small, usually 0.01%-0.1% of intracellular recordings. Here, we show that the amplitude of neuronal signals recorded with MEA devices can be amplified by covering neuronal networks with an electrically resistive sheet. The resistive sheet used in this study is a monolayer of glial cells, supportive cells in the brain. The glial cells were grown on a collagen-gel film that is permeable to oxygen and other nutrients. The impedance of the glial sheet was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and equivalent circuit simulations were performed to theoretically investigate the effect of covering the neurons with such a resistive sheet. Finally, the effect of the resistive glial sheet was confirmed experimentally, showing a 6-fold increase in neuronal signals. This technique feasibly amplifies signals of MEA recordings.

  10. Fracture Surface Area Effects on Fluid Extraction and the Electrical Resistivity of Geothermal Reservoir Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J J; Detwiler, R L; Ralph, W; Bonner, B

    2002-05-09

    Laboratory measurements of the electrical resistivity of fractured analogue geothermal reservoir rocks were performed to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to determine the effects of variable fracture dimensions and surface area on water extraction. Experiments were performed at confining pressures up to 10 h4Pa (100 bars) and temperatures to 170 C. Fractured samples show a larger resistivity change at the onset of boiling than intact samples. Monitoring the resistivity of fractured samples as they equilibrate to imposed pressure and temperature conditions provides an estimate of fluid migration into and out of the matrix. Measurements presented are an important step toward using field electrical methods to quantitatively search for fractures, infer saturation, and track fluid migration in geothermal reservoirs.

  11. In situ electrical resistance and activation energy of solid C60 under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Cai-Long; Gao, Chun-Xiao

    2013-09-01

    The in situ electrical resistance and transport activation energies of solid C60 fullerene have been measured under high pressure up to 25 GPa in the temperature range of 300-423 K by using a designed diamond anvil cell. In the experiment, four parts of boron-doped diamond films fabricated on one anvil were used as electrical measurement probes and a W—Ta thin film thermocouple which was integrated on the other diamond anvil was used to measure the temperature. The current results indicate that the measured high-pressure resistances are bigger than those reported before at the same pressure and there is no pressure-independent resistance increase before 8 GPa. From the temperature dependence of the resistivity, the C60 behaviors as a semiconductor and the activation energies of the cubic C60 fullerene are 0.49, 0.43, and 0.36 eV at 13, 15, and 19 GPa, respectively.

  12. Electrical Resistivity of Chromium, Cobalt, Iron, and Nickel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Desai, P.D., Thermal Expansion-Metallic Elements and Alloys , Vol. 12 of Thermophysical Properties of Matter - The TPRC Data Series ( Touloukian , Y.S. and...Phys. Met. Metallogr., 16(6), 134-5, 1963. 46. Levin, E.S., Gel’d, P.V., and Aynshina, G.D., "Electrical Conductivity of Molten Chromium Aluminum Alloys ...Phys. Chem., 43(11), 1542-5, 1969. 57. Levin, E.S., "Determination of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Chromium- Aluminum Melts," Izv. Akad. Nauk

  13. Electric charging of dust particles: Impact on the variations of electric field and electric resistivity of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seran, Elena; Zakharov, Alexander; Godefroy, Michel; Dolnikov, Gennady

    Abstract. Short Dipole Antenna is proposed in the frame of the Dust Package onboard the ROSCOSMOS- ESA ExoMars Lander. The SDA is developed to measure the electric field from few μV m-1 to few tens kV m-1 in the frequency range form DC to few kHz. The SDA concept and the model of its electric coupling with the air were tested and justified in the Nevada desert, in the conditions of dust devils generation. We illustrate our presentation with few examples of earth's observations, present simple models that explain the measured electric field and its correlation with the electric charge of the dust/sand particles, their density and motion. Comparative analysis between Earth and Mars cases is discussed.

  14. Low electrical resistivity carbon nanotube and polyethylene nanocomposites for aerospace and energy exploration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloney, Padraig G.

    An investigation was conducted towards the development and optimization of low electrical resistivity carbon nanotube (CNT) and thermoplastic composites as potential materials for future wire and cable applications in aerospace and energy exploration. Fundamental properties of the polymer, medium density polyethylene (MDPE), such as crystallinity were studied and improved for composite use. A parallel effort was undertaken on a broad selection of CNT, including single wall, double wall and multi wall carbon nanotubes, and included research of material aspects relevant to composite application and low resistivity such as purity, diameter and chirality. With an emphasis on scalability, manufacturing and purification methods were developed, and a solvent-based composite fabrication method was optimized. CNT MDPE composites were characterized via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and multiple routes of electron microscopy. Techniques including annealing and pressure treatments were used to further improve the composites' resulting electrical performance. Enhancement of conductivity was explored via exposure to a focused microwave beam. A novel doping method was developed using antimony pentafluoride (SbF5) to reduce the resistivity of the bulk CNT. Flexible composites, malleable under heat and pressure, were produced with exceptional electrical resistivities reaching as low as 2*10-6O·m (5*105S/m). A unique gas sensor application utilizing the unique electrical resistivities of the produced CNT-MDPE composites was developed. The materials proved suitable as a low weight and low energy sensing material for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a nerve gas simulant.

  15. Risk analysis and detection of thrombosis by measurement of electrical resistivity of blood.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Achyut; Asakura, Yuta; Maruyama, Osamu; Kosaka, Ryo; Yamane, Takashi; Takei, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of thrombogenic process is very important in ventricular assistance devices (VADs) used as temporary or permanent measures in patients with advanced heart failure. Currently, there is a lack of a system which can perform a real-time monitoring of thrombogenic activity. Electrical signals vary according to the change in concentration of coagulation factors as well as the distribution of blood cells, and thus have potential to detect the thrombogenic process in an early stage. In the present work, we have made an assessment of an instrumentation system exploiting the electrical properties of blood. The experiments were conducted using bovine blood. Electrical resistance tomography with eight-electrode sensor was used to monitor the spatio-temporal change in electrical resistivity of blood in thrombogenic and non-thrombogenic condition. Under non-thrombogenic condition, the resistivity was uniform across the cross-section and average resistivity monotonically decreased with time before remaining almost flat. In contrary, under thrombogenic condition, there was non-uniform distribution across the cross-section, and average resistivity fluctuated with time.

  16. High pressure and temperature electrical resistivity of iron and implications for planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liwei; Seagle, Christopher; Fei, Yingwei; Shahar, Anat

    2013-01-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements of polycrystalline iron have been performed at 5, 7, and 15 GPa and in the temperature range 293-2200 K by employing a four-wired method. The kinks in electrical resistivity associated with solid iron phase transitions and the solid to liquid transition were clearly observed upon increasing temperature. Geometry corrections due to volume variations with pressure and temperature were applied to the entire data set. High pressure and temperature thermal conductivity were calculated by fitting resistivity data through the Wiedemann-Franz law. The temperature dependences of electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity for α, γ, and ɛ solid iron have been determined at high-pressure conditions. Our study provides the first experimental constraint on the heat flux conducted at Mercury's outmost core, estimated to be 0.29-0.36 TW, assuming an adiabatic core. Extrapolations of our data to Martian outer core conditions yield a series of heat transport parameters (e.g., electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and heat flux), which are in reasonable comparison with various geophysical estimates.

  17. High pressure and temperature electrical resistivity of iron and implications for planetary cores (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Seagle, C. T.; Fei, Y.; Shahar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements of polycrystalline iron have been performed at 5, 7 and 15 GPa and in the temperature range 293-2200 K by employing a four-wired method. The kinks in electrical resistivity associated with solid iron phase transitions and the solid to liquid transition were clearly observed upon increasing temperature. Geometry corrections due to volume variations with pressure and temperature were applied to the entire data set. High pressure and temperature thermal conductivity were calculated by fitting resistivity data through the Wiedemann-Franz law. The temperature dependences of electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity for α, γ and ɛ solid iron have been determined at high pressure conditions. Our study provides the first experimental constraint on the heat flux conducted at Mercury's outmost core, estimated to be 0.29-0.36 TW, assuming an adiabatic core. Extrapolations of our data to Martian outer core conditions yield a series of heat transport parameters (eg. electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and heat flux), which are in reasonable comparison with various geophysical estimates.

  18. Acidic Barren Slope Profiling using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) at Ayer Hitam area Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Haimi, D. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, non-destructive method such as the electrical resistivity technique has become increasingly popular in engineering, environmental, mining and archeological studies nowadays. This method was popular in subsurface profiling due to its ability to replicate the images of the subsurface indirectly. The soil slope found in Batu Pahat, specifically in Ayer Hitam, is known to be problematic due to its barren condition. This location is believed to contain futile soil due to its difficulty in supporting the growth of vegetations. In the past, acidic barren slope assessment using non-destructive method was rarely being used due to several reasons related to the equipment and knowledge constraints. Hence, this study performed an electrical resistivity imaging using ABEM Terrameter LS in order to investigate the acidic barren slope conditions. Field data acquisition was based on Schlumberger and Wenner arrays while RES2DINV software was used to analyze and generate a 2-D model of the problematic subsurface profile. Based on electrical resistivity results, it was found that the acidic barren slope studied consists of two main zones representing residual soil (electrical resistivity value = 10 - 600 Ωm) and shale (electrical resistivity value = 20 - 2000 Ωm). The results of resistivity value were correlated with the physical mapping and the in situ mackintosh probe test for verification purposes. It was found that the maximum depth of the mackintosh probe test was 1.8 m due to its ground penetration limitation. However, the results of the resistivity section managed to achieve greater depth up to 40 m. Hence, the correlation between electrical resistivity and mackintosh probe results can only be performed at certain depth of the acidic barren slope profile in contrast with the physical mapping which able to define the whole section of the barren soil slope structure. Finally, a good match of electrical resistivity results calibrated with mackintosh and physical

  19. Evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of clayey soils using electrical resistivity imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibria, Golam

    Resistivity imaging (RI) is a promising approach to obtaining continuous profile of soil subsurface. This method offers simple technique to identify moisture variation and heterogeneity of the investigated area. However, at present, only qualitative information of subsurface can be obtained using RI. A study on the quantification of geotechnical properties has become important for rigorous use of this method in the evaluation of geohazard potential and construction quality control of landfill liner system. Several studies have been performed to describe electrical resistivity of soil as a function of pore fluid conductivity and surface conductance. However, characterization tests on pore water and surface charge are not typically performed in a conventional geotechnical investigation. The overall objective of this study is to develop correlations between geotechnical parameters and electrical resistivity of soil, which would provide a mean to estimate geotechnical properties from RI. As a part of the study, multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop practically applicable models correlating resistivity with influential geotechnical parameters. The soil samples considered in this study were classified as highly plastic clay (CH) and low plasticity clay (CL) according to Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Based on the physical tests, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, kaolinite was identified as the dominant mineral with some traces of magnesium, calcium, potassium, and iron. Electrical resistivity tests were conducted on compacted clays and undisturbed samples under varied geotechnical conditions. The experimental results indicated that the degree of saturation substantially influenced electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity decreased as much as 11 times from initial value for the increase of degree of saturation from 23 to 100% in the laboratory tests on compacted clays. In case of

  20. Elastic and Electrical Properties Evaluation of Low Resistivity Pays in Malay Basin Clastics Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Ghosh, Deva P.; Hermana, Maman

    2016-07-01

    The elastic and electrical properties of low resistivity pays clastics reservoirs in Malay Basin are strongly dependent on the complex nature of the clay content, either dispersed or laminated/layered. Estimating the hydrocarbon pore volume from conventional electrical log, i.e. resistivity log, is quite a challenge. The low elastic impedance contrast also found as one of the challenge thus create a problem to map the distribution of the low resistivity reservoirs. In this paper, we evaluate the electrical properties and elastic rock properties to discriminate the pay from the adjacent cap rock or shale. Forward modeling of well log responses including electrical properties are applied to analyze the nature of the possible pays on laminated reservoir rocks. In the implementation of rock properties analysis, several conventional elastic properties are comparatively analyzed for the sensitivity and feasibility analysis on each elastic parameters. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each elastic parameters in detail. In addition, cross-plots of elastic and electrical properties attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional elastic parameter crossplots attributes. The possible relationship on electrical and elastic properties are discussed for further studies.

  1. Mechanical flexible and electric fatigue resistant behavior of relaxor ferroelectric terpolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fei; Yang, Wei; Yang, Wen

    2009-08-01

    Uniaxial tension and polarization evolution under cyclic electric field are investigated for poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluorethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer films prepared by different annealing conditions. The stress-strain behavior of the terpolymer film exhibits that of polymeric elastomers, with its fracture strain reaching 680%. Structure analysis demonstrates that the polymer chains undergo reorientation, and conformational change from nonpolar to polar phase takes place during uniaxial tension. Under cyclic electric field, the terpolymer film exhibits a narrow polarization loop typical of a ferroelectric relaxor. Conformational change from nonpolar to polar phase also occurs upon the electric field, and it reverses to the nonpolar phase when the field is removed. As the cycle number accumulates, the terpolymer film demonstrates excellent resistance to electric fatigue. Compared to the film annealed at 115 °C, the terpolymer film annealed at 100 °C has a larger volume fraction of crystallite/amorphous interfaces and shows better mechanical flexibility as well as electric fatigue resistance. The mechanical flexible and electric fatigue resistant terpolymer films hold promises for many applications, ranging from embedded sensors and actuators to flexible memory devices.

  2. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 +/- 13 years, 78 +/- 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC--end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Omega cm to 1583 Omega cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method.

  3. Degree of dispersion of latex particles in cement paste, as assessed by electrical resistivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The degree of dispersion of latex particles in latex-modified cement paste was assessed by measurement of the volume electrical resistivity and modeling this resistivity in terms of latex and cement phases that are partly in series and partly in parallel. The assessment was best at low values of the latex-cement ratio; it underestimated the degree of latex dispersion when the latex/cement ratio was high, especially > 0.2.

  4. On the Stressing of Annealed NITINOL: The Electrical Resistance and Calorimetric Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Security Classification) On the Stressing of Annealed NITINOL : The Electrical Resistance and Calorimetric Effects 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Goldstein, David...COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by blck numbher) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP NITINOL 06 Shape Memory Alloy 13 o i...calorimetry curves of NITINOL during its phase transformation are substantial. The generation of a peak occurs in the resistance curve, and an additional

  5. Using electrical resistivity tomography to differentiate sapwood from heartwood: application to conifers.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Adrien; Ostergaard, Kasper T; Lenkopane, Mothei; Fan, Junliang; Lockington, David A

    2013-02-01

    Estimating sapwood area is one of the main sources of error when upscaling point scale sap flow measurements to whole-tree water use. In this study, the potential use of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to determine the sapwood-heartwood (SW-HW) boundary is investigated for Pinus elliottii Engelm var. elliottii × Pinus caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis growing in a subtropical climate. Specifically, this study investigates: (i) how electrical resistivity is correlated to either wood moisture content, or electrolyte concentration, or both, and (ii) how the SW-HW boundary is defined in terms of electrical resistivity. Tree cross-sections at breast height are analysed using ERT before being felled and the cross-section surface sampled for analysis of major electrolyte concentrations, wood moisture content and density. Electrical resistivity tomography results show patterns with high resistivities occurring in the inner part of the cross-section, with much lower values towards the outside. The high-resistivity areas were generally smaller than the low-resistivity areas. A comparison between ERT and actual SW area measured after felling shows a slope of the linear regression close to unity (=0.96) with a large spread of values (R(2) = 0.56) mostly due to uncertainties in ERT. Electrolyte concentrations along sampled radial transects (cardinal directions) generally showed no trend from the centre of the tree to the bark. Wood moisture content and density show comparable trends that could explain the resistivity patterns. While this study indicates the potential for application of ERT for estimating SW area, it shows that there remains a need for refinement in locating the SW-HW boundary (e.g., by improvement of the inversion method, or perhaps electrode density) in order to increase the robustness of the method.

  6. Influence of Degree of Saturation in the Electric Resistivity-Hydraulic Conductivity Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed Ahmed; Monterio Santos, Fernando A.

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between aquifer hydraulic conductivity and aquifer resistivity, either measured on the ground surface by vertical electrical sounding (VES) or from resistivity logs, or measured in core samples have been published for different types of aquifers in different locations. Generally, these relationships are empirical and semi-empirical, and confined in few locations. This relation has a positive correlation in some studies and negative in others. So far, there is no potentially physical law controlling this relation, which is not completely understood. Electric current follows the path of least resistance, as does water. Within and around pores, the model of conduction of electricity is ionic and thus the resistivity of the medium is controlled more by porosity and water conductivity than by the resistivity of the rock matrix. Thus, at the pore level, the electrical path is similar to the hydraulic path and the resistivity should reflect hydraulic conductivity. We tried in this paper to study the effect of degree of groundwater saturation in the relation between hydraulic conductivity and bulk resistivity via a simple numerical analysis of Archie’s second law and a simplified Kozeny-Carmen equation. The study reached three characteristic non-linear relations between hydraulic conductivity and resistivity depending on the degree of saturation. These relations are: (1) An inverse power relation in fully saturated aquifers and when porosity equals water saturation, (2) An inverse polynomial relation in unsaturated aquifers, when water saturation is higher than 50%, higher than porosity, and (3) A direct polynomial relation in poorly saturated aquifers, when water saturation is lower than 50%, lower than porosity. These results are supported by some field scale relationships.

  7. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  8. Influence of Ultraviolet/Ozonolysis Treatment of Nanocarbon Filler on the Electrical Resistivity of Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Yulia; Matzui, Lyudmila; Vovchenko, Lyudmila; Ovsiienko, Irina; Yakovenko, Olena; Lazarenko, Oleksandra; Zhuravkov, Alexander; Brusylovets, Oleksii

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we have investigated concentration and temperature dependences of electrical conductivity of graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composites. The content of nanocarbon filler is varied from 0.01 to 0.05 volume fraction. Before incorporation into the epoxy resin, the graphite nanoplatelets were subjected to ultraviolet ozone treatment at 20-min ultraviolet exposure. The electric resistance of the samples was measured by two- or four-probe method and teraohmmeter E6-13. Several characterization techniques were employed to identify the mechanisms behind the improvements in the electrical properties, including SEM and FTIR spectrum analysis.

  9. Electrical resistivity structure of the upper mantle in the Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, H.; Seama, N.; Matsuno, T.; Shibata, Y.; Kimura, M.; Nogi, Y.; Okino, K.

    2012-12-01

    We show a 2-D electrical resistivity structure of the upper mantle in the Southern Mariana Trough. The Mariana Trough is an active back-arc basin in which the seafloor spreading has occurred. In the southern region of the Mariana Trough, the seafloor spreading rate is 35-45 km/Myr at present (Kato et al., 2003) that is slow, but there are characteristics of the fast spreading ridge such as an axial topographic high (Martinez et al., 2000) and a nearly constant low mantle Bouguer anomaly along the spreading axis suggesting high magmatic activity with a sheet-like mantle upwelling under the spreading axis (Kitada et al., 2006). We carried out an electromagnetic experiment along a ~120 km length profile across the spreading axis to estimate an electrical resistivity structure, and hence the physical property like temperature, water and melt content in the upper mantle. The observation was made using ten Ocean Bottom Electro-Magnetometers (OBEMs) from August to November in 2010. The data was recorded for ~85 days in two OBEMs and for ~60 days in the rest of the OBEMs. Successfully, eight OBEMs recorded time-variations of the electric and magnetic fields and two OBEMs recorded only those of the magnetic field. The magnetotelluric (MT) method is a base for the data analysis. We carried out the time-series data analysis to estimate the MT responses and correct topographic distortions in the MT responses. We have basically performed a smooth model inversion analysis using the processed MT responses to estimate a minimum electrical resistivity structure, and also have considered a prior constraint in the inversion analysis for the subducted slab inferred from a seismic research (Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998). The obtained 2-D electrical resistivity structure shows an asymmetry about the spreading center. The trenchward side shows higher resistivity (~300 Ohm-m), while the opposite side (the west side) shows that intermediate resistivity (~100 Ohm-m) with ~40 km thickness

  10. Detection of macropore flow at field scales using electrical resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    Even though macropores make up a very small portion of the pore space in a soil, their high connectivity allows them to carry large fluxes of flow to the subsurface. As a result, macropores can be a critical factor in determining groundwater recharge and contaminant transport. Despite their importance, there is a lack of field-scale methodologies for detecting the existence and activation of macropores in watersheds. The connectivity that makes macropores good conductors of fluid flow suggests that they may also be good conductors of electrical current when filled with water and could therefore be monitored using electrical resistivity measurements. To test this hypothesis and evaluate whether the resulting electrical response could be detected with field-scale dipole-dipole resistivity measurements this work combines hydrologically- driven equivalent medium models with anisotropic 3D numerical models of electrical current flow. The equivalent medium models are based on a dual-domain concept where the bulk electrical conductivity of the soil matrix is governed by water content and pore-water solute concentration, whereas macropore conductivity is directly related to the solute concentration of the filling fluid. Therefore, vertical and horizontal electrically conductivity values have dynamic responses depending on the soil saturation characteristics, evaporation and precipitation history, and activation of macropore flow. The resulting equivalent bulk electrical conductivity for the dual-domain is then used in a numerical model to determine the apparent resistivity response for a dipole-dipole array located on the ground surface. For conditions typical of watersheds near Clemson, i.e., runoff TDS values of about 50mg/L, the results of the model indicate that apparent resistivity measurements drop by 40% when macroporosity represents only 0.5% of the sample volume and by 80% when macroporosity is increased to 5% of the sample volume. This result represents the

  11. Reliable, Efficient and Cost-Effective Electric Power Converter for Small Wind Turbines Based on AC-link Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Darren Hammell; Mark Holveck; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-08-01

    Grid-tied inverter power electronics have been an Achilles heel of the small wind industry, providing opportunity for new technologies to provide lower costs, greater efficiency, and improved reliability. The small wind turbine market is also moving towards the 50-100kW size range. The unique AC-link power conversion technology provides efficiency, reliability, and power quality advantages over existing technologies, and Princeton Power will adapt prototype designs used for industrial asynchronous motor control to a 50kW small wind turbine design.

  12. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  13. Electrical properties and fatigue resistance of polyamide 6,6 fabrics with nanocrystal silver coating.

    PubMed

    Wang, R X; Tao, X M; Wang, Y; Wang, G F

    2009-05-01

    Nanocrystalline silver was coated on plain woven fabrics made from continuous polyamide multifilament yarns by sputtering technique. Electrical conductivity and abrasion resistances of the coating fabric were measured. There was a minimum value of resistance when the coating thickness varies. The critical coating thickness at the minimum resistance was found to be much greater than that necessary to form a continuous layer of coating on a single fabric. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM) were employed to identify the contributing factors of dips between two adjacent parallel fibres and cross-over junction of the warp and weft yarns.

  14. Electrical Resistivity Tomography in the characterisation of wetting patterns of historical masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-González, Laura; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Ortiz de Cosca, Raquel Otero; García-Morales, Soledad

    2016-04-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a geophysical technique widely used to identify subsurface structures based on electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface. In recent years this technique has been used for surveying historic buildings and characterise the subsurface of walls by using non-invasive EKG electrodes. This methods is used to locate wet areas based on the lower electrical resistivity wet materials have in relation to dry ones. A good knowledge of the wetting patterns of historic buildings during, for example, rainfalls is crucial to understand the decay processes that take place in the building and plan interventions. This paper presents results of transects of Electric Resistivity Tomography of walls of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Mave (Palencia, Spain), a 9th century Romanesque building, during rainfall. ERT transects were performed with a GeoTom device (Geolog2000) in areas with and without buttresses to understand how this architectural detail affected the wetting dynamics of the building. The ERT results were integrated with other resistivity-based techniques and Thermohygrometric survey in a GIS and showed how lower resistivity surface measurements ERT correspond with areas of higher humidity. Resistivity-based techniques measured and evaporation focal points take in the interior of the building mark the outer ground level. The highest moisture content measurements do not always correspond to the visibly most damaged areas of the wall. The consecutive ERT transects show the wall getting wetter as rainfall progresses. The comparison of the measurements obtained of a wall affected by water obtained with GIS mapping, allowed to quickly studying the development of moisture in the wall over time, which is essential for a correct diagnosis of the building. Research funded by Madrid's Regional Government project Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914

  15. [Relationship of Zn content and Na/K ratio to the resistance to pathogen invasion in antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit and normal tomato].

    PubMed

    Fan, Bei; Shen, Lin; Liu, Can; Tian, Shi-Ping; Sheng, Ji-Ping

    2009-02-01

    In the present work, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the content of Zn, Na and K and the ratio of Na/K in antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit (in which the antisense ACC synthase gene construct was inserted) and in normal tomato fruit of the same variety (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lichun). The difference in mineral elements content between the two tomatoes and the involvement of Zn content and Na/K ratio in the disease resistance of postharvest tomato fruit were discussed. The results showed that the ethylene biosynthesis is limited in antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit. Meanwhile, the resistance to Rhizopus nigricans invasion of this transgenic tomato was higher, the disease incidence and lesion area in transgenic tomato fruit were 20.0% and 33.3% lower than those in control fruit, respectively. In addition, the content of Zn in transgenic tomato fruit was 0.322 microg x g(-1) and was 1.5 times higher than that in Lichun tomato fruit. There was no significant difference in K content between transgenic tomato fruit and Lichun fruit, but the content of Na in transgenic tomato fruit was significant higher than that in Lichun fruit and the Na/K ratio in transgenic tomato fruit was 2.0 times higher than that in Lichun fruit. It is suggested that the content of Zn and the Na/K ratio may be involved in the resistance response to pathogen invasion and the development of antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit.

  16. A theoretical study of electrical and thermal response in resistance spot welding

    SciTech Connect

    Na, S.J.; Park, S.W.

    1996-08-01

    The effect of contact resistance including constriction and contamination resistance has been a major hurdle for the thermoelectrical analysis of the resistance spot welding process. In this paper, a simple model was suggested and used for calculating the electrical and thermal response of the resistance spot welding process to investigate the influence of contacting forces on the formation of weld nuggets. The electrode surface of the contact interface was assumed to be axisymmetric and its microasperities to have a trapezoidal cross-section. These microasperities were considered as the one-dimensional contact resistance elements in the finite element formulation. The contamination film was assumed to be a nonconducting oxide layer, which is very brittle, so that it is broken to some number of pieces when a contacting pressure is being applied. The crushed films were assumed to be distributed at regular intervals and to conserve their size and number during the welding process. The simulation results revealed that the proposed model can be successfully used to predict the effect of the contact resistance on the electrical and thermal response of the resistance spot welding process.

  17. Electrokinetic characterization of porous plugs from streaming potential coupled with electrical resistance measurements.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, A; Fievet, P; Foissy, A

    2002-11-15

    The zeta potential of mixed nickel-iron oxide particles is evaluated by a new laboratory instrument. This latter allows the measurement of streaming potential together with the electrical resistance of porous plugs. The conductivity of electrolyte inside plug (pore conductivity) is deduced from electrical resistance measurements and is used together with streaming potential to evaluate the zeta potential by accounting for the surface conduction phenomenon. It is shown that neglecting the surface conduction phenomenon leads to a substantial underestimation of the zeta potential. The coupled measurements of streaming potential and plug electrical resistance yield zeta potential values that are in very good agreement with those obtained by electrophoresis. The densification of the porous plug with increasing pressure increments is put in evidence by the decrease in measured streaming potentials. Electrical resistance measurements make it possible to account for the increase in surface conductivity resulting from the more compacted structure of the plug. By doing so, the calculated zeta potential is found to be virtually independent of the pressure difference involved in streaming potential experiments, whereas the negligence of surface conduction phenomenon leads to a decrease in the apparent zeta potential with increasing pressure level.

  18. Electrical resistivity sounding to study water content distribution in heterogeneous soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical resistivity (ER) sounding is increasingly being used as non-invasive technique to reveal and map soil heterogeneity. The objective of this work was to assess ER sounding applicability to study soil water distribution in spatially heterogeneous soils. The 30x30-m study plot was located at ...

  19. Imaging hydrological processes in headwater riparian seeps with time-lapse electrical resistivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The activation of subsurface seepage in response to precipitation events represents a potentially important pathway of nitrogen (N) delivery to streams in agricultural catchments. We used electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and shallow piezometers to elucidate how seep and non-seep areas within the...

  20. High School Students' Understanding of Resistance in Simple Series Electric Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liegeois, Laurent; Mullet, Etienne

    2002-01-01

    Studies the understanding that 8-12 grade high school students were able to develop with regard to the interrelationships between resistance, potential difference, and current concepts (Ohm's law). Explores the immediate effects of exposure to electricity courses on the intuitive mastery of these relationships. (Contains 32 references.)…

  1. Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion Potential and Electrical Resistance Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The electrical resistance and potential…

  2. Abnormal drop in electrical resistivity with impurity doping of single-crystal Ag.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Min-Wook; Lee, Seunghun; Cho, Yong Chan; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Lee, Geun Woo; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Park, Chul Hong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-06-26

    Resistivity is an intrinsic feature that specifies the electrical properties of a material and depends on electron-phonon scattering near room temperature. Reducing the resistivity of a metal to its potentially lowest value requires eliminating grain boundaries and impurities, but to date few studies have focused on reducing the intrinsic resistivity of a pure metal itself. We could reduce the intrinsic resistivity of single-crystal Ag, which has an almost perfect structure, by impurity doping it with Cu. This paper presents our results: resistivity was reduced to 1.35 μΩ · cm at room temperature after 3 mol% Cu-doping of single-crystal Ag. Various mechanisms were examined in an attempt to explain the abnormal behavior.

  3. A study of the deposition of carbide coatings on graphite fibers. [to increase electrical resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suplinskas, R. J.; Henze, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition of boron carbide and silicon carbide on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistance was studied. Silicon carbide coatings were applied without degradation of the mechanical properties of the filaments. These coatings typically added 1000 ohms to the resistance of a filament as measured between two mercury pools. When SiC-coated filaments were oxidized by refluxing in boiling phosphoric acid, average resistance increased by an additional 1000 ohms; in addition resistance increases as high as 150 K ohms and breakdown voltages as high as 17 volts were noted. Data on boron carbide coatings indicated that such coatings would not be effective in increasing resistance, and would degrade the mechanical properties.

  4. The contribution of blood chemistry to the electrical resistance of blood: an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Fuller, H D

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the predictive accuracy of impedance cardiac output, the relationship between blood resistance, chemistry, and hematocrit was examined. Blood samples from sixty-three intensive care (ICU) patients was analyzed for hematocrit, sodium, bicarbonate, urea, total protein, albumin, glucose, and pH, and the electrical resistance of the sample was measured. Multiple regression analysis produced a statistically significant model with resistance as the dependant variable, and the exponent of the hematocrit (Exp[Hct]), pH and blood urea as the independent variables. This study therefore suggests that the accuracy of resistance prediction can be improved by incorporating pH and urea into the resistivity equation. It is to be expected that this in turn will improve the accuracy of impedance cardiac output estimation.

  5. Abnormal drop in electrical resistivity with impurity doping of single-crystal Ag

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Min-Wook; Lee, Seunghun; Cho, Yong Chan; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Lee, Geun Woo; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Park, Chul Hong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    Resistivity is an intrinsic feature that specifies the electrical properties of a material and depends on electron-phonon scattering near room temperature. Reducing the resistivity of a metal to its potentially lowest value requires eliminating grain boundaries and impurities, but to date few studies have focused on reducing the intrinsic resistivity of a pure metal itself. We could reduce the intrinsic resistivity of single-crystal Ag, which has an almost perfect structure, by impurity doping it with Cu. This paper presents our results: resistivity was reduced to 1.35 μΩ·cm at room temperature after 3 mol% Cu-doping of single-crystal Ag. Various mechanisms were examined in an attempt to explain the abnormal behavior. PMID:24965478

  6. Crustal magma pathway beneath Aso caldera inferred from three-dimensional electrical resistivity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Maki; Takakura, Shinichi; Matsushima, Nobuo; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Utsugi, Mitsuru

    2016-10-01

    At Naka-dake cone, Aso caldera, Japan, volcanic activity is raised cyclically, an example of which was a phreatomagmatic eruption in September 2015. Using a three-dimensional model of electrical resistivity, we identify a magma pathway from a series of northward dipping conductive anomalies in the upper crust beneath the caldera. Our resistivity model was created from magnetotelluric measurements conducted in November-December 2015; thus, it provides the latest information about magma reservoir geometry beneath the caldera. The center of the conductive anomalies shifts from the north of Naka-dake at depths >10 km toward Naka-dake, along with a decrease in anomaly depths. The melt fraction is estimated at 13-15% at 2 km depth. Moreover, these anomalies are spatially correlated with the locations of earthquake clusters, which are distributed within resistive blocks on the conductive anomalies in the northwest of Naka-dake but distributed at the resistive sides of resistivity boundaries in the northeast.

  7. Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

  8. AC Electrical Conduction of Cr-Doped SrTiO3 Thin Films with an Oxygen-Deficient Interface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Bach Thang; Eom, Ki Tae; Lee, Jaichan

    2017-01-01

    The ac electrical conduction of Cr-doped SrTiO3 thin films with an oxygen-deficient interface layer was investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. The Cr-doped SrTiO3 (Cr-STO) thin films with an ultra-thin (˜2 nm) oxygen-deficient layer inserted between the top electrode and the Cr-STO layer exhibited two ac conduction mechanisms, i.e., variable-range hopping and small-polaron hopping conduction, accompanied by a relaxation process. Since high oxygen deficiency induces large lattice distortion in the depletion layer, the first relaxation process occurs at low frequencies in the thin oxygen depletion layer Cr-SrTiO3-δ , and the corresponding conduction behavior follows the small-polaron tunneling model. In the high frequency range, an additional relaxation process is involved and is associated with the variable-range hopping between the localized states in the band gap of the thick Cr-SrTiO3 layer.

  9. Evaluation of metal-nanowire electrical contacts by measuring contact end resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hongsik; Beresford, Roderic; Ha, Ryong; Choi, Heon-Jin; Shin, Hyunjung; Xu, Jimmy

    2012-06-01

    It is known, but often unappreciated, that the performance of nanowire (NW)-based electrical devices can be significantly affected by electrical contacts between electrodes and NWs, sometimes to the extent that it is really the contacts that determine the performance. To correctly understand and design NW device operation, it is thus important to carefully measure the contact resistance and evaluate the contact parameters, specific contact resistance and transfer length. A four-terminal pattern or a transmission line model (TLM) pattern has been widely used to measure contact resistance of NW devices and the TLM has been typically used to extract contact parameters of NW devices. However, the conventional method assumes that the electrical properties of semiconducting NW regions covered by a metal are not changed after electrode formation. In this study, we report that the conventional methods for contact evaluation can give rise to considerable errors because of an altered property of the NW under the electrodes. We demonstrate that more correct contact resistance can be measured from the TLM pattern rather than the four-terminal pattern and correct contact parameters including the effects of changed NW properties under electrodes can be evaluated by using the contact end resistance measurement method.

  10. Characterization and monitoring of subsurface processes using parallel computing and electrical resistivity imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Truex, Michael J.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Marble, Justin

    2011-12-01

    This newsletter discusses recent advancement in subsurface resistivity characterization and monitoring capabilities. The BC Cribs field desiccation treatability test resistivity monitoring data is use an example to demonstrate near-real time 3D subsurface imaging capabilities. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a method of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface. An ERT data collection system consists of an array of electrodes, deployed on the ground surface or within boreholes, that are connected to a control unit which can access each electrode independently (Figure 1). A single measurement is collected by injecting current across a pair of current injection electrodes (source and sink), and measuring the resulting potential generated across a pair of potential measurement electrodes (positive and negative). An ERT data set is generated by collecting many such measurements using strategically selected current and potential electrode pairs. This data set is then processed using an inversion algorithm, which reconstructs an estimate (or image) of the electrical conductivity (i.e. the inverse of resistivity) distribution that gave rise to the measured data.

  11. Electrical characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films peeled off from Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrate by AC Hall measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Takeshi; Iinuma, Shohei; Sadono, Adiyudha; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new evaluation method for electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) grown on a Mo-coated soda-lime glass (SLG). The method consists of the peel-off process and the AC Hall measurement, which enables us to evaluate CIGS films grown on the Mo electrode. It was found, from the measurement, that the hole concentration of CIGS grown on a Mo-coated SLG was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that on a SLG, suggesting the Na-doping effect. Furthermore, the hole mobility of 0.47 cm2/(V·s) was simultaneously measured, even though the film was deposited on the Mo electrode.

  12. Monitoring six-phase ohmic heating of contaminated soils using electrical resistance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-09-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor six-phase ohmic heating used for the insitu remediation of volatile organic compounds from subsurface water and soil at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The changes in electrical conductivity caused by six-phase ohmic-heating in a clay layer located in the vadose zone were monitored during a period of approximately 2 months, before, during and after heating. From an array of electrodes located in 4 boreholes, we collected electrical resistivity data between five pairs of adjacent holes pairs. This data was used to calculate tomographs which showed the electrical conductivity changes along five vertical planes. The difference tomographs show the combined effects of moisture redistribution and heating caused by six-phase heating and vapor extraction. The tomographs show that most of the clay layer increased in electrical conductivity during the first 3 weeks of the 4 week long heating phase. At this time, the electrical conductivities near the center of the heating array were twice as large as the pre-heat conductivities. Then the electrical conductivity started to decrease for portions of the clay layer closest to the vapor extraction well. We propose that the conductivity decreases are due to the removal of moisture by the heating and vacuum extraction. Parts of the clay layer near the extraction well reached electrical conductivities as low as 40% of the pre-heating values. We propose that these regions of lower than ambient electrical conductivities are indicators of regions where the vapor removal by vacuum extraction was most effective. At the end of the heating phase, our estimates suggest that the clay saturation may have dropped to as low as 10% based on the observed conductivity changes.

  13. The use of rivets for electrical resistance measurement on carbon fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBaere, I.; Van Paepegem, W.; Degrieck, J.

    2007-10-01

    The use of fibre-reinforced thermoplastics, for example in the aeronautical industry, is increasing rapidly. Therefore, there is an increasing need for in situ monitoring tools, which preferably have limited influence on the behaviour of the material and which are easy to use. Furthermore, in the aeronautical industry composites are very often attached with rivets. In this study, the possibility of the use of rivets as contact electrodes for electrical resistance measurement is explored. The material used is a carbon fibre-reinforced polyphenylene sulphide. First, the set-up used is discussed. Then, static tensile tests on the laminate are performed. The possible influence of an extensometer on the measurements is examined. Furthermore, failure predictability is assessed. It may be concluded that the proposed set-up with the rivets can be used for electrical resistance measurement, with the ability to predict failure, and that the extensometer has a negative influence on the resistance measurement.

  14. AC Losses of Prototype HTS Transmission Cables

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, J.A.; Dresner, L.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Olsen, S.K.; Sinha, U.; Tolbert, J.C.

    1998-09-13

    Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, l-m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both a calorimetric and an electrical technique. Because of the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes, the cables can be operated stably beyond their critical currents. The AC losses were measured in this region as well as below critical currents. Dresner's theory takes into account the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes and calculates the AC losses both below and above the critical current. The two sets of AC 10SS data agree with each other and with the theory quite welL In particular, at low currents of incomplete penetration, the loss data agree with the theoretical prediction of hysteresis loss based on only the outer two Iayers carrying the total current.

  15. Efficacy of low level electric current (A-C) for controlling quagga mussles in the Welland Canal

    SciTech Connect

    Fears, C.; Mackie, G.L.

    1995-06-01

    The efficacy of systems (for which patents are pending) which use low-voltage A-C currents for preventing settlement and attachment by zebra mussels were tested with steel rods and plates placed near the intake of a pulp and paper plant in the Welland Canal at Thorold, Ontario. Six racks made of 16 ft. (4.9 m), 2x4s (5.1 x 10.2 cm) were placed into the Welland Canal on August 5, 1994. One rack had 1/8th in (3.2 mm) diam x 12 in (30.5 cm) long steel rods, each separated by 2 in (5.1 cm) attached to pressure treated wood and concrete blocks and an A-C current of 16 v (or 8 v/in); rack 2 had steel rods of the same configuration but 12 v (or 6 v/in) was applied; rack 3 was identical to these but no current was applied and was used as a rod control. The remaining three racks had steel plates, each plate being 3 in (7.6 cm) wide X 24 in (61 cm) long X 1/4 in (6.4 mm) thick and separated by 2 in (5.1 cm); one had 12 v applied (or 6 v/in), another had 16 v applied (or 8 v/in), and the third had no current and was used as a plate control. The racks were placed on the upstream and downstream side of the intake at a depth of about 7 ft (2.1 m) where the mussels populations were heaviest (as determined by SCUBA diving). All mussels were quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis). The racks were pulled in mid November after settlement was complete and the results showed: (1) complete prevention of settlement of both new recruits and translocators at 8 volts/in with steel rods on both wood and concrete surfaces and with steel plate trash bars; (2) partial prevention of settlement at 6 volts/in with steel rods on both wood and concrete surfaces and steel plates; and (3) that, at current kilowatt hr rates, total efficacy at 8 volts/in would cost approximately $10.80/day/1000 sq ft using rods to protect concrete walls and about $16.32/day/1000 sq ft to protect 3 in wide x 1/4 in thick trash bars. These costs can be reduced even further with pulse dosed AC currents.

  16. A Novel Inductor-less DC-AC Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter for Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhong; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M; Chiasson, John N

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an inductorless cascaded H- bridge multilevel boost inverter for EV and HEV applications. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a DC- DC boost converter to boost the battery voltage for a traditional 3-phase inverter. The present HEV traction drive inverters have low power density, are expensive, and have low efficiency because they need a bulky inductor. An inductorless cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for EV and HEV applications is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, each H-bridge needs a DC power supply. The proposed inductorless cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter uses a standard 3-leg inverter (one leg for each phase) and an H-bridge in series with each inverter leg which uses a capacitor as the DC power source. Fundamental switching scheme is used to do modulation control and to produce a 5-level phase voltage. Experiments show that the proposed inductorless DC-AC cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter can output a boosted AC voltage.

  17. Gate-opening gas adsorption and host-guest interacting gas trapping behavior of porous coordination polymers under applied AC electric fields.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Wataru; Yamagishi, Kayo; Zhang, Jun; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2014-09-03

    The gate-opening adsorption behavior of the one-dimensional chain compound [Ru2(4-Cl-2-OMePhCO2)4(phz)] (1; 4-Cl-2-OMePhCO2(-) = 4-chloro-o-anisate; phz = phenazine) for various gases (O2, NO, and CO2) was electronically monitored in situ by applying ac electric fields to pelletized samples attached to a cryostat, which was used to accurately control the temperature and gas pressure. The gate-opening and -closing transitions induced by gas adsorption/desorption, respectively, were accurately monitored by a sudden change in the real part of permittivity (ε'). The transition temperature (TGO) was also found to be dependent on the applied temperature and gas pressure according to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. This behavior was also observed in the isostructural compound [Rh2(4-Cl-2-OMePhCO2)4(phz)] (2), which exhibited similar gate-opening adsorption properties, but was not detected in the nonporous gate-inactive compound [Ru2(o-OMePhCO2)4(phz)] (3). Furthermore, the imaginary part of permittivity (ε″) effectively captured the electronic perturbations of the samples induced by the introduced guest molecules. Only the introduction of NO resulted in the increase of the sample's electronic conductivity for 1 and 3, but not for 2. This behavior indicates that electronic host-guest interactions were present, albeit very weak, at the surface of sample 1 and 3, i.e., through grain boundaries of the sample, which resulted in perturbation of the conduction band of this material's framework. This technique involving the in situ application of ac electric fields is useful not only for rapidly monitoring gas sorption responses accompanied by gate-opening/-closing structural transitions but also potentially for the development of molecular framework materials as chemically driven electronic devices.

  18. Upper mantle electrical resistivity structure beneath the central Mariana subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Tetsuo; Seama, Nobukazu; Evans, Rob L.; Chave, Alan D.; Baba, Kiyoshi; White, Antony; Goto, Tada-Nori; Heinson, Graham; Boren, Goran; Yoneda, Asami; Utada, Hisashi

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports on a magnetotelluric (MT) survey across the central Mariana subduction system, providing a comprehensive electrical resistivity image of the upper mantle to address issues of mantle dynamics in the mantle wedge and beneath the slow back-arc spreading ridge. After calculation of MT response functions and their correction for topographic distortion, two-dimensional electrical resistivity structures were generated using an inversion algorithm with a smoothness constraint and with additional restrictions imposed by the subducting slab. The resultant isotropic electrical resistivity structure contains several key features. There is an uppermost resistive layer with a thickness of up to 150 km beneath the Pacific Ocean Basin, 80-100 km beneath the Mariana Trough, and 60 km beneath the Parece Vela Basin along with a conductive mantle beneath the resistive layer. A resistive region down to 60 km depth and a conductive region at greater depth are inferred beneath the volcanic arc in the mantle wedge. There is no evidence for a conductive feature beneath the back-arc spreading center. Sensitivity tests were applied to these features through inversion of synthetic data. The uppermost resistive layer is the cool, dry residual from the plate accretion process. Its thickness beneath the Pacific Ocean Basin is controlled mainly by temperature, whereas the roughly constant thickness beneath the Mariana Trough and beneath the Parece Vela Basin regardless of seafloor age is controlled by composition. The conductive mantle beneath the uppermost resistive layer requires hydration of olivine and/or melting of the mantle. The resistive region beneath the volcanic arc down to 60 km suggests that fluids such as melt or free water are not well connected or are highly three-dimensional and of limited size. In contrast, the conductive region beneath the volcanic arc below 60 km depth reflects melting and hydration driven by water release from the subducting slab. The

  19. Research recommendations for ac interfacing between electric utility transmission and distribution systems and wind, photovoltaics, and OTEC energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longrigg, P.; Buell, E. H.

    1985-03-01

    Work that deals semiquantitatively with many integration problems that may have to be solved as wind, photovoltaic, and ocean energy systems are tied into electrical transmission utility grids is documented. The problems that will arise as these distributed storage and generation (DSG) energy systems are integrated into the electric utility grids are not yet fully known, and their extent may depend on the level of penetration of the DSGs into the grid network. Aspects of DSG integration covered are fuse and relay coordination, harmonics, communications, control protocols, safety, and artificial intelligence (computer driven controls). An appendix on the effects of electromagnetic pulse is also included.

  20. Effects of four entomopathogenic nematode species on fitness costs of pink bollworm resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the efficacy of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). However, fitness costs can slow the evolution of resistance. We tested whether four species of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae ...

  1. Application of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography to the stone content estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Chanzy, André; Courdier, Florence; Mariotte, Nicolas; Rachedi, Sabrina

    2009-04-01

    Electrical Resistivity of the soil is regarded as a proxy for many soil properties as structure, moisture content or bedrock depth. The stone content is important for the trees as a large number of stones in the soil restrict the volume of soil that is available for roots to uptake water and nutrients. The potential of ERT for estimating the stone content is evaluated by regarding the stony soil as a two-exponent mixture with stones, which are less conductive, suspend in a conductive matrix. The resistivity of the two components was obtained separately by 2-electrode and 4-electrode methods. On the basis of the resistivity of the soils and the stones, the stone size effect on the effective resistivity was addressed using numerical modeling by Windows based resistivity modeling program RES2DINV and RES3DINV. The effective resistivity at different stone content was calculated by inverting the simulated potential which reproduces a linear panel experiment. The results demonstrate that stone size effect is not very significant. Field measurements were carried out at Mt-Ventoux and l'Issole, located in south of France in the Provence Region. The sites stand in Karstic terrain with soils having high and variable stone content and lying on a bed rock which can be found very close to the surface. Pits were dug and their stone content (volumetric fraction) was estimated. There is an apparent relation between the effective resistivity values extracted from the ERT inversion results and the stone content, the tendency are in good agreement with theoretical results. However, exceptions are found with relatively higher stone content and lower ER value, it can be explained by 3D effect from soil characteristics surrounding the pit. An error assessment in stone content is given according to the resistivity contrast between phases (stones and soil) and the variability in electric resistivity within each phase.

  2. Earthquake resistant construction of electric transmission and telecommunication facilities serving the Federal government report

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, F.Y.

    1990-02-01

    The vulnerability of electrical transmission and telecommunication facilities to damage in past earthquakes, as well as available standards and technologies to protect these facilities against earthquake damage are reviewed. An overview is presented of measures taken by various Federal agencies to protect electrical transmission and telecommunication facilities against earthquake hazards. It is concluded that while most new facilities which are owned and operated by Federal agencies are presently designed to provide some, though not necessarily adequate, earthquake resistance, there generally is no effort to retrofit existing facilities. No evidence was found of requirements to protect electrical transmission and communication facilities which have major contractual obligations to serve the Federal Government and only limited seismic design requirements are stipulated for electrical transmission systems constructed with Federal funding.

  3. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.

  4. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  5. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  8. Charged dendrimers under the action of AC electric fields: Breathing characteristics of molecular size, polarizations, and ion distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ashok K.; Hsiao, Pai-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Langevin dynamics simulations are performed to study the response of charged dendrimers in alternating current electric fields in 3:1 salt solutions. Time evolutions of molecular size show breathing characteristics which take saw-tooth-like patterns in square-wave electric fields and undulated sine-function ones in sine-wave fields. Detailed study reveals how the dendrimer and condensed ions oscillate in the electric fields, which result in polarization of the molecule. To effect a significant deformation of the dendrimer, the applied field amplitude must be larger than some critical strength Ecrit and the field frequency smaller than a threshold fcrit. The response behavior is characterized by two relaxation times in square-wave fields, both of which decrease linearly with the strong field strength larger than Ecrit. In sine-wave fields, the molecular size exhibits interesting hysteretic behavior in plotting the curves with the field variation. A Maxwell-Wagner type polarization theory is derived and proved by simulations, which connects fcrit with the strength of the applied electric field.

  9. Theory of dielectrophoresis and aggregation in suspensions of highly polarized particles subjected to high-gradient AC electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacqmin, David; Khusid, Boris; Acrivos, Andreas

    2001-11-01

    The proposed mathematical model of electro-hydrodynamic phenomena consists of strongly coupled field and flow equations supplemented by constitutive equations for the dielectric polarization and the field-induced contribution to the energy and stresses in a suspension in the presence of a time-varying electric field. The suspension is viewed as an effective Newtonian fluid with a concentration-dependent viscosity. The long-range hydrodynamic interactions of the particles subjected to shear are incorporated through the concentration dependence of the suspension viscosity, the hindrance function in the expression for the particle settling velocity, and the shear-induced diffusion of the particles. For the electric energy and stress, we employed the constitutive equations of our microscopic theory for the case of strong electric energy dissipation. The equation for the total particle flux includes the flux induced by the electric force exerted on a particle due to the gradient of its chemical potential in a spatially non-uniform electric field, the flux generated by the buoyancy force, and the particle shear-diffusion. We consider the specific case of low particle Reynolds numbers which is relevant to our current experiments. We investigated the situation of "heterogeneous aggregation" when the field-induced phase transitions occur in a thin layer adjacent to the electrodes. By comparing our theoretical predictions with the results of experiments on a rotating channel, we demonstrated that the model is capable of predicting a wide range of physical processes in a suspension of highly polarizable particles, in particular, the formation of highly concentrated particle layers on both the high-voltage and the grounded electrodes.

  10. Improving Heat Pump Water Heater Effeciency by Avoiding Electric Resistance Heater Use

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Parkison, April E.; Nutaro, James J.

    2014-09-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are a promising technology that can decrease the domestic hot water energy consumption over an electric resistance storage water heater by up to 50%. Heat pump water heaters are really two water heaters in one; they can heat water by using a heat pump or by using electric resistance elements. During large water draw events the HPWHs will use the resistance elements that decrease the overall efficiency of the units. ORNL proposed and tested an advanced control algorithm that anticipates the large water draw events and appropriately sets-up the temperature of the tank water using only the heat pump. With sufficient energy stored in the tank at the elevated temperature, the large water draw is provided for and electric resistance use is avoided. Simulations using a validated heat pump water heater model, and measured water draw data from 25 homes, show average yearly energy savings of 9% for the advanced control algorithm. If the advanced control algorithm perfectly predicts the large water draw events then the savings increase to 19%. This discrepancy could be due to a lack of predictability of water draw patterns in some homes, or the water draw forecasting algorithm could be improved.

  11. Long-term electrical resistivity monitoring of recharge-induced contaminant plume behavior.

    PubMed

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hubbard, Susan S; Watson, David B; Baker, Gregory S; Peterson, John E; Kowalsky, Michael B; Smith, Meagan; Brooks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Geophysical measurements, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data in particular, are sensitive to properties that are related (directly or indirectly) to hydrological processes. The challenge is in extracting information from geophysical data at a relevant scale that can be used to gain insight about subsurface behavior and to parameterize or validate flow and transport models. Here, we consider the use of ERT data for examining the impact of recharge on subsurface contamination at the S-3 ponds of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Tennessee. A large dataset of time-lapse cross-well and surface ERT data, collected at the site over a period of 12 months, is used to study time variations in resistivity due to changes in total dissolved solids (primarily nitrate). The electrical resistivity distributions recovered from cross-well and surface ERT data agrees well, and both of these datasets can be used to interpret spatiotemporal variations in subsurface nitrate concentrations due to rainfall, although the sensitivity of the electrical resistivity response to dilution varies with nitrate concentration. Using the time-lapse surface ERT data interpreted in terms of nitrate concentrations, we find that the subsurface nitrate concentration at this site varies as a function of spatial position, episodic heavy rainstorms (versus seasonal and annual fluctuations), and antecedent rainfall history. These results suggest that the surface ERT monitoring approach is potentially useful for examining subsurface plume responses to recharge over field-relevant scales.

  12. Electrical resistance tomography for imaging the spatial distribution of moisture in pavement sections

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, M.; Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.

    1995-11-08

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) was used to image spatial moisture distribution and movement in pavement sections during an infiltration test. ERT is a technique for determining the electrical resistivity distribution within a volume from measurement of injected currents and the resulting electrical potential distribution on the surface. The transfer resistance (ratio of potential to injected current) data are inverted using an algorithm based on a finite element forward solution which is iteratively adjusted in a least squares sense until the measured and calculated transfer resistances agree to within some predetermined value. Four arrays of ERT electrodes were installed in vertical drill holes 1.22 m (4 ft) placed at the comers of a square 61 cm (2 ft) on a side into a pavement section which is used for a truck scale ramp on U.S. Highway 99 just north of Sacramento, CA. Water was introduced slowly into the pavement through a shallow hole in the center of this pattern and ERT data were collected in various planes as the water infiltrated into the pavement and subgrade materials over a period of several hours. The ERT data were inverted, and the resulting images show (1) the basic structure of the pavement section and (2) the movement of water through the image planes as a function of time during infiltration. An interesting result is that the water does not appear to drain from the section toward the shoulder as had been expected based on the design.

  13. Effects of contact resistance on electrical conductivity measurements of SiC-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, G. E.; Thomsen, E. C.; Henager, C. H.

    2013-11-01

    A combination 2/4-probe method was used to measure electrical resistances across a pure, monolithic CVD-SiC disc sample with contact resistance at the SiC/metallic electrode interfaces. By comparison of the almost simultaneous 2/4-probe measurements, the specific contact resistance (Rc) and its temperature dependence were determined for two types (sputtered gold and porous nickel) electrodes from room temperature (RT) to ~973 K. The Rc-values behaved similarly for each type of metallic electrode: Rc > ~1000 Ω cm2 at RT, decreasing continuously to ~1–10 Ω cm2 at 973 K. The temperature dependence of the inverse Rc indicated thermally activated electrical conduction across the SiC/metallic interface with an apparent activation energy of ~0.3 eV. Finally, for the flow channel insert application in a fusion reactor blanket, contact resistance potentially could reduce the transverse electrical conductivity by about 50%.

  14. Electrical resistivity and porosity structure of the upper Biscayne Aquifer in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Dean; Yeboah-Forson, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Square array electrical soundings were made at 13 sites in the Biscayne Aquifer distributed between 1 and 20 km from the shoreline. These soundings were modeled to investigate how resistivity varies spatially and with depth in the upper 15 m of the aquifer. Porosity was estimated from the modeled formation resistivity and observed pore fluid resistivity with Archie's Law. The models were used to interpolate resistivity and porosity surfaces at -2, -5, -8, and -15 m elevations. Modeled resistivity in the unsaturated zone is generally higher than 300 Ω m with the resistivity at sites with thick unsaturated zones greater than 1000 Ω m. Resistivity in the saturated zone ranges from 30 to 320 Ω m. At many sites in the western portions of the study area, resistivity is constant or increases with depth whereas sites in the center of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge exhibit a distinct low resistivity zone (ρ < 45 Ω m) at elevations ranging between -5 and -10 m. At one site near the shore of Biscayne Bay, the resistivity is less than 10 Ω m at -5 m elevation reflecting the presence of salt water in the aquifer. The estimated porosity ranges between 14% and 71% with modal values near 25%. The porosity structure varies both with depth and spatially. Western sites exhibit a high porosity zone at shallow depths best expressed in a NE-SW trending zone of 40-50% porosity situated near the western margin of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. This zone roughly corresponds in depth with the Q5 chronostratigraphic unit of the Miami Fm. which constitutes the upper flow unit of the Biscayne Aquifer. The highest porosity (>50%) is seen at elevations below -5 m at sites in the center of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and likely corresponds to solution features. The general NE-SW trend of the resistivity and porosity structure suggests a causal connection with the Pleistocene paleogeography and sedimentary environments.

  15. Influence of plant roots on electrical resistivity measurements of cultivated soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloteau, Sophie; Blanchy, Guillaume; Javaux, Mathieu; Garré, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity methods have been widely used for the last 40 years in many fields: groundwater investigation, soil and water pollution, engineering application for subsurface surveys, etc. Many factors can influence the electrical resistivity of a media, and thus influence the ERT measurements. Among those factors, it is known that plant roots affect bulk electrical resistivity. However, this impact is not yet well understood. The goals of this experiment are to quantify the effect of plant roots on electrical resistivity of the soil subsurface and to map a plant roots system in space and time with ERT technique in a soil column. For this research, it is assumed that roots system affect the electrical properties of the rhizosphere. Indeed the root activity (by transporting ions, releasing exudates, changing the soil structure,…) will modify the rhizosphere electrical conductivity (Lobet G. et al, 2013). This experiment is included in a bigger research project about the influence of roots system on geophysics measurements. Measurements are made on cylinders of 45 cm high and a diameter of 20 cm, filled with saturated loam on which seeds of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. are sowed. Columns are equipped with electrodes, TDR probes and temperature sensors. Experiments are conducted at Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, in a growing chamber with controlled conditions: temperature of the air is fixed to 20° C, photoperiod is equal to 14 hours, photosynthetically active radiation is equal to 200 μmol m-2s-1, and air relative humidity is fixed to 80 %. Columns are fully saturated the first day of the measurements duration then no more irrigation is done till the end of the experiment. The poster will report the first results analysis of the electrical resistivity distribution in the soil columns through space and time. These results will be discussed according to the plant development and other controlled factors. Water content of the soil will also be detailed

  16. Monitoring radio-frequency heating of contaminated soils using electrical resistance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1993-09-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor a radio-frequency heating process for the insitu remediation of volatile organic compounds from subsurface water and soil at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. A dipole antenna located in a horizontal well in the unsaturated zone was used to heat a contaminated clay layer. The heat-induced changes were tomographically imaged by their effects on the formation electrical resistivity. The resistivity changes observed appear to be related to heating and vaporization of the pore water, formation of steam condensate, and infiltration of rainwater through the heated zones and adjacent areas. There is a clear asymmetry downward in the resistivity decreases associated with the heating process. The resistivity decreases observed in the vicinity of the heating well are believed to be caused by the heating and downward migration of warm water originally located within a radius of a few feet around the heating well; the magnitude of the change is between 10--20%. The decreasing resistivity implies an increasing rate of radio wave attenuation as heating progressed; therefore, the rate of energy deposition around the heating well increased while the penetration distance of the radio waves decreased. Saturation changes in the clay near the antenna during heating were estimated to be 50--55% based on the observed resistivity decreases. Resistivity changes observed at distances greater than 3 meters to one side of the antenna appear to be related to rainwater infiltration. We propose that gaps in near surface clay layers allow rainwater to migrate downward and reach the top of clay rich zone penetrated by the antenna borehole. The water may then accumulate along the top of the clay.

  17. Characterization of Contact and Bulk Thermal Resistance of Laminations for Electric Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Emily; Bennion, Kevin; Devoto, Douglas; Naramanchi, Sreekant

    2015-07-06

    Thermal management for electric motors is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric-drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. As thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off among motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. During the development of thermal finite element analysis models and computational fluid dynamics models for electric motors, it was found that there was a lack of open literature detailing the thermal properties of key materials common in electric motors that are significant in terms of heat removal. The lack of available literature, coupled with the strong interest from industry in the passive-stack thermal measurement results, led to experiments to characterize the thermal contact resistance between motor laminations. We examined four lamination materials, including the commonly used 26 gauge and 29 gauge M19 materials, the HF10 and Arnon 7 materials. These latter two materials are thinner and reduce eddy currents responsible for core losses. We measured the thermal conductivity of the lamination materials and the thermal contact resistance between laminations in a stack, as well as investigated factors affecting contact resistance between laminations such as the contact pressure and surface finish. Lamination property data will be provided and we also develop a model to estimate the through-stack thermal conductivity for materials beyond those that were directly tested in this work. For example, at a clamping pressure of 138 kPa, the 29 gauge M19 material has a through-stack thermal conductivity of 1.68 W/m-K, and the contact resistance between laminations was measured to be 193 mm^2-K/W. The measured bulk

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH

    2009-12-16

    Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. The synthetic examples place a simple target of varying electrical properties beneath a very low resistivity layer. The layer is meant to replicate the effects of infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes are tested on the synthetic domain. The leak demonstration for the field experiment is simulated by injecting a high conductivity fluid in a perforated well within the S tank farm at Hanford, and the resistivity measurements are made before and after the leak test. All data are processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure is applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case shows that the long electrode ERM could detect relative changes in resistivity that are commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes, on the other hand, had a more difficult time matching the original target's footprint. The field results shows a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site after cessation of the injections. The time lapsed regularization parameter has a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post injection datasets, but the interpretation of the target is consistent across all values of the parameter. The long electrode ERM method may provide a tool for near real-time monitoring of leaking underground storage tanks.

  19. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) monitoring for groundwater contamination in an uncontrolled landfill, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Samgyu; Yi, Myeong-Jong; Kim, Jung-Ho; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-12-01

    In the study area, uncontrolled landfill leachate is a serious cause of groundwater contamination that occurs extensively and rapidly following the rainy season. For this reason, the use of traditional hydrogeological monitoring methods using drilled wells is expensive and limited. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is suitable for monitoring groundwater contamination because this method helps quickly investigate a large site without the need for well drilling. The resistivity of the landfill leachate is lower than that of clean groundwater; based on this fact, we evaluated the diffusion of landfill leachate before and after the rainy season using 3-D ERI characterization. In addition, ERI results were compared with piezometric and hydrochemical data obtained from observation wells for the purpose of cross-validation. The groundwater monitoring results agreed with the 2-D and 3-D interpretation of ERI results. The electrical resistivity values of contaminated zones were lower than those of clean zones due to an abundance of ions or molecules in the groundwater. The resistivity boundary between contaminated and clean zones observed in the inverted 2-D and 3-D ERI sections was considered to be approximately 100 Ω-m. The low-resistivity anomaly of the contamination zones increased in extent after rainfall. The expansion was likely accelerated by groundwater movement and diffusion of the landfill leachate. Images of the change in electrical resistivity were helpful for characterization of the behavior. The two-directional behaviors of NE-SW and N-S trends were confirmed by the 3-D ratio images. It is therefore, considered that the ERI technique is excellent for imaging contaminated zones as well as monitoring the behaviors of landfill leachate in uncontrolled landfills.

  20. CRSP, numerical results for an electrical resistivity array to detect underground cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Amin; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the application of the Combined Resistivity Sounding and Profiling electrode configuration (CRSP) to detect underground cavities. Electrical resistivity surveying is among the most favorite geophysical methods due to its nondestructive and economical properties in a wide range of geosciences. Several types of the electrode arrays are applied to detect different certain objectives. In one hand, the electrode array plays an important role in determination of output resolution and depth of investigations in all resistivity surveys. On the other hand, they have their own merits and demerits in terms of depth of investigations, signal strength, and sensitivity to resistivity variations. In this article several synthetic models, simulating different conditions of cavity occurrence, were used to examine the responses of some conventional electrode arrays and also CRSP array. The results showed that CRSP electrode configuration can detect the desired objectives with a higher resolution rather than some other types of arrays. Also a field case study was discussed in which electrical resistivity approach was conducted in Abshenasan expressway (Tehran, Iran) U-turn bridge site for detecting potential cavities and/or filling loose materials. The results led to detect an aqueduct tunnel passing beneath the study area.

  1. Monitoring of olive oil mills' wastes using electrical resistivity tomography techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simyrdanis, Kleanthis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Kirkou, Stella; Sarris, Apostolos; Tsourlos, Panagiotis

    2014-08-01

    Olive oil mills' wastes (OOMW) are one of the byproducts of the oil production that can lead to serious environmental pollution when they are deposited in ponds dug on the ground surface. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can provide a valuable tool in order to monitor through time the physical flow of the wastes into the subsurface. ERT could potentially locate the electrical signature due to lower resistivity values resulting from the leakage of OOMW to the subsurface. For this purpose, two vertical boreholes were installed (12m depth, 9 m apart) in the vicinity of an existing pond which is filled with OOMW during the oil production period. The test site is situated in Saint Andreas village about 15km south of the city of Rethymno (Crete, Greece). Surface ERT measurements were collected along multiple lines in order to reconstruct the subsurface resistivity models. Data acquisition was performed with standard and optimized electrode configuration protocols. The monitoring survey includes the ERT data collection for a period of time. The study was initiated before the OOMW were deposited in the pond, so resistivity fluctuations are expected due to the flow of OOMW in the porous subsurface media through time. Preliminary results show the good correlation of the ERT images with the drilled geological formations and the identification of low resistivity subsurface zone that could be attributed to the flow of the wastes within the porous layers.

  2. Exploring electrical resistance: a novel kinesthetic model helps to resolve some misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, Dan; Marshall, Rick

    2016-09-01

    A simple ‘hands on’ physical model is described which displays analogous behaviour to some aspects of the free electron theory of metals. Using it students can get a real feel for what is going on inside a metallic conductor. Ohms Law, the temperature dependence of resistivity, the dependence of resistance on geometry, how the conduction electrons respond to a potential difference and the concepts of mean free path and drift speed of the conduction electrons can all be explored. Some quantitative results obtained by using the model are compared with the predictions of Drude’s free electron theory of electrical conduction.

  3. Electrical resistivity surface for FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. G.; Kinser, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The dc electrical properties and microstructure of x(FeO-Fe2O3)-(100-x)P2O5 glasses were investigated up to a maximum of x = 75 mol %. Results indicate that, in general, the minimum resistivity of the glass does not occur at equal Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) concentrations, although for the special case where x = 55 mol % the minimum does occur at Fe(2+)/Fe total = 0.5, as reported by other investigators. Evidence presented shows that the position of the minimum resistivity is a function of total iron content. The minimum shifts to glasses richer in Fe(2+) at higher total iron concentrations.

  4. Laboratory measurements of basalts electrical resistivity under deep oceanic crustal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violay, M. E.; Gibert, B.; Azais, P.; Pezard, P. A.; Flovenz, O. G.; Asmundsson, R.

    2009-12-01

    For sixty years, electrical resistivity soundings have been used to explore geothermal resources in Iceland. They have generally revealed two zones of high electrical conductivity, one at shallow depths (Flovenz et al., 1985) and another at 10-30 km depth (Beblo and Björnsson, 1978). The interpretation of these conductive zones in terms of composition and in-situ physical conditions is often ambiguous, as various parameters can explain these observations like temperature, partial melting, change in minerals and type of pore fluid. Accurate interpretations of resistivity data needed for geothermal exploration require laboratory measurements of electrical conductivities performed on rock samples at different conditions. We present here a method to measure electrical conductivity of rocks under deep crustal conditions for oceanic crustal rock, i.e. at temperatures up to 600°C, confining pressures up to 200 MPa and pore fluid pressures up to 50 MPa. The method has been developed in a internally heated, gas pressure apparatus (Paterson press). Electrical conductivity is measured on large cylindrical samples (15 to 22 mm in diameter and 10 to 15 mm in length) in a two parallel electrodes geometry. Such experiments require that the fluid saturated sample is sleeved in an impermeable and deformable jacket serving to separate the confining pressure medium (high pressure argon) from the pore fluid saturated sample. At temperature above 200°C a metal sleeve must be used, although it induces high leakage currents that could affect electrical measurements. The leakage currents are reduced using addition of 2 guard-ring parallel electrodes (Glover, 1995). The electrical impedance of basalt has been measured over a frequency range from 10 -1 to 106 Hertz. Five different types of low porosity basalts were selected to cover a range in alteration grade, from albitic to granulite facies. Application of this method will provide data on electrical conductivity of fresh and altered

  5. Modeling and analysis of direct-current electrical resistivity in the Durham Triassic basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C. Erwin

    1987-01-01

    Sixty-two Schlumberger electrical soundings were made in the Durham Triassic basin in an effort to determine basin structural geometry, depth of the sedimentary layers, and spatial distribution of individual rock facies. A digital computer program was used to invert the sounding curves of apparent resistivity versus distance to apparent resistivity versus depth. The apparent-resistivity-versus-depth data from the computer-modeling program were used to construct a geoelectric model of the basin that is believed to accurately represent the subsurface geology of the basin. The largest depth to basement in the basin along a resistivity profile (geoelectric section) was determined to be 1,800 m. A resistivity decrease was observed on certain soundings from depths of 100 to 1,000 m; below a 1,000-m depth, apparent resistivity increased to the bottom of the basin. Resistivity values for basement rocks were greater than 1,000 ohm-m and less than 350 ohm-m for the sedimentary layers in the basin. The data suggest that the basin contains a system of step faults near its eastern boundary. ?? 1987.

  6. Thermospheric topside neutral density, ionospheric anomalous electric field and resistivity measurements by active experiment at EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, Michael; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Rietveld, Michael; Blagoveshchenskaya, Nataly; Yamazaki, Yosuke

    2016-07-01

    We have developed an active ground-based technique to estimate the topside thermospheric neutral density as well as topside ionospheric anomalous electric field and resistivity at EISCAT, combining the EISCAT UHF radar, HF heater and optics. When pumping the ionosphere the F-region electron temperature is significantly raised, increasing the upward plasma pressure gradient in the topside ionosphere, resulting in observed ion up-flow along the magnetic field line. Simultaneously, pump-induced suprathermal electrons produce artificial optical emissions. Using the modified ion-momentum equation, the thermospheric neutral density is estimated. Alternatively, using the MSIS model the field-aligned anomalous electric field is estimated. From the optical data the suprathermal electron flux is estimated, giving an estimate of the anomalous resistivity. Results from recent observations at EISCAT are presented.

  7. Noncontact technique for measuring the electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of electrostatically levitated melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustan, G. E.; Spyrison, N. S.; Kreyssig, A.; Prozorov, R.; Goldman, A. I.

    2012-02-01

    Over the last two decades the popularity of levitation methods for studying equilibrium and supercooled melts has increased steadily. Measurements of density, viscosity, surface tension, and atomic structure have become well established. In contrast, measurements of electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of levitated melts have been very limited. To fill this void, we have combined the tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) technique with electrostatic levitation (ESL) to perform inductively coupled measurements on levitated melts. A description of the basic operating principles of the TDO and ESL will be given, as well as a description of the implementation and performance characteristics of this technique. Preliminary measurements of electrical resistivity in the solid and liquid state will be presented for samples of Zr, Si, and Ge, as well as the measurements of ferromagnetic transitions in Fe and Co based alloys.

  8. Resistance oscillations of two-dimensional electrons in crossed electric and tilted magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, William; Vitkalov, Sergey; Bykov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of dc electric field on transport of highly mobile two-dimensional electrons is studied in wide GaAs single quantum wells placed in titled magnetic fields. The study shows that in perpendicular magnetic field resistance oscillates due to electric-field induced Landau-Zener transitions between quantum levels that correspond to geometric resonances between cyclotron orbits and periodic modulation of electron density of states. Magnetic field tilt inverts these oscillations. Surprisingly the strongest inverted oscillations are observed at a tilt corresponding to nearly absent modulation of the electron density of states in regime of magnetic breakdown of semiclassical electron orbits. This phenomenon establishes an example of quantum resistance oscillations due to Landau quantization, which occur in electron systems with a constant density of states.

  9. Dynamic characteristics of double-barrier nanostructures with asymmetric barriers of finite height and widths in a strong ac electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Chuenkov, V. A.

    2013-12-15

    The theory of the interaction of a monoenergetic flow of injected electrons with a strong high-frequency ac electric field in resonant-tunneling diode (RTD) structures with asymmetric barriers of finite height and width is generalized. In the quasi-classical approximation, electron wavefunctions and tunneling functions in the quantum well and barriers are found. Analytical expressions for polarization currents in RTDs are derived in both the general case and in a number of limiting cases. It is shown that the polarization currents and radiation power in RTDs with asymmetric barriers strongly depend on the ratio of the probabilities of electron tunneling through the emitter and collector barriers. In the quantum mode, when δ = ε − ε{sub r} = ħω ≪ Γ (ε is the energy of electrons injected in the RTD, ħ is Planck’s constant, ω is the ac field frequency, ε{sub r} and Γ are the energy and width of the resonance level, respectively), the active polarization current in a field of E ≈ 2.8ħω/ea (e is the electron charge and a is the quantum-well width) reaches a maximum equal in magnitude to 84% of the direct resonant current, if the probability of electron tunneling through the emitter barrier is much higher than that through the collector barrier. The radiation-generation power at frequencies of ω = 10{sup 12}–10{sup 13} s{sup −1} can reach 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 2} in this case.

  10. High temperature static strain measurement with an electrical resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1992-01-01

    An electrical resistance strain gage that can supply accurate static strain measurement for NASP application is being developed both in thin film and fine wire forms. This gage is designed to compensate for temperature effects on substrate materials with a wide range of thermal expansion coefficients. Some experimental results of the wire gage tested on one of the NASP structure materials, i.e., titanium matrix composites, are presented.

  11. Measurement of the electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Borup, Kasper A; Toberer, Eric S; Zoltan, Leslie D; Nakatsukasa, George; Errico, Michael; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Iversen, Bo B; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the van der Pauw (VDP) technique for combined high temperature measurement of the electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient is described. The VDP method is convenient for use since it accepts sample geometries compatible with other measurements. The technique is simple to use and can be used with samples showing a broad range of shapes and physical properties, from near insulators to metals. Three instruments utilizing the VDP method for measurement of heavily doped semiconductors, such as thermoelectrics, are discussed.

  12. Measurement of the electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borup, Kasper A.; Toberer, Eric S.; Zoltan, Leslie D.; Nakatsukasa, George; Errico, Michael; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Iversen, Bo B.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the van der Pauw (VDP) technique for combined high temperature measurement of the electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient is described. The VDP method is convenient for use since it accepts sample geometries compatible with other measurements. The technique is simple to use and can be used with samples showing a broad range of shapes and physical properties, from near insulators to metals. Three instruments utilizing the VDP method for measurement of heavily doped semiconductors, such as thermoelectrics, are discussed.

  13. Monitoring soil volume wetness in heterogeneous soils by electrical resistivity. A field-based pedotransfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Mathieu, Olivier; Bichet, Vincent; Michot, Didier; Lévêque, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Modern irrigation techniques require accurate, rapid, cost-effective, spatial measurement of soil moisture. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) meets most of these requirements, but needs to be calibrated for each use because it is very sensitive to differences in soil characteristics. In this study, a pedotransfer function approach is used to remove the need for site-specific calibration, allowing ERT to be used directly to measure soil moisture. The study site was a hillslope vineyard, where eight calcaric-cambisol soil profiles were identified. From 2012 to 2013, 23 000 soil volume wetness measurements were acquired by Time Domain Reflectometry, and over 100 000 electrical resistivity data were collected in 160 ERT acquisitions. To better understand the ERT signal, soil texture, gravel content, cation exchange capacity, CaCO3, pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen were analysed in 64 soil samples from the study site. The sensitivity of ERT to differences in soil characteristics makes it difficult to establish a unique model linking electrical resistivity and soil moisture in heterogeneous soils. This study presents two possible solutions to overcome this problem, which are differentiated by the availability of data on soil characteristics. When these data are not available, it is possible to fit a number of different models for each homogeneous soil layer, but a site-specific calibration is necessary at least once. Conversely, when soil characteristics are available, they can be integrated into the model to build a pedotransfer function. A unique, accurate model is obtained in this way for all samples. In soils with similar characteristics to those observed, the function can be used directly to measure soil moisture by ERT. Developing pedotransfer functions such the one presented here could greatly improve, simplify and develop the use of electrical resistivity to measure soil moisture.

  14. Shallow electrical resistivity imaging of the Limón fault, Chagres River Watershed, Panama Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojica, Alexis; Pérez, Tatiana; Toral, Jaime; Miranda, Roberto; Franceschi, Pastora; Calderón, Carlos; Vergara, Fidedigna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was the use of electrical resistivity imaging to investigate the geometry of the southwest portion of one of the most important geologic fault zones of the Panama Canal Watershed: the Limón fault. This fault is characterized by its juxtaposition of pre-Tertiary andesitic basalt (Playa Venado Formation) against late Oligocene Tertiary sediments (Caimito Formation). In this zone, four 2D electrical resistivity tomography profiles were conducted perpendicular to the fault trace: T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4. The T-1, T-3, and T-4 profiles were long profiles (235 m for the first two and 215 m for the last one), with a goal of determining the depth of the geologic boundary between the sedimentary and andesitic deposits. The T-2 profile was a short profile (23.5 m), with the objective of calibrating the results with data provided by the paleoseismic trenching previously developed in the area of interest. For these tests, two electrode arrays of types Wenner-Schlumberger and Dipole-Dipole, were used. For the inversion routine, two regularized least-squares methods were used: the smoothness-constrained method and robust inversion. The long electrical resistivity tomography profiles were able to identify a set of electrical anomalies associated with the andesitic basalt and the Tertiary sediments and with that, the contact geometry between these formations. In these profiles, fault angle measurements ranged from 60° to 80° with respect to the ground surface. In the T-2 profile, the electrical anomalies showed a good association with the results of the paleoseismic study. This allowed identification of the colluvium and alluvium covering the gravel and sand debris that mark the gradual transition to the soils of the Caimito Formation. Finally, a set of 2D synthetic models was developed for each of the T-1, T-3, and T-4 profiles with the objective of optimizing interpretation of the field results.

  15. Effects of entomopathogenic nematodes on the evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the efficacy of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Conversely, fitness costs may act to delay pest resistance to Bt. The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinern...

  16. Effects of four nematodes species on fitness costs of pink bollworm resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce efficacy of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In conjunction with refuges of non-Bt host plants, fitness costs can delay the evolution of resistance. Furthermore, fitness costs often vary wit...

  17. Effects of Defoliating Insect Resistance QTLs and a crylAc Transgene in Soybean Near-Isogenic Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additional sources of resistance would be desirable to manage defoliating insect resistance to crystal proteins coded by transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and to sustain the deployment of Bt crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and interactions of three soybean (G...

  18. A method to investigate the electron scattering characteristics of ultrathin metallic films by in situ electrical resistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, I. G.; Sousa, J. B.; Fermento, R.; Leitao, D.

    2009-07-15

    In this article, a method to measure the electrical resistivity/conductivity of metallic thin films during layer growth on specific underlayers is described. The in situ monitoring of an underlayer electrical resistance, its change upon the incoming of new material atoms/molecules, and the growth of a new layer are presented. The method is easy to implement and allows obtaining in situ experimental curves of electrical resistivity dependence upon film thickness with a subatomic resolution, providing insight in film growth microstructure characteristics, specular/diffuse electron scattering surfaces, and optimum film thicknesses.

  19. Spatial filtering of electrical resistivity and slope intensity: Enhancement of spatial estimates of a soil property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourennane, Hocine; Hinschberger, Florent; Chartin, Caroline; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    To best utilize the electrical resistivity data and slope intensity derived from a Digital Elevation Model, the kriging spatial components technique was applied to separate the nuggets and small- and large-scale structures for both resistivity and slope intensity data. The spatial structures in the resistivity and slope intensity data, which are poorly correlated with soil thickness (ST), are then filtered out prior to integrating the resistivity data and slope intensity into soil thickness estimation over a 12 ha area located in the south-western Parisian Basin (France). ST was measured at 650 locations over the study area by manual augering. Twenty percent of the observations (131 points) were randomly selected to constitute the validation dataset. The remaining 80% of the dataset (519 points) was used as the prediction dataset. The resistivity data represent a set of 7394 measurement points for each of the three investigated depths over the study area. The methodology involves successively (1) a principal component analysis (PCA) on the electrical measurements and (2) a geostatistical filtering of the small-scale component and noise in the first component (PC1) of the PCA. The results show that the correlation between ST and PC1 is greatly improved when the small-scale component and noise are filtered out, and similarly, the correlation between ST and slope intensity is greatly improved once the geostatistical filtering is carried out on the slope data. Thus, the large scales of both slope intensity and the electrical resistivity's PC1 were used as external drifts to predict ST over the entire study area. This prediction was compared with ordinary kriging and kriging either with a large scale of slope intensity or with a large scale of the electrical resistivity's PC1 taken as an external drift. The first prediction of ST by ordinary kriging, which was considered as our reference, was also compared to those achieved by kriging using the raw secondary variables

  20. An electric model with time varying resistance for a pneumatic membrane blood pump.

    PubMed

    Jin, Z; Qin, J

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an artificial heart and cardiac assist device on the cardiovascular system and determine the proper control method, an electrical model is an effective tool. An electric model with time varying resistance is proposed to represent a pneumatic membrane blood pump, by which the resistance of the valves in the pump is a function of time. The model is consistent over the whole cardiac cycle, and the important transitional processes between systole and diastole are considered. The calculated results based on this model are compared with the experimentally measured waveforms of the corresponding state-variables of a loaded pump, and the model parameters estimated using the least-squares criterion are compared with the measured physical values of corresponding functional parts. Results showed that this electric model is capable of representing a pneumatic membrane pump with quite satisfactory accuracy. They also showed that the transitional property of the valve resistance has a significant influence on the output characteristics of the pump.

  1. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the drift scale test in Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-01-13

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Eight boreholes, containing a total of 140 ERT electrodes, were drilled above and below the Heated Drift (HD) to form vertical planes parallel to the drift. In addition, 4 boreholes, containing 60 electrodes, drilled from the Access Observation Drift (AOD) form vertical planes at right angles to the HD. Four ERT surveys, three before and one after heating began, were conducted during the first quarter of FY 98. Tomographic images of absolute electrical resistivity have been calculated using these data and are presented in this report. The report also presents the coordinates of the electrodes used for the ERT surveys. Future reports will include images of electrical resistivity change calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes to be recovered will then be used in combination with temperature maps of the region to calculate maps of saturation change around the HD.

  2. Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, John

    2012-12-31

    Electrical methods offer a geophysical approach for determining the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate in deep marine environments. Methane hydrate is essentially non-conductive. Hence, sediments containing hydrate are more resistive than sediments without hydrates. To date, the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been used in marine hydrates studies. This project evaluated an alternative electrical method, direct current resistivity (DCR), for detecting marine hydrates. DCR involves the injection of direct current between two source electrodes and the simultaneous measurement of the electric potential (voltage) between multiple receiver electrodes. The DCR method provides subsurface information comparable to that produced by the CSEM method, but with less sophisticated instrumentation. Because the receivers are simple electrodes, large numbers can be deployed to achieve higher spatial resolution. In this project a prototype seafloor DCR system was developed and used to conduct a reconnaissance survey at a site of known hydrate occurrence in Mississippi Canyon Block 118. The resulting images of sub-bottom resistivities indicate that high-concentration hydrates at the site occur only in the upper 50 m, where deep-seated faults intersect the seafloor. Overall, there was evidence for much less hydrate at the site than previously thought based on available seismic and CSEM data alone.

  3. Joining characteristics of beta-titanium wires with electrical resistance welding.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Kawashima, Isao; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of different conditions for electrical resistance welding of beta-titanium orthodontic wires. Three electrode types were used with a range of power settings on an electrical resistance welding machine to join beta-titanium wires (Resolve, GAC International). Forces that caused bond failures for joined specimens were obtained with tensile loading, and the values were compared using one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05). Metallurgical phases in the joint region were determined by micro-X-ray diffraction. Mean tensile forces for bond failure ranged from 5 to 20 kgf for the eight specimen groups and were dependent on electrode type and power setting. All X-ray diffraction peaks in the joint region were indexed to beta-titanium. Superior bond strength was achieved with the use of wide electrodes. The absence of phases other than beta-titanium in the joint area suggests that the electrical resistance welding may not adversely affect clinically important mechanical properties. Scanning microscope observations indicated that the localized permanent deformation and the formation of an undesirable equiaxed grain structure occurred with the use of narrow electrodes.

  4. High resistance to sulfur poisoning of Ni with copper skin under electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaopei; Zhang, Yanxing; Yang, Zongxian

    2017-02-01

    The effects of sulfur poisoning on the (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces of pure Ni and Cu/Ni alloy are studied in consideration of the effect of electric field. The effects of Cu dopants on the S poisoning characteristics are analyzed by the means of the density functional theory results in combination with thermodynamics data using the ab initio atomistic thermodynamic method. When the Cu concentration increases to 50% on the surface layer of the Cu/Ni alloy, the (1 1 0) surface becomes the most vulnerable to the sulfur poisoning. Ni with a copper skin can mostly decrease the sulfur poisoning effect. Especially under the electric field of 1.0 V/Å, the sulfur adsorption and phase transition temperature can be further reduced. We therefore propose that Ni surfaces with copper skin can be very effective to improve the resistance to sulfur poisoning of the Ni anode under high electric field.

  5. Interpretation of a dipole-dipole electrical resistivity survey, Colado geothermal area, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mackelprang, C.E.

    1980-09-01

    An electrical resistivity survey in the Colado geothermal area, Pershing County, Nevada has defined areas of low resistivity on each of five lines surveyed. Some of these areas appear to be fault controlled. Thermal fluids encountered in several drill holes support the assumption that the hot fluids may be associated with areas of low resistivity. The evidence of faulting as interpreted from modeling of the observed resistivity data is therefore particularly significant since these structures may be the conduits for the thermal fluids. Sub-allurial fault zones are interpreted to occur between stations 0 to 5 NW on Line D and on Line A between stations 4 NW and 4 SE. Fault zones are also interpreted on Line C near stations 1 NW, 1 SE, and 3 SE, and on Line E between stations 2 to 4 NW and near 1 SE. No faulting is evident under the alluvial cover on the southwest end of Line B. A deep conductive zone is noted within the mountain range on two resistivity lines. There is no definite indication that thermal fluids are associated with this resistivity feature.

  6. Imaging Rainfall Infiltration Processes with the Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Imaging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Chen, Chien-chih; Chang, Ping-Yu; Wang, Tzu-Pin; Yen, Horng-Yuan; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Ni, Chuen-Fa; Chen, Su-Chin; Chen, Chao-Wei; Jia, Zheng-yuan

    2016-06-01

    Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) was carried out continuously for 10 days to map the subsurface resistivity distribution along a potentially hazardous hillslope at the Jieshou Junior High School in Taoyuan, Taiwan. The reliability of the inverted resistivity structures down to about 25 m depth was examined with synthetic modeling using the same electrode arrangements installed on land surface as in field surveys, together with a DOI (depth-of-investigation) index calculated from the ERI data. The subsurface resistivity distribution is consistent with results from well logging. These ERI recordings were taken daily and provided highly resolved imagery of the resistivity distribution underground and illustrated the dynamical fluid-flow behavior due to heavy rainfall infiltration. Using Archie's law, the resistivity distribution was transformed into a map of relative water saturation (RWS), which is strongly correlated with the rainfall infiltration process. We then found that the averaged RWS is significantly correlated with daily precipitation. Our observations indicate that time-lapse ERI is effective in monitoring subterraneous rainfall infiltration; moreover, the preferential flow paths can be delineated according to the changes in averaged RWS derived from the ERI data.

  7. Characterization of subsurface stratigraphy along the lower American River floodplain using electrical resistivity, Sacramento, California, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, completed a geophysical survey using electrical resistivity along an approximately 6-mile reach of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, to map near-surface lithological variations. This survey is a part of a manifold and comprehensive study of river-flow dynamics and geologic boundary-property knowledge necessary to estimate scour potential and levee erosion risk. Data were acquired on the left (south or west) bank between river mile 5 and 10.7 as well as a short section on the right bank from river mile 5.4 to 6. Thirteen direct-current resistivity profiles and approximately 8.3 miles of capacitively coupled resisistivity data were acquired along accessible areas of the floodplain between the levee and river bank. Capacitively coupled resistivity was used as a reconnaissance tool, because it allowed for greater spatial coverage of data but with lower resolution and depth of investigation than the DC resistivity method. The study area contains Pleistocene-age alluvial deposits, dominated by gravels, sands, silts, and clays, that vary in both lateral extent and depth. Several generations of lithologic logs were used to help interpret resistivity variations observed in the resistivity models.

  8. In situ electrical resistivity measurements of vanadium thin films performed in vacuum during different annealing cycles.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Paulo; Cote, Jean-Marc; Martin, Nicolas; Arab Pour Yazdi, Mohammad; Billard, Alain

    2017-02-01

    The present study describes a sputtering and in situ vacuum electrical resistivity setup that allows a more efficient sputtering-oxidation coupling process for the fabrication of oxide compounds like vanadium dioxide, VO2. After the sputtering deposition of pure V thin films, the proposed setup enables the sample holder to be transferred from the sputtering to the in situ annealing + resistivity chamber without venting the whole system. The thermal oxidation of the V films was studied by implementing two different temperature cycles up to 550 °C, both in air (using a different resistivity setup) and vacuum conditions. Main results show that the proposed system is able to accurately follow the different temperature setpoints, presenting clean and low-noise resistivity curves. Furthermore, it is possible to identify the formation of different vanadium oxide phases in air, taking into account the distinct temperature cycles used. The metallic-like electrical properties of the annealed coatings are maintained in vacuum whereas those heated in air produce a vanadium oxide phase mixture.

  9. Noncontact technique for measuring the electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of electrostatically levitated materials.

    PubMed

    Rustan, G E; Spyrison, N S; Kreyssig, A; Prozorov, R; Goldman, A I

    2012-10-01

    We describe the development of a new method for measuring the electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of high temperature liquids and solids. The technique combines a tunnel diode oscillator with an electrostatic levitation furnace to perform noncontact measurements on spherical samples 2-3 mm in diameter. The tank circuit of the oscillator is inductively coupled to the sample, and measurements of the oscillator frequency as a function of sample temperature can be translated into changes in the sample's electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Particular emphasis is given on the need to improve the positional stability of the levitated samples, as well as the need to stabilize the temperature of the measurement coil. To demonstrate the validity of the technique, measurements have been performed on solid spheres of pure zirconium and low-carbon steel. In the case of zirconium, while absolute values of the resistivity were not determined, the temperature dependence of the resistivity was measured over the range of 640-1770 K and found to be in good agreement with literature data. In the case of low-carbon steel, the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition was clearly observable and, when combined with thermal data, appears to occur simultaneously with the solid-solid structural transition.

  10. Electron-phonon interactions and the intrinsic electrical resistivity of graphene.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol-Hwan; Bonini, Nicola; Sohier, Thibault; Samsonidze, Georgy; Kozinsky, Boris; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2014-03-12

    We present a first-principles study of the temperature- and density-dependent intrinsic electrical resistivity of graphene. We use density-functional theory and density-functional perturbation theory together with very accurate Wannier interpolations to compute all electronic and vibrational properties and electron-phonon coupling matrix elements; the phonon-limited resistivity is then calculated within a Boltzmann-transport approach. An effective tight-binding model, validated against first-principles results, is also used to study the role of electron-electron interactions at the level of many-body perturbation theory. The results found are in excellent agreement with recent experimental data on graphene samples at high carrier densities and elucidate the role of the different phonon modes in limiting electron mobility. Moreover, we find that the resistivity arising from scattering with transverse acoustic phonons is 2.5 times higher than that from longitudinal acoustic phonons. Last, high-energy, optical, and zone-boundary phonons contribute as much as acoustic phonons to the intrinsic electrical resistivity even at room temperature and become dominant at higher temperatures.

  11. Monitoring crack development in fiber concrete beam by using electrical resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiwattanachang, N.; Giao, P. H.

    2011-10-01

    Accurate detection of damaged concrete zones plays an important role in selecting the proper remedial technique. This study presents results from an application of the electrical imaging method to monitor the development of cracks in fiber concrete beams. The study showed that resistivity measurements on the concrete specimens were able to detect the increase of concrete resistivity with the curing time that reached about 65 Ωm after 28 days of curing. A similar development trend of concrete compressive strength was also found. Two types of cracks were investigated, i.e., artificial cracks made of plastic sheets inserted in concrete and cracks developed during a four-step loading test. A mini-electric imaging survey with Wenner array was conducted on the tension face of the beams. To deal with the effect of the beam size new procedures to correct resistivity measurements before inversion were proposed and successfully applied in this study. The results indicated that both crack direction and depth could be accurately determined in the inverted resistivity sections.

  12. Electrical Resistivity Tomography Monitoring of Soil Remediation for a Garbage Dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shi, X.; Luo, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Fu, Q.; Xu, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey was firstly used to investigate the distribution of contaminated soil in a garbage dump area, Wuhan city, China. The result shows that sulfated soil resistivity is about 4 to 7 ohm-m, which is relatively lower than normal soil resistivity of about 15 to 25 ohm-m. The distribution of contaminated soil was delineated using ERT images. Then, ERT survey was carried out in this area for monitoring of remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. Werner measurements with 60 electrodes of 1 m spacing were taken during the 9-well oxygen injection and nutrition liquid injection period. The difference of apparent resistivity between before gas injection and after gas injection was used to delineate the channel of gas and the trace of gas migration in the porous garbage dump. The electrical resitivity changes between before and after nutrition liquid injection were used to analyze the liquid migration and distribution. The dynamic procedures of gas and water migration are outlined. The results suggest that ERT is a powerful technique for monitoring of soil remediation.

  13. In situ electrical resistivity measurements of vanadium thin films performed in vacuum during different annealing cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa, Paulo; Cote, Jean-Marc; Martin, Nicolas; Arab Pour Yazdi, Mohammad; Billard, Alain

    2017-02-01

    The present study describes a sputtering and in situ vacuum electrical resistivity setup that allows a more efficient sputtering-oxidation coupling process for the fabrication of oxide compounds like vanadium dioxide, VO2. After the sputtering deposition of pure V thin films, the proposed setup enables the sample holder to be transferred from the sputtering to the in situ annealing + resistivity chamber without venting the whole system. The thermal oxidation of the V films was studied by implementing two different temperature cycles up to 550 °C, both in air (using a different resistivity setup) and vacuum conditions. Main results show that the proposed system is able to accurately follow the different temperature setpoints, presenting clean and low-noise resistivity curves. Furthermore, it is possible to identify the formation of different vanadium oxide phases in air, taking into account the distinct temperature cycles used. The metallic-like electrical properties of the annealed coatings are maintained in vacuum whereas those heated in air produce a vanadium oxide phase mixture.

  14. Effects of boiling on electrical resistivity of microporous rocks from the Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.; Duba, A.; Bonner, B.; Kasameyer, P.

    1997-12-31

    In a laboratory study of cores from borehole SB-15-D in The Geysers geothermal area, we measured the electrical resistivity of metashale with and without pore-pressure control, with confining pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures between 20 and 150{degrees}C, to determine how the pore-size distribution and capillarity affected boiling. We observed a gradual increase in resistivity when the downstream pore pressure or confining pressure decreased below the phase boundary of free water. For the conditions of this experiment, boiling, as indicated by an increase in resistivity, is initiated at pore pressures of approximately 0.5 to 1 bar (0.05 to 0.1 MPa) below the free-water boiling curve, and it continues to increase gradually as pressure is lowered to atmospheric. A simple model of the effects of capillarity suggests that at 145{degrees}C, less than 15% of the pore water can boil in these rocks. If subsequent experiments bear out these preliminary observations, then boiling within a geothermal reservoir is controlled not just by pressure and temperature but also by pore-size distribution. Thus, it may be possible to determine reservoir characteristics by monitoring changes in electrical resistivity as reservoir conditions change.

  15. [Comparison between transgenic insect-resistant cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein and its parental variety in rhizospheric fungal diversity].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jian-Gang; Jiao, Hai-Hua; Bai, Zhi-Hui; Qi, Hong-Yan; Ma, An-Zhou; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhang, Hong-xun

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of rhizospheric fungal diversity and biomass at different sampling stages associated with two transgenic insectresistant cottons expressing Cry1Ac protein and their control varieties were studied under greenhouse conditions, followed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), in order to evaluate the ecological security of planting transgenic cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein. The results indicated that the fungal superior bands in rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton were similar with that of control cotton at four sampling stages, the more obvious difference in the blurred bands among transgenic Bt cotton, JM20 and SHIYUAN321 was detected. The rhizospheric fungal biomass of transgenic Bt cotton SGK321 was significantly lower than that of its parental control cotton at seedling stage, while the slight decrease in fungal biomass of transgenic Bt cotton XP188 was detected at boll forming stage, the ill-defined decrease, even growing tendency in two transgenic Bt cottons was detected at other stages. However, the difference of rhizospheric fungal community compositions and biomass was not only existed between transgenic cotton and its control, but also between SHIYUAN321 and JM20, and the same phenomenon was also detected between transgenic Bt cotton SGK321 and XP188. Hence, Bt protein is not the only incentive resulting in the difference in fungal community composition and diversity, the decrease in biomass between transgenic cotton and untransgenic cotton, different cotton varieties has an effect on them.

  16. Structural and ac electrical properties of LiCoPO4 synthesised by template free hydrothermal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayan, Lakshmi; Cheruku, Rajesh; Govindaraj, G.

    2013-02-01

    Olivine structured material shows specific capacities up to 170mAh/g and can be charged in a very short time. LiMPO4, (M=transition metal ion) does not consists of heavy metal and have no memory loss like Ni-Cd, Ni-metal hydride solutions. Benefit of LiMPO4 is its flexibility for the cell design and battery applications. Li based LiCoPO4 of Orthophosphate family is synthesized by template free sucrose assisted hydrothermal method. Olivine structured compounds possess orthorhombic crystal structure with Pnma, pmnb space group having four formula units. The material is characterized through different techniques like XRD, FTIR, SEM, VSM and electrical characterization is done through impedance spectroscopy and the results are reported.

  17. Electrical resistivity survey to search for a recent clandestine burial of a homicide victim, UK.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R

    2010-10-10

    This case report details an electrical resistivity survey to assist the search for a suspected 1-year-old clandestine burial of a murder victim in North Wales in the UK. Conventional search techniques (victim recovery dogs and probing) proved unsuccessful, and with a significant survey area and a high clay content soil precluding GPR as a geophysical search method, a resistivity survey was instead trialled. Ten resistivity grids were collected and site detrended with user-specified, contoured anomalies being generated. The resulting anomalies were compared to anomalies derived from similar-aged, simulated clandestine burial surveys. Seven anomalies with comparative sizes and amplitudes (±3Ω) of the simulated burials were identified within the search area and prioritised for further investigation. The shallowly buried victim was subsequently recovered outside the survey area.

  18. Electrical resistivity measurements of brine saturated porous media near reservoir conditions: Awibengkok preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B; Duba, A; Roberts, J

    1999-06-28

    Laboratory measurements of the electrical resistivity of rocks and synthetic rocks with confining pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures between 20 and 211 C were performed to further investigate how the pore-size distribution and capillarity affects boiling in porous media. Similar to previous measurements on samples from The Geysers, CA, we observed a gradual increase in resistivity when pore pressure was decreased below the phase-boundary pressure of free water, an indication that boiling is controlled not only by temperature and pressure, but also by pore size distribution. Other important phenomena observed were strong resistance fluctuations during boiling that may be chaotic, and salt deposition that caused sample cracking. If confirmed in further experiments, these results may lead to a new geophysical diagnostic for locating boiling in high permeability areas of geothermal reservoirs and for methods of permeability alteration.

  19. Disentangling the physical contributions to the electrical resistance in magnetic domain walls: a multiscale study.

    PubMed

    Seemann, K M; Garcia-Sanchez, F; Kronast, F; Miguel, J; Kákay, A; Schneider, C M; Hertel, R; Freimuth, F; Mokrousov, Y; Blügel, S

    2012-02-17

    We analyze the origin of the electrical resistance arising in domain walls of perpendicularly magnetized materials by considering a superposition of anisotropic magnetoresistance and the resistance implied by the magnetization chirality. The domain wall profiles of L1(0)-FePd and L1(0)-FePt are determined by micromagnetic simulations based on which we perform first-principles calculations to quantify electron transport through the core and closure region of the walls. The wall resistance, being twice as high in L1(0)-FePd than in L1(0)-FePt, is found to be clearly dominated in both cases by a high gradient of magnetization rotation, which agrees well with experimental observations.

  20. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring for Leachate Distribution at Two Foot-and-Mouth- Disease (FMD) Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.; Leem, K.; Ko, K.

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide the basic information on leachate distribution with time changes through the electrical resistivity monitoring for a certain period of time in the Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) burial facilities which is needed to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build an effective plan for stabilization of the burial site. In this study, dipole-dipoles surveys were carried out around two FMD burial sites in Iceon-si, Gyeonggi-do. The FMD burial facility installed at Daewall-myeon is consists of one block but, at Yul-myeon, it is divided into 2 blocks named A and B blocks. Dipole-Dipole surveys with 8 lines at Yul-myeon and 3 lines at Daewall-myeon were carried out. The observed leachate distribution along survey lines was not clearly evident as time passes at Daewall-myeon site, but, at Yul-myeon site, the leachate distribution around the survey lines showed a decrease of resistivity around the burial facility. At and around A and B blocks of Yul-myeon site, interpretations of the survey data show low resistivity zones below 10 Ωm from a depth 3 m to 10 m and such low resistivity zones of the A block are thicker than the B block by about 5~10 m. From the geochemical data and resistivity survey at two FMD burial sites, it is inferred that the groundwater within a 50-meter radius around burial facilities of the Yul-myeon site are contaminated by leachate. The general resistivity distribution around the burial site is seemed affected by the leachate with high electrical conductivity. The detail distribution patterns can be explained by local distributions of soil and weathered rocks and associated leachate flow. This subject is supported by Brain Korea 21 and Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The GAIA Project (173-092-009)'.