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Sample records for ac excitation signal

  1. Small-Signal ac Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, James M.; Chen, Jess

    1987-01-01

    Program simulates power circuits and systems. Small Signal A.C. Analysis program (SSAC) valuable tool for design and analysis of electrical-power-system circuits. By combining "black box" power-system components operating in specified manner, user characterizes system modeled. Menu-driven program proved simple and cost effective in development and modification of arbitrary power-system configurations. Package includes sample data from Dynamic Explorer satellite family. Results compared favorable to calculations from such general circuit-analysis programs as SPICE. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  2. Ion trajectory simulations of axial ac dipolar excitation in the Orbitrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guangxiang; Noll, Robert J.; Plass, Wolfgang R.; Hu, Qizhi; Perry, Richard H.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2006-07-01

    The newly developed version of the multi-particle ion trajectory simulation program, ITSIM 6.0, was applied to simulate ac dipolar excitation of ion axial motion in the Orbitrap. The Orbitrap inner and outer electrodes were generated in AutoCAD, a 3D drawing program. The electrode geometry was imported into the 3D field solver COMSOL; the field array was then imported into ITSIM 6.0. Ion trajectories were calculated by solving Newton's equations using Runge-Kutta integration methods. Compared to the analytical solution, calculated radial components of the field at the device's "equator" (z = 0) were within 0.5% and calculated axial components midway between the inner and outer electrodes were within 0.2%. The experiments simulated here involved the control of axial motion of ions in the Orbitrap by the application of dipolar ac signals to the split outer electrodes, as described in a recently published paper from this laboratory [Hu et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 110 (2006) 2682]. In these experiments, ac signal was applied at the axial resonant frequency of a selected ion. Axial excitation and eventual ion ejection resulted when the ac was in phase with, i.e., had 0° phase relative to ion axial motion. De-excitation of ion axial motion until the ions were at z = 0 and at rest with respect to the z-axis resulted if the applied ac was out of phase with ion motion, with re-excitation of ion axial motion occurring if the dipolar ac was continued beyond this point. Both de-excitation and re-excitation could be achieved mass-selectively and depended on the amplitude and duration (number of cycles) of the applied ac. The effects of ac amplitude, frequency, phase relative to ion motion, and bandwidth of applied waveform were simulated. All simulation results were compared directly with the experimental data and good agreement was observed. Such ion motion control experiments and their simulation provide the possibility to improve Orbitrap performance and to develop tandem mass

  3. Broadband AC Conductivity of XUV Excited Warm Dense Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Tsui, Y.; Toleikis, S.; Hering, P.; Brown, S.; Curry, C.; Tanikawa, T.; Hoeppner, H.; Levy, M.; Goede, S.; Ziaja-Motyka, B.; Rethfeld, B.; Recoules, Vanina; Ng, A.; Glenzer, S.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of ultrafast laser excited warm dense gold have been extensively studied in the past decade. In those studies, a 400nm ultrashort laser pulse was used to excite the 5 d electrons in gold to 6s/p state. Here we will present our recent study of warm dense gold with 245eV, 70fs pulses to selectively excite 4 f electrons using the XUV-FEL at FLASH. The AC conductivity of the warm dense gold was measured at different wavelengths (485nm, 520nm, 585nm, 640nm and 720nm) to cover the range from 5 d-6 s / p interband transitions to 6 s/ p intraband transitions. Preliminary result suggests that the onset of 5 d-6 s / p band transition shifts from 2.3eV to ~ 2eV, which is in agreement with the study of 400nm laser pulse excited warm dense gold. More detailed analysis of our data will also be presented.

  4. Instrument sequentially samples ac signals from several accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1967-01-01

    Scanner circuit sequentially samples the ac signals from accelerometers used in conducting noise vibration tests, and provides a time-averaged output signal. The scanner is used in conjunction with other devices for random noise vibration tests.

  5. Contrasting Behaviours of AC and DC Excited Plasmas in Contact with Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Hu, Xiao

    2013-08-01

    A comparative study of the needle-to-liquid plasma in the continuous mode with DC and AC excitations is detailed in this paper. All plasmas studied here are shown to be glow discharges. This study is based on measurements of several key parameters, including electrical energy, optical emission intensities of active species, rotational and vibrational temperatures, and temperatures of the needle and liquid electrodes. AC plasmas can produce 1.2~5 times higher excited state active species than DC plasmas under the same dissipated power. AC excited liquid plasmas have the highest energy utilization efficiency among the three systems (AC excited plasmas, DC excited plasmas with water anode and DC excited plasmas with water cathode); most of the energy is used to produce useful species rather than to heat the electrodes and plasmas.

  6. Excitable signal relay in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestler, Troy; Schwab, David; Mehta, Pankaj; Gregor, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The social amoeba D. discoideum transitions when starved from a collection of individual cells into a multicellular spore-complex. During this process, amoebae display several interesting phenomena including intercellular signaling, pattern formation, and cell differentiation. At the heart of these phenomena is the exchange of the signaling molecule cyclic-AMP, which has previously been extensively studied using a variety of indirect methods. Here we employ a sensor that uses a compound fluorescent protein whose emission spectrum changes in the presence of bound cyclic AMP to directly monitor, in real time and in vivo, intracellular cAMP concentrations. We use cells expressing this sensor in microchemostats to study intracellular cAMP concentrations at the single-cell level in response to precise, dynamically-controlled external cAMP stimulation. Specifically, we show that these cells display excitability much like that found in neurons and agree experimentally quite well with a modified FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamical systems model. This single-cell model sets groundwork for a comprehensive multicellular model that promises to explain emergent behavior in D. discoideum.

  7. Diagnostics of AC excited Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet with He for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masaru; Takeda, Keigo; Kumakura, Takumi; Ishikawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Nakai, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) are frequently used for biomedical applications. Reactive species generated by the APPJ play important roles for treatments of biomedical samples. Therefore, high density APPJ sources are required to realize the high performance. Our group has developed AC excited Ar APPJ with electron density as high as 1015 cm-3, and realized the selective killing of cancer cells and the inactivate spores of Penicillium digitatum. Recently, a new spot-size AC excited APPJ with He gas have been developed. In this study, the He APPJ was characterized by using spectroscopy. The plasma was discharged at a He flow rate of 5 slm and a discharge voltage of AC 9 kV. Gas temperature and electron density of the APPJ were measured by optical emission spectroscopy. From theoretical fitting of 2nd positive system of N2 emission (380.4 nm) and Stark broadening of Balmer β line of H atom (486.1 nm), the gas temperature and the electron density was estimated to be 299 K and 3.4. × 1015 cm-3. The AC excited He APPJ has a potential to realize high density with room temperature and become a very powerful tool for biomedical applications.

  8. Measuring system for magnetostriction of silicon steel sheet under ac excitation using optical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Nakase, Tomoya; Nakano, Masanori; Fujiwara, Koji; Takahashi, Norio

    1998-07-01

    A measuring system for magnetostriction of silicon steel sheet using optical methods and a single sheet tester has been developed to establish a standard test method for IEC and JIS. Various factors affecting measurement accuracy and reproducibility of the developed system are examined.s Two optical instruments, such as a laser Doppler vibrometer and a heterodyne displacement meter, are compared. 3-D characteristics of magnetostriction under ac excitation in the rolling direction are measured up to 2.0 T.

  9. Data for spatial characterization of AC signal propagation over primary neuron dendrites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojeong; Heckman, C J

    2016-03-01

    Action potentials generated near the soma propagate not only into the axonal nerve connecting to the adjacent neurons but also into the dendrites interacting with a diversity of synaptic inputs as well as voltage gated ion channels. Measuring voltage attenuation factors between the soma and all single points of the dendrites in the anatomically reconstructed primary neurons with the same cable properties, we report the signal propagation data showing how the alternating current (AC) signal such as action potentials back-propagates over the dendrites among different types of primary neurons. Fitting equations and their parameter values for the data are also presented to quantitatively capture the spatial profile of AC signal propagation from the soma to the dendrites in primary neurons. Our data is supplemental to our original study for the dependency of dendritic signal propagation and excitability, and their relationship on the cell type-specific structure in primary neurons (DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.10.017 [1]). PMID:26862580

  10. QPSK modulation for AC-power-signal-biased visible light communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Feng; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    With the integration of light emitting diode (LED), visible light communication (VLC) can provide wireless communication link using the lightning system. Due to the consideration of power efficiency, AC-LED has the design of reducing energy waste with alternating current from the power outlet. In this work, we propose an AC-power-signalbiased system that provides communication on both DC-LED and AC-LED. The bias circuit is designed to combine ACpower signal and the message signal with QPSK format. This driving scheme needs no AC-to-DC converters and it is suitable for driving AC LED. Synchronization is completed to avoid threshold effect of LED.

  11. Excitation signal's influence on ultrasonic transit time flow meter's performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilainis, L.; Kabisius, P.; Aleksandrovas, A.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasonic flow meter performance was analyzed. Ultrasound transit time was used for flow rate estimation. Time of flight was measured using cross correlation processing. Simultaneous channels excitation was used. Ultrasonic signals were excited using low voltage (4V pp) signal generator, received signals were amplified 30 dB and simultaneously acquired by 100 Ms/s 10 bit analog-to-digit converters. Subsample delay estimation was used. Flow rate was varied from 10 l/h to 200 l/h. Measurement channel diameter 8 mm was used. It is complicated to obtain the unbiased reference signal for correlation processing. Various combinations of signals travelling in measurement channel were used for cross-correlation processing. Performance of correlation function and time of flight estimator variance were studied. Variable gain amplifier usually is used for signal dynamic range matching to A/D converter input. Gain influence on time of flight was a subject to study. It has been concluded that gain control introduces systematic errors in time of flight estimator. Influence of the temperature of electronics (pulser, receiver, A/D converter, reference clock etc.) and ultrasonic transducers on the delay estimator was studied. It was concluded that the major temperature-related systematic error comes from the pulser. Performance of the meter was studied when narrowband and spread spectrum signals were used for ultrasound excitation across temperature and flow rate range. It has been concluded that spread spectrum signal allows for better zero flow stability over temperature and lower time of flight variation.

  12. Locally excitable Cdc42 signals steer cells during chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils and other amoeboid cells chemotax by steering their front towards chemoattractant. While Ras, Rac, Cdc42, and RhoA small GTPases all regulate chemotaxis, it has been unclear how they spatiotemporally control polarization and steering. Using fluorescence biosensors in neutrophil-like PLB-985 cells and photorelease of chemoattractant, we show that local Cdc42 signals, but not those of Rac, RhoA or Ras, precede cell turning during chemotaxis. Furthermore, preexisting local Cdc42 signals in morphologically unpolarized cells predict the future direction of movement upon uniform stimulation. Moreover, inhibition of actin polymerization uncovers recurring local Cdc42 activity pulses, suggesting that Cdc42 has the excitable characteristic of the compass activity proposed in models of chemotaxis. Globally, Cdc42 antagonizes RhoA, and maintains a steep spatial activity gradient during migration, while Ras and Rac form shallow gradients. Thus, chemotactic steering and de novo polarization are both directed by locally excitable Cdc42 signals. PMID:26689677

  13. A system for tranmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, S.P.; Durall, R.L.; Haynes, H.D.

    1987-07-30

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an ac power line. The modulation signal frequency range is selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the ac power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal. 4 figs.

  14. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-09-05

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  15. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-01-01

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  16. BOLD signal effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in the alpha range: A concurrent tACS-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Vosskuhl, Johannes; Huster, René J; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2016-10-15

    Many studies have proven transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to manipulate brain activity. Until now it is not known, however, how these manipulations in brain activity are represented in brain metabolism or how spatially specific these changes are. Alpha-tACS has been shown to enhance the amplitude of the individual alpha frequency (IAF) and a negative correlation between alpha amplitude and occipital BOLD signal was reported in numerous EEG/fMRI experiments. Thus, alpha-tACS was chosen to test the effects of tACS on the BOLD signal. A reduction thereof was expected during alpha-tACS which shows the spatial extent of tACS effects beyond modeling studies. Three groups of subjects were measured in an MRI scanner, receiving tACS at either their IAF (N=11), 1Hz (control; N=12) or sham (i.e., no stimulation - a second control; N=11) while responding to a visual vigilance task. Stimulation was administered in an interleaved pattern of tACS-on runs and tACS-free baseline periods. The BOLD signal was analyzed in response to tACS-onset during resting state and in response to seldom target stimuli. Alpha-tACS at 1.0mA reduced the task-related BOLD response to visual targets in the occipital cortex as compared to tACS-free baseline periods. The deactivation was strongest in an area where the BOLD signal was shown to correlate negatively with alpha amplitude. A direct effect of tACS on resting state BOLD signal levels could not be shown. Our findings suggest that tACS-related changes in BOLD activity occur only as a modulation of an existing BOLD response.

  17. Excitation and photo-ionization of ultra-cold potassium atoms in the AC-driven magneto optical trap (AC-MOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agomuo, John; Murray, Andrew; Harvey, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The operation of a new cold atom trap (the AC-MOT) and its application in photoionization experiments is described. Ionization of cold K atoms in the AC-MOT is discussed, the ionization proceeding in a stepwise fashion using a combination of infra-red radiation with that from a blue diode laser. A significant limitation of magneto optical trapping (MOT) techniques has been the requirement to eliminate the magnetic fields prior to the interaction occurring. To address this, the AC-MOT was invented in Manchester. This is a pulsed trap, so that the magnetic fields are completely eliminated prior to the electron interaction. Low energy electrons can then be extracted from laser photoionization. In this work, the potassium is cooled to ~0.25mK. Photoionization proceeds by a stepwise route, atoms excited by the trapping laser at ~766nm being ionized by radiation at ~448nm. Both fluorescence from the atoms and the ion yield are used to determine details of the interaction. These techniques are being studied since it then is possible to create cold electron bunches of high coherence. A detailed description of the AC-MOT, its operation and application will be presented. A new cold electron source being built in Manchester will also be discussed. I wish to acknowledge the financial support from Tertiary Education Trust Fund Nigeria and Nigerian Defence Academy Kaduna.

  18. A single-shot spatial chirp method for measuring initial AC conductivity evolution of femtosecond laser pulse excited warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Hering, P.; Brown, S. B.; Curry, C.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    To study the rapid evolution of AC conductivity from ultrafast laser excited warm dense matter (WDM), a spatial chirp single-shot method is developed utilizing a crossing angle pump-probe configuration. The pump beam is shaped individually in two spatial dimensions so that it can provide both sufficient laser intensity to excite the material to warm dense matter state and a uniform time window of up to 1 ps with sub-100 fs FWHM temporal resolution. Temporal evolution of AC conductivity in laser excited warm dense gold was also measured.

  19. Dc to ac field conversion due to leaky-wave excitation in a plasma slab behind an ionization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostin, V. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.

    2015-03-01

    We present a way for generating coherent tunable electromagnetic radiation through dc to ac field conversion by an ionization front. The conversion is caused by the excitation of leaky waves behind the transversely limited ionization front propagating in a uniform electrostatic field. This differs significantly from the well-known dc-to-ac-radiation-converter models which consider Doppler-like frequency conversion by a transversely unlimited ionization front propagating in a spatially periodic electric field. We explore the dispersion properties and excitation of these leaky waves radiated through the transverse plasma boundary at the Cherenkov angle to the direction of propagation of a superluminal ionization front as dependent on the parameters of the plasma produced and on the speed of the ionization front. It is shown that not only the center frequency but also the duration and waveform of the generated pulse may significantly depend on the speed of the ionization front. The results indicate the possibility of using such converters based on planar photoconductive antennas to create sources of microwave and terahertz radiation with controllable waveforms that are transformed from video to radio pulse when the angle of incident ionizing radiation is tuned.

  20. Raman signal enhancement by multiple beam excitation and its application for the detection of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sakshi; Ahmad, Azeem; Mehta, Dalip S.; Gambhir, Vijayeta; Reddy, Martha N.

    2015-08-31

    In a typical Raman based sensor, a single laser beam is used for exciting the sample and the backscattered or forward scattered light is collected using collection optics and is analyzed by a spectrometer. We have investigated that by means of exciting the sample with multiple beams, i.e., by dividing the same input power of the single beam into two or three or more beams and exciting the sample from different angles, the Raman signal enhances significantly. Due to the presence of multiple beams passing through the same volume of the sample, an interference pattern is formed and the volume of interaction of excitation beams with the sample increases. By means of this geometry, the enhancement in the Raman signal is observed and it was found that the signal strength increases linearly with the increase in number of excitation beams. Experimental results of this scheme for excitation of the samples are reported for explosive detection at a standoff distance.

  1. Combining TMS and tACS for Closed-Loop Phase-Dependent Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Raco, Valerio; Bauer, Robert; Tharsan, Srikandarajah; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The corticospinal excitability indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the sensorimotor cortex is characterized by large variability. The instantaneous phase of cortical oscillations at the time of the stimulation has been suggested as a possible source of this variability. To explore this hypothesis, a specific phase needs to be targeted by TMS pulses with high temporal precision. Objective: The aim of this feasibility study was to introduce a methodology capable of exploring the effects of phase-dependent stimulation by the concurrent application of alternating current stimulation (tACS) and TMS. Method: We applied online calibration and closed-loop TMS to target four specific phases (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°) of simultaneous 20 Hz tACS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of seven healthy subjects. Result: The integrated stimulation system was capable of hitting the target phase with high precision (SD ± 2.05 ms, i.e., ± 14.45°) inducing phase-dependent MEP modulation with a phase lag (CI95% = −40.37° to −99.61°) which was stable across subjects (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The combination of different neuromodulation techniques facilitates highly specific brain state-dependent stimulation, and may constitute a valuable tool for exploring the physiological and therapeutic effect of phase-dependent stimulation, e.g., in the context of neurorehabilitation. PMID:27252625

  2. Excitation and deexcitation of ac-driven thin-film ZnS electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Hamakawa, Y.

    1992-09-01

    Theoretical formulas accounting for the excitation and deexcitation processes of the alternating current-driven thin-film electroluminescent devices have been obtained, which include both the impact excitation and the energy-transfer mechanisms. The empirical equations for the conduction current duration time and the luminescent decay time related to the tunneling emission of electrons at the interface, the capture of holes in traps, and the light emission of luminescent centers lead to the analytical formulas for the transferred charge ΔQ, the luminance L, and other quantities of physical interest as a function of the electric field. The estimates for ΔQ and L in ZnS:Mn and ZnS:TbF3 devices have been made on the basis of Wolff's distribution function and found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. From the estimated results, it is found that the energy-transfer mechanism depends on various material parameters and drive conditions, and that it plays a role in improvement of the luminance in the low-electric-field region. In the high-electric-field region of interest, the energy transfer from Cu-related sensitizers to luminescent centers in ZnS:Mn and ZnS:TbF3 devices yields an increase of luminance by a factor of about 1.5 and 3, respectively.

  3. Employment of sawtooth-shaped-function excitation signal and oversampling for improving resistance measurement accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ling; Li, Shujuan; Yan, Wenjuan; Li, Gang

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve higher measurement accuracy of routine resistance without increasing the complexity and cost of the system circuit of existing methods, this paper presents a novel method that exploits a shaped-function excitation signal and oversampling technology. The excitation signal source for resistance measurement is modulated by the sawtooth-shaped-function signal, and oversampling technology is employed to increase the resolution and the accuracy of the measurement system. Compared with the traditional method of using constant amplitude excitation signal, this method can effectively enhance the measuring accuracy by almost one order of magnitude and reduce the root mean square error by 3.75 times under the same measurement conditions. The results of experiments show that the novel method can attain the aim of significantly improve the measurement accuracy of resistance on the premise of not increasing the system cost and complexity of the circuit, which is significantly valuable for applying in electronic instruments.

  4. Digital DC-Reconstruction of AC-Coupled Electrophysiological Signals with a Single Inverting Filter

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Ramun; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Hans-Jakob; Generali, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of digital electrocardiographs, high-pass filters have been necessary for successful analog-to-digital conversion with a reasonable amplitude resolution. On the other hand, such high-pass filters may distort the diagnostically significant ST-segment of the ECG, which can result in a misleading diagnosis. We present an inverting filter that successfully undoes the effects of a 0.05 Hz single pole high-pass filter. The inverting filter has been tested on more than 1600 clinical ECGs with one-minute durations and produces a negligible mean RMS-error of 3.1*10−8 LSB. Alternative, less strong inverting filters have also been tested, as have different applications of the filters with respect to rounding of the signals after filtering. A design scheme for the alternative inverting filters has been suggested, based on the maximum strength of the filter. With the use of the suggested filters, it is possible to recover the original DC-coupled ECGs from AC-coupled ECGs, at least when a 0.05 Hz first order digital single pole high-pass filter is used for the AC-coupling. PMID:26938769

  5. Digital DC-Reconstruction of AC-Coupled Electrophysiological Signals with a Single Inverting Filter.

    PubMed

    Abächerli, Roger; Isaksen, Jonas; Schmid, Ramun; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Hans-Jakob; Generali, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of digital electrocardiographs, high-pass filters have been necessary for successful analog-to-digital conversion with a reasonable amplitude resolution. On the other hand, such high-pass filters may distort the diagnostically significant ST-segment of the ECG, which can result in a misleading diagnosis. We present an inverting filter that successfully undoes the effects of a 0.05 Hz single pole high-pass filter. The inverting filter has been tested on more than 1600 clinical ECGs with one-minute durations and produces a negligible mean RMS-error of 3.1*10(-8) LSB. Alternative, less strong inverting filters have also been tested, as have different applications of the filters with respect to rounding of the signals after filtering. A design scheme for the alternative inverting filters has been suggested, based on the maximum strength of the filter. With the use of the suggested filters, it is possible to recover the original DC-coupled ECGs from AC-coupled ECGs, at least when a 0.05 Hz first order digital single pole high-pass filter is used for the AC-coupling. PMID:26938769

  6. Digital DC-Reconstruction of AC-Coupled Electrophysiological Signals with a Single Inverting Filter.

    PubMed

    Abächerli, Roger; Isaksen, Jonas; Schmid, Ramun; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Hans-Jakob; Generali, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of digital electrocardiographs, high-pass filters have been necessary for successful analog-to-digital conversion with a reasonable amplitude resolution. On the other hand, such high-pass filters may distort the diagnostically significant ST-segment of the ECG, which can result in a misleading diagnosis. We present an inverting filter that successfully undoes the effects of a 0.05 Hz single pole high-pass filter. The inverting filter has been tested on more than 1600 clinical ECGs with one-minute durations and produces a negligible mean RMS-error of 3.1*10(-8) LSB. Alternative, less strong inverting filters have also been tested, as have different applications of the filters with respect to rounding of the signals after filtering. A design scheme for the alternative inverting filters has been suggested, based on the maximum strength of the filter. With the use of the suggested filters, it is possible to recover the original DC-coupled ECGs from AC-coupled ECGs, at least when a 0.05 Hz first order digital single pole high-pass filter is used for the AC-coupling.

  7. Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sergio Iván Ravello; Muñoz, Diego Ramírez; Moreno, Jaime Sánchez; Cardoso, Susana; Ferreira, Ricardo; de Freitas, Paulo Jorge Peixeiro

    2013-01-01

    Fractional calculus is considered when derivatives and integrals of non-integer order are applied over a specific function. In the electrical and electronic domain, the transfer function dependence of a fractional filter not only by the filter order n, but additionally, of the fractional order α is an example of a great number of systems where its input-output behavior could be more exactly modeled by a fractional behavior. Following this aim, the present work shows the experimental ac large-signal frequency response of a family of electrical current sensors based in different spintronic conduction mechanisms. Using an ac characterization set-up the sensor transimpedance function Zt(if) is obtained considering it as the relationship between sensor output voltage and input sensing current, Zt(jf)=Vo,sensor(jf)/Isensor(jf). The study has been extended to various magnetoresistance sensors based in different technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), giant magnetoresistance (GMR), spin-valve (GMR-SV) and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR). The resulting modeling shows two predominant behaviors, the low-pass and the inverse low-pass with fractional index different from the classical integer response. The TMR technology with internal magnetization offers the best dynamic and sensitivity properties opening the way to develop actual industrial applications. PMID:24351648

  8. Fractional modeling of the AC large-signal frequency response in magnetoresistive current sensors.

    PubMed

    Ravelo Arias, Sergio Iván; Ramírez Muñoz, Diego; Moreno, Jaime Sánchez; Cardoso, Susana; Ferreira, Ricardo; de Freitas, Paulo Jorge Peixeiro

    2013-01-01

    Fractional calculus is considered when derivatives and integrals of non-integer order are applied over a specific function. In the electrical and electronic domain, the transfer function dependence of a fractional filter not only by the filter order n, but additionally, of the fractional order α is an example of a great number of systems where its input-output behavior could be more exactly modeled by a fractional behavior. Following this aim, the present work shows the experimental ac large-signal frequency response of a family of electrical current sensors based in different spintronic conduction mechanisms. Using an ac characterization set-up the sensor transimpedance function Z(t)(JF) is obtained considering it as the relationship between sensor output voltage and input sensing current, Z(t)(jf)= V(o, sensor)(jf)/I(sensor)(jf). The study has been extended to various magnetoresistance sensors based in different technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), giant magnetoresistance (GMR), spin-valve (GMR-SV) and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR). The resulting modeling shows two predominant behaviors, the low-pass and the inverse low-pass with fractional index different from the classical integer response. The TMR technology with internal magnetization offers the best dynamic and sensitivity properties opening the way to develop actual industrial applications. PMID:24351648

  9. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed. PMID:27125663

  10. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-04-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed.

  11. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed. PMID:27125663

  12. The tight relationship between asymmetric signaling and locational excitability in motoneuron dendrites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojeong; Heckman, C J

    2015-01-01

    Spinal motoneurons possess large, highly branching dendritic structures that contain thousands of synaptic contacts and various voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs). Research has indicated that dendritic arborization and cable properties provide the basis for foundational dendritic processing, which is characterized by direction-dependent signal propagation and location-dependent channel activation in dendritic arbors. Due to these arbors' complex structure, signals attenuate differentially depending on whether propagation occurs from the soma to the dendrite or in the opposite direction. In addition, current thresholds for the activation of dendritic ion channels differ depending on the location of these channels within dendrites. However, whether and how these foundational properties for dendritic signaling and excitability are related in motoneurons remains unclear. Based on our analyses of anatomically reconstructed motoneurons and novel reduced models, we propose that 1) directional signal propagation is similar across spinal motoneurons, regardless of cell type-specific structures; 2) reduced models that retain dendritic signaling asymmetry can accurately replicate anatomical dendritic excitability in both passive and active modes; and 3) asymmetric signal propagation and locational dendritic excitability are closely related, irrespective of motoneurons' arbor structures. PMID:27066175

  13. Akt-mTORC1 signaling regulates Acly to integrate metabolic input to control of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, Halil Ibrahim; Yu, Jiujiu; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Worth, Andrew J; Iyer, Shankar S; Wang, Jiawei; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Byles, Vanessa; Polynne-Stapornkul, Tiffany; Espinosa, Erika C; Lamming, Dudley; Manning, Brendan D; Zhang, Yijing; Blair, Ian A; Horng, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation/polarization to distinct functional states is critically supported by metabolic shifts. How polarizing signals coordinate metabolic and functional reprogramming, and the potential implications for control of macrophage activation, remains poorly understood. Here we show that IL-4 signaling co-opts the Akt-mTORC1 pathway to regulate Acly, a key enzyme in Ac-CoA synthesis, leading to increased histone acetylation and M2 gene induction. Only a subset of M2 genes is controlled in this way, including those regulating cellular proliferation and chemokine production. Moreover, metabolic signals impinge on the Akt-mTORC1 axis for such control of M2 activation. We propose that Akt-mTORC1 signaling calibrates metabolic state to energetically demanding aspects of M2 activation, which may define a new role for metabolism in supporting macrophage activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11612.001 PMID:26894960

  14. Optimized multiple-quantum filter for robust selective excitation of metabolite signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbach, Mirjam; Lambert, Jörg; Suter, Dieter

    2014-06-01

    The selective excitation of metabolite signals in vivo requires the use of specially adapted pulse techniques, in particular when the signals are weak and the resonances overlap with those of unwanted molecules. Several pulse sequences have been proposed for this spectral editing task. However, their performance is strongly degraded by unavoidable experimental imperfections. Here, we show that optimal control theory can be used to generate pulses and sequences that perform almost ideally over a range of rf field strengths and frequency offsets that can be chosen according to the specifics of the spectrometer or scanner being used. We demonstrate this scheme by applying it to lactate editing. In addition to the robust excitation, we also have designed the pulses to minimize the signal of unwanted molecular species.

  15. Hydrological signal in polar motion excitation from a combination of geophysical and gravimetric series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastula, Jolanta; Winska, Malgorzata; Salstein, David A.

    2015-08-01

    One can estimate the hydrological signal in polar motion excitation as a residual, namely the difference between observed geodetic excitation functions (Geodetic Angular Momentum, GAM) and the sum of Atmospheric Angular Momentum (AAM) and Oceanic Angular Momentum (OAM).The aim of this study is to find the optimal model and results for hydrological excitation functions in terms of their agreement with the computed difference between GAM and atmospheric and oceanic signals.The atmospheric and oceanic model-based data that we use in this study are the geophysical excitation functions of AAM, OAM available from the Special Bureaus for the Atmosphere and Oceans of the Geophysical Global Fluids Center (GGFC) of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). For the atmosphere and ocean, these functions are based on the mass and motion fields of the fluids.Global models of land hydrology are used to estimate hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (Hydrological Angular Momentum - HAM). These HAM series are the mass of water substance determined from the various types of land-based hydrological reservoirs. In addition the HAM are estimated from spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth’s gravity field. We use several sets of degree-2, order-1 harmonics of the Earth’s gravity field, derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data.Finally, these several different HAM series are used to determine the best model of hydrological excitation of polar motion. The model is found by looking for the combination of these series that fits the geodetic residuals using the least-square method.In addition, we will access model results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, fifth experiment (CMIP-5) to examine atmospheric excitations from the twentieth century and estimates for the twenty-first century to see the possible signals and trends

  16. Targeting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Mouse Models of Cardiomyopathy Caused by Lamin A/C Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    Muchir, Antoine; Worman, Howard J

    2016-01-01

    The most frequently occurring mutations in the gene encoding nuclear lamin A and nuclear lamin C cause striated muscle diseases virtually always involving the heart. In this review, we describe the approaches and methods used to discover that cardiomyopathy-causing lamin A/C gene mutations increase MAP kinase signaling in the heart and that this plays a role in disease pathogenesis. We review different mouse models of cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutations and how transcriptomic analysis of one model identified increased cardiac activity of the ERK1/2, JNK, and p38α MAP kinases. We describe methods used to measure the activity of these MAP kinases in mouse hearts and then discuss preclinical treatment protocols using pharmacological inhibitors to demonstrate their role in pathogenesis. Several of these kinase inhibitors are in clinical development and could potentially be used to treat human subjects with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutations.

  17. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  18. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  19. Spectral models of additive and modulation noise in speech and phonatory excitation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoentgen, Jean

    2003-01-01

    The article presents spectral models of additive and modulation noise in speech. The purpose is to learn about the causes of noise in the spectra of normal and disordered voices and to gauge whether the spectral properties of the perturbations of the phonatory excitation signal can be inferred from the spectral properties of the speech signal. The approach to modeling consists of deducing the Fourier series of the perturbed speech, assuming that the Fourier series of the noise and of the clean monocycle-periodic excitation are known. The models explain published data, take into account the effects of supraglottal tremor, demonstrate the modulation distortion owing to vocal tract filtering, establish conditions under which noise cues of different speech signals may be compared, and predict the impossibility of inferring the spectral properties of the frequency modulating noise from the spectral properties of the frequency modulation noise (e.g., phonatory jitter and frequency tremor). The general conclusion is that only phonatory frequency modulation noise is spectrally relevant. Other types of noise in speech are either epiphenomenal, or their spectral effects are masked by the spectral effects of frequency modulation noise.

  20. Influence of oxygen on the resonant photoacoustic signal from methane excited at the ν 3 mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, N.; Vallespi, A.; Santiago, G.; Slezak, V.; Peuriot, A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper shows that, when samples of methane in dry air are irradiated with an OPO tuned at the ν 3 mode at 3019 cm-1, the photoacoustic signal is lower than in mixtures in pure nitrogen. In order to explain this change, we developed a rate-equation-based model which describes the methane excitation and relaxation to heat by collisions with the buffer. In particular, we reduced the problem to a system of six energy levels taking into account the fast energy exchange between methane and oxygen resonant states and the slow relaxation rate of oxygen. Thus, the photoacoustic signal is calculated for methane-nitrogen and methane-air systems and a very good agreement is found with the experimental results.

  1. Dynamic reorganization of the AC16 cardiomyocyte transcriptome in response to TNFα signaling revealed by integrated genomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Defining cell type-specific transcriptomes in mammals can be challenging, especially for unannotated regions of the genome. We have developed an analytical pipeline called groHMM for annotating primary transcripts using global nuclear run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) data. Herein, we use this pipeline to characterize the transcriptome of an immortalized adult human ventricular cardiomyocyte cell line (AC16) in response to signaling by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), which is controlled in part by NF-κB, a key transcriptional regulator of inflammation. A unique aspect of this work is the use of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) inhibitor α-amanitin, which we used to define a set of RNA polymerase I and III (Pol I and Pol III) transcripts. Results Using groHMM, we identified ~30,000 coding and non-coding transcribed regions in AC16 cells, which includes a set of unique Pol I and Pol III primary transcripts. Many of these transcripts have not been annotated previously, including enhancer RNAs originating from NF-κB binding sites. In addition, we observed that AC16 cells rapidly and dynamically reorganize their transcriptomes in response to TNFα stimulation in an NF-κB-dependent manner, switching from a basal state to a proinflammatory state affecting a spectrum of cardiac-associated protein-coding and non-coding genes. Moreover, we observed distinct Pol II dynamics for up- and downregulated genes, with a rapid release of Pol II into productive elongation for TNFα-stimulated genes. As expected, the TNFα-induced changes in the AC16 transcriptome resulted in corresponding changes in cognate mRNA and protein levels in a similar manner, but with delayed kinetics. Conclusions Our studies illustrate how computational genomics can be used to characterize the signal-regulated transcriptome in biologically relevant cell types, providing new information about how the human genome is organized, transcribed and regulated. In addition, they show how α-amanitin can

  2. Cycling excitation process: An ultra efficient and quiet signal amplification mechanism in semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu-Hsin; Yan, Lujiang; Zhang, Alex Ce; Hall, David; Niaz, Iftikhar Ahmad; Zhou, Yuchun; Sham, L. J.; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2015-08-03

    Signal amplification, performed by transistor amplifiers with its merit rated by the efficiency and noise characteristics, is ubiquitous in all electronic systems. Because of transistor thermal noise, an intrinsic signal amplification mechanism, impact ionization was sought after to complement the limits of transistor amplifiers. However, due to the high operation voltage (30-200 V typically), low power efficiency, limited scalability, and, above all, rapidly increasing excess noise with amplification factor, impact ionization has been out of favor for most electronic systems except for a few applications such as avalanche photodetectors and single-photon Geiger detectors. Here, we report an internal signal amplification mechanism based on the principle of the phonon-assisted cycling excitation process (CEP). Si devices using this concept show ultrahigh gain, low operation voltage, CMOS compatibility, and, above all, quantum limit noise performance that is 30 times lower than devices using impact ionization. Established on a unique physical effect of attractive properties, CEP-based devices can potentially revolutionize the fields of semiconductor electronics.

  3. Intrinsic excitability state of local neuronal population modulates signal propagation in feed-forward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruixue; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xilei; Qin, Yingmei; Wang, Haixu

    2015-04-01

    Reliable signal propagation across distributed brain areas is an essential requirement for cognitive function, and it has been investigated extensively in computational studies where feed-forward network (FFN) is taken as a generic model. But it is still unclear how distinct local network states, which are intrinsically generated by synaptic interactions within each layer, would affect the ability of FFN to transmit information. Here we investigate the impact of such network states on propagating transient synchrony (synfire) and firing rate by a combination of numerical simulations and analytical approach. Specifically, local network dynamics is attributed to the competition between excitatory and inhibitory neurons within each layer. Our results show that concomitant with different local network states, the performance of signal propagation differs dramatically. For both synfire propagation and firing rate propagation, there exists an optimal local excitability state, respectively, that optimizes the performance of signal propagation. Furthermore, we find that long-range connections strongly change the dependence of spiking activity propagation on local network state and propose that these two factors work jointly to determine information transmission across distributed networks. Finally, a simple mean field approach that bridges response properties of long-range connectivity and local subnetworks is utilized to reveal the underlying mechanism.

  4. Intrinsic excitability state of local neuronal population modulates signal propagation in feed-forward neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruixue; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xilei; Qin, Yingmei; Wang, Haixu

    2015-04-01

    Reliable signal propagation across distributed brain areas is an essential requirement for cognitive function, and it has been investigated extensively in computational studies where feed-forward network (FFN) is taken as a generic model. But it is still unclear how distinct local network states, which are intrinsically generated by synaptic interactions within each layer, would affect the ability of FFN to transmit information. Here we investigate the impact of such network states on propagating transient synchrony (synfire) and firing rate by a combination of numerical simulations and analytical approach. Specifically, local network dynamics is attributed to the competition between excitatory and inhibitory neurons within each layer. Our results show that concomitant with different local network states, the performance of signal propagation differs dramatically. For both synfire propagation and firing rate propagation, there exists an optimal local excitability state, respectively, that optimizes the performance of signal propagation. Furthermore, we find that long-range connections strongly change the dependence of spiking activity propagation on local network state and propose that these two factors work jointly to determine information transmission across distributed networks. Finally, a simple mean field approach that bridges response properties of long-range connectivity and local subnetworks is utilized to reveal the underlying mechanism.

  5. The non-excitable smooth muscle: Calcium signaling and phenotypic switching during vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    House, Suzanne J.; Potier, Marie; Bisaillon, Jonathan; Singer, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) is a highly versatile second messenger that controls vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction, proliferation, and migration. By means of Ca2+ permeable channels, Ca2+ pumps and channels conducting other ions such as potassium and chloride, VSMC keep intracellular Ca2+ levels under tight control. In healthy quiescent contractile VSMC, two important components of the Ca2+ signaling pathways that regulate VSMC contraction are the plasma membrane voltage-operated Ca2+ channel of the high voltage-activated type (L-type) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel, Ryanodine Receptor (RyR). Injury to the vessel wall is accompanied by VSMC phenotype switch from a contractile quiescent to a proliferative motile phenotype (synthetic phenotype) and by alteration of many components of VSMC Ca2+ signaling pathways. Specifically, this switch that culminates in a VSMC phenotype reminiscent of a non-excitable cell is characterized by loss of L-type channels expression and increased expression of the low voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2+ channels and the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels. The expression levels of intracellular Ca2+ release channels, pumps and Ca2+-activated proteins are also altered: the proliferative VSMC lose the RyR3 and the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2a pump and reciprocally regulate isoforms of the ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. This review focuses on the changes in expression of Ca2+ signaling proteins associated with VSMC proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. The physiological implications of the altered expression of these Ca2+ signaling molecules, their contribution to VSMC dysfunction during vascular disease and their potential as targets for drug therapy will be discussed. PMID:18365243

  6. Signal generator exciting an electromagnetic field for ion beam transport to the vacuum chamber of a mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubol'tsev, Yu. V.; Kogan, V. T.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Chichagov, Yu. V.; Antonov, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    A high-voltage high-frequency signal generator is described that excites an electric field for ion beam transport from an ion source to the vacuum chamber of a mass spectrometer. Excitation signals to the number of two are high-frequency sine-wave out-of-phase signals with the same amplitudes. The amplitude and phase of the signals vary from 20 to 100 V and from 10 kHz to 1 MHz, respectively. The generator also produces a controlled bias voltage in the interval 50-200 V. The frequency and amplitude of the signals, as well as the bias voltage, are computer-controlled via the USB interface.

  7. Control of synchronization and spiking regularity by heterogenous aperiodic high-frequency signal in coupled excitable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ying-Mei; Wang, Jiang; Men, Cong; Chan, Wai-Lok; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the synchronization and spiking regularity induced by heterogenous aperiodic (HA) signal in coupled excitable FitzHugh-Nagumo systems. We found new nontrivial effects of couplings and HA signals on the firing regularity and synchronization in coupled excitable systems without a periodic external driving. The phenomenon is similar to array enhanced coherence resonance (AECR), and it is shown that AECR-type behavior is not limited to systems driven by noises. It implies that the HA signal may be beneficial for the brain function, which is similar to the role of noise. Furthermore, it is also found that the mean frequencies, the amplitudes and the heterogeneity of HA stimuli can serve as control parameters in modulating spiking regularity and synchronization in coupled excitable systems. These results may be significant for the control of the synchronized firing of the brain in neural diseases like epilepsy.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide stimulation of CFTR reveals an Epac-mediated, soluble AC-dependent cAMP amplification pathway common to GPCR signalling

    PubMed Central

    Ivonnet, P; Salathe, M; Conner, G E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE H2O2 is widely understood to regulate intracellular signalling. In airway epithelia, H2O2 stimulates anion secretion primarily by activating an autocrine PGE2 signalling pathway via EP4 and EP1 receptors to initiate cytic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl− secretion. This study investigated signalling downstream of the receptors activated by H2O2. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Anion secretion by differentiated bronchial epithelial cells was measured in Ussing chambers during stimulation with H2O2, an EP4 receptor agonist or β2-adrenoceptor agonist in the presence and absence of inhibitors of ACs and downstream effectors. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]I) changes were followed by microscopy using fura–2-loaded cells and PKA activation followed by FRET microscopy. KEY RESULTS Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC) and soluble AC (sAC) were both necessary for H2O2 and EP4 receptor-mediated CFTR activation in bronchial epithelia. H2O2 and EP4 receptor agonist stimulated tmAC to increase exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) activity that drives PLC activation to raise [Ca2+]i via Ca2+ store release (and not entry). Increased [Ca2+]i led to sAC activation and further increases in CFTR activity. Stimulation of sAC did not depend on changes in [HCO3−]. Ca2+-activated apical KCa1.1 channels and cAMP-activated basolateral KV7.1 channels contributed to H2O2-stimulated anion currents. A similar Epac-mediated pathway was seen following β2-adrenoceptor or forskolin stimulation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H2O2 initiated a complex signalling cascade that used direct stimulation of tmACs by Gαs followed by Epac-mediated Ca2+ crosstalk to activate sAC. The Epac-mediated Ca2+ signal constituted a positive feedback loop that amplified CFTR anion secretion following stimulation of tmAC by a variety of stimuli. PMID:25220136

  9. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  10. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  11. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  12. System And Method For Characterizing Voiced Excitations Of Speech And Acoustic Signals, Removing Acoustic Noise From Speech, And Synthesizi

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-04-25

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  13. Amyloid-β peptides act as allosteric modulators of cholinergic signalling through formation of soluble BAβACs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajnish; Nordberg, Agneta; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptides, through highly sophisticated enzymatic machinery, are universally produced and released in an action potential synchronized manner into the interstitial fluids in the brain. Yet no native functions are attributed to amyloid-β. The amyloid-β hypothesis ascribes just neurotoxicity properties through build-up of soluble homomeric amyloid-β oligomers or fibrillar deposits. Apolipoprotein-ε4 (APOE4) allele is the only confirmed genetic risk factor of sporadic Alzheimer's disease; once more it is unclear how it increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Similarly, central cholinergic signalling is affected selectively and early in the Alzheimer's disease brain, again why cholinergic neurons show this sensitivity is still unclear. However, the three main known Alzheimer's disease risk factors, advancing age, female gender and APOE4, have been linked to a high apolipoprotein-E and accumulation of the acetylcholine degrading enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluids of patients. Furthermore, numerous reports indicate that amyloid-β interacts with butyrylcholinesterase and apolipoprotein-E. We have proposed that this interaction leads to formation of soluble ultrareactive acetylcholine-hydrolyzing complexes termed BAβACs, to adjust at demand both synaptic and extracellular acetylcholine signalling. This hypothesis predicted presence of acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in extracellular fluids to allow maintenance of equilibrium between breakdown and synthesis of acetylcholine through continuous in situ syntheses. A recent proof-of-concept study led to the discovery of this enzyme in the human extracellular fluids. We report here that apolipoprotein-E, in particular ε4 isoprotein acts as one of the strongest endogenous anti-amyloid-β fibrillization agents reported in the literature. At biological concentrations, apolipoprotein-E prevented amyloid-β fibrillization for at least 65 h. We show that amyloid

  14. Amyloid-β peptides act as allosteric modulators of cholinergic signalling through formation of soluble BAβACs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajnish; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptides, through highly sophisticated enzymatic machinery, are universally produced and released in an action potential synchronized manner into the interstitial fluids in the brain. Yet no native functions are attributed to amyloid-β. The amyloid-β hypothesis ascribes just neurotoxicity properties through build-up of soluble homomeric amyloid-β oligomers or fibrillar deposits. Apolipoprotein-ε4 (APOE4) allele is the only confirmed genetic risk factor of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease; once more it is unclear how it increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Similarly, central cholinergic signalling is affected selectively and early in the Alzheimer’s disease brain, again why cholinergic neurons show this sensitivity is still unclear. However, the three main known Alzheimer’s disease risk factors, advancing age, female gender and APOE4, have been linked to a high apolipoprotein-E and accumulation of the acetylcholine degrading enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluids of patients. Furthermore, numerous reports indicate that amyloid-β interacts with butyrylcholinesterase and apolipoprotein-E. We have proposed that this interaction leads to formation of soluble ultrareactive acetylcholine-hydrolyzing complexes termed BAβACs, to adjust at demand both synaptic and extracellular acetylcholine signalling. This hypothesis predicted presence of acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in extracellular fluids to allow maintenance of equilibrium between breakdown and synthesis of acetylcholine through continuous in situ syntheses. A recent proof-of-concept study led to the discovery of this enzyme in the human extracellular fluids. We report here that apolipoprotein-E, in particular ε4 isoprotein acts as one of the strongest endogenous anti-amyloid-β fibrillization agents reported in the literature. At biological concentrations, apolipoprotein-E prevented amyloid-β fibrillization for at least 65 h. We show that

  15. Ankyrin-G Coordinates Intercalated Disc Signaling Platform to Regulate Cardiac Excitability In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Makara, Michael A.; Curran, Jerry; Little, Sean C.; Musa, Hassan; Polina, Iuliia; Smith, Sakima A.; Wright, Patrick J.; Unudurthi, Sathya D.; Snyder, Jed; Bennett, Vann; Hund, Thomas J.; Mohler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Nav1.5 (SCN5A) is the primary cardiac voltage-gated Nav channel. Nav1.5 is critical for cardiac excitability and conduction, and human SCN5A mutations cause sinus node dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, conductional abnormalities, and ventricular arrhythmias. Further, defects in Nav1.5 regulation are linked with malignant arrhythmias associated with human heart failure. Consequently, therapies to target select Nav1.5 properties have remained at the forefront of cardiovascular medicine. However, despite years of investigation, the fundamental pathways governing Nav1.5 membrane targeting, assembly, and regulation are still largely undefined. Objective Define the in vivo mechanisms underlying Nav1.5 membrane regulation. Methods and Results Here, we define the molecular basis of a Nav channel regulatory platform in heart. Using new cardiac-selective ankyrin-G−/− mice (cKO), we report that ankyrin-G targets Nav1.5, and its regulatory protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) to the intercalated disc. Mechanistically, βIV-spectrin is requisite for ankyrin-dependent targeting of CaMKIIδ, however βIV-spectrin is not essential for ankyrin-G expression. Ankyrin-G cKO myocytes display decreased Nav1.5 expression/membrane localization, and reduced INa associated with pronounced bradycardia, conduction abnormalities, and ventricular arrhythmia in response to Nav channel antagonists. Moreover, we report that ankyrin-G links Nav channels with broader intercalated disc signaling/structural nodes, as ankyrin-G loss results in reorganization of plakophilin-2 and lethal arrhythmias in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Conclusions Our findings provide the first in vivo data for the molecular pathway required for intercalated disc Nav1.5 targeting/regulation in heart. Further, these new data identify the basis of an in vivo cellular platform critical for membrane recruitment and regulation of Nav1.5. PMID:25239140

  16. Comparison of hydrological signal in polar motion excitation with those based on the FGOALS-g2 climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David

    2016-04-01

    Our investigations are focused on the influence of different land hydrosphere surface parameters (precipitation, evaporation, total runoff, soil moisture, accumulated snow) on polar motion excitation functions at seasonal and nonseasonal timescales. Here these different variables are obtained from the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model, Grid point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2), which is a climate model from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5); with CMIP5 being composed of separate component models of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface. In this study Terrestrial Water Storage TWS changes were determined as: differences between the precipitation, evaporation and total surface runoff content, and as the total soil moisture content being a sum of soil moisture and snowfall flux changes. We compare the model-based data with those from estimates of the Equivalent Water Thickness determined by GRACE satellite observations from the Center for Space Research (CSR). The transfer of angular momentum from global geophysical fluids to the solid Earth is described by the equatorial components χ1 and χ2 of the polar motion excitation functions. Observationally, these so-called geodetic excitation functions of polar motion can be determined on the basis of the equations of motion by using observed x, y components of the pole. The second-degree, first-order coefficients of the Earth gravity field are proportional to variations of the equatorial component χ1, χ2 of the series of the gravimetric excitation function of polar motion. This gravimetric function can be compared with the mass term of geodetic excitation of polar motion. Our analysis comprises (1) determinations and comparisons of regional patterns of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion, and (2) comparison of the global hydrological function determined from the FGOALS-g2 and GRACE data with a hydrological signal in the geodetic excitation function of

  17. Repeated administration of estradiol promotes mechanisms of sexual excitation and inhibition: Glutamate signaling in the ventromedial hypothalamus attenuates excitation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sherri Lee; Farisello, Lucia; Mayer-Heft, Nathaniel; Pfaus, James G

    2015-09-15

    Repeated administration of 10 μg of estradiol benzoate (EB) every 4 days to the ovariectomized (OVX) rat induces a behavioral sensitization of sexual behaviors. Repeated copulation or the receipt of vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) attenuates the sensitization of appetitive sexual behaviors, suggesting that VCS acts in opposition to the mechanisms that induce the sensitization. It is known that VCS accelerates the onset of estrous termination (characterized by a decrease in appetitive sexual behaviors, and an increase in defensive behaviors prior to the decline in lordosis), and glutamate transmission in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), particularly via AMPA receptor signaling, is an important regulator of this effect. Thus, the current studies examined whether mechanisms of estrous termination are involved in the attenuated sensitization to EB that occurs with repeated copulation. In the first study, OVX rats received infusions of AMPA to the VMH on tests 2-4, and sexual behavior was measured on tests 1 and 5. Appetitive sexual behaviors were lower in females that received AMPA infusions in place of copulation compared to saline, suggesting that AMPA receptor activation by VCS may be playing a role in the attenuation of sensitization. In the second study, females that were not given the opportunity to copulate on tests 2-4 fell out of behavioral estrus faster than those that did, suggesting that both excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms of sexual behavior become sensitized with repeated administration of EB. Together these findings extend our hypothesis that repeated episodes of heat sensitize the activation of sexual behaviors to increase the probability of eventual fertilization.

  18. MAPK Signaling Pathway Alters Expression of Midgut ALP and ABCC Genes and Causes Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin in Diamondback Moth

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W.; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  19. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Chen, Defeng; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  20. PP2AC Level Determines Differential Programming of p38-TSC-mTOR Signaling and Therapeutic Response to p38-Targeted Therapy in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Wang, Xiaowen; Qin, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Feng; White, Eileen; Zheng, X F Steven

    2015-12-01

    The p38 MAP kinase is a promising cancer drug target but its therapeutic effect is not fully understood. Here we report that the response of colorectal cancer (CRC) to p38 inhibitors (p38i) is highly variable: while p38i induces regression of one subgroup of CRCs, it stimulates growth of another subgroup. We further show that PP2AC is differentially expressed in the two different CRC subgroups, which determines the programing of p38-TSC-mTORC1 signaling through differential TSC2 phosphorylation at S664, 1254 and 1798, and the antitumor activity by p38i. Remarkably, modulation of PP2AC level is sufficient to reprogram p38-to-mTORC1 signaling and antitumor response. PP2AC expression accurately predicts therapeutic response to p38i in several CRC models, including a large cohort of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Moreover, we demonstrate that combination of p38 and mTOR kinase inhibitors effectively overcomes resistance to either inhibitor in single agent therapy. These results demonstrate that alternative routing of signal transduction underlies differential response to p38 and mTOR targeted therapies. The biomarker-guided therapeutic strategies described herein provide a compelling reason for testing in metastatic CRC patients who suffer very poor prognosis due to lack of efficacious drug therapies. PMID:26844273

  1. Activator-inhibitor coupling between Rho signaling and actin assembly make the cell cortex an excitable medium

    PubMed Central

    Bement, William M.; Leda, Marcin; Moe, Alison M.; Kita, Angela M.; Larson, Matthew E.; Golding, Adriana E.; Pfeuti, Courtney; Su, Kuan-Chung; Miller, Ann L.; Goryachev, Andrew B.; von Dassow, George

    2016-01-01

    Animal cell cytokinesis results from patterned activation of the small GTPase Rho, which directs assembly of actomyosin in the equatorial cortex. Cytokinesis is restricted to a portion of the cell cycle following anaphase onset in which the cortex is responsive to signals from the spindle. We show that shortly after anaphase onset oocytes and embryonic cells of frogs and echinoderms exhibit cortical waves of Rho activity and F-actin polymerization. The waves are modulated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity and require the Rho GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor), Ect2. Surprisingly, during wave propagation, while Rho activity elicits F-actin assembly, F-actin subsequently inactivates Rho. Experimental and modeling results show that waves represent excitable dynamics of a reaction diffusion system with Rho as the activator and F-actin the inhibitor. We propose that cortical excitability explains fundamental features of cytokinesis including its cell cycle regulation. PMID:26479320

  2. Understanding THz and IR signals beneath time-resolved fluorescence from excited-state ab initio dynamics.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Alessio; Donati, Greta; Caruso, Pasquale; Rega, Nadia

    2014-10-22

    The detailed interpretation of time-resolved spectroscopic signals in terms of the molecular rearrangement during a photoreaction or a photophysical event is one of the most important challenges of both experimental and theoretical chemistry. Here we simulate a time-resolved fluorescence spectrum of a dye in aqueous solution, the N-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine, and analyze it in terms of far IR and THz frequency contributions, providing a direct connection to specific molecular motions. To obtain this result, we build up an innovative and general approach based on excited state ab-initio molecular dynamics and a wavelet-based time-dependent frequency analysis of nonstationary signals. We obtain a nice agreement with key parameters of the solvent dynamics, such as the total Stokes shift and the Stokes shift relaxation times. As an important finding, we observe a strong change of specific solute-solvent interactions upon the electronic excitation, with the migration of about 1.5 water molecules from the first solvation shell toward the bulk. In spite of this event, the Stokes shift dynamics is ruled by collective solvent motions in the THz and far IR, which guide and modulate the strong rearrangement of the dye microsolvation. By the relaxation of THz and IR contributions to the emission signal, we can follow and understand in detail the molecularity of the process. The protocol presented here is, in principle, transferable to other time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. PMID:25243826

  3. Comparison of spread spectrum and pulse signal excitation for split spectrum techniques composite imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilainis, L.; Kitov, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Vergara, L.; Dumbrava, V.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasonic imaging of composites was investigated. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastic produced by resin transfer molding and prepreg forming were analyzed. In some of the samples air bubbles were trapped during RTM (resin transfer molding) process and interlayer gaps were present in prepreg technology samples. One of the most expected techniques to apply in such case is the Split Spectrum processing. On the other hand such signals require specific processing to reliably reconstruct the temporal position of the defect reflection. Correlation processing can be used for signal compression or Wiener filtering can be applied for spectral content equalisation. Pulse signals are simple to generate, but lack the possibility to alter the signal's spectrum shape. Spread spectrum signals offer a powerful tool for signal energy over frequency band increase and resolution enhancement. CW (continuous wave) burst has high energy but lacks the bandwidth needed for SSP (spread spectrum processing). The aim of the investigation was to compare the performance of the above signals in case of composite imaging, when various Split Spectrum Processing techniques are used with preceding Wiener processing for spectral content compensation. Resulting composite signals and images obtained are presented. Structural noise removal performance was evaluated as Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC).

  4. Autofluorescence Imaging With Near-Infrared Excitation:Normalization by Reflectance to Reduce Signal From Choroidal Fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Swider, Malgorzata; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We previously developed reduced-illuminance autofluorescence imaging (RAFI) methods involving near-infrared (NIR) excitation to image melanin-based fluorophores and short-wavelength (SW) excitation to image lipofuscin-based flurophores. Here, we propose to normalize NIR-RAFI in order to increase the relative contribution of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluorophores. Methods. Retinal imaging was performed with a standard protocol holding system parameters invariant in healthy subjects and in patients. Normalized NIR-RAFI was derived by dividing NIR-RAFI signal by NIR reflectance point-by-point after image registration. Results. Regions of RPE atrophy in Stargardt disease, AMD, retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, and Leber congenital amaurosis as defined by low signal on SW-RAFI could correspond to a wide range of signal on NIR-RAFI depending on the contribution from the choroidal component. Retinal pigment epithelium atrophy tended to always correspond to high signal on NIR reflectance. Normalizing NIR-RAFI reduced the choroidal component of the signal in regions of atrophy. Quantitative evaluation of RPE atrophy area showed no significant differences between SW-RAFI and normalized NIR-RAFI. Conclusions. Imaging of RPE atrophy using lipofuscin-based AF imaging has become the gold standard. However, this technique involves bright SW lights that are uncomfortable and may accelerate the rate of disease progression in vulnerable retinas. The NIR-RAFI method developed here is a melanin-based alternative that is not absorbed by opsins and bisretinoid moieties, and is comfortable to view. Further development of this method may result in a nonmydriatic and comfortable imaging method to quantify RPE atrophy extent and its expansion rate. PMID:26024124

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral aqueduct. Signal intensity time curves demonstrated by fast acquisition with multiple excitation (FAME).

    PubMed

    van den Hout, J H; Bakker, C J; Mali, W P; van Dijk, P; Faber, J A; Feldberg, M A; Gooskens, R H; Witkamp, T D

    1989-11-01

    Using cardiac-gated fast acquisition with multiple excitation (FAME), time curves of the cerebral aqueduct signals were derived in 19 healthy volunteers and 14 patients. A mean curve of the normal subjects was determined during systole. A relatively stable point of time was found at 270 msec after the R-wave supposed to be the reversal of the flow of cerebral-spinal fluid in the aqueduct. Different curves were noticed in complete aqueductal obstruction (n = 2); in other pathologic states, such as cerebral tumor (n = 3), normal pressure hydrocephalus (n = 3), and brain atrophy (n = 1), no different signal time curves were observed. Parameters such as aqueduct diameter, cerebro-spinal fluid volume and brain compliance are probably other important factors in aqueduct liquor flow.

  6. New microwave excitation signal generating circuit for quantum frequency standard on the atoms of caesium Cs133

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A. A.; Davydov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the study, design, development and experimental results of a new microwave excitation signal generating circuit are presented. New design of this circuit is based on the method of direct digital synthesis. The results of theoretical calculations and experimental researches show that the new design not only has a high precision, but also has an improvement in the spectral characteristics of the output signal. Range of generated output frequencies is expanded, that leads to the possibility of detuning the frequency of the neighboring resonance of spectral line and adjust the C-field in quantum frequency standard. Experimental research of the metrological characteristics of the quantum frequency standard on the atoms of caesium with a new functional unit showed an improvement in the daily frequency stability.

  7. Noradrenergic signaling in infralimbic cortex increases cell excitability and strengthens memory for fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Devin; Porter, James T; Quirk, Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    Emotional arousal strengthens memory. This is most apparent in aversive conditioning, in which the stress-related neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) enhances associations between sensory stimuli and fear-inducing events. In contrast to conditioning, extinction decreases fear responses, and is thought to form a new memory. It is not known, however, whether NE is necessary for extinction learning. Previous work has shown that the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) is a site of extinction consolidation. Here, we show that blocking noradrenergic beta-receptors in IL before extinction training impaired retrieval of extinction the following day, consistent with a weakened extinction memory. We further found that the sequelae of beta-receptor activation, including protein kinase A (PKA), gene transcription and translation in IL, are necessary for extinction. To determine whether activation of this cascade modulates IL excitability, we measured the response of IL pyramidal neurons to injected current. NE increased the excitability of IL neurons in a beta-receptor- and PKA-dependent manner. We suggest that NE released in IL during fear extinction activates a PKA-mediated molecular cascade that strengthens extinction memory. Thus, emotional arousal evoked by conditioned fear paradoxically promotes the subsequent extinction of that fear, thereby ensuring behavioral flexibility.

  8. Stim and Orai proteins in neuronal Ca2+ signaling and excitability

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Francesco; Zuccolo, Estella; Soda, Teresa; Tanzi, Franco; Guerra, Germano; Mapelli, Lisa; Lodola, Francesco; D’Angelo, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Stim1 and Orai1 are ubiquitous proteins that have long been known to mediate Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) current (ICRAC) and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) only in non-excitable cells. SOCE is activated following the depletion of the endogenous Ca2+ stores, which are mainly located within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), to replete the intracellular Ca2+ reservoir and engage specific Ca2+-dependent processes, such as proliferation, migration, cytoskeletal remodeling, and gene expression. Their paralogs, Stim2, Orai2 and Orai3, support SOCE in heterologous expression systems, but their physiological role is still obscure. Ca2+ inflow in neurons has long been exclusively ascribed to voltage-operated and receptor-operated channels. Nevertheless, recent work has unveiled that Stim1–2 and Orai1-2, but not Orai3, proteins are also expressed and mediate SOCE in neurons. Herein, we survey current knowledge about the neuronal distribution of Stim and Orai proteins in rodent and human brains; we further discuss that Orai2 is the main pore-forming subunit of CRAC channels in central neurons, in which it may be activated by either Stim1 or Stim2 depending on species, brain region and physiological stimuli. We examine the functions regulated by SOCE in neurons, where this pathway is activated under resting conditions to refill the ER, control spinogenesis and regulate gene transcription. Besides, we highlighted the possibility that SOCE also controls neuronal excitation and regulate synaptic plasticity. Finally, we evaluate the involvement of Stim and Orai proteins in severe neurodegenerative and neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. PMID:25964739

  9. Phosphoinositides in Ca(2+) signaling and excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: an old player and newcomers.

    PubMed

    Csernoch, Laszlo; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Since the postulate, 30 years ago, that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P 2) as the precursor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P 3) would be critical for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, the issue of whether phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) may have something to do with Ca(2+) signaling in muscle raised limited interest, if any. In recent years however, the PtdInsP world has expanded considerably with new functions for PtdIns(4,5)P 2 but also with functions for the other members of the PtdInsP family. In this context, the discovery that genetic deficiency in a PtdInsP phosphatase has dramatic consequences on Ca(2+) homeostasis in skeletal muscle came unanticipated and opened up new perspectives in regards to how PtdInsPs modulate muscle Ca(2+) signaling under normal and disease conditions. This review intends to make an update of the established, the questioned, and the unknown regarding the role of PtdInsPs in skeletal muscle Ca(2+) homeostasis and EC coupling, with very specific emphasis given to Ca(2+) signals in differentiated skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26377756

  10. Phosphoinositides in Ca(2+) signaling and excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: an old player and newcomers.

    PubMed

    Csernoch, Laszlo; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Since the postulate, 30 years ago, that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P 2) as the precursor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P 3) would be critical for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, the issue of whether phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) may have something to do with Ca(2+) signaling in muscle raised limited interest, if any. In recent years however, the PtdInsP world has expanded considerably with new functions for PtdIns(4,5)P 2 but also with functions for the other members of the PtdInsP family. In this context, the discovery that genetic deficiency in a PtdInsP phosphatase has dramatic consequences on Ca(2+) homeostasis in skeletal muscle came unanticipated and opened up new perspectives in regards to how PtdInsPs modulate muscle Ca(2+) signaling under normal and disease conditions. This review intends to make an update of the established, the questioned, and the unknown regarding the role of PtdInsPs in skeletal muscle Ca(2+) homeostasis and EC coupling, with very specific emphasis given to Ca(2+) signals in differentiated skeletal muscle fibers.

  11. Detection, Evaluation, and Optimization of Optical Signals Generated by Fiber Optic Bragg Gratings Under Dynamic Excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Lekki, John; Lock, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic response of a fiber optic Bragg grating to mechanical vibrations is examined both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical expressions describing the consequences of changes in the grating's reflection spectrum are derived for partially coherent beams in an interferometer. The analysis is given in terms of the dominant wavelength, optical bandwidth, and optical path difference of the interfering signals. Changes in the reflection spectrum caused by a periodic stretching and compression of the grating were experimentally measured using an unbalanced Michelson interferometer, a Michelson interferometer with a non-zero optical path difference. The interferometer's sensitivity to changes in dominant wavelength of the interfering beams was measured as a function of interferometer unbalance and was compared to theoretical predictions. The theoretical analysis enables the user to determine the optimum performance for an unbalanced interferometer.

  12. Excitation wave propagation as a possible mechanism for signal transmission in pancreatic islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidi, O V; Mornev, O A; Skyggebjerg, O; Arkhammar, P; Thastrup, O; Sørensen, M P; Christiansen, P L; Conradsen, K; Scott, A C

    2001-01-01

    In response to glucose application, beta-cells forming pancreatic islets of Langerhans start bursting oscillations of the membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentration, inducing insulin secretion by the cells. Until recently, it has been assumed that the bursting activity of beta-cells in a single islet of Langerhans is synchronized across the whole islet due to coupling between the cells. However, time delays of several seconds in the activity of distant cells are usually observed in the islets of Langerhans, indicating that electrical/calcium wave propagation through the islets can occur. This work presents both experimental and theoretical evidence for wave propagation in the islets of Langerhans. Experiments with Fura-2 fluorescence monitoring of spatiotemporal calcium dynamics in the islets have clearly shown such wave propagation. Furthermore, numerical simulations of the model describing a cluster of electrically coupled beta-cells have supported our view that the experimentally observed calcium waves are due to electric pulses propagating through the cluster. This point of view is also supported by independent experimental results. Based on the model equations, an approximate analytical expression for the wave velocity is introduced, indicating which parameters can alter the velocity. We point to the possible role of the observed waves as signals controlling the insulin secretion inside the islets of Langerhans, in particular, in the regions that cannot be reached by any external stimuli such as high glucose concentration outside the islets. PMID:11222284

  13. Dark matter scattering on electrons: Accurate calculations of atomic excitations and implications for the DAMA signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, B. M.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Pospelov, M.; Stadnik, Y. V.

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the WIMP-type dark matter scattering on electrons that results in atomic ionization and can manifest itself in a variety of existing direct-detection experiments. Unlike the WIMP-nucleon scattering, where current experiments probe typical interaction strengths much smaller than the Fermi constant, the scattering on electrons requires a much stronger interaction to be detectable, which in turn requires new light force carriers. We account for such new forces explicitly, by introducing a mediator particle with scalar or vector couplings to dark matter and to electrons. We then perform state-of-the-art numerical calculations of atomic ionization relevant to the existing experiments. Our goals are to consistently take into account the atomic physics aspect of the problem (e.g., the relativistic effects, which can be quite significant) and to scan the parameter space—the dark matter mass, the mediator mass, and the effective coupling strength—to see if there is any part of the parameter space that could potentially explain the DAMA modulation signal. While we find that the modulation fraction of all events with energy deposition above 2 keV in NaI can be quite significant, reaching ˜50 %, the relevant parts of the parameter space are excluded by the XENON10 and XENON100 experiments.

  14. Photochemical Modulation of Ras-Mediated Signal Transduction using Caged Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors: Activation via One- and Two-Photon Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Ochocki, Joshua D.; Warmka, Janel K.; Dore, Timothy M.; Blank, David A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The creation of caged molecules involves the attachment of protecting groups to biologically active compounds such as ligands, substrates, and drugs that can be removed under specific conditions. Photoremovable caging groups are the most common due to their ability to be removed with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, the synthesis and photochemistry of a caged inhibitor of protein farnesyltransferase, Bhc-FTI, is described. The inhibitor was caged by alkylation of a critical thiol functional group with a Bhc moiety; while Bhc is well established as a protecting group for carboxylates and phosphates, it has not been extensively used to cage sulfhydryls. The resulting caged molecule, Bhc-FTI, can be photolyzed with UV light to release the inhibitor (FTI) that prevents Ras farnesylation, Ras membrane localization and downstream signaling. Finally, it is shown that Bhc-FTI can be uncaged by two-photon excitation to produce FTI at levels sufficient to inhibit Ras localization and alter cell morphology. Given the widespread involvement of Ras proteins in signal transduction pathways, this caged inhibitor should be useful in a plethora of studies. PMID:22492666

  15. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  16. Brushless exciters using a high temperature superconducting field winding

    SciTech Connect

    Garces, Luis Jose; Delmerico, Robert William; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Parslow, John Harold; Sanderson, Harold Copeland; Sinha, Gautam

    2008-03-18

    A brushless exciter for a synchronous generator or motor generally includes a stator and a rotor rotatably disposed within the stator. The rotor has a field winding and a voltage rectifying bridge circuit connected in parallel to the field winding. A plurality of firing circuits are connected the voltage rectifying bridge circuit. The firing circuit is configured to fire a signal at an angle of less than 90.degree. or at an angle greater than 90.degree.. The voltage rectifying bridge circuit rectifies the AC voltage to excite or de-excite the field winding.

  17. Glutaminolysis Was Induced by TGF-β1 through PP2Ac Regulated Raf-MEK-ERK Signaling in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, YanYan; Deng, YuanJun; Li, XiaoQing; Ning, Yong; Lin, XuePing; Guo, ShuiMing; Chen, MeiXue; Han, Min

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells can survive under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions by alterations of the cellular energy metabolism. In addition to high rates of glycolysis, glutaminolysis is another important way of providing the required energy to support cellular sprouting in such situations. However, the exact mechanism in which endothelial cells upregulate glutaminolysis remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated Raf-MEK-ERK signaling was involved in glutaminolysis in endothelial cells. Using models of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), we observed a dramatic induction in cellular glutamate levels accompanied by Raf-MEK-ERK activation. By addition of U0126, the specific inhibitor of MEK1/2, the expression of kidney-type glutaminase (KGA, a critical glutaminase in glutaminolysis) was significantly decreased. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid (OA), a specific inhibitor of PP2A phosphatase activity or by depletion of its catalytic subunit (PP2Ac), led to a significant inactivation of Raf-MEK-ERK signaling and reduced glutaminolysis in endothelial cells. Taken together, these results indicated that PP2A-dependent Raf-MEK-ERK activation was involved in glutaminolysis and inhibition of PP2A signals was sufficient to block Raf-MEK-ERK pathway and reduced glutamine metabolism in endothelial cells. PMID:27612201

  18. Glutaminolysis Was Induced by TGF-β1 through PP2Ac Regulated Raf-MEK-ERK Signaling in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, XiaoQing; Ning, Yong; Lin, XuePing; Guo, ShuiMing; Chen, MeiXue; Han, Min

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells can survive under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions by alterations of the cellular energy metabolism. In addition to high rates of glycolysis, glutaminolysis is another important way of providing the required energy to support cellular sprouting in such situations. However, the exact mechanism in which endothelial cells upregulate glutaminolysis remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated Raf-MEK-ERK signaling was involved in glutaminolysis in endothelial cells. Using models of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), we observed a dramatic induction in cellular glutamate levels accompanied by Raf-MEK-ERK activation. By addition of U0126, the specific inhibitor of MEK1/2, the expression of kidney-type glutaminase (KGA, a critical glutaminase in glutaminolysis) was significantly decreased. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid (OA), a specific inhibitor of PP2A phosphatase activity or by depletion of its catalytic subunit (PP2Ac), led to a significant inactivation of Raf-MEK-ERK signaling and reduced glutaminolysis in endothelial cells. Taken together, these results indicated that PP2A-dependent Raf-MEK-ERK activation was involved in glutaminolysis and inhibition of PP2A signals was sufficient to block Raf-MEK-ERK pathway and reduced glutamine metabolism in endothelial cells. PMID:27612201

  19. Excitation/Detection Strategies for OH Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements in the Presence of Interfering Fuel Signal and Absorption Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2011-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) excitation/detection methods have been applied to obtain spatial distributions of the hydroxyl [OH] reacting intermediary and hydrocarbon [HC] primary species in laminar and turbulent combustion reactions. In this report, broadband and narrowband excitation/filtering techniques are explored to identify an optimal experimental configuration yielding significant fluorescent signal with low absorption losses. The combustion environments analyzed include 1) a laminar non-premixed methane/air flame and 2) a turbulent, non-premixed Jet-A/air fueled flame within a lean flame tube combustor. Hydrocarbon-based fuel and OH were excited via the R1 (1), R1(10) and R2(7) transitions of the A(sup 2)Epsilon(+) X(sup 2)pi(1,0) band using a broadband Nd:YAG pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and narrowband Nd:YAG/dye laser with ultraviolet frequency extension (UVX) package. Variables tested for influence on fluorescent signal and absorption characteristics were excitation line, laser energy, exciting linewidth, combustion reactants, and test flow conditions. Results are intended to guide the transition from a dye/UVX laser to an OPO system for performing advanced diagnostics of low-emission combustion concepts.

  20. Phase-sensitive detection of both inductive and non-inductive ac voltages in ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Mathias; Shaw, Justin M.; Nembach, Hans T.; Schoen, Martin A.; Boone, Carl T.; Silva, Thomas J.

    2014-03-01

    Spin pumping causes significant damping in ultrathin ferromagnetic/normal metal (NM) multilayers via spin-current generation of both dc and ac character in the NM system. While the nonlinear dc component has been investigated in detail by utilization of the inverse spin Hall effect (iSHE) in NMs, much less is known about the linear ac component that is presumably much larger in the small-excitation limit. We measured generated ac voltages in a wide variety of Permalloy/NM multilayers via vector-network-analyzer ferromagnetic resonance. We employ a custom, impedance-matched, broadband microwave coupler that features a ferromagnetic thin film reference resonator to accurately compare ac voltage amplitudes and phases between varieties of multilayers. By use of the fact that inductive and ac iSHE signals are phase-shifted by π/2, we find that inductive signals are major contributors in all investigated samples. It is only by comparison of the phase and amplitude of the recorded ac voltages between multiple samples that we can extract the non-inductive contributions due to spin-currents. Voltages due to the ac iSHE in Permalloy(10nm)/platinum(5nm) bilayers are weaker than inductive signals, in agreement with calculations based upon recent theoretical predictions. M.W. acknowledges financial support by the German Academic Exchange service (DAAD).

  1. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels.

    PubMed

    Zemkova, Hana; Tomić, Melanija; Kucka, Marek; Aguilera, Greti; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the tdimer2(12) form of Discosoma red fluorescent protein under control of the proopiomelanocortin gene's regulatory elements are a useful model for studying corticotrophs. Using these mice, we studied the ion channels and mechanisms controlling corticotroph excitability. Corticotrophs were either quiescent or electrically active, with a 22-mV difference in the resting membrane potential (RMP) between the 2 groups. In quiescent cells, CRH depolarized the membrane, leading to initial single spiking and sustained bursting; in active cells, CRH further facilitated or inhibited electrical activity and calcium spiking, depending on the initial activity pattern and CRH concentration. The stimulatory but not inhibitory action of CRH on electrical activity was mimicked by cAMP independently of the presence or absence of arachidonic acid. Removal of bath sodium silenced spiking and hyperpolarized the majority of cells; in contrast, the removal of bath calcium did not affect RMP but reduced CRH-induced depolarization, which abolished bursting electrical activity and decreased the spiking frequency but not the amplitude of single spikes. Corticotrophs with inhibited voltage-gated sodium channels fired calcium-dependent action potentials, whereas cells with inhibited L-type calcium channels fired sodium-dependent spikes; blockade of both channels abolished spiking without affecting the RMP. These results indicate that the background voltage-insensitive sodium conductance influences RMP, the CRH-depolarization current is driven by a cationic conductance, and the interplay between voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels plays a critical role in determining the status and pattern of electrical activity and calcium signaling.

  2. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  3. Polarization of signal wave radiation generated by parametric four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: Ultrafast ({approx}150-fs) and nanosecond time scale excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, C.-J.; Senin, A.A.; Lu, Z.-H.; Gao, J.; Xiao, Y.; Eden, J.G.

    2005-08-15

    The polarization characteristics of the signal wave produced in Rb vapor by difference-frequency, parametric four-wave mixing (FWM) has been investigated for either ultrafast ({approx}150 fs) or nanosecond time-scale excitation of the 5s{yields}{yields}5d, 7s two photon transitions. The electronic configurations of the 5d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} and 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} states of Rb, as well as their energy separation ({approx}608 cm{sup -1}), offers the opportunity to examine separately the resonantly enhanced 5s{yields}{yields}7s, 5d{yields}6p{yields}5s FWM pathways on the nanosecond time scale and then to drive both channels simultaneously with an ultrafast pulse of sufficient spectral width. As expected, dye laser ({approx}10 ns) excitation of the 5s{yields}{yields}5d (J=5/2) transition produces a signal wave ({lambda}{sub s}{approx}420 nm) having the same ellipticity as the driving optical field. Two photon excitation of Rb (7s) on the same time scale, however, generates an elliptically polarized signal when the pump is linearly polarized ({epsilon}=1), a result attributed to 7s{yields}6p, 5p amplified spontaneous emission at {approx}4 {mu}m and {approx}741 nm, respectively. Simultaneous excitation of the 5s{yields}{yields}7s, 5d transitions with {approx}150 fs pulses centered at {approx}770 nm yields polarization characteristics that can be approximated as a superposition of those for the individual transitions, thus displaying weak coupling between the two FWM channels. Also, the influence of molecular contributions to the FWM signal is observed for Rb number densities above {approx}5x10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}.

  4. Influence of electromagnetic signal of antibiotics excited by low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yin-Lung; Chang, Fu-Yu; Chen, Ming-Kun; Li, Shun-Lai; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Energy medicine (EM) provides a new medical choice for patients, and its advantages are the noninvasive detection and nondrug treatment. An electromagnetic signal, a kind of EM, induced from antibiotic coupling with weak, extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is utilized for investigating the growth speed of Escherichia coli (E. coli). PEMFs are produced by solenoidal coils for coupling the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics (penicillin). The growth retardation rate (GRR) of E. coli is used to investigate the efficacy of the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The E. coli is cultivated in the exposure of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The maximum GRR of PEMFs with and without the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics on the growth of E. coli cells in the logarithmic is 17.4 and 9.08%, respectively. The electromagnetic signal of antibiotics is successfully coupled by the electromagnetic signal coupling instrument to affect the growth of E. coli. In addition, the retardation effect on E. coli growth can be improved of by changing the carrier frequency of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. GRR caused by the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics can be fixed by a different carrier frequency in a different phase of E. coli growth.

  5. An easy-to-implement filter for separating photo-excited signals from topography in scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Kangkang; Rosenmann, Daniel; Holt, Martin; Winarski, Robert; Hla, Saw-Wai; Rose, Volker

    2013-06-15

    In order to achieve elemental and chemical sensitivity in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), synchrotron x-rays have been applied to excite core-level electrons during tunneling. The x-ray photo-excitations result in tip currents that are superimposed onto conventional tunneling currents. While carrying important physical information, the varying x-ray induced currents can destabilize the feedback loop causing it to be unable to maintain a constant tunneling current, sometimes even causing the tip to retract fully or crash. In this paper, we report on an easy-to-implement filter circuit that can separate the x-ray induced currents from conventional tunneling currents, thereby allowing simultaneous measurements of topography and chemical contrasts. The filter and the schematic presented here can also be applied to other variants of light-assisted STM such as laser STM.

  6. Detection of an infrared near-field optical signal by attaching an infrared-excitable phosphor to the end of a photocantilever.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Fukuzawa, K; Ohwaki, J

    1999-01-01

    To improve the signal-to-noise ratio of near-field scanning optical microscopy, we propose attaching an infrared-excitable phosphor (IEP) to a photocantilever. One source of noise is the light scattered from locations on the sample surface other than that of the probe tip. By detecting only the light scattered from the tip, we can obtain a near-field optical signal without noise. We attached an IEP particle to a photocantilever to convert infrared light to visible light and we used 1550-nm infrared illumination, so the light scattered from the sample was only infrared. The silicon photodiode of the photocantilever is 10(6) times less sensitive to infrared light than to visible light. As a result, only the converted visible light from the IEP particle, i.e. the signal containing the near-field optical information from the tip, was detected. We verified that the photocantilever detected the signal in the evanescent light produced by infrared illumination and that the detected signal was the light converted by the IEP. The experimental results show the feasibility of detecting infrared light and not the background light through the use of the IEP. PMID:11388267

  7. Wnt/Ryk signaling contributes to neuropathic pain by regulating sensory neuron excitability and spinal synaptic plasticity in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Liu, Yue-Peng; Huang, Zhi-Jiang; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Song, Angela A; Ma, Ping-Chuan; Song, Xue-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Treating neuropathic pain continues to be a major clinical challenge and underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain remain elusive. We have recently demonstrated that Wnt signaling, which is important in developmental processes of the nervous systems, plays critical roles in the development of neuropathic pain through the β-catenin-dependent pathway in the spinal cord and the β-catenin-independent pathway in primary sensory neurons after nerve injury. Here, we report that Wnt signaling may contribute to neuropathic pain through the atypical Wnt/Ryk signaling pathway in rats. Sciatic nerve injury causes a rapid-onset and long-lasting expression of Wnt3a, Wnt5b, and Ryk receptors in primary sensory neurons, and dorsal horn neurons and astrocytes. Spinal blocking of the Wnt/Ryk receptor signaling inhibits the induction and persistence of neuropathic pain without affecting normal pain sensitivity and locomotor activity. Blocking activation of the Ryk receptor with anti-Ryk antibody, in vivo or in vitro, greatly suppresses nerve injury-induced increased intracellular Ca and hyperexcitability of the sensory neurons, and also the enhanced plasticity of synapses between afferent C-fibers and the dorsal horn neurons, and activation of the NR2B receptor and the subsequent Ca-dependent signals CaMKII, Src, ERK, PKCγ, and CREB in sensory neurons and the spinal cord. These findings indicate a critical mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and suggest that targeting the Wnt/Ryk signaling may be an effective approach for treating neuropathic pain.

  8. Quantitative Raman Spectroscopy when the Signal-to-Noise is Below the Limit of Quantitation due to Fluorescence Interference: Advantages of a Moving Window Sequentially Shifted Excitation Approach.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Sarah; Cooper, John B

    2016-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a useful analytical tool. However, its application is often limited because shot noise from fluorescence obscures the Raman signal. In such cases, quantitative analysis is not possible when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) drops below two. A method is described for performing quantitative Raman spectroscopy that not only removes fluorescence backgrounds, but also results in a significant improvement in the SNR. The Raman data is extracted using a moving window sequentially shifted excitation algorithm. To demonstrate the capabilities of the method, a binary mixture of two analytes at varying concentrations is quantified in the presence of a highly fluorescent dye. Linear calibration plots were constructed and validated for the binary model using individual Raman peaks with SNR ranging from 0.073-12.6; r(2) values are greater than 0.96 in all cases, with all but the weakest peaks yielding values greater than 0.997. The presented method demonstrates a universal and autonomous approach for the quantitative analysis of highly fluorescent samples via Raman spectroscopy. The lower limit on the SNR ratio for quantitative Raman analysis with the described method is 0.1. In order to assess the effectiveness of the presented method, the entire set of experiments was also processed using the more common shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) approach. The advantages of the proposed method over SERDS are demonstrated for both the detection limit and the SNR of the processed spectra. PMID:27613308

  9. S-allylmercapto-l-cysteine modulates MUC5AC and AQP5 secretions in a COPD model via NF-кB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Wang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yongchun; Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Zhongxi; Li, Siying; Zhang, Jianqiang; Cao, Xinke; Zhang, Daizhou

    2016-10-01

    Garlic has shown versatile medicinal activities in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no individual garlic bioactive components have yet been determined in the COPD treatment effects. In this work, S-allylmercapto-l-cysteine (SAMC) identified in the aged garlic was selected as a model compound to determine its COPD therapeutic potential. The COPD model was established by using lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to stimulate the human airway submucosal gland cell line SPC-A1. Previous studies show that both MUC5AC up-regulation and AQP5 down-regulation play an important role in viscous COPD mucus secretions. The modulation effects of SAMC on LPS-induced MUC5AC and AQP5 productions in SPC-A1 cells were then evaluated. Pretreatment of the SPC-A1 cells with SAMC attenuated MUC5AC secretion and increased AQP5 expression in a dose-dependent manner in the non-cytotoxic concentration range of 20 to 100μM. Mechanistic studies suggested that SAMC could suppress the accumulation of MUC5AC mRNA and inhibit IкBα degradation and NF-кB p65 translocation. These results suggest that SAMC could be a promising candidate in the prevention and treatment of MUC5AC-associated disorders such as COPD. PMID:27517516

  10. Simultaneous multiple-depths en-face optical coherence tomography using multiple signal excitation of acousto-optic deflectors.

    PubMed

    Zurauskas, Mantas; Rogers, John; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2013-01-28

    We present a novel low-coherence interferometer configuration, equipped with acousto-optic deflectors that can be used to simultaneously acquire up to eight time domain optical coherence tomography en-face images. The capabilities of the configuration are evaluated in terms of depth resolution, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk. Then the configuration is employed to demonstrate simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography imaging at five different depths in a specimen of armadillidium vulgare. PMID:23389175

  11. Water-based enhancement of the resonant photoacoustic signal from methane-air samples excited at 3.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, N.; Peuriot, A.; Santiago, G.; Slezak, V.

    2012-08-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is widely applied for trace-gas detection because of its sensitivity and low detection limit. In a previous work, where we studied the potential application to methane monitoring under a resonant excitation at 3.3 μm, we showed that the signal from methane-nitrogen mixtures decreases with the addition of oxygen. This effect is due to an energy exchange between the ν 4 asymmetric stretching mode of methane and the first metastable level of oxygen. This process makes oxygen accumulate energy, thus hindering the generation of the photoacoustic signal. In this work, we study the possible addition of water, as a good collisional partner of oxygen, in order to obtain a greater sensitivity. We develop a model based on rate equations and find good agreement between theory and measurements. The experiment is carried out with a novel cell of rectangular cross section and a Q factor of 165±1. We find that 0.7 % water content is large enough to obtain a signal as high as in the methane-nitrogen case at atmospheric pressure.

  12. Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior.

    PubMed

    Seluzicki, Adam; Flourakis, Matthieu; Kula-Eversole, Elzbieta; Zhang, Luoying; Kilman, Valerie; Allada, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Molecular circadian clocks are interconnected via neural networks. In Drosophila, PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) acts as a master network regulator with dual functions in synchronizing molecular oscillations between disparate PDF(+) and PDF(-) circadian pacemaker neurons and controlling pacemaker neuron output. Yet the mechanisms by which PDF functions are not clear. We demonstrate that genetic inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) in PDF(-) clock neurons can phenocopy PDF mutants while activated PKA can partially rescue PDF receptor mutants. PKA subunit transcripts are also under clock control in non-PDF DN1p neurons. To address the core clock target of PDF, we rescued per in PDF neurons of arrhythmic per⁰¹ mutants. PDF neuron rescue induced high amplitude rhythms in the clock component TIMELESS (TIM) in per-less DN1p neurons. Complete loss of PDF or PKA inhibition also results in reduced TIM levels in non-PDF neurons of per⁰¹ flies. To address how PDF impacts pacemaker neuron output, we focally applied PDF to DN1p neurons and found that it acutely depolarizes and increases firing rates of DN1p neurons. Surprisingly, these effects are reduced in the presence of an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, yet persist in the presence of PKA inhibition. We have provided evidence for a signaling mechanism (PKA) and a molecular target (TIM) by which PDF resets and synchronizes clocks and demonstrates an acute direct excitatory effect of PDF on target neurons to control neuronal output. The identification of TIM as a target of PDF signaling suggests it is a multimodal integrator of cell autonomous clock, environmental light, and neural network signaling. Moreover, these data reveal a bifurcation of PKA-dependent clock effects and PKA-independent output effects. Taken together, our results provide a molecular and cellular basis for the dual functions of PDF in clock resetting and pacemaker output. PMID:24643294

  13. Splitting a droplet with oil encapsulation using surface acoustic wave excited by electric signal with low power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anliang; Zha, Yan; Fu, Xingting

    2013-07-01

    A new method for splitting a droplet with oil encapsulation is presented. An interdigital transducer and a reflector are fabricated on a 128° yx-LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate using microelectric technology. An electric signal with the power of 12.3 dBm is applied to the interdigital transducer to generate surface acoustic wave, which is radiated into a droplet with oil encapsulation, leading to surface acoustic wave streaming force. When the electric signal is suddenly moved off, the breakup of the droplet occurs due to inertial force. Color dye solution droplets encapsulated by oil droplets are demonstrated. The effects of electric power, the volume ratio of color dye solution to oil, and the volume of mother droplet on the breakup of droplets are studied. As applications, the presented method is successfully applied to mixture operation and color development reaction of two droplets. The method provides a new sample preparation technique, which is helpful for microfluidic biochemical analysis in a piezoelectric microfluidic system.

  14. Label-free distinguishing between neurons and glial cells based on two-photon excited fluorescence signal of neuron perinuclear granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Huiping; Jiang, Liwei; Wang, Xingfu; Liu, Gaoqiang; Wang, Shu; Zheng, Liqin; Li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    Neurons and glial cells are two critical cell types of brain tissue. Their accurate identification is important for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In this paper, distinguishing between neurons and glial cells by using the two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals of intracellular intrinsic sources was performed. TPEF microscopy combined with TUJ-1 and GFAP immunostaining and quantitative image analysis demonstrated that the perinuclear granules of neurons in the TPEF images of brain tissue and the primary cultured cortical cells were a unique characteristic of neurons compared to glial cells which can become a quantitative feature to distinguish neurons from glial cells. With the development of miniaturized TPEF microscope (‘two-photon fiberscopes’) imaging devices, TPEF microscopy can be developed into an effective diagnostic and monitoring tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia.

  15. Resonating cantilever mass sensor with mechanical on-plane excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teva, Jordi; Abadal, Gabriel; Jordà, Xavier; Borrise, Xavier; Davis, Zachary; Barniol, Nuria

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the experimental setup designed, developed and tested in order to achieve the first vibrating mode of a lateral cantilever with mechanical excitation. The on-plane oscillating cantilever is the basis of a proposed mass sensor with an expected resolution in the atto-gram scale. In a first system design, the cantilever is driven electrostatically by an electrode, which is placed parallel to the cantilever. The cantilever is driven to its first resonant mode applying an AC voltage between the cantilever and a driver. Also, a DC voltage is applied to increase the system response. The signal read-out of the transducer is the capacitive current of the cantilever-driver system. The mass sensor proposed, based on this cantilever-driver structure (CDS), is integrated with a CMOS circuitry in order to minimize the parasitic capacitances, that in this case take special relevance because of the low level output current coming from the transducer. Moreover, the electrostatic excitation introduces a parasitic current that overlaps the current due to the resonance. The mechanical excitation is an alternative excitation method which aim is to eliminate the excitation current. Here we describe the experimental facilities developed to achieve mechanical excitation and report preliminary results obtained by this excitation technique. The results are complemented with dynamic simulations of an equivalent system model that are in accordance with the experimental values.

  16. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time.

  17. Pharmaceutical Applications of Relaxation Filter-Selective Signal Excitation Methods for ¹⁹F Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Case Study With Atorvastatin in Dosage Formulation.

    PubMed

    Asada, Mamiko Nasu; Nemoto, Takayuki; Mimura, Hisashi

    2016-03-01

    We recently developed several new relaxation filter-selective signal excitation (RFS) methods for (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that allow (13)C signal extraction of the target components from pharmaceuticals. These methods were successful in not only qualification but also quantitation over the wide range of 5% to 100%. Here, we aimed to improve the sensitivity of these methods and initially applied them to (19)F solid-state NMR, on the basis that the fluorine atom is one of the most sensitive NMR-active nuclei. For testing, we selected atorvastatin calcium (ATC), an antilipid BCS class II drug that inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and is marketed in crystalline and amorphous forms. Tablets were obtained from 2 generic drug suppliers, and the ATC content occurred mainly as an amorphous form. Using the RFS method with (19)F solid-state NMR, we succeeded in qualifying trace amounts (less than 0.5% w/w level) of crystalline phase (Form I) of ATC in the tablets. RFS methods with (19)F solid-state NMR are practical and time efficient and can contribute not only to the study of pharmaceutical drugs, including those with small amounts of a highly potent active ingredient within a formulated product, but also to the study of fluoropolymers in material sciences.

  18. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine increases excitability in the dentate gyrus: role of 5HT2A receptor-induced PGE2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stuart A; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2016-03-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused psychostimulant, which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA-treated rats, which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA-treated rats. We hypothesized that the widely abused psychostimulant MDMA causes a loss of parvalbumin (PV) cells and increases excitability in the dentate gyrus. MDMA increases serotonin (5HT) release and activates 5HT2A

  19. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior. PMID:949223

  20. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.

  1. NPY Y1 receptors differentially modulate GABAA and NMDA receptors via divergent signal-transduction pathways to reduce excitability of amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    Molosh, Andrei I; Sajdyk, Tammy J; Truitt, William A; Zhu, Weiguo; Oxford, Gerry S; Shekhar, Anantha

    2013-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) decreases anxiety-like behavior, mediated in part through the Y1 receptor (Y1R) isoform. Activation of Y1Rs results in G-protein-mediated reduction of cAMP levels, which results in reduced excitability of amygdala projection neurons. Understanding the mechanisms linking decreased cAMP levels to reduced excitability in amygdala neurons is important for identifying novel anxiolytic targets. We studied the intracellular mechanisms of activation of Y1Rs on synaptic transmission in the BLA. Activating Y1Rs by [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-NPY (L-P NPY) reduced the amplitude of evoked NMDA-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs), without affecting AMPA-mediated eEPSCs, but conversely increased the amplitude of GABAA-mediated evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs). Both effects were abolished by the Y1R antagonist, PD160170. Intracellular GDP-β-S, or pre-treatment with either forskolin or 8Br-cAMP, eliminated the effects of L-P NPY on both NMDA- and GABAA-mediated currents. Thus, both the NMDA and GABAA effects of Y1R activation in the BLA are G-protein-mediated and cAMP-dependent. Pipette inclusion of protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit blocked the effect of L-P NPY on GABAA-mediated eIPSCs, but not on NMDA-mediated eEPSCs. Conversely, activating the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) with 8CPT-2Me-cAMP blocked the effect of L-P NPY on NMDA-mediated eEPSCs, but not on GABAA-mediated eIPSCs. Thus, NPY regulates amygdala excitability via two signal-transduction events, with reduced PKA activity enhancing GABAA-mediated eIPSCs and Epac deactivation reducing NMDA-mediated eEPSCs. This multipathway regulation of NMDA- and GABAA-mediated currents may be important for NPY plasticity and stress resilience in the amygdala.

  2. Cryogenic exciter

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, James William; Garces, Luis Jose

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  3. Disrupted ERK signaling during cortical development leads to abnormal progenitor proliferation, neuronal and network excitability and behavior, modeling human neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous and related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pucilowska, Joanna; Puzerey, Pavel A; Karlo, J Colleen; Galán, Roberto F; Landreth, Gary E

    2012-06-20

    Genetic disorders arising from copy number variations in the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases or mutations in their upstream regulators that result in neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous syndromes are associated with developmental abnormalities, cognitive deficits, and autism. We developed murine models of these disorders by deleting the ERKs at the beginning of neurogenesis and report disrupted cortical progenitor generation and proliferation, which leads to altered cytoarchitecture of the postnatal brain in a gene-dose-dependent manner. We show that these changes are due to ERK-dependent dysregulation of cyclin D1 and p27(Kip1), resulting in cell cycle elongation, favoring neurogenic over self-renewing divisions. The precocious neurogenesis causes premature progenitor pool depletion, altering the number and distribution of pyramidal neurons. Importantly, loss of ERK2 alters the intrinsic excitability of cortical neurons and contributes to perturbations in global network activity. These changes are associated with elevated anxiety and impaired working and hippocampal-dependent memory in these mice. This study provides a novel mechanistic insight into the basis of cortical malformation which may provide a potential link to cognitive deficits in individuals with altered ERK activity.

  4. Eddy Current Rail Inspection Using AC Bridge Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ze; Koffman, Andrew D; Waltrip, Bryan C; Wang, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    AC bridge techniques commonly used for precision impedance measurements have been adapted to develop an eddy current sensor for rail defect detection. By using two detection coils instead of just one as in a conventional sensor, we can balance out the large baseline signals corresponding to a normal rail. We have significantly enhanced the detection sensitivity of the eddy current method by detecting and demodulating the differential signal of the two coils induced by rail defects, using a digital lock-in amplifier algorithm. We have also explored compensating for the lift-off effect of the eddy current sensor due to vibrations by using the summing signal of the detection coils to measure the lift-off distance. The dominant component of the summing signal is a constant resulting from direct coupling from the excitation coil, which can be experimentally determined. The remainder of the summing signal, which decreases as the lift-off distance increases, is induced by the secondary eddy current. This dependence on the lift-off distance is used to calibrate the differential signal, allowing for a more accurate characterization of the defects. Simulated experiments on a sample rail have been performed using a computer controlled X-Y moving table with the X-axis mimicking the train’s motion and the Y-axis mimicking the train’s vibrational bumping. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new detection method. PMID:26401427

  5. Simulational studies of epitaxial semiconductor superlattices: Quantum dynamical phenomena in ac and dc electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.

    1997-10-08

    Using high-accuracy numerical methods the author investigates the dynamics of independent electrons in both ideal and realistic superlattices subject to arbitrary ac and/or dc electric fields. For a variety of superlattice potentials, optically excited initial wave packets, and combinations of ac and dc electric fields, he numerically solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. In the case of ideal periodic superlattice potentials, he investigates a long list of dynamical phenomena involving multiple miniband transitions and time-dependent electric fields. These include acceleration effects associated with interminiband transitions in strong fields, Zener resonances between minibands, dynamic localization with ac fields, increased single-miniband transport with an auxiliary resonant ac field, and enhanced or suppressed interminiband probability exchange using an auxiliary ac field. For all of the cases studied, the resulting time-dependent wave function is analyzed by projecting the data onto convenient orthonormal bases. This allows a detailed comparison with approximately analytic treatments. In an effort to explain the rapid decay of experimentally measured Bloch oscillation (BO) signals the author incorporates a one-dimensional representation of interface roughness (IR) into their superlattice potential. He shows that as a result of IR, the electron dynamics can be characterized in terms of many discrete, incommensurate frequencies near the Block frequency. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 have been removed from this report and will be processed separately.

  6. Measurement of coupling resonance driving terms with the AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.

    2010-10-01

    Resonance driving terms for linear coupled betatron motion in a synchrotron ring can be determined from corresponding spectral lines of an excited coherent beam motion. An AC dipole is one of instruments to excite such a motion. When a coherent motion is excited with an AC dipole, measured Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron phase advance have apparent modulations, as if there is an additional quadrupole field at the location of the AC dipole. Hence, measurements of these parameters using the AC dipole require a proper interpretation of observed quantities. The situation is similar in measurements of resonance driving terms using the AC dipole. In this note, we derive an expression of coupled betatron motion excited with two AC dipoles in presence of skew quadrupole fields, discuss an impact of this quadrupole like effect of the AC dipole on a measurement of coupling resonance driving terms, and present an analytical method to determine the coupling resonance driving terms from quantities observed using the AC dipole.

  7. Analysing the role of UVB-induced translational inhibition and PP2Ac deactivation in NF-κB signalling using a minimal mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Witt, Johannes; Konrath, Fabian; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Kulms, Dagmar; Sauter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) by interleukin-1β (IL-1) usually results in an anti-apoptotic activity that is rapidly terminated by a negative feedback loop involving NF-κB dependent resynthesis of its own inhibitor IκBα. However, apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) is not attenuated, but significantly enhanced by co-stimulation with IL-1 in human epithelial cells. Under these conditions NF-κB remains constitutively active and turns into a pro-apoptotic factor by selectively repressing anti-apoptotic genes. Two different mechanisms have been separately proposed to explain UV-induced lack of IκBα recurrence: global translational inhibition as well as deactivation of the Ser/Thr phosphatase PP2Ac. Using mathematical modelling, we show that the systems behaviour requires a combination of both mechanisms, and we quantify their contribution in different settings. A mathematical model including both mechanisms is developed and fitted to various experimental data sets. A comparison of the model results and predictions with model variants lacking one of the mechanisms shows that both mechanisms are present in our experimental setting. The model is successfully validated by the prediction of independent data. Weak constitutive IKKβ phosphorylation is shown to be a decisive process in IκBα degradation induced by UVB stimulation alone, but irrelevant for (co-)stimulations with IL-1. In silico knockout experiments show that translational inhibition is predominantly responsible for lack of IκBα recurrence following IL-1+UVB stimulation. In case of UVB stimulation alone, cooperation of both processes causes the observed decrease of IκBα. This shows that the processes leading to activation of transcription factor NF-κB upon stimulation with ultraviolet B radiation with and without interleukin-1 costimulation are more complex than previously thought, involving both a cross talk of UVB induced translational inhibition and PP2Ac deactivation

  8. Beneficial Effects of Adenylyl Cyclase Type 6 (AC6) Expression Persist Using a Catalytically Inactive AC6 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tong; Lai, Ngai Chin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Guo, Tracy; Tang, Rouying; Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X.; Hammond, H. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac-directed expression of AC6 has pronounced favorable effects on cardiac function possibly not linked with cAMP production. To determine rigorously whether cAMP generation is required for the beneficial effects of increased AC6 expression, we generated a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant (AC6mut) that has markedly diminished cAMP generating capacity by replacing aspartic acid with alanine at position 426 in the C1 domain (catalytic region) of AC6. Gene transfer of AC6 or AC6mut (adenovirus-mediated) in adult rat cardiac myocytes resulted in similar expression levels and intracellular distribution, but AC6mut expression was associated with marked reduction in cAMP production. Despite marked reduction in cAMP generation, AC6mut influenced intracellular signaling events similarly to that observed after expression of catalytically intact AC6. For example, both AC6 and AC6mut reduced phenylephrine-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis (p < 0.001), expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (p < 0.01), and phospholamban (p < 0.05). AC6mut expression, similar to its catalytically intact cohort, was associated with increased Ca2+ transients in cardiac myocytes after isoproterenol stimulation. Many of the biological effects of AC6 expression are replicated by a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant, indicating that the mechanisms for these effects do not require increased cAMP generation. PMID:21127130

  9. Transient AC voltage related phenomena for HVDC schemes connected to weak AC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pilotto, L.A.S.; Szechtman, M. ); Hammad, A.E. )

    1992-07-01

    In this paper a didactic explanation of voltage stability associated phenomena at HVDC terminals is presented. Conditions leading to ac voltage collapse problems are identified. A mechanism that excites control-induced voltage oscillations is shown. The voltage stability factor is used for obtaining the maximum power limits of ac/dc systems operating with different control strategies. Correlation to Pd {times} Id curves is given. Solutions for eliminating the risks of voltage collapse and for avoiding control-induced oscillations are discussed. The results are supported by detailed digital simulations of a weak ac/dc system using EMTP.

  10. Deep mRNA Sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea Brain Transcriptome Provides Access to Gene Homologues for Neuronal Excitability, Synaptic Transmission and Peptidergic Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Senatore, Adriano; Edirisinghe, Neranjan; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level. Results We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes). BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis) revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA. Conclusions Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain. PMID:25719197

  11. Gq Protein-Coupled Membrane-Initiated Estrogen Signaling Rapidly Excites Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pu; Liu, Ji; Yasrebi, Ali; Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T; Pang, Zhiping P; Roepke, Troy A

    2016-09-01

    CRH neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a central role in regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and are directly influenced by 17β-estradiol (E2). Although compelling evidence has suggested the existence of membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) in hypothalamic and other central nervous system neurons, it remains unknown whether E2 impacts CRH neuronal excitability through this mechanism. The purpose of the current study is to examine the existence and function of mER signaling in PVN CRH neurons. Whole-cell recordings were made from CRH neurons identified by Alexa Fluor 594 labeling and post hoc immunostaining in ovariectomized female mice. E2 (100nM) rapidly suppressed the M-current (a voltage-dependent K(+) current) and potentiated glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents. The putative Gq-coupled mER (Gq-mER) characterized in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons initiates a phospholipase C-protein kinase C-protein kinase A pathway; therefore, we examined the involvement of this pathway using selective inhibitors. Indeed, the ER antagonist ICI 182780 and inhibitors of Gq-phospholipase C-protein kinase C-protein kinase A blocked E2's actions, suggesting dependence on the Gq-mER. Furthermore, STX, a selective ligand for the Gq-mER, mimicked E2's actions. Finally, to examine the in vivo effect of Gq-mER activation, E2 or STX injection increased c-fos expression in CRH neurons in the PVN, suggesting CRH neuronal activation. This corresponded to an increase in plasma corticosterone. We conclude that the Gq-mER plays a critical role in the rapid regulation of CRH neuronal activity and the HPA axis. Our findings provide a potential underlying mechanism for E2's involvement in the pathophysiology of HPA-associated mood disorders. PMID:27387482

  12. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-08-04

    Scanning probe microscopy may include a method for generating a band excitation (BE) signal and simultaneously exciting a probe at a plurality of frequencies within a predetermined frequency band based on the excitation signal. A response of the probe is measured across a subset of frequencies of the predetermined frequency band and the excitation signal is adjusted based on the measured response.

  13. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  14. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  15. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  16. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, O.L.

    1996-07-15

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal.

  17. Excitation system for rotating synchronous machines

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.; Driscoll, David J.

    2002-01-01

    A system for providing DC current to a rotating superconducting winding is provided. The system receives current feedback from the superconducting winding and determines an error signal based on the current feedback and a reference signal. The system determines a control signal corresponding to the error signal and provides a positive and negative superconducting winding excitation voltage based on the control signal.

  18. Excited Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Asia; Ahern, Terence L.; Henderson, Sean O.

    2011-01-01

    Excited (or agitated) delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. PMID:21691475

  19. Excited baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

  20. Development of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods in pharmaceutical application with new selective signal excitation methods for 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance using 1 H T1rho relaxation time.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Mamiko; Nemoto, Takayuki; Mimura, Hisashi; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Most pharmaceutical drug substances and excipients in formulations exist in a crystalline or amorphous form, and an understanding of their state during manufacture and storage is critically important, particularly in formulated products. Carbon 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is useful for studying the chemical and physical state of pharmaceutical solids in a formulated product. We developed two new selective signal excitation methods in (13) C solid-state NMR to extract the spectrum of a target component from such a mixture. These methods were based on equalization of the proton relaxation time in a single domain via rapid intraproton spin diffusion and the difference in proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame ((1) H T1rho) of individual components in the mixture. Introduction of simple pulse sequences to one-dimensional experiments reduced data acquisition time and increased flexibility. We then demonstrated these methods in a commercially available drug and in a mixture of two saccharides, in which the (13) C signals of the target components were selectively excited, and showed them to be applicable to the quantitative analysis of individual components in solid mixtures, such as formulated products, polymorphic mixtures, or mixtures of crystalline and amorphous phases. PMID:23147444

  1. Heteroclinic tangle phenomena in nanomagnets subject to time-harmonic excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, C.; Quercia, A.; Perna, S.; Bertotti, G.; Ansalone, P.; D'Aquino, M.; Mayergoyz, I.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetization dynamics in uniformly magnetized nanomagnets excited by time-harmonic (AC) external fields or spin-polarized injected currents is considered. The analysis is focused on the behaviour of the AC-excited dynamics near saddle equilibria. It turns out that this dynamics has a chaotic character at moderately low power level. This chaotic and fractal nature is due to the phenomenon of heteroclinic tangle which is produced by the combined effect of AC-excitations and saddle type dynamics. By using the perturbation technique based on Melnikov function, analytical formulas for the threshold AC excitation amplitudes necessary to create the heteroclinic tangle are derived. Both the cases of AC applied fields and AC spin-polarized injected currents are treated. Then, by means of numerical simulations, we show how heteroclinic tangle is accompanied by the erosion of the safe basin around the stable regimes.

  2. AC magnetohydrodynamic microfluidic switch

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoff, A V; Lee, A P

    2000-03-02

    A microfluidic switch has been demonstrated using an AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping mechanism in which the Lorentz force is used to pump an electrolytic solution. By integrating two AC MHD pumps into different arms of a Y-shaped fluidic circuit, flow can be switched between the two arms. This type of switch can be used to produce complex fluidic routing, which may have multiple applications in {micro}TAS.

  3. Isolation of sequences flanking Ac insertion sites by Ac casting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Localizing Ac insertions is a fundamental task in studying Ac-induced mutation and chromosomal rearrangements involving Ac elements. Researchers may sometimes be faced with the situation in which the sequence flanking one side of an Ac/Ds element is known, but the other flank is unknown. Or, a researcher may have a small sequence surrounding the Ac/Ds insertion site and needs to obtain additional flanking genomic sequences. One way to rapidly clone unknown Ac/Ds flanking sequences is via a PCR-based method termed Ac casting. This approach utilizes the somatic transposition activity of Ac during plant development, and provides an efficient means for short-range genome walking. Here we describe the principle of Ac casting, and show how it can be applied to isolate Ac macrotransposon insertion sites.

  4. Pattern Formation in Excitable Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, William Nash

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of excitability is observed in a wide variety of physical and biological systems. In this work, spatially extended excitable systems are examined from several different perspectives. First, a pedagogical introduction is used to motivate the derivation of the dynamics of one dimensional excitable pulses. In the second part, coupled map techniques for numerical simulation of excitable media and other interfacial systems are described. Examples are given for both excitable media and crystal growth. The third chapter addresses the phenomenon of spiral formation in excitable media. Exact rotating solutions are found for a class of models of excitable media. The solutions consist of two regions: an outer region, consisting of the spiral proper, which exhibits a singularity at its tip, and the core region, obtained by rescaling space in the vicinity of the tip. The tip singularity is resolved in the core region, leading to a consistent solution in all of space. The stability of both the spiral and the core is investigated, with the result that the spiral is found to be stable, and the core unstable. Finally, the stability of excitable waves of the chemical cAMP traveling over aggregating colonies of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is examined by coupling the excitable dynamics of the cAMP signalling system to a simple model of chemotaxis, with result that cellular motion is found to destabilize the waves, causing the initially uniform field of cells to break up into streams.

  5. The role of GαO-mediated signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in cardiovascular reflexes and control of cardiac ventricular excitability.

    PubMed

    Ang, Richard; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Gourine, Alexander V; Tinker, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The heart is controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic limbs of the autonomic nervous system with inhibitory signaling mechanisms recruited in both limbs. The aim of this study was to determine the role of inhibitory heterotrimeric G proteins in the central nervous mechanisms underlying autonomic control of the heart and its potential role in arrhythmogenesis. Mice with conditional deletion of the inhibitory heterotrimeric G protein GαO in the presympathetic area of the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM) were generated to determine the role of GαO-mediated signalling in autonomic control and electrophysiological properties of the heart. GαO deletion within the RVLM was not associated with changes in heart rate (HR) or the arterial blood pressure at rest (home cage, normal behavior). However, exposure to stressful conditions (novel environment, hypoxia, or hypercapnia) in these mice was associated with abnormal HR responses and an increased baroreflex gain when assessed under urethane anesthesia. This was associated with shortening of the ventricular effective refractory period. This phenotype was reversed by systemic beta-adrenoceptor blockade, suggesting that GαO depletion in the RVLM increases central sympathetic drive. The data obtained support the hypothesis that GαO-mediated signaling within the presympathetic circuits of the RVLM contributes to the autonomic control of the heart. GαO deficiency in the RVLM has a significant impact on cardiovascular responses to stress, cardiovascular reflexes and electrical properties of the heart. PMID:27528004

  6. Radiation Efficiency of AC-excited Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biborosch, L. D.; Petzenhauser, I.; Popescu, S.; Luca, D.; Frank, K.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution reports on micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) generated in a device supplied by rectified but non-filtered low-frequency currents to preserve the cathode function of one micro electrode. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation efficiency of such an MHCD was investigated in high-pressure argon in the frequency range from 40 kHz to 140 kHz. Both the currents and voltages of the MHCD device are nonlinear and the power input shows a flat maximum at about 50 kHz. The VUV relative efficiency also displays a more pronounced maximum at this frequency but remains still comparable with those of the dc supplied MHCD. Unfortunately, this VUV efficiency rather refers to the resonant lines of oxygen impurity at about 130.5 nm and not to the argon excimer radiation.

  7. Radiation Efficiency of AC-excited Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Biborosch, L. D.; Popescu, S.; Luca, D.; Petzenhauser, I.; Frank, K.

    2006-01-15

    This contribution reports on micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) generated in a device supplied by rectified but non-filtered low-frequency currents to preserve the cathode function of one micro electrode. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation efficiency of such an MHCD was investigated in high-pressure argon in the frequency range from 40 kHz to 140 kHz. Both the currents and voltages of the MHCD device are nonlinear and the power input shows a flat maximum at about 50 kHz. The VUV relative efficiency also displays a more pronounced maximum at this frequency but remains still comparable with those of the dc supplied MHCD. Unfortunately, this VUV efficiency rather refers to the resonant lines of oxygen impurity at about 130.5 nm and not to the argon excimer radiation.

  8. Tevatron AC dipole system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  9. AC-3 audio coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  10. Cosmic Shear - with ACS Pure Parallel Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan

    2002-07-01

    The ACS, with greater sensitivity and sky coverage, will extend our ability to measure the weak gravitational lensing of galaxy images caused by the large scale distribution of dark matter. We propose to use the ACS in pure parallel {non- proprietary} mode, following the guidelines of the ACS Default Pure Parallel Program. Using the HST Medium Deep Survey WFPC2 database we have measured cosmic shear at arc-min angular scales. The MDS image parameters, in particular the galaxy orientations and axis ratios, are such that any residual corrections due to errors in the PSF or jitter are much smaller than the measured signal. This situation is in stark contrast with ground-based observations. We have also developed a statistical analysis procedure to derive unbiased estimates of cosmic shear from a large number of fields, each of which has a very small number of galaxies. We have therefore set the stage for measurements with the ACS at fainter apparent magnitudes and smaller, 10 arc-second scales corresponding to larger cosmological distances. We will adapt existing MDS WFPC2 maximum likelihood galaxy image analysis algorithms to work with the ACS. The analysis would also yield an online database similar to that in archive.stsci.edu/mds/

  11. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  12. Biocontrol activity of Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 against Pseudomonas syringae and its interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chi Eun; Kwon, Suk Yoon; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-04-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 (AC-1) is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has been used as a soil inoculant for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi and to promote plant growth. In this study, we examine the effects of AC-1 on the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae and internal colonization of AC-1 by counting bacterial populations that colonize plants. AC-1 inhibited the growth of both P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) and P. syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) in a concentration-dependent manner in in vitro assays. Upon treatment of AC-1 dropping at root tip of axenically grown Arabidopsis, we found that most of the AC-1 was detected in interior of leaves of Arabidiopsis plants rather than roots after 5 days post infection, indicating systemic spreading of AC-1 occur. We examined further AC-1 colonization patterns in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in phytohormone signaling pathways. These results indicated that abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways positively and negatively contributed, respectively, to AC-1 colonization of leaves, whereas epiphytic accumulation of AC-1 around root tissues was not affected. This study shows that AC-1 is an effective biocontrol agent to suppress P. syringae growth, possibly owing to its colonization patterns as a leaf-inhabiting endophyte. The results showed in this work will help to expand our understanding of the mode of action of AC-1 as a biological control agent and consequently, its application in agriculture.

  13. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  14. Neuritin Up-regulates Kv4.2 α-Subunit of Potassium Channel Expression and Affects Neuronal Excitability by Regulating the Calcium-Calcineurin-NFATc4 Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jin-jing; Zhao, Qian-Ru; Liu, Dong-Dong; Chow, Chi-Wing; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2016-01-01

    Neuritin is an important neurotrophin that regulates neural development, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival. Elucidating the downstream molecular signaling is important for potential therapeutic applications of neuritin in neuronal dysfunctions. We previously showed that neuritin up-regulates transient potassium outward current (IA) subunit Kv4.2 expression and increases IA densities, in part by activating the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Molecular mechanisms of neuritin-induced Kv4.2 expression remain elusive. Here, we report that the Ca2+/calcineurin (CaN)/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) c4 axis is required for neuritin-induced Kv4.2 transcriptional expression and potentiation of IA densities in cerebellum granule neurons. We found that neuritin elevates intracellular Ca2+ and increases Kv4.2 expression and IA densities; this effect was sensitive to CaN inhibition and was eliminated in Nfatc4−/− mice but not in Nfatc2−/− mice. Stimulation with neuritin significantly increased nuclear accumulation of NFATc4 in cerebellum granule cells and HeLa cells, which expressed IR. Furthermore, NFATc4 was recruited to the Kv4.2 gene promoter loci detected by luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. More importantly, data obtained from cortical neurons following adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of neuritin indicated that reduced neuronal excitability and increased formation of dendritic spines were abrogated in the Nfatc4−/− mice. Together, these data demonstrate an indispensable role for the CaN/NFATc4 signaling pathway in neuritin-regulated neuronal functions. PMID:27307045

  15. Neuritin Up-regulates Kv4.2 α-Subunit of Potassium Channel Expression and Affects Neuronal Excitability by Regulating the Calcium-Calcineurin-NFATc4 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jin-Jing; Zhao, Qian-Ru; Liu, Dong-Dong; Chow, Chi-Wing; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2016-08-12

    Neuritin is an important neurotrophin that regulates neural development, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival. Elucidating the downstream molecular signaling is important for potential therapeutic applications of neuritin in neuronal dysfunctions. We previously showed that neuritin up-regulates transient potassium outward current (IA) subunit Kv4.2 expression and increases IA densities, in part by activating the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Molecular mechanisms of neuritin-induced Kv4.2 expression remain elusive. Here, we report that the Ca(2+)/calcineurin (CaN)/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) c4 axis is required for neuritin-induced Kv4.2 transcriptional expression and potentiation of IA densities in cerebellum granule neurons. We found that neuritin elevates intracellular Ca(2+) and increases Kv4.2 expression and IA densities; this effect was sensitive to CaN inhibition and was eliminated in Nfatc4(-/-) mice but not in Nfatc2(-/-) mice. Stimulation with neuritin significantly increased nuclear accumulation of NFATc4 in cerebellum granule cells and HeLa cells, which expressed IR. Furthermore, NFATc4 was recruited to the Kv4.2 gene promoter loci detected by luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. More importantly, data obtained from cortical neurons following adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of neuritin indicated that reduced neuronal excitability and increased formation of dendritic spines were abrogated in the Nfatc4(-/-) mice. Together, these data demonstrate an indispensable role for the CaN/NFATc4 signaling pathway in neuritin-regulated neuronal functions. PMID:27307045

  16. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  17. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, P; Belzile, F; Page, T; Dean, C

    1997-05-01

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity.

  18. DESIGN OF AN AC-DIPOLE FOR USE IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    PARKER,B.; BAI,M.; JAIN,A.; MCINTYRE,G.; METH,M.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SANDERS,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    1999-03-29

    We present two options for implementing a pair of AC-dipoles in RHIC for spin flipping, measuring linear optical functions and nonlinear diagnostics. AC-dipoles are magnets that can be adiabatically excited and de-excited with a continuous sine-wave in order to coherently move circulating beam out to large betatron amplitudes without incurring emittance blow up [1]. The AGS already uses a similar device for getting polarized proton beams through depolarizing resonances [2]. By placing the magnets in the IP4 common beam region, two AC-dipoles are sufficient to excite both horizontal and vertical motion in both RHIC rings. While we initially investigated an iron-dominated magnet design using available steel tape cores; we now favor a new air coil plus ferrite design featuring mechanical frequency tuning, in order to best match available resources to demanding frequency sweeping requirements. Both magnet designs are presented here along with model magnet test results. The challenge is to make AC-dipoles available for year 2000 RHIC running.

  19. Dual-source parallel radiofrequency excitation ACR phantom magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T: Assessment of the effect of image quality on high-contrast spatial resolution, percent signal ghosting, and low-contrast object detectability in comparison with conventional single-source transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung-Bae; Park, Yong-Sung; Choe, Bo-Young

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess dual-source parallel radiofrequency (RF) excitation American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3T compared with conventional single-source RF transmission and compared with the standard ACR MRI phantom test. We used a 3T MR scanner equipped with dual-source parallel RF excitation and an 8-channel head phased array coil. We employed T1- and T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequences for an assessment of the impact of image quality on high-contrast spatial resolution, percent signal ghosting and low-contrast object detectability following the ACR MRI quality control (QC) manual. With geometric accuracy and identical slice locations, dual RFs using dual-source parallel RF excitation MR showed an advantage over single RF using dual-source parallel RF excitation MR and conventional MR in terms of high-contrast spatial resolution (p < 0.010), percent signal ghosting (p < 0.010), and low-contrast object detectability (p < 0.010). The quality of the image from the dual-source parallel RF excitation MR equipment was superior to that of the image from conventional MR equipment for the ACR phantom. We need to pursue dual-source parallel RF excitation MR studies involving various clinical cases.

  20. Microfluidic pumping optimization in microgrooved channels with ac electrothermal actuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Manoochehri, Souran

    2010-01-01

    An optimization methodology is developed and applied to an ac electrothermal pump design with patterned microgrooved features. The microgrooved configuration can overcome the restrictions of the conventional planar configuration on pumping performance by diminishing fast backward flows and suppressing prolonged streamlines. At all frequency excitations (0.2-1000 MHz) and ion concentration conditions (5×10-3-0.1 M), the optimum microgrooved configuration generates much faster flow rate than planar configuration. This happens without additional increases in the maximum temperature values. The effects of elevated temperature on ac ET flow behavior is investigated and analyzed.

  1. Interplay between electron overheating and ac Josephson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cecco, A.; Le Calvez, K.; Sacépé, B.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, H.

    2016-05-01

    We study the response of high-critical-current proximity Josephson junctions to a microwave excitation. Electron overheating in such devices is known to create hysteretic dc voltage-current characteristics. Here we demonstrate that it also strongly influences the ac response. The interplay of electron overheating and ac Josephson dynamics is revealed by the evolution of the Shapiro steps with the microwave drive amplitude. Extending the resistively shunted Josephson junction model by including a thermal balance for the electronic bath coupled to phonons, a strong electron overheating is obtained.

  2. Development of a hardware-based AC microgrid for AC stability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Robert R.

    As more power electronic-based devices enable the development of high-bandwidth AC microgrids, the topic of microgrid power distribution stability has become of increased interest. Recently, researchers have proposed a relatively straightforward method to assess the stability of AC systems based upon the time-constants of sources, the net bus capacitance, and the rate limits of sources. In this research, a focus has been to develop a hardware test system to evaluate AC system stability. As a first step, a time domain model of a two converter microgrid was established in which a three phase inverter acts as a power source and an active rectifier serves as an adjustable constant power AC load. The constant power load can be utilized to create rapid power flow transients to the generating system. As a second step, the inverter and active rectifier were designed using a Smart Power Module IGBT for switching and an embedded microcontroller as a processor for algorithm implementation. The inverter and active rectifier were designed to operate simultaneously using a synchronization signal to ensure each respective local controller operates in a common reference frame. Finally, the physical system was created and initial testing performed to validate the hardware functionality as a variable amplitude and variable frequency AC system.

  3. Optimization of spin-torque switching using AC and DC pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Tom; Kamenev, Alex

    2014-06-21

    We explore spin-torque induced magnetic reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions using combined AC and DC spin-current pulses. We calculate the optimal pulse times and current strengths for both AC and DC pulses as well as the optimal AC signal frequency, needed to minimize the Joule heat lost during the switching process. The results of this optimization are compared against numeric simulations. Finally, we show how this optimization leads to different dynamic regimes, where switching is optimized by either a purely AC or DC spin-current, or a combination AC/DC spin-current, depending on the anisotropy energies and the spin-current polarization.

  4. Redox Control of Cardiac Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Nitin T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with various human diseases, and considerable attention has been paid to investigate their physiological effects. Various ROS are synthesized in the mitochondria and accumulate in the cytoplasm if the cellular antioxidant defense mechanism fails. The critical balance of this ROS synthesis and antioxidant defense systems is termed the redox system of the cell. Various cardiovascular diseases have also been affected by redox to different degrees. ROS have been indicated as both detrimental and protective, via different cellular pathways, for cardiac myocyte functions, electrophysiology, and pharmacology. Mostly, the ROS functions depend on the type and amount of ROS synthesized. While the literature clearly indicates ROS effects on cardiac contractility, their effects on cardiac excitability are relatively under appreciated. Cardiac excitability depends on the functions of various cardiac sarcolemal or mitochondrial ion channels carrying various depolarizing or repolarizing currents that also maintain cellular ionic homeostasis. ROS alter the functions of these ion channels to various degrees to determine excitability by affecting the cellular resting potential and the morphology of the cardiac action potential. Thus, redox balance regulates cardiac excitability, and under pathological regulation, may alter action potential propagation to cause arrhythmia. Understanding how redox affects cellular excitability may lead to potential prophylaxis or treatment for various arrhythmias. This review will focus on the studies of redox and cardiac excitation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 432–468. PMID:22897788

  5. Block 3 X-band receiver-exciter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, C. E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of an X-band exciter, for use in the X-Band Uplink Subsystem, was completed. The exciter generates the drive signal for the X-band transmitter and also generates coherent test signals for the S- and X-band Block 3 translator and a Doppler reference signal for the Doppler extractor system. In addition to the above, the exciter generates other reference signals that are described. Also presented is an overview of the exciter design and some test data taken on the prototype. A brief discussion of the Block 3 Doppler extractor is presented.

  6. Phase and Frequency-Dependent Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Motor Cortical Excitability.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, Hisato; Ogata, Katsuya; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can entrain ongoing brain oscillations and modulate the motor system in a frequency-dependent manner. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that the phase of a sinusoidal current also has an important role in modulation of neuronal activity. However, the phase effects of tACS on the human motor system are largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of tACS phase and frequency on the primary motor cortex (M1) by using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). First, we compared the phase effects (90°, 180°, 270° or 360°) of 10 and 20 Hz tACS on MEPs. The 20 Hz tACS significantly increased M1 excitability compared with the 10 Hz tACS at 90° phase only. Second, we studied the 90° phase effect on MEPs at different tACS frequencies (5, 10, 20 or 40 Hz). The 20 vs. 10 Hz difference was again observed, but the 90° phase in 5 and 40 Hz tACS did not influence M1 excitability. Third, the 90° phase effects of 10 and 20 Hz tACS were compared with sham stimulation. The 90° phase of 20 Hz tACS enhanced MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation, but there was no significant effect of 10 Hz tACS. Taken together, we assume that the differential 90° phase effects on 20 Hz and 10 Hz tACS can be attributed to the neural synchronization modulated by tACS. Our results further underline that phase and frequency are the important factors in the effects of tACS on M1 excitability.

  7. Phase and Frequency-Dependent Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Motor Cortical Excitability.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, Hisato; Ogata, Katsuya; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can entrain ongoing brain oscillations and modulate the motor system in a frequency-dependent manner. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that the phase of a sinusoidal current also has an important role in modulation of neuronal activity. However, the phase effects of tACS on the human motor system are largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of tACS phase and frequency on the primary motor cortex (M1) by using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). First, we compared the phase effects (90°, 180°, 270° or 360°) of 10 and 20 Hz tACS on MEPs. The 20 Hz tACS significantly increased M1 excitability compared with the 10 Hz tACS at 90° phase only. Second, we studied the 90° phase effect on MEPs at different tACS frequencies (5, 10, 20 or 40 Hz). The 20 vs. 10 Hz difference was again observed, but the 90° phase in 5 and 40 Hz tACS did not influence M1 excitability. Third, the 90° phase effects of 10 and 20 Hz tACS were compared with sham stimulation. The 90° phase of 20 Hz tACS enhanced MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation, but there was no significant effect of 10 Hz tACS. Taken together, we assume that the differential 90° phase effects on 20 Hz and 10 Hz tACS can be attributed to the neural synchronization modulated by tACS. Our results further underline that phase and frequency are the important factors in the effects of tACS on M1 excitability. PMID:27607431

  8. Phase and Frequency-Dependent Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Motor Cortical Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can entrain ongoing brain oscillations and modulate the motor system in a frequency-dependent manner. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that the phase of a sinusoidal current also has an important role in modulation of neuronal activity. However, the phase effects of tACS on the human motor system are largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of tACS phase and frequency on the primary motor cortex (M1) by using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). First, we compared the phase effects (90°, 180°, 270° or 360°) of 10 and 20 Hz tACS on MEPs. The 20 Hz tACS significantly increased M1 excitability compared with the 10 Hz tACS at 90° phase only. Second, we studied the 90° phase effect on MEPs at different tACS frequencies (5, 10, 20 or 40 Hz). The 20 vs. 10 Hz difference was again observed, but the 90° phase in 5 and 40 Hz tACS did not influence M1 excitability. Third, the 90° phase effects of 10 and 20 Hz tACS were compared with sham stimulation. The 90° phase of 20 Hz tACS enhanced MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation, but there was no significant effect of 10 Hz tACS. Taken together, we assume that the differential 90° phase effects on 20 Hz and 10 Hz tACS can be attributed to the neural synchronization modulated by tACS. Our results further underline that phase and frequency are the important factors in the effects of tACS on M1 excitability. PMID:27607431

  9. Loss of ACS7 confers abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ABA sensitivity and accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Zhen, Zhiqin; Peng, Jinying; Chang, Li; Gong, Qingqiu; Wang, Ning Ning

    2011-10-01

    The phytohormones ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) play essential roles in the abiotic stress adaptation of plants, with both cross-talk of ethylene signalling and ABA biosynthesis and signalling reported. Any reciprocal effects on each other's biosynthesis, however, remain elusive. ACC synthase (ACS) acts as the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. A pilot study on changes in ACS promoter activities in response to abiotic stresses revealed the unique involvement in abiotic stress responses of the only type 3 ACC synthase, ACS7, among all nine ACSs of Arabidopsis. Hence an acs7 mutant was characterized and its abiotic stress responses were analysed. The acs7 mutant germinated slightly faster than the wild type and subsequently maintained a higher growth rate at the vegetative growth stage. Ethylene emission of acs7 was merely one-third of that of the wild type. acs7 exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, osmotic, and heat stresses. Furthermore, acs7 seeds were hypersensitive to both ABA and glucose during germination. Transcript analyses revealed that acs7 had elevated transcript levels of the stress-responsive genes involved in the ABA-dependent pathway under salt stress. The ABA level was also higher in acs7 following salt treatment. Our data suggest that ACS7 acts as a negative regulator of ABA sensitivity and accumulation under stress and appears as a node in the cross-talk between ethylene and ABA.

  10. Cloning of the Aegiceras corniculatum class I chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and the response of AcCHI I mRNA expression to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yeok, Foong Swee

    2015-10-01

    Chitinases in terrestrial plants have been reported these are involved in heavy metal tolerance/detoxification. This is the first attempt to reveal chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and its function on metal detoxification in mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum. RT-PCR and RACE techniques were used to clone AcCHI I, while real-time quantitative PCR was employed to assess AcCHI I mRNA expressions in response to Cadmium (Cd). The deduced AcCHI I protein consists of 316 amino acids, including a signal peptide region, a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a catalytic domain. Protein homology modeling was performed to identify potential features in AcCHI I. The CBD structure of AcCHI I might be critical for metal tolerance/homeostasis of the plant. Clear tissue-specific differences in AcCHI I expression were detected, with higher transcript levels detected in leaves. Results demonstrated that a short duration of Cd exposure (e.g., 3 days) promoted AcCHI I expression in roots. Upregulated expression was also detected in leaves under 10 mg/kg Cd concentration stress. The present study demonstrates that AcCHI I may play an important role in Cd tolerance/homeostasis in the plant. Further studies of the AcCHI I protein, gene overexpression, the promoter and upstream regulation will be necessary for clarifying the functions of AcCHI I. PMID:26044931

  11. Cloning of the Aegiceras corniculatum class I chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and the response of AcCHI I mRNA expression to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yeok, Foong Swee

    2015-10-01

    Chitinases in terrestrial plants have been reported these are involved in heavy metal tolerance/detoxification. This is the first attempt to reveal chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and its function on metal detoxification in mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum. RT-PCR and RACE techniques were used to clone AcCHI I, while real-time quantitative PCR was employed to assess AcCHI I mRNA expressions in response to Cadmium (Cd). The deduced AcCHI I protein consists of 316 amino acids, including a signal peptide region, a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a catalytic domain. Protein homology modeling was performed to identify potential features in AcCHI I. The CBD structure of AcCHI I might be critical for metal tolerance/homeostasis of the plant. Clear tissue-specific differences in AcCHI I expression were detected, with higher transcript levels detected in leaves. Results demonstrated that a short duration of Cd exposure (e.g., 3 days) promoted AcCHI I expression in roots. Upregulated expression was also detected in leaves under 10 mg/kg Cd concentration stress. The present study demonstrates that AcCHI I may play an important role in Cd tolerance/homeostasis in the plant. Further studies of the AcCHI I protein, gene overexpression, the promoter and upstream regulation will be necessary for clarifying the functions of AcCHI I.

  12. Enhancement of Ion Activation and Collision-Induced Dissociation by Simultaneous Dipolar Excitation of Ions in x- and y-Directions in a Linear Ion Trap.

    PubMed

    Dang, Qiankun; Xu, Fuxing; Xie, Xiaodong; Xu, Chongsheng; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2015-06-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) in linear ion traps is usually performed by applying a dipolar alternating current (AC) signal to one pair of electrodes, which results in ion excitation mainly in one direction. In this paper, we report simulation and experimental studies of the ion excitation in two coordinate directions by applying identical dipolar AC signals to two pairs of electrodes simultaneously. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the ion kinetic energy is higher than that using the conventional CID method. Experimental results show that more activation energy (as determined by the intensity ratio of the a4/b4 fragments from the CID of protonated leucine enkephalin) can be deposited into parent ions in this method. The dissociation rate constant in this method was about 3.8 times higher than that in the conventional method under the same experimental condition, at the Mathieu parameter qu (where u = x, y) value of 0.25. The ion fragmentation efficiency is also significantly improved. Compared with the conventional method, the smaller qu value can be used in this method to obtain the same internal energy deposited into ions. Consequently, the "low mass cut-off" is redeemed and more fragment ions can be detected. This excitation method can be implemented easily without changing any experimental parameters.

  13. Recurrent Excitation in Neocortical Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Rodney J.; Koch, Christof; Mahowald, Misha; Martin, Kevan A. C.; Suarez, Humbert H.

    1995-08-01

    The majority of synapses in the mammalian cortex originate from cortical neurons. Indeed, the largest input to cortical cells comes from neighboring excitatory cells. However, most models of cortical development and processing do not reflect the anatomy and physiology of feedback excitation and are restricted to serial feedforward excitation. This report describes how populations of neurons in cat visual cortex can use excitatory feedback, characterized as an effective "network conductance," to amplify their feedforward input signals and demonstrates how neuronal discharge can be kept proportional to stimulus strength despite strong, recurrent connections that threaten to cause runaway excitation. These principles are incorporated into models of cortical direction and orientation selectivity that emphasize the basic design principles of cortical architectures.

  14. Identification of /sup 233/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.Y.; Zhou, M.L.

    1983-09-01

    We report in this paper identification of the new isotope /sup 233/Ac. Uranium targets were irradiated with 28 GeV protons; after rapid retrieval of the target and separation of actinium from thorium, /sup 233/Ac was allowed to decay into the known /sup 233/Th daughter. Exhaustive chemical purification was employed to permit the identification of /sup 233/Th via its characteristic ..gamma.. radiations. The half-life derived for /sup 233/Ac from several experiments is 2.3 +- 0.3 min. The production cross section for /sup 233/Ac is 100 ..mu..b.

  15. AC and DC power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic assessment of AC and DC transmission systems; long distance transmission, cable transmission, system inter-connection, voltage support, reactive compensation, stabilisation of systems; parallel operation of DC links with AC systems; comparison between alternatives for particular schemes. Design and application equipment: design, testing and application of equipment for HVDC, series and shunt static compensated AC schemes, including associated controls. Installations: overall design of stations and conductor arrangements for HVDC, series and shunt static AC schemes including insulation co-ordination. System analysis and modelling.

  16. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  17. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer. 24 figs.

  18. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.

  19. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  20. A.C. Susceptometry Utilizing GMR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Daniel; Shivaram, Bellave

    2001-11-01

    Superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) magnetometers remain as the most sensitive instruments to measure magnetic properties. However, the ready availability and rapid improvements in the sensitivity of magnetic field sensors based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect combined with their low cost and ability to operate at room temperature opens up opportunities to exploit these new devices where the utmost sensitivity of SQUID based detection is not needed. In this article we present one such application of GMR sensors and demonstrate how they can enhance the signals obtained in a simple a.c. magnetic susceptibility apparatus.

  1. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Favreau, Peter F; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F; Rich, Thomas C; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J

    2014-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  2. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, Peter F.; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  3. AC Loss Measurements on a 2G YBCO Coil

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, Christopher M; Duckworth, Robert C; Schwenterly, S W

    2011-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES) to continue development of HTS power transformers. For compatibility with the existing power grid, a commercially viable HTS transformer will have to operate at high voltages in the range of 138 kV and above, and will have to withstand 550-kV impulse voltages as well. Second-generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors will be required for an economically-competitive design. In order to adequately size the refrigeration system for these transformers, the ac loss of these HTS coils must be characterized. Electrical AC loss measurements were conducted on a prototype high voltage (HV) coil with co-wound stainless steel at 60 Hz in a liquid nitrogen bath using a lock-in amplifier technique. The prototype HV coil consisted of 26 continuous (without splice) single pancake coils concentrically centered on a stainless steel former. For ac loss measurement purposes, voltage tap pairs were soldered across each set of two single pancake coils so that a total of 13 separate voltage measurements could be made across the entire length of the coil. AC loss measurements were taken as a function of ac excitation current. Results show that the loss is primarily concentrated at the ends of the coil where the operating fraction of critical current is the highest and show a distinct difference in current scaling of the losses between low current and high current regimes.

  4. Dual excitation multiphase electrostatic drive

    SciTech Connect

    Niino, Toshiki; Higuchi, Toshiro |; Egawa, Saku

    1995-12-31

    A novel electrostatic drive technology named Dual Excitation Multiphase Electrostatic Drive (DEMED) was presented. A basic DEMED consisted of two plastic films in which 3-phase parallel electrodes were embedded and was driven by a 3-phase ac excitation to the electrodes. Static characteristics of DEMED were calculated and tested and the results agreed very well. Three prototype motors of DEMED were fabricated using commercially available technique. The first prototype consisted of a single slider and stator and generated a linear motion with a slider`s motion range of about 5mm. It weighed 7g and generated a power of 1.6W and a thrust force of 4.4N. The second prototype consisted of 50 layer stack of linear motors, summing their outputs. It weighed 3.6kg and generated a propulsive force of 310N being powered with boosted commercial 3-phase electricity. The third prototype consisted of a rotor and a stator in which electrodes were arranged radially and generated rotational motion. The maximum power of 36mW was generated by the prototype weighing only 260mg for its rotor and stator. From the results of the numerical calculation, a practical design methodology for the motor was determined. An optimal design for a motor employing currently available material and fabrication techniques is provided as an example. Analyses predict that force generation over the interfacial area between the slider and stator of this motor would be 3,900N/m{sup 2}.

  5. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  6. ACS CCD Stability Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogin, Norman

    2012-10-01

    A moderately crowded stellar field in the cluster 47 Tuc {6 arcmin West of the cluster core} is observed every four months with the WFC. The first visit exercises the full suite of broad and narrow band imaging filters and sub-array modes; following visits observe with only the six most popular Cycle 18 filters in full-frame mode. The positions and magnitudes of objects will be used to monitor local and large scale variations in the plate scale and the sensitivity of the detectors and to derive an independent measure of the detector CTE. One exposure in each sub-array mode with the WFC will allow us to verify that photometry obtained in full-frame and in sub-array modes are repeatable to better than 1%. This test is important for the ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration program, which uses sub-array exposures. This program may receive additional orbits to investigate ORIENT-dependent geometric distortion, which motivates the ORIENT and BETWEEN requirement on the first visit.

  7. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  8. Saturated excitation of fluorescence to quantify excitation enhancement in aperture antennas.

    PubMed

    Aouani, Heykel; Hostein, Richard; Mahboub, Oussama; Devaux, Eloïse; Rigneault, Hervé; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Wenger, Jérôme

    2012-07-30

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used to probe the electromagnetic intensity amplification on optical antennas, yet measuring the excitation intensity amplification is a challenge, as the detected fluorescence signal is an intricate combination of excitation and emission. Here, we describe a novel approach to quantify the electromagnetic amplification in aperture antennas by taking advantage of the intrinsic non linear properties of the fluorescence process. Experimental measurements of the fundamental f and second harmonic 2f amplitudes of the fluorescence signal upon excitation modulation are used to quantify the electromagnetic intensity amplification with plasmonic aperture antennas.

  9. Gated compressor, distortionless signal limiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, R. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A distortionless gated compressor for limiting the amplitude of a signal so as not to produce undesired signal levels responsive thereto is disclosed. The gated compressor includes a distortionless multiplier which multiplies an AC signal from a factor defined by a DC control signal. The compressor includes a plurality of channels each responsive to a signal produced in response to the multiplier's output. When the signal supplied to any channel exceeds a prescribed level, the level of the DC control signal is reduced to reduce the multiplier's output level and thereby prevent the signal applied to any channel from exceeding its prescribed level.

  10. Atmospheric-pressure hybrid plasma with combination of ac and microwave

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2006-12-18

    A hybrid plasma system with combination of ac and microwave at atmospheric pressure was developed. The hybrid plasma is initiated by ac capillary plasma, is stabilized by a flowing channel of working gas through common electrodes, and is expanded by the dissipation of microwave energy, revealing two distinguishable plasma columns of about 1 m in length and a transition point. The capillary in the hybrid plasma system is working as a common electrode for the microwave and ac plasmas. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to characterize and monitor the argon and nitrogen excited species produced in different plasma columns.

  11. Pseudorandom selective excitation in NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Jamie D.; Coomes, Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    In this work, average Hamiltonian theory is used to study selective excitation under a series of small flip-angle θ-pulses θ ≪ {π}/{3} applied either periodically [corresponding to the DANTE pulse sequence] or aperiodically to a spin-1/2 system. First, an average Hamiltonian description of the DANTE pulse sequence is developed that is valid for frequencies either at or very far from integer multiples of {1}/{τ}, where τ is the interpulse delay. For aperiodic excitation, a single resonance, νsel, can be selectively excited if the θ-pulse phases are modulated in concert with the interpulse delays. The conditions where average Hamiltonian theory can be accurately applied to describe the dynamics under aperiodic selective pulses, which are referred to as pseudorandom-DANTE or p-DANTE sequences, are similar to those found for the DANTE sequence. Signal averaging over different p-DANTE sequences improves the apparent selectivity at νsel by reducing the excitations at other frequencies. Experimental demonstrations of p-DANTE sequences and comparisons with the theory are presented.

  12. Synaptic Control of Motoneuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Rekling, Jens C.; Funk, Gregory D.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Feldman, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    Movement, the fundamental component of behavior and the principal extrinsic action of the brain, is produced when skeletal muscles contract and relax in response to patterns of action potentials generated by motoneurons. The processes that determine the firing behavior of motoneurons are therefore important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization, and membrane properties, both passive and active. We then describe the general anatomical organization of synaptic input to motoneurons, followed by a description of the major transmitter systems that affect motoneuronal excitability, including ligands, receptor distribution, pre- and postsynaptic actions, signal transduction, and functional role. Glutamate is the main excitatory, and GABA and glycine are the main inhibitory transmitters acting through ionotropic receptors. These amino acids signal the principal motor commands from peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal structures. Amines, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, and neuropeptides, as well as the glutamate and GABA acting at metabotropic receptors, modulate motoneuronal excitability through pre- and postsynaptic actions. Acting principally via second messenger systems, their actions converge on common effectors, e.g., leak K+ current, cationic inward current, hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ca2+ channels, or presynaptic release processes. Together, these numerous inputs mediate and modify incoming motor commands, ultimately generating the coordinated firing patterns that underlie muscle contractions during motor behavior. PMID:10747207

  13. Acoustically excited heated jets. 1: Internal excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Ahuja, K. K.; Brown, W. H.; Salikuddin, M.; Morris, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of relatively strong upstream acoustic excitation on the mixing of heated jets with the surrounding air are investigated. To determine the extent of the available information on experiments and theories dealing with acoustically excited heated jets, an extensive literature survey was carried out. The experimental program consisted of flow visualization and flowfield velocity and temperature measurements for a broad range of jet operating and flow excitation conditions. A 50.8-mm-diam nozzle was used for this purpose. Parallel to the experimental study, an existing theoretical model of excited jets was refined to include the region downstream of the jet potential core. Excellent agreement was found between theory and experiment in moderately heated jets. However, the theory has not yet been confirmed for highly heated jets. It was found that the sensitivity of heated jets to upstream acoustic excitation varies strongly with the jet operating conditions and that the threshold excitation level increases with increasing jet temperature. Furthermore, the preferential Strouhal number is found not to change significantly with a change of the jet operating conditions. Finally, the effects of the nozzle exit boundary layer thickness appear to be similar for both heated and unheated jets at low Mach numbers.

  14. Implementation of Dipolar Resonant Excitation for Collision Induced Dissociation with Ion Mobility/Time-of-Flight MS

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ian K.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Danielson, William F.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Tang, Keqi; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    An ion mobility/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IMS/TOF MS) platform that allows for resonant excitation collision induced dissociation (CID) is presented. Highly efficient, mass-resolved fragmentation without additional excitation of product ions was accomplished and over-fragmentation common in beam-type CID experiments was alleviated. A quadrupole ion guide was modified to apply a dipolar AC signal across a pair of rods for resonant excitation. The method was characterized with singly protonated methionine enkephalin and triply protonated peptide angiotensin I, yielding maximum CID efficiencies of 44% and 84%, respectively. The Mathieu qx,y parameter was set at 0.707 for these experiments to maximize pseudopotential well depths and CID efficiencies. Resonant excitation CID was compared to beam-type CID for the peptide mixture. The ability to apply resonant waveforms in mobility-resolved windows is demonstrated with a peptide mixture yielding fragmentation over a range of mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios within a single IMS-MS analysis. PMID:24470195

  15. Implementation of Dipolar Resonant Excitation for Collision Induced Dissociation with Ion Mobility/Time-of-Flight MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Ian K.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Danielson, William F.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Tang, Keqi; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-04-01

    An ion mobility/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IMS/TOF MS) platform that allows for resonant excitation collision induced dissociation (CID) is presented. Highly efficient, mass-resolved fragmentation without additional excitation of product ions was accomplished and over-fragmentation common in beam-type CID experiments was alleviated. A quadrupole ion guide was modified to apply a dipolar AC signal across a pair of rods for resonant excitation. The method was characterized with singly protonated methionine enkephalin and triply protonated peptide angiotensin I, yielding maximum CID efficiencies of 44 % and 84 %, respectively. The Mathieu qx,y parameter was set at 0.707 for these experiments to maximize pseudopotential well depths and CID efficiencies. Resonant excitation CID was compared with beam-type CID for the peptide mixture. The ability to apply resonant waveforms in mobility-resolved windows is demonstrated with a peptide mixture yielding fragmentation over a range of mass-to-charge ( m/ z) ratios within a single IMS-MS analysis.

  16. Molecular mechanism of modulation of nociceptive neuron membrane excitability by a tripeptide.

    PubMed

    Shelykh, T N; Rogachevsky, I V; Nozdrachev, A D; Veselkina, O S; Podzorova, S A; Krylov, B V; Plakhova, V B

    2016-01-01

    Using the whole-cell patch-clamp method, the ability of arginine-containing tripeptide Ac-RER-NH2, dipeptide Ac-RR-NH2, and free Arg molecule to modulate the membrane excitability of nociceptors was studied. Extracellular Ac-RER-NH2 upon interaction with the outer membrane of the nociceptive neuron decreases the Zeff value of the activation gating system of Nav1.8 channels. Thus, the tripeptide Ac-RER-NH2 can be considered as a new effective and safe analgesic. PMID:27025494

  17. "Fast excitation" CID in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Murrell, J; Despeyroux, D; Lammert, S A; Stephenson, J L; Goeringer, D E

    2003-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is usually performed by applying a small amplitude excitation voltage at the same secular frequency as the ion of interest. Here we disclose studies examining the use of large amplitude voltage excitations (applied for short periods of time) to cause fragmentation of the ions of interest. This process has been examined using leucine enkephalin as the model compound and the motion of the ions within the ion trap simulated using ITSIM. The resulting fragmentation information obtained is identical with that observed by conventional resonance excitation CID. "Fast excitation" CID deposits (as determined by the intensity ratio of the a(4)/b(4) ion of leucine enkephalin) approximately the same amount of internal energy into an ion as conventional resonance excitation CID where the excitation signal is applied for much longer periods of time. The major difference between the two excitation techniques is the higher rate of excitation (gain in kinetic energy) between successive collisions with helium atoms with "fast excitation" CID as opposed to the conventional resonance excitation CID. With conventional resonance excitation CID ions fragment while the excitation voltage is still being applied whereas for "fast excitation" CID a higher proportion of the ions fragment in the ion cooling time following the excitation pulse. The fragmentation of the (M + 17H)(17+) of horse heart myoglobin is also shown to illustrate the application of "fast excitation" CID to proteins.

  18. "Fast Excitation" CID in Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, J.; Despeyroux, D.; Lammert, Stephen {Steve} A; Stephenson Jr, James {Jim} L; Goeringer, Doug

    2003-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is usually performed by applying a small amplitude excitation voltage at the same secular frequency as the ion of interest. Here we disclose studies examining the use of large amplitude voltage excitations (applied for short periods of time) to cause fragmentation of the ions of interest. This process has been examined using leucine enkephalin as the model compound and the motion of the ions within the ion trap simulated using ITSIM. The resulting fragmentation information obtained is identical with that observed by conventional resonance excitation CID. ''Fast excitation'' CID deposits (as determined by the intensity ratio of the a{sub 4}/b{sub 4} ion of leucine enkephalin) approximately the same amount of internal energy into an ion as conventional resonance excitation CID where the excitation signal is applied for much longer periods of time. The major difference between the two excitation techniques is the higher rate of excitation (gain in kinetic energy) between successive collisions with helium atoms with ''fast excitation'' CID as opposed to the conventional resonance excitation CID. With conventional resonance excitation CID ions fragment while the excitation voltage is still being applied whereas for ''fast excitation'' CID a higher proportion of the ions fragment in the ion cooling time following the excitation pulse. The fragmentation of the (M + 17H){sup 17+} of horse heart myoglobin is also shown to illustrate the application of ''fast excitation'' CID to proteins.

  19. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  20. Building the analytical response in frequency domain of AC biased bolometers - Application to Planck/HFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvé, Alexandre; Montier, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    uc(Context): Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for ν < 1 Hz, and secondly the Analog To digital Converter (ADC) component had been insufficiently characterized on-ground. These two problems require an exquisite knowledge of detector response. However bolometers have highly nonlinear characteristics, coming from their electrical and thermal coupling making them very difficult to model. uc(Goal): We present a method to build the analytical transfer function in frequency domain which describe the voltage response of an Alternative Current (AC) biased bolometer to optical excitation, based on the standard bolometer model. This model is built using the setup of the Planck/HFI instrument and offers the major improvement of being based on a physical model rather than the currently in use had-hoc model based on Direct Current (DC) bolometer theory. uc(Method): The analytical transfer function expression will be presented in matrix form. For this purpose, we build linearized versions of the bolometer electro thermal equilibrium. A custom description of signals in frequency is used to solve the problem with linear algebra. The model performances is validated using time domain simulations. uc(Results): The provided expression is suitable for calibration and data processing. It can also be used to provide constraints for fitting optical transfer function using real data from steady state electronic response and optical response. The accurate description of electronic response can also be used to improve the ADC nonlinearity correction for quickly varying optical signals.

  1. Concurrent Electroencephalography Recording During Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS)

    PubMed Central

    Fehér, Kristoffer D.; Morishima, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activities are considered to reflect the basis of rhythmic changes in transmission efficacy across brain networks and are assumed to integrate cognitive neural processes. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) holds the promise to elucidate the causal link between specific frequencies of oscillatory brain activity and cognitive processes. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recording during tACS would offer an opportunity to directly explore immediate neurophysiological effects of tACS. However, it is not trivial to measure EEG signals during tACS, as tACS creates a huge artifact in EEG data. Here we explain how to set up concurrent tACS-EEG experiments. Two necessary considerations for successful EEG recording while applying tACS are highlighted. First, bridging of the tACS and EEG electrodes via leaking EEG gel immediately saturates the EEG amplifier. To avoid bridging via gel, the viscosity of the EEG gel is the most important parameter. The EEG gel must be viscous to avoid bridging, but at the same time sufficiently fluid to create contact between the tACS electrode and the scalp. Second, due to the large amplitude of the tACS artifact, it is important to consider using an EEG system with a high resolution analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. In particular, the magnitude of the tACS artifact can exceed 100 mV at the vicinity of a stimulation electrode when 1 mA tACS is applied. The resolution of the A/D converter is of importance to measure good quality EEG data from the vicinity of the stimulation site. By following these guidelines for the procedures and technical considerations, successful concurrent EEG recording during tACS will be realized. PMID:26862814

  2. The Study of Porous Media with AC Electrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pengra, David B.; Wong, Po-Zen

    1996-11-01

    Electrokinetic phenomena, which involve the coupling of fluid and electric currents, are present in many porous media systems. They arise from the presence of a space charge layer at the fluid/solid interface, and depend on characteristics of the interface and properties of the porous material. Although understood for years, electrokinetic phenomena have been typically too weak to use as an experimental probe of such systems. Recently we have shown that modern instrumentation, based on AC excitations, can be used to measure electrokinetic response in porous rock. From the measurements we derive the permeability of the rock exactly, and study other physicochemical properties. We review electrokinetic theory, describe our results for porous rock, and discuss present research using the AC techniques. Research supported by the Gas Research Institute, Contract 5090-260-1953, and National Science Foundation Grant DMR-9405672.

  3. Inhibitory effect of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp on IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Nahoko; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao; Hori-Tamura, Naoko

    2011-05-25

    The palm fruit açaí is known to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant scavenging capacities. Pretreatment of IgE-sensitized mouse primary cultured mast cells with açaí pulp resulted in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, açaí suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation and transcription of the cytokine genes from a cultured mast cell line of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Açaí could selectively inhibit FcεRI signaling pathways. Furthermore, the FcεRI-mediated complementary signaling pathway was also suppressed by açaí. These results demonstrate that açaí is a potent inhibitor of IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

  4. System and method for monitoring and controlling stator winding temperature in a de-energized AC motor

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Luebke, Charles John; Habetler, Thomas G.; Zhang, Pinjia; Becker, Scott K.

    2011-12-27

    A system and method for measuring and controlling stator winding temperature in an AC motor while idling is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of a multi-phase AC motor. The circuit further includes a plurality of switching devices to control current flow and terminal voltages in the multi-phase AC motor and a controller connected to the circuit. The controller is configured to activate the plurality of switching devices to create a DC signal in an output of the motor control device corresponding to an input to the multi-phase AC motor, determine or estimate a stator winding resistance of the multi-phase AC motor based on the DC signal, and estimate a stator temperature from the stator winding resistance. Temperature can then be controlled and regulated by DC injection into the stator windings.

  5. 8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR SHOWING EXCITER No. 1 IN FOREGROUND, EXCITER No. 2., AND GENERATOR UNITS BEHIND EXCITER No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. EXCITER No. 1 GENERATOR HAS A COVER OVER TOP HALF OF COMMUTATOR ELEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  6. The ac53, ac78, ac101, and ac103 Genes Are Newly Discovered Core Genes in the Family Baculoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Miele, Solange Ana Belén; Iserte, Javier Alonso; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    The family Baculoviridae is a large group of insect viruses containing circular double-stranded DNA genomes of 80 to 180 kbp, which have broad biotechnological applications. A key feature to understand and manipulate them is the recognition of orthology. However, the differences in gene contents and evolutionary distances among the known members of this family make it difficult to assign sequence orthology. In this study, the genome sequences of 58 baculoviruses were analyzed, with the aim to detect previously undescribed core genes because of their remote homology. A routine based on Multi PSI-Blast/tBlastN and Multi HaMStR allowed us to detect 31 of 33 accepted core genes and 4 orthologous sequences in the Baculoviridae which were not described previously. Our results show that the ac53, ac78, ac101 (p40), and ac103 (p48) genes have orthologs in all genomes and should be considered core genes. Accordingly, there are 37 orthologous genes in the family Baculoviridae. PMID:22933288

  7. Semiconductor ac static power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrancik, J.

    1968-01-01

    Semiconductor ac static power switch has long life and high reliability, contains no moving parts, and operates satisfactorily in severe environments, including high vibration and shock conditions. Due to their resistance to shock and vibration, static switches are used where accidental switching caused by mechanical vibration or shock cannot be tolerated.

  8. Development of AC-driven liquid electrode plasma for sensitive detection of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Khoai, Do; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Tamotsu; Trong Tue, Phan; Okino, Akitoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru

    2016-02-01

    A novel liquid electrode plasma (LEP) driven by AC, which is used as an excitation source for elemental analysis, has been developed for the first time. The conditions such as chip layout and flow rate were found to produce the plasma in the channel. The mechanism of AC LEP generation was determined. AC LEP could be sustained in the resin channel with no severe damage on the channel. The emission spectra of electrolyte, lead and cadmium solution were obtained and compared with those generated by DC LEP. AC LEP was developed for the quantitative determination of lead and cadmium with limits of detection of 75.0 µg/L (ppb) and 4.5 µg/L (ppb), respectively. The novel plasma source is promising for on-chip combination and integration because it could be maintained at low flow rates on a resin-based platform.

  9. 16. EXCITERS, AND SYNCHROSCOPE GAUGE ON WALL. ACTIVE ELECTRIC EXCITER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. EXCITERS, AND SYNCHROSCOPE GAUGE ON WALL. ACTIVE ELECTRIC EXCITER AT REAR; UNUSED WATER-DRIVEN EXCITER IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. A calculable, transportable audio-frequency AC reference standard

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, N.M.; Hetrick, P.S. ); Zeng, X. )

    1989-04-01

    A transportable ac voltage source is described, in which sinusoidal signals are synthesized digitally in the audio-frequency range. The rms value of the output waveform may be calculated by measuring the dc level of the individual steps used to generate the waveform. The uncertainty of this calculation at the 7-V level is typically less than +-5 ppm from 60 Hz to 2 kHz and less than +-10 ppm from 30 Hz to 15 kHz.

  11. ACS Expands Role In High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes some of the services and programs of special interests to high school chemistry teachers that are being provided by ACS, and meant to make ACS membership more attractive to the teachers. (GA)

  12. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  13. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  14. Optimal Parametric Feedback Excitation of Nonlinear Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An optimal parametric feedback excitation principle is sought, found, and investigated. The principle is shown to provide an adaptive resonance condition that enables unprecedentedly robust movement generation in a large class of oscillatory dynamical systems. Experimental demonstration of the theory is provided by a nonlinear electronic circuit that realizes self-adaptive parametric excitation without model information, signal processing, and control computation. The observed behavior dramatically differs from the one achievable using classical parametric modulation, which is fundamentally limited by uncertainties in model information and nonlinear effects inevitably present in real world applications.

  15. Optimal Parametric Feedback Excitation of Nonlinear Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Braun, David J

    2016-01-29

    An optimal parametric feedback excitation principle is sought, found, and investigated. The principle is shown to provide an adaptive resonance condition that enables unprecedentedly robust movement generation in a large class of oscillatory dynamical systems. Experimental demonstration of the theory is provided by a nonlinear electronic circuit that realizes self-adaptive parametric excitation without model information, signal processing, and control computation. The observed behavior dramatically differs from the one achievable using classical parametric modulation, which is fundamentally limited by uncertainties in model information and nonlinear effects inevitably present in real world applications. PMID:26871336

  16. Spin-flavor composition of excited baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Ishara; Goity, Jose

    2015-10-01

    The excited baryon masses are analyzed in the framework of the 1 /Nc expansion using the available physical masses and also the masses obtained in lattice QCD for different quark masses. The baryon states are organized into irreducible representations of SU (6) × O (3) , where the [ 56 ,lP =0+ ] ground state and excited baryons, and the [ 56 ,2+ ] and [ 70 ,1- ] excited states are analyzed. The analyses are carried out to O 1 /Nc and first order in the quark masses. The issue of state identifications is discussed. Numerous parameter independent mass relations result at those orders, among them the well known Gell-Mann-Okubo and Equal Spacing relations, as well as additional relations involving baryons with different spins. It is observed that such relations are satisfied at the expected level of precision. Predictions for physically unknown states for each multiplet are obtained. From the quark-mass dependence of the coefficients in the baryon mass formulas an increasingly simpler picture of the spin-flavor composition of the baryons is observed with increasing pion mass (equivalently, increasing mu , d masses), as measured by the number of significant mass operators. This work was supported in part by DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177 under which JSA operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (J. L. G.), and by the NSF (USA) through Grant PHY-0855789 and PHY-1307413 (I. P. F and J. L. G).

  17. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  18. System for conveniently providing load testing termination of an AC power source having at least one battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, Wilbert J., III

    1995-05-01

    An AC uninterruptible power source is disclosed that provides multiphase power output signals for actual use and a selectable single phase power output signal for use in testing. The AC uninterruptible power source further comprises at least one battery. The single phase output signal is connected to a dummy load by means of a power switch of the break before make type. The invention further includes the dummy load as preferably having metering capabilities to measure the frequency, current, and voltage parameters of the single phase output signal. The arrangement of the present invention allows for the single phase output to be mated to the dummy load without the need of removing input power to the AC uninterruptible power source so as to reduce, or even eliminate, transient caused failures to the AC uninterruptible power source and to its sensitive load equipment which the power source services.

  19. A system for conveniently providing load testing termination of an AC power source having at least one battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Wilbert J., III

    1994-10-01

    An AC uninterruptible power source is disclosed that provides multi-phase power output signals for actual use and a selectable single phase power output signal for use in testing. The AC uninterruptible power source further comprises at least one battery. The single phase output signal is connected to a dummy load by means of a power switch of the break-before-make type. The invention further includes the dummy load as preferably having metering capabilities to measure the frequency, current, and voltage parameters of the single phase output signal. The arrangement of the present invention allows for the single phase output to be mated to the dummy load without the need of removing input power to the AC uninterruptible power source so as to reduce, or even eliminate, transient caused failures to the AC uninterruptible power source and to its sensitive load equipment which the power source services.

  20. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L.; Barron, Megan E.; Roa, Jinae N.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3−, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3− sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3−-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H+ absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  1. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  2. Emission Behavior of Crystalline 1,4-Bis(4-phenylthiophene-2-yl)benzene Film Under Optical Excitation with Ultra Short Pulses.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Sasaki, Fumio; Hotta, Shu

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated emission behaviors of crystallized films of 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophene-2-yl)benzene (AC5) in detail which was a representative thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer. The crystallized AC5 films were prepared by vapor deposition onto a substrate and thermal treatment. The AC5 films consisted of a crystalline domain with the size of several tens of micrometers. We used femtosecond laser pulses for the excitation of the AC5 films. As a result, the femtosecond laser pulses did not induce re-absorption above excitation energy densities of their laser threshold. The obtained gain value for AC5 crystallized film was large, over 150 cm-1. Furthermore, the emission cross section of the crystallized AC5 film was nearly 10(-16) cm2. PMID:27451614

  3. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  4. Proton release from Stentor photoreceptors in the excited states.

    PubMed Central

    Song, P S; Walker, E B; Auerbach, R A; Robinson, G W

    1981-01-01

    Steady-state and picosecond pulse excitations of the photophobic-phototactic receptors isolated from Stentor coeruleus produced anionic species predominantly in the excited singlet state, although neutral photoreceptors in the ground state were exclusively excited. The same photoreceptor in vivo also emits fluorescence from the excited state of its anionic species, with an excitation spectrum identical to the absorption spectrum of the neutral species in the ground state. The excited state dissociation of protons from the photoreceptor chromophore (stentorin; hypericin covalently linked to protein) efficiently occurs in less than 10 ps. A possible role of the transient-proton release from the photoreceptor, in the signal transduction photoresponse of Stentor, is briefly discussed. PMID:6791722

  5. Study of Microstructure and Transient, Instantaneous Current in Different Excitations During Silicon Micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A. V.; Jain, V. K.; Misra, K. A.

    2012-09-01

    Study of transient, instantaneous current during silicon micromachining using electrochemical spark process is carried out. Voltage excitation of three kinds namely, dc, Half wave rectified and ac are used to carve the micro channels. The transient and instantaneous process current is measured online and analyzed for each excitation. Micromachining and the surface topography results are presented. The transient current reveals the mechanism of the spark formation and explains the inherent process stages.

  6. Decoherence at constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. M.; Sadurní, E.; Seligman, T. H.

    2012-02-01

    We present a simple exactly solvable extension of the Jaynes-Cummings model by adding dissipation. This is done such that the total number of excitations is conserved. The Liouville operator in the resulting master equation can be reduced to blocks of 4×4 matrices.

  7. Excited states in hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this brief review we first summarize some pertinent features of the photophysical properties of excited states of hydrocarbons and the mechanisms by which they transfer energy to solutes and then review their yields and their behavior under fast-electron irradiation conditions. 33 refs.

  8. Positron excitation of neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  9. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  10. Bouncing of a Droplet on Superhydrophobic Surface in AC Electrowetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Lee, Seung Jun; Hong, Jiwoo

    2009-11-01

    Oscillation of a droplet is induced in ac electrowetting by time-dependent electrical wetting tension. A droplet placed on a superhydrophobic surface bounces up like a rubber ball when an ac signal is applied. The bouncing pattern is highly frequency dependent. We investigated how the shape deformation and bouncing of a droplet are affected by applied frequency. The droplet motion is analyzed with the spectral method. The droplet is modeled as a simple linear oscillator, and the mass and spring constants are determined based on analytical results. We found that bouncing occurs periodically at a resonance frequency of the droplet. The motion of a sessile droplet released from a fixed shape is analyzed based on the phase field method. The numerical results show qualitative agreement with the experimental results for a bouncing droplet. Details on the flow field inside a bouncing droplet will be discussed based on numerical results.

  11. Atmospheric Excitation of Planetary Normal Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanimoto, Toshiro

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) understand the phenomenon of continuous free oscillations of the Earth and (2) examine the idea of using this phenomenon for planetary seismology. We first describe the results on (1) and present our evaluations of the idea (2) in the final section. In 1997, after almost forty years since the initial attempt by Benioff et al, continuous free oscillations of the Earth were discovered. Spheroidal fundamental modes between 2 and 7 millihertz are excited continuously with acceleration amplitudes of about 0.3-0.5 nanogals. The signal is now commonly found in virtually all data recorded by STS-1 type broadband seismometers at quiet sites. Seasonal variation in amplitude and the existence of two coupled modes between the atmosphere and the solid Earth support that these oscillations are excited by the atmosphere. Stochastic excitation due to atmospheric turbulence is a favored mechanism, providing a good match between theory and data. The atmosphere has ample energy to support this theory because excitation of these modes require only 500-10000 W whereas the atmosphere contains about 117 W of kinetic energy. An application of this phenomenon includes planetary seismology, because other planets may be oscillating due to atmospheric excitation. The interior structure of planets could be learned by determining the eigenfrequencies in the continuous free oscillations. It is especially attractive to pursue this idea for tectonically quiet planets, since quakes may be too infrequent to be recorded by seismic instruments.

  12. Excitation rate dependence of Auger recombination in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Patrick E.; Barnat, Edward V.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2010-03-01

    This work reports on measurements of the Auger recombination coefficients in silicon wafers with pump-probe thermoreflectance techniques operating at two different excitation rates: 250 kHz (low repetition rate) and 80 MHz (high repetition rate). The different excitation frequencies give rise to different thermoreflectance signals in the Si samples, which is ascribed to the excited number density in the conduction band. In the low repetition rate case, the excited carriers recombine via Auger processes before the next pump excitation is absorbed. However, in the high repetition rate case, the rate in which the pump excitations are absorbed at the sample surface is higher than the Auger recombination rate, indicating that the excited carrier densities in the high repetition rate experiments are much higher than in the low repetition rate measurements even though the pump fluences are comparable. This is ascribed to pulse accumulation in the high repetition rate measurements, and is quantified with rate equation and thermoreflectance models fit to the experimental data. Comparing the data taken at the two different excitation modulations gives insight into the excited carrier density when recombination rate are on the same order as excitation frequencies.

  13. ac electroosmosis in rectangular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Michele; Accoto, Dino; Dario, Paolo

    2005-11-22

    Motivated by the growing interest in ac electroosmosis as a reliable no moving parts strategy to control fluid motion in microfluidic devices for biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip, we study transient and steady-state electrokinetic phenomena (electroosmosis and streaming currents) in infinitely extended rectangular charged microchannels. With the aid of Fourier series and Laplace transforms we provide a general formal solution of the problem, which is used to study the time-dependent response to sudden ac applied voltage differences in case of finite electric double layer. The Debye-Huckel approximation has been adopted to allow for an algebraic solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann problem in Fourier space. We obtain the expressions of flow velocity profiles, flow rates, streaming currents, as well as expressions of the complex hydraulic and electrokinetic conductances. We analyze in detail the dependence of the electrokinetic conductance on the extension of linear dimensions relative to the Debye length, with an eye on finite electric double layer effects. PMID:16351310

  14. Evaluation of Simultaneous Multisine Excitation of the Joined Wing SensorCraft Aeroelastic Wind Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple mutually orthogonal signals comprise excitation data sets for aeroservoelastic system identification. A multisine signal is a sum of harmonic sinusoid components. A set of these signals is made orthogonal by distribution of the frequency content such that each signal contains unique frequencies. This research extends the range of application of an excitation method developed for stability and control flight testing to aeroservoelastic modeling from wind tunnel testing. Wind tunnel data for the Joined Wing SensorCraft model validates this method, demonstrating that these signals applied simultaneously reproduce the frequency response estimates achieved from one-at-a-time excitation.

  15. Evaluation of Material Nonlinearities Using Rectangular Pulse Trains for Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaziachmetovas, Andrius; Svilainis, Linas; Kybartas, Darius; Aleksandrovas, Arturas; Liaukonis, Dobilas

    Aim of the presented investigation was to evaluate the suitability of the rectangular pulse trains for nonlinear material parameters study. It was assumed that if duty cycle of the excitation is 50% then second harmonic is significantly reduced. Excitation signal frequency was fixed to the A/D sampling frequency and signal carefully gated to reduce the signal leak into neighbouring frequency bins. Sine wave correlation was used to extract the harmonics content. Results of nonlinear parameters measurement for several materials are given as performance comparison.

  16. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP): Potential target molecule in research of heart, kidney and brain.

    PubMed

    Hrenak, Jaroslav; Paulis, Ludovit; Simko, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a ubiquitous molecule generated in all mammalian tissues from the N-terminal sequence of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) by the action of propyl oligopeptidase. Ac-SDKP is an alternative substrate for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). There are several indications that Ac-SDKP may be protective in the cardiovascular system. First, the level of Ac- SDKP in plasma and tissues is reduced in some cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. Second, an administration of Ac-SDKP to rodents attenuates inflammation, cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration resulting in a reduction of fibrosis in the heart, vessels and kidneys in conditions of their disorders. Third, the treatment with ACE-inhibitors is associated with a reduced degradation and hence increased levels of Ac-SDKP, while a simultaneous treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Ac- SDKP partly counteracts the benefit of ACE-inhibition. Since Ac-SDKP fails to reduce blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), its potential structural benefit is obviously mediated by direct action on tissue in preventing or reversing excessive fibrosis. The protection by ACE-inhibition seems to be partly mediated by increased availability of Ac-SDKP. Thus, it is to suppose that harvesting the knowledge on the role of Ac-SDKP in cardiovascular physiology and pathology could deepen our insight into the mechanisms of action of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) as well as agents interfering with this system. The exciting protective potential of Ac-SDKP suggests that this compound could be a focused drug target not only in animal experiments but also in the clinical cardio-pharmacologic research in the near future.

  17. Excitation Spectra and Brightness Optimization of Two-Photon Excited Probes

    PubMed Central

    Mütze, Jörg; Iyer, Vijay; Macklin, John J.; Colonell, Jennifer; Karsh, Bill; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra; Looger, Loren L.; Lavis, Luke D.; Harris, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Two-photon probe excitation data are commonly presented as absorption cross section or molecular brightness (the detected fluorescence rate per molecule). We report two-photon molecular brightness spectra for a diverse set of organic and genetically encoded probes with an automated spectroscopic system based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The two-photon action cross section can be extracted from molecular brightness measurements at low excitation intensities, while peak molecular brightness (the maximum molecular brightness with increasing excitation intensity) is measured at higher intensities at which probe photophysical effects become significant. The spectral shape of these two parameters was similar across all dye families tested. Peak molecular brightness spectra, which can be obtained rapidly and with reduced experimental complexity, can thus serve as a first-order approximation to cross-section spectra in determining optimal wavelengths for two-photon excitation, while providing additional information pertaining to probe photostability. The data shown should assist in probe choice and experimental design for multiphoton microscopy studies. Further, we show that, by the addition of a passive pulse splitter, nonlinear bleaching can be reduced—resulting in an enhancement of the fluorescence signal in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy by a factor of two. This increase in fluorescence signal, together with the observed resemblance of action cross section and peak brightness spectra, suggests higher-order photobleaching pathways for two-photon excitation. PMID:22385865

  18. RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller

    SciTech Connect

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.

  19. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    1992-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  20. Anomalous decay of photon echo in a quantum dot ensemble in the strong excitation regime

    SciTech Connect

    Suemori, Ryosuke; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu

    2013-12-04

    We investigated the coherent dynamics of exciton ground-state transitions in an 150-layer-stacked strain-compensated InAs quantum dot ensemble using photon echo (PE) technique in the strong excitation regime. The time delay dependence of PE signal intensity shows a drastic change depending on the excitation intensity and the aperture position placed in front of a detector. Our results suggest that the excitation-intensity-dependent spatial distribution of PE signal intensity plays an important role in observing PE signal decay in the strong excitation regime.

  1. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.

    1985-08-06

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.

  2. Aperture excited dielectric antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Chatterjee, J. S.; Mason, V. B.; Tai, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the effect of placing dielectric objects over the aperture of waveguide antennas are presented. Experimental measurements of the radiation patterns, gain, impedance, near-field amplitude, and pattern and impedance coupling between pairs of antennas are given for various Plexiglas shapes, including the sphere and the cube, excited by rectangular, circular, and square waveguide feed apertures. The waveguide excitation of a dielectric sphere is modeled using the Huygens' source, and expressions for the resulting electric fields, directivity, and efficiency are derived. Calculations using this model show good overall agreement with experimental patterns and directivity measurements. The waveguide under an infinite dielectric slab is used as an impedance model. Calculations using this model agree qualitatively with the measured impedance data. It is concluded that dielectric loaded antennas such as the waveguide excited sphere, cube, or sphere-cylinder can produce directivities in excess of that obtained by a uniformly illuminated aperture of the same cross section, particularly for dielectric objects with dimensions of 2 wavelengths or less. It is also shown that for certain configurations coupling between two antennas of this type is less than that for the same antennas without dielectric loading.

  3. Phase-sensitive detection of spin pumping via the ac inverse spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Mathias; Shaw, Justin M; Nembach, Hans T; Silva, Thomas J

    2014-10-10

    We use a phase-sensitive, quantitative technique to separate inductive and ac inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltages observed in Ni(81)Fe(19)/normal metal multilayers under the condition of ferromagnetic resonance. For Ni(81)Fe(19)/Pt thin film bilayers and at microwave frequencies from 7 to 20 GHz, we observe an ac ISHE magnitude that is much larger than that expected from the dc spin Hall angle Θ(SH)(Pt) = 0.1. Furthermore, at these frequencies, we find an unexpected, ≈ 110° phase of the ac ISHE signal relative to the in-plane component of the resonant magnetization precession. We attribute our findings to a dominant intrinsic ac ISHE in Pt.

  4. Digital phosphorimeter with frequency domain signal processing: Application to real-time fiber-optic oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcala, J. Ricardo; Yu, Clement; Yeh, Gong Jong

    1993-06-01

    An instrument to measure the excited-state lifetimes of phosphorescent materials in real time is described. This apparatus uses pulsed and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG solid-state laser for excitation, sampler for data acquisition, and frequency domain methods for data fitting. The instrument amplifies the ac components of the detector output and band limits the signal to 25 kHz. The fundamental frequency of the excitation is then set to obtain a desired number of harmonics. This band limited signal is sampled and averaged over few thousand cycles in the time domain. The frequency domain representation of the data is obtained by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio of each sampled harmonic is then computed. Ten to a hundred values of the phase and modulations are averaged before computing the sensor lifetime. The instrument is capable of measuring precise and accurate excited-state lifetimes from subpicowatt luminescent signals in 100 μm optical fibers. To monitor oxygen for biomedical applications the response time of the system is decreased by collecting only 8 or 16 harmonics. A least-squares fit yields the lifetimes of single exponentials. A component of zero lifetime is introduced to account for the backscatter excitation. The phosphorescence lifetimes measured reproducibly to three parts in a thousand are used to monitor oxygen. Oxygen concentrations are computed employing empirical polynomials. The system drift is less than 1% over 100 h of continuous operation. This instrument is used to measure oxygen concentrations in vitro and in vivo with 2 s update times and 90 s full response times. Examples of measurements in saline solutions and in dogs are presented.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics studies in the Fermilab tevatron using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto,R.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M. J.; Kopp, S. E.

    2009-05-04

    An AC dipole magnet produces a sinusoidally oscillating dipole field with frequency close to betatron frequency and excites large sustained oscillations of beam particles circulating in a synchrotron. Observation of such oscillations with beam position monitors allows direct measurements of a synchrotron's nonlinear parameters. This paper presents experimental studies to measure perturbative effects of sextupole and octupole fields, performed in the Fermilab Tevatron using an ACdipole.

  6. 78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 233 RIN 2130-AC44 Signal System Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of proposed... Regulatory Action A. Elimination of the Signal System Five- ear Report On May 14, 2012, President...

  7. Testing of a First Order AC Magnetic Susceptometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Ryan; Sunny, Smitha; Ho, Pei-Chun

    2011-11-01

    A first-order AC magnetic susceptometer has been constructed and tested to find the magnetic response of strongly correlated electron materials. The instrument works by using a primary coil to apply a small AC magnetic field of .104 Oe to a sample with a cylindrical coil space of length .635 cm and diameter .355 cm. A lock-in amplifier is used to monitor the induced voltage from a set of secondary coils. By coupling a temperature-controlled system with this instrument, the change in the magnetic signal with respect to temperature is measured. Monitoring the signal changes may indicate the temperature that causes the material to transition to either a ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic, or superconducting state. A 122.47 mg Gd polycrystal was used to test our susceptometer. The data qualitatively agrees with the previous results of magnetization vs. temperature of Gd single crystals by Nigh et al. [1]: there is a steep increase in the pick-up signal at 300 K where Gd becomes ferromagnetic and a peak at 210 K [1]. This susceptometer will be used for our future investigation of magnetic properties of rare earth compounds and nanoparticles in the temperature range of 10 K to 300 K. [4pt] [1] H. E. Nigh, S. Legvold, and F. H. Spedding, Physical Review 132, 1092 (1963)

  8. BROADBAND EXCITATION IN NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.

    1984-10-01

    Theoretical methods for designing sequences of radio frequency (rf) radiation pulses for broadband excitation of spin systems in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are described. The sequences excite spins uniformly over large ranges of resonant frequencies arising from static magnetic field inhomogeneity, chemical shift differences, or spin couplings, or over large ranges of rf field amplitudes. Specific sequences for creating a population inversion or transverse magnetization are derived and demonstrated experimentally in liquid and solid state NMR. One approach to broadband excitation is based on principles of coherent averaging theory. A general formalism for deriving pulse sequences is given, along with computational methods for specific cases. This approach leads to sequences that produce strictly constant transformations of a spin system. The importance of this feature in NMR applications is discussed. A second approach to broadband excitation makes use of iterative schemes, i.e. sets of operations that are applied repetitively to a given initial pulse sequences, generating a series of increasingly complex sequences with increasingly desirable properties. A general mathematical framework for analyzing iterative schemes is developed. An iterative scheme is treated as a function that acts on a space of operators corresponding to the transformations produced by all possible pulse sequences. The fixed points of the function and the stability of the fixed points are shown to determine the essential behavior of the scheme. Iterative schemes for broadband population inversion are treated in detail. Algebraic and numerical methods for performing the mathematical analysis are presented. Two additional topics are treated. The first is the construction of sequences for uniform excitation of double-quantum coherence and for uniform polarization transfer over a range of spin couplings. Double-quantum excitation sequences are demonstrated in a liquid crystal system. The

  9. Excitation Control: Balancing PSD-95 Function at the Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Dove; El-Husseini, Alaa

    2008-01-01

    Excitability of individual neurons dictates the overall excitation in specific brain circuits. This process is thought to be regulated by molecules that regulate synapse number, morphology and strength. Neuronal excitation is also influenced by the amounts of neurotransmitter receptors and signaling molecules retained at particular synaptic sites. Recent studies revealed a key role for PSD-95, a scaffolding molecule enriched at glutamatergic synapses, in modulation of clustering of several neurotransmitter receptors, adhesion molecules, ion channels, cytoskeletal elements and signaling molecules at postsynaptic sites. In this review we will highlight mechanisms that control targeting of PSD-95 at the synapse, and discuss how this molecule influences the retention and clustering of diverse synaptic proteins to regulate synaptic structure and strength. We will also discuss how PSD-95 may maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition in the brain and how alterations in this balance may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:18946537

  10. Analysis of excitation and collection geometries for planar waveguide immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Douglas A.; Dyer, Shellee; Fowers, David; Herron, James N.

    1993-05-01

    We demonstrate the use of a two-channel flowcell for fluorescent immunoassays. The flowcell contains a planar silica waveguide for evanescent excitation of the fluorophores, and the planar waveguide surface provides the solid support for immobilization of the antibodies. The detection system is composed of a grating spectrometer and a CCD camera for spectral characterization of the emitted signals. Two methods of sensing have been studied: a displacement-type technique and a sandwich-type assay. The sensitivity achieved for measuring concentrations of HCG by the sandwich method is sub-picomolar. Also, we have experimentally compared the signal strengths for two alternative ways of excitation and collection, and determine that waveguide excitation/side collection has some practical advantages over side excitation/waveguide collection.

  11. Signal Prediction With Input Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Chen, Ya-Chin

    1999-01-01

    A novel coding technique is presented for signal prediction with applications including speech coding, system identification, and estimation of input excitation. The approach is based on the blind equalization method for speech signal processing in conjunction with the geometric subspace projection theory to formulate the basic prediction equation. The speech-coding problem is often divided into two parts, a linear prediction model and excitation input. The parameter coefficients of the linear predictor and the input excitation are solved simultaneously and recursively by a conventional recursive least-squares algorithm. The excitation input is computed by coding all possible outcomes into a binary codebook. The coefficients of the linear predictor and excitation, and the index of the codebook can then be used to represent the signal. In addition, a variable-frame concept is proposed to block the same excitation signal in sequence in order to reduce the storage size and increase the transmission rate. The results of this work can be easily extended to the problem of disturbance identification. The basic principles are outlined in this report and differences from other existing methods are discussed. Simulations are included to demonstrate the proposed method.

  12. SHOCK-EXCITED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Creveling, R.

    1957-12-17

    S> A shock-excited quartz crystal oscillator is described. The circuit was specifically designed for application in micro-time measuring work to provide an oscillator which immediately goes into oscillation upon receipt of a trigger pulse and abruptly ceases oscillation when a second pulse is received. To achieve the instant action, the crystal has a prestressing voltage applied across it. A monostable multivibrator receives the on and off trigger pulses and discharges a pulse through the crystal to initiate or terminate oscillation instantly.

  13. Search for Gluonic Excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Eugenio

    2007-10-01

    Studies of meson spectra via strong decays provide insight regarding QCD at the confinement scale. These studies have led to phenomenological models for QCD such as the constituent quark model. However, QCD allows for a much richer spectrum of meson states which include extra states such as exotics, hybrids, multi-quarks, and glueballs. First discussion of the status of exotic meson searches is given followed by a discussion of plans at Jefferson Lab to double the energy of the machine to 12 GeV, which will allow us to access photoproduction of mesons in search for gluonic excited states.

  14. Search for Gluonic Excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Eugenio, Paul

    2007-10-26

    Studies of meson spectra via strong decays provide insight regarding QCD at the confinement scale. These studies have led to phenomenological models for QCD such as the constituent quark model. However, QCD allows for a much richer spectrum of meson states which include extra states such as exotics, hybrids, multi-quarks, and glueballs. First discussion of the status of exotic meson searches is given followed by a discussion of plans at Jefferson Lab to double the energy of the machine to 12 GeV, which will allow us to access photoproduction of mesons in search for gluonic excited states.

  15. Magnetic nanoparticle thermometer: an investigation of minimum error transmission path and AC bias error.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhongzhou; Su, Rijian; Liu, Wenzhong; Huang, Zhixing

    2015-04-14

    The signal transmission module of a magnetic nanoparticle thermometer (MNPT) was established in this study to analyze the error sources introduced during the signal flow in the hardware system. The underlying error sources that significantly affected the precision of the MNPT were determined through mathematical modeling and simulation. A transfer module path with the minimum error in the hardware system was then proposed through the analysis of the variations of the system error caused by the significant error sources when the signal flew through the signal transmission module. In addition, a system parameter, named the signal-to-AC bias ratio (i.e., the ratio between the signal and AC bias), was identified as a direct determinant of the precision of the measured temperature. The temperature error was below 0.1 K when the signal-to-AC bias ratio was higher than 80 dB, and other system errors were not considered. The temperature error was below 0.1 K in the experiments with a commercial magnetic fluid (Sample SOR-10, Ocean Nanotechnology, Springdale, AR, USA) when the hardware system of the MNPT was designed with the aforementioned method.

  16. Magnetic Nanoparticle Thermometer: An Investigation of Minimum Error Transmission Path and AC Bias Error

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhongzhou; Su, Rijian; Liu, Wenzhong; Huang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    The signal transmission module of a magnetic nanoparticle thermometer (MNPT) was established in this study to analyze the error sources introduced during the signal flow in the hardware system. The underlying error sources that significantly affected the precision of the MNPT were determined through mathematical modeling and simulation. A transfer module path with the minimum error in the hardware system was then proposed through the analysis of the variations of the system error caused by the significant error sources when the signal flew through the signal transmission module. In addition, a system parameter, named the signal-to-AC bias ratio (i.e., the ratio between the signal and AC bias), was identified as a direct determinant of the precision of the measured temperature. The temperature error was below 0.1 K when the signal-to-AC bias ratio was higher than 80 dB, and other system errors were not considered. The temperature error was below 0.1 K in the experiments with a commercial magnetic fluid (Sample SOR-10, Ocean Nanotechnology, Springdale, AR, USA) when the hardware system of the MNPT was designed with the aforementioned method. PMID:25875188

  17. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  18. Superconductor coil geometry and ac losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, T. V., Jr.; Zapata, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical relation is presented which allows simple computation of volume-averaged winding fields from central fields for coils of small rectangular cross sections. This relation suggests that, in certain applications, ac-loss minimization can be accomplished by use of low winding densities, provided that hysteresis losses are independent of winding density. The ac-loss measurements on coils wound of twisted multifilamentary composite superconductors show no significant dependence on ac losses on winding density, thus permitting the use of winding density as an independent design parameter in loss minimization.

  19. Spectroscopy of magnetic excitations in magnetic superconductors using vortex motion.

    PubMed

    Bulaevskii, L N; Hruska, M; Maley, M P

    2005-11-11

    In magnetic superconductors a moving vortex lattice is accompanied by an ac magnetic field which leads to the generation of spin waves. At resonance conditions the dynamics of vortices in magnetic superconductors changes drastically, resulting in strong peaks in the dc I-V characteristics at voltages at which the washboard frequency of the vortex lattice matches the spin wave frequency omegaS(g), where g are the reciprocal vortex lattice vectors. We show that if the washboard frequency lies above the magnetic gap, measurement of the I-V characteristics provides a new method to obtain information on the spectrum of magnetic excitations in borocarbides and cuprate layered magnetic superconductors.

  20. Wideband excitation in nonlinear vibro-acoustic modulation for damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepka, A.; Adamczyk, M.; Pieczonka, L.; Staszewski, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    The paper discusses the use of wideband excitation in nonlinear vibro-acoustic modulation technique (VAM) used for damage detection. In its original form, two mono-harmonic signals (low and high frequency) are used for excitation. The low frequency excitation is typically selected based on a modal analysis test and high frequency excitation is selected arbitrarily in the ultrasonic frequency range. This paper presents a different approach with use of wideband excitation signals. The proposed approach gives the possibility to simplify the testing procedure by omitting the modal test used to determine the value of low frequency excitation. Simultaneous use of wideband excitation for high frequency solves the ambiguity related to the selection of the frequency of acoustic wave. Broadband excitation signals require, however, more elaborate signal processing methods to determine the intensity of modulation for a given bandwidth. The paper discusses the proposed approach and the related signal processing procedure. Experimental validation of the proposed technique is performed on a laminated composite plate with a barely visible impact damage that was generated in an impact test. Piezoceramic actuators are used for vibration excitation and a scanning laser vibrometer is used for noncontact data acquisition.

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of CpACS27A gene reveals its involvement in monoecy instability and other associated traits in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Barrera, Alejandro; Boualem, Adnane; Garrido, Dolores; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    A number of Cucurbita pepo genotypes showing instable monoecy or partial andromonoecy, i.e. an incomplete conversion of female into bisexual flowers, have been detected. Given that in melon and cucumber andromonoecy is the result of reduction of ethylene production in female floral buds, caused by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7 and CsACS2; we have cloned and characterized two related C. pepo genes, CpACS27A and CpACS27B. The molecular structure of CpACS27A and its specific expression in the carpels of female flowers during earlier stages of flower development suggests that this gene is the Cucurbita ortholog of CmACS7 and CsACS2. CpACS27B is likely to be a paralogous pseudogene since it has not been found to be expressed in any of the analyzed tissues. CpACS27A was sequenced in Bolognese (Bog) and Vegetable Spaghetti (Veg), two monoecious inbred lines whose F2 was segregating for partial andromonoecy. The Bog allele of CpACS27A carried a missense mutation that resulted in a substitution of the conserved serine residue in position 176 by an alanine. Segregation analysis indicated that this mutant variant is necessary but not sufficient to confer the andromonoecious phenotype in squash. In concordance with its involvement in stamen arrest, a reduction in CpACS27A expression has been found in bisexual flower buds at earlier stages of development. This reduction in CpACS27A expression was concomitant with a downregulation of other ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes during earlier and later stages of ovary development. The role of CpACS27A is discussed regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes in the control of andromonoecy-associated traits, such as the delayed maturation of corolla and stigma as well as the parthenocarpic development of the fruit.

  2. Cascadable excitability in optically injected microdisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Alexander, Koen; Fiers, Martin; Mechet, Pauline; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2014-05-01

    All-optical spiking neural networks would allow high speed parallelized processing of time-encoded information, using the same energy efficient computational principles as our brain. As the neurons in these networks need to be able to process pulse trains, they should be excitable. Using simulations, we demonstrate Class 1 excitability in optically injected microdisk lasers, and propose a cascadable optical spiking neuron design. The neuron has a clear threshold and an integrating behavior. In addition, we show that the optical phase of the input pulses can be used to create inhibitory, as well as excitatory perturbations. Furthermore, we incorporate our optical neuron design in a topology that allows a disk to react on excitations from other disks. Phase tuning of the intermediate connections allows to control the disk response. Additionally, we investigate the sensitivity of the disk circuit to deviations in driving current and locking signal wavelength detuning. Using state-of-the-art fabrication techniques for microdisk laser, the standard deviation of the lasing wavelength is still about one order of magnitude too large. Finally, as the dynamical behavior of the microdisks is identical to the behavior in Semiconductor Ring Lasers (SRL), we compare the excitability mechanism due to optically injection with the previously proposed excitability due to asymmetry in the intermodal coupling in SRLs, as the latter mechanism can also be induced in disks due to, e.g., asymmetry in the external reaction. In both cases, the symmetry between the two counter-propagating modes of the cavity needs to be broken to prevent switching to the other mode, and allow the system to relax to its initial state after a perturbation. However, the asymmetry due to optical injection results in an integrating spiking neuron, whereas the asymmetry in the intermodal coupling is known to result in a resonating spiking neuron.

  3. Inhibition of acrolein-stimulated MUC5AC expression by Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Hwang, Yong Pil; Han, Eun Hee; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Park, Bong Hwan; Lee, Hyun Sun; Park, Byung Keun; Lee, Young Chun; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-09-01

    Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of acrolein-induced expression of mucin 5, subtypes A and C (MUC5AC) by Changkil saponin (CKS) in A549 cells. Acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke and an endogenous mediator of oxidative stress, increases the expression of airway MUC5AC, a major component of airway mucus. CKS, a Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity, through the suppression of NF-κB activation. CKS also repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK, which are upstream signaling molecules that control MUC5AC expression. In addition, the MAPK inhibitors PD98059 (ERK1/2), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and SB203580 (p38 MAPK), and a PKC delta inhibitor (rottlerin; PKCδ) inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity. CKS repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ. Moreover, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, N-acetylcysteine, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity through the suppression of PKCδ and MAPK activation, and CKS repressed acrolein-induced ROS production. These results suggest that CKS suppresses acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB via ROS-PKCδ-MAPK signaling. PMID:21664222

  4. Signal voter

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, Roy L.

    1981-01-01

    A voter for providing a single accurate output signal that is derived from the closest two signal levels of three input signals, each of which signals represents a measurement of the same phenomena. By means of the voting circuit, the signals are first sorted by level of amplitude and then ranked as highest, middle or lowest. The highest or lowest signal that is furthest from the middle signal is rejected, while the other highest or lowest signal is selected for processing. The selected high or low signal is then averaged with the middle signal to provide the output signal.

  5. High School Teachers Win ACS Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Staff, Jce

    2009-07-01

    William E. Snyder is the 2009 winner of the ACS Division of Chemical Education Central Region Award for Excellence in High School Teaching; Sally Mitchell is the winner of the 2009 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

  6. Tevatron optics measurements using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to study beam optics of hadron synchrotrons. It can produce sustained large amplitude oscillations with virtually no emittance growth. A vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is recently implemented and a maximum oscillation amplitude of 2{sigma} (4{sigma}) at 980 GeV (150 GeV) is achieved [1]. When such large oscillations are measured with the BPM system of the Tevatron (20 {micro}m resolution), not only linear but even nonlinear optics can be directly measured. This paper shows how to measure {beta} function using an AC dipole and the result is compared to the other measurement. The paper also shows a test to detect optics changes when small changes are made in the Tevatron. Since an AC dipole is nondestructive, it allows frequent measurements of the optics which is necessary for such an test.

  7. The AC-120: The advanced commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, David; Griffin, Ernest; Mendoza, Saul; Nguyen, Son; Pickett, Tim; Noernberg, Clemm

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this design was to fulfill a need for a new airplane to replace the aging 100 to 150 passenger, 1500 nautical mile range aircraft such as the Douglas DC9 and Boeing 737-100 airplanes. After researching the future aircraft market, conducting extensive trade studies, and analysis on different configurations, the AC-120 Advanced Commercial Transport final design was achieved. The AC-120's main design features include the incorporation of a three lifting surface configuration which is powered by two turboprop engines. The AC-120 is an economically sensitive aircraft which meets the new FM Stage Three noise requirements, and has lower NO(x) emissions than current turbofan powered airplanes. The AC-120 also improves on its contemporaries in passenger comfort, manufacturing, and operating cost.

  8. Hydrological excitation of polar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastula, Y.; Kolaczek, B.

    2006-08-01

    Hydrological excitation of the polar motion (HAM) were computed from the available recently hydrological data series (NCEP, ECMWF, CPC water storage and LaD World simulations of global continental water) and compared. Time variable seasonal spectra of these hydrological excitation functions and of the geodetic excitation function of polar motion computed from the polar motion COMB03 data were compared showing big differences in their temporal characteristics and the necessity of the further improvement of the HAM models. Seasonal oscillations of the global geophysical excitation functions (AAM + OAM + HAM) and their time variations were compared also. These hydrological excitation functions do not close the budget of the global geophysical excitation function of polar motion.

  9. Neural Excitability and Singular Bifurcations.

    PubMed

    De Maesschalck, Peter; Wechselberger, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the notion of excitability in 2D slow/fast neural models from a geometric singular perturbation theory point of view. We focus on the inherent singular nature of slow/fast neural models and define excitability via singular bifurcations. In particular, we show that type I excitability is associated with a novel singular Bogdanov-Takens/SNIC bifurcation while type II excitability is associated with a singular Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. In both cases, canards play an important role in the understanding of the unfolding of these singular bifurcation structures. We also explain the transition between the two excitability types and highlight all bifurcations involved, thus providing a complete analysis of excitability based on geometric singular perturbation theory.

  10. Rabi resonances in the {lambda} excitation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Godone, Aldo; Micalizio, Salvatore; Levi, Filippo

    2002-12-01

    We consider the interaction of a three-level system with phase-modulated resonant fields in the {lambda} excitation scheme. We treat theoretically the case of a sinusoidal phase modulation, a phase step perturbation, and a stochastic phase modulation. The appearance of a Rabi resonance both in the spectrum of the optical transmitted signal (electromagnetically induced transparency) and in the spectrum of the microwave emission (coherent population trapping maser) is considered in detail. All the theoretical results are compared with the analogous ones reported for the two-level system and with our experimental observations obtained for the case of rubidium in a buffer gas.

  11. Automatic cytometric device using multiple wavelength excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rongeat, Nelly; Ledroit, Sylvain; Chauvet, Laurence; Cremien, Didier; Urankar, Alexandra; Couderc, Vincent; Nérin, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Precise identification of eosinophils, basophils, and specific subpopulations of blood cells (B lymphocytes) in an unconventional automatic hematology analyzer is demonstrated. Our specific apparatus mixes two excitation radiations by means of an acousto-optics tunable filter to properly control fluorescence emission of phycoerythrin cyanin 5 (PC5) conjugated to antibodies (anti-CD20 or anti-CRTH2) and Thiazole Orange. This way our analyzer combining techniques of hematology analysis and flow cytometry based on multiple fluorescence detection, drastically improves the signal to noise ratio and decreases the spectral overlaps impact coming from multiple fluorescence emissions.

  12. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOEpatents

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  13. Dual AC Dipole Excitation for the Measurement of Magnetic Multipole Strength from Beam Position Monitor Data

    SciTech Connect

    M. Spata, G.A. Krafft

    2011-09-01

    An experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility to develop a technique for characterizing the nonlinear fields of the beam transport system. Two air-core dipole magnets were simultaneously driven at two different frequencies to provide a time-dependent transverse modulation of the electron beam. Fourier decomposition of beam position monitor data was then used to measure the amplitude of these frequencies at different positions along the beamline. For a purely linear transport system one expects to find solely the frequencies that were applied to the dipoles with amplitudes that depend on the phase advance of the lattice. In the presence of nonlinear fields one expects to also find harmonics of the driving frequencies that depend on the order of the nonlinearity. The technique was calibrated using one of the sextupole magnets in a CEBAF beamline and then applied to a dipole to measure the sextupole and octupole strength of the magnet. A comparison is made between the beam-based measurements, results from TOSCA and data from our Magnet Measurement Facility.

  14. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage, current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information Systems, Inc.

  15. Electric field in an AC dielectric barrier discharge overlapped with a nanosecond pulse discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ns discharge pulses on the AC barrier discharge in hydrogen in plane-to-plane geometry is studied using time-resolved measurements of the electric field in the plasma. The AC discharge was operated at a pressure of 300 Torr at frequencies of 500 and 1750 Hz, with ns pulses generated when the AC voltage was near zero. The electric field vector is measured by ps four-wave mixing technique, which generates coherent IR signal proportional to the square of electric field. Absolute calibration was done using an electrostatic (sub-breakdown) field applied to the discharge electrodes, when no plasma was generated. The results are compared with one-dimensional kinetic modeling of the AC discharge and the nanosecond pulse discharge, predicting behavior of both individual micro-discharges and their cumulative effect on the electric field distribution in the electrode gap, using stochastic averaging based on the experimental micro-discharge temporal probability distribution during the AC period. Time evolution of the electric field in the AC discharge without ns pulses, controlled by a superposition of random micro-discharges, exhibits a nearly ‘flat top’ distribution with the maximum near breakdown threshold, reproduced quite well by kinetic modeling. Adding ns pulse discharges on top of the AC voltage waveform changes the AC discharge behavior in a dramatic way, inducing transition from random micro-discharges to a more regular, near-1D discharge. In this case, reproducible volumetric AC breakdown is produced at a well-defined moment after each ns pulse discharge. During the reproducible AC breakdown, the electric field in the plasma exhibits a sudden drop, which coincides in time with a well-defined current pulse. This trend is also predicted by the kinetic model. Analysis of kinetic modeling predictions shows that this effect is caused by large-volume ionization and neutralization of surface charges on the dielectrics by ns discharge pulses. The present

  16. Vibrational resonance in excitable neuronal systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Chen; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of a high-frequency driving on the dynamical response of excitable neuronal systems to a subthreshold low-frequency signal by numerical simulation. We demonstrate the occurrence of vibrational resonance in spatially extended neuronal networks. Different network topologies from single small-world networks to modular networks of small-world subnetworks are considered. It is shown that an optimal amplitude of high-frequency driving enhances the response of neuron populations to a low-frequency signal. This effect of vibrational resonance of neuronal systems depends extensively on the network structure and parameters, such as the coupling strength between neurons, network size, and rewiring probability of single small-world networks, as well as the number of links between different subnetworks and the number of subnetworks in the modular networks. All these parameters play a key role in determining the ability of the network to enhance the outreach of the localized subthreshold low-frequency signal. Considering that two-frequency signals are ubiquity in brain dynamics, we expect the presented results could have important implications for the weak signal detection and information propagation across neuronal systems. PMID:22225338

  17. Study of the DEF Feedback Control System in AC Operation of Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Luo, Jiarong; Yuan, Qiping; Xu, Congdong

    2007-02-01

    AC operation with multiple full cycles has been successfully performed on the superconducting tokamak HT-7. In the experiment, it was discovered that the saturation of the transformer magnetic flux with DEF, a signal name, was one of key aspects that affected the AC operation. The conditions of DEF were examined through the DEF feedback control system. By controlling the working patterns of the subsystems, namely the poloidal field control system and density control system, it was guaranteed that DEF would remain in the non-saturated status.

  18. Boosting brain excitability by transcranial high frequency stimulation in the ripple range

    PubMed Central

    Moliadze, Vera; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Alleviating the symptoms of neurological diseases by increasing cortical excitability through transcranial stimulation is an ongoing scientific challenge. Here, we tackle this issue by interfering with high frequency oscillations (80–250 Hz) via external application of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the human motor cortex (M1). Twenty-one subjects participated in three different experimental studies and they received on separate days tACS at three frequencies (80 Hz, 140 Hz and 250 Hz) and sham stimulation in a randomized order. tACS with 140 Hz frequency increased M1 excitability as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation-generated motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during and for up to 1 h after stimulation. Control experiments with sham and 80 Hz stimulation were without any effect, and 250 Hz stimulation was less efficient with a delayed excitability induction and reduced duration. After-effects elicited by 140 Hz stimulation were robust against inversion of test MEP amplitudes seen normally under activation. Stimulation at 140 Hz reduced short interval intracortical inhibition, but left intracortical facilitation, long interval cortical inhibition and cortical silent period unchanged. Implicit motor learning was not facilitated by 140 Hz stimulation. High frequency stimulation in the ripple range is a new promising non-invasive brain stimulation protocol to increase human cortical excitability during and after the end of stimulation. PMID:20962008

  19. Boosting brain excitability by transcranial high frequency stimulation in the ripple range.

    PubMed

    Moliadze, Vera; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2010-12-15

    Alleviating the symptoms of neurological diseases by increasing cortical excitability through transcranial stimulation is an ongoing scientific challenge. Here, we tackle this issue by interfering with high frequency oscillations (80–250 Hz) via external application of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the human motor cortex (M1). Twenty-one subjects participated in three different experimental studies and they received on separate days tACS at three frequencies (80 Hz, 140 Hz and 250 Hz) and sham stimulation in a randomized order. tACS with 140 Hz frequency increased M1 excitability as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation-generated motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during and for up to 1 h after stimulation. Control experiments with sham and 80 Hz stimulation were without any effect, and 250 Hz stimulation was less efficient with a delayed excitability induction and reduced duration. After-effects elicited by 140 Hz stimulation were robust against inversion of test MEP amplitudes seen normally under activation. Stimulation at 140 Hz reduced short interval intracortical inhibition, but left intracortical facilitation, long interval cortical inhibition and cortical silent period unchanged. Implicit motor learning was not facilitated by 140 Hz stimulation. High frequency stimulation in the ripple range is a new promising non-invasive brain stimulation protocol to increase human cortical excitability during and after the end of stimulation.

  20. Vortex activation energy in the AC magnetic response of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 thin films with complex pinning structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, I.; Ionescu, A. M.; Miu, D.; Mele, P.; Miu, L.

    2016-09-01

    The vortex activation energy U AC in the AC magnetic response of superconductors exhibits a logarithmic variation with the screening current density J (regardless of the pinning structure details), and takes surprisingly high values in the vicinity of the DC irreversibility line, especially at low external DC magnetic fields, as often reported. This is essentially different from the behaviour of the vortex-creep activation energy at long relaxation time scales in DC magnetic measurements, and is not completely understood. We investigated the DC relaxation and the AC response for YBa2Cu3O7 films containing nanorods and nanoparticles, with the DC and AC fields oriented perpendicular to the film surface. It is shown that the large U AC values in the vicinity of the DC irreversibility line, where the critical-state-related AC signal occurs, are generated by a non-diffusive vortex motion during the AC cycle, with the mean vortex hopping length longer than the average distance between the pinning centres. In these conditions, the smearing of the vortex pinning potential by thermally induced vortex fluctuations is weak, and U AC mainly results from the strong influence of the pinning-enhanced viscous drag on the vortex hopping process. The logarithmic U AC(J) dependence is consistent with a high U AC.

  1. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMISSION ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission...''). Summary of Application: ACS Wireless, Inc. (``ACS Wireless'') seeks an order under section 3(b)(2) of the..., owning, holding or trading in securities. ACS Wireless is primarily engaged in providing...

  2. 21 CFR 888.1240 - AC-powered dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered dynamometer. 888.1240 Section 888.1240...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 888.1240 AC-powered dynamometer. (a) Identification. An AC-powered dynamometer is an AC-powered device intended for medical purposes to...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered photostimulator. 886.1630 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1630 AC-powered photostimulator. (a) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1850 - AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. 886.1850... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1850 AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. (a) Identification. An AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope is an AC-powered device that is...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  7. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  8. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  9. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  10. Electron excitations in Na_xCoO_2(*)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, O. D.; Eguiluz, A. G.

    2004-03-01

    We report a study of electron-hole excitations in Na_xCoO2 for x=1/3. Starting from the paramagnetic LDA ground state, we then discuss the impact of correlation on the nature of the ground state within the correlated band theory LDA+U method. The possible significance of the neglect of quantum fluctuations is oulined. The excitation spectrum is also calculated within mean field theory (the random phase approximation). Novel loss structure in the energy domain ˜ U10 to 3U is reported; the same corresponds to low-energy electron-hole excitations in the half-metal LSDA regime, to collective electronic modes present more generally. These excitations should be observed rather directly with available loss spectroscopies (electrons and x-rays), thus providing an additional set of constraints on the description of the correlated ground state. (*) Collaboration supported by the PCSCS network, within the DOE-CMSN. (1) Supported by NSF-DMR 0219332 (2) Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. (3) DOE Grant DE-FG03-01ER45876

  11. Photoacoustic excitation profiles of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Feis, Alessandro; Gellini, Cristina; Salvi, Pier Remigio; Becucci, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    The wavelength dependence of the laser-induced photoacoustic signal amplitude has been measured for water dispersions of 10, 61, and 93 nm diameter gold nanospheres. The whole region of the localized surface plasmon resonance has been covered. This "photoacoustic excitation profile" can be overlayed with the extinction spectrum between 450 nm and 600 nm in the case of the smallest nanoparticles. At variance, the larger-sized nanoparticles display a progressive deviation from the extinction spectrum at longer wavelength, where the photoacoustic signal becomes relatively smaller. Considering that photoacoustics is intrinsically insensitive to light scattering, at least for optically thin samples, the results are in agreement with previous theoretical work predicting (i) an increasing contribution of scattering to extinction when the nanoparticle size increases and (ii) a larger scattering component at longer wavelengths. Therefore, the method has a general validity and can be applied to selectively determine light absorption by plasmonic systems.

  12. Photoacoustic excitation profiles of gold nanoparticles☆

    PubMed Central

    Feis, Alessandro; Gellini, Cristina; Salvi, Pier Remigio; Becucci, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the laser-induced photoacoustic signal amplitude has been measured for water dispersions of 10, 61, and 93 nm diameter gold nanospheres. The whole region of the localized surface plasmon resonance has been covered. This “photoacoustic excitation profile” can be overlayed with the extinction spectrum between 450 nm and 600 nm in the case of the smallest nanoparticles. At variance, the larger-sized nanoparticles display a progressive deviation from the extinction spectrum at longer wavelength, where the photoacoustic signal becomes relatively smaller. Considering that photoacoustics is intrinsically insensitive to light scattering, at least for optically thin samples, the results are in agreement with previous theoretical work predicting (i) an increasing contribution of scattering to extinction when the nanoparticle size increases and (ii) a larger scattering component at longer wavelengths. Therefore, the method has a general validity and can be applied to selectively determine light absorption by plasmonic systems. PMID:25302155

  13. Immunolocalization and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changmao; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Jing; Fang, Wenzhen; Luo, Damin

    2014-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the anatomic sites of expression and developmental expression patterns of two cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases (AC-cathB-1, -2) of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The immunolocalization results revealed that native AC-cathBs were found present in the L1 and L3 larvae, female and male adults, and the AC-cathBs were localized mainly on the digestive tract of A. cantonensis and expressed at varied levels and in different patterns in the internal tissues according to their developmental stage. Consistent with the infective stage of L3 is a much more intense staining of AC-cathBs in the esophagus compared with the intestine. In contrast to L3, more abundant signals were located to the intestine of adults, suggesting that nutrition digestion likely to be the main function of the protease at this point. AC-cathBs fluorescent signals were present in excretory pore, excretory tube in lateral cords, and muscular esophagus of larvae, further supported the AC-cathB-1, -2 likely to be released by A. cantonensis as excretory/secretory products. Additionally, only the protein AC-cathB-2 was detected in the reproductive system, especially in the wall of vas deferens, uterus, and oviduct of the parasites, whether the AC-cathB-2 has some function in germ cells development and maturation need to be further characterized. Although the anatomic sites and expression patterns were different in larvae and adults and the corresponding function might not the same, AC-cathB-1 and -2 involved in the host-parasite interaction in addition to digestive function.

  14. Clock Controller For Ac Self-Timing Analysis Of Logic System

    DOEpatents

    Lo, Tinchee; Flanagan, John D.

    2004-05-18

    A clock controller and clock generating method are provided for AC self-test timing analysis of a logic system. The controller includes latch circuitry which receives a DC input signal at a data input, and a pair of continuous out-of-phase clock signals at capture and launch clock inputs thereof. The latch circuitry outputs two overlapping pulses responsive to the DC input signal going high. The two overlapping pulses are provided to waveform shaper circuitry which produces therefrom two non-overlapping pulses at clock speed of the logic system to be tested. The two non-overlapping pulses are a single pair of clock pulses which facilitate AC self-test timing analysis of the logic system.

  15. Excitable Pattern Formation in Inhomogeneous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakara, Kaumudi; Gholami, Azam; Zykov, Vladimir; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2015-03-01

    On starvation, the amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum signal via the chemo-attractant cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The amoebae sense cAMP through membrane receptors and produce their own cAMP. Simultaneously they produce a basal level of Phosphodiesterase, an enzyme that degrades cAMP. Soon a pattern of rotating spiral waves or circular waves is formed at the multi-cellular level. The causal reasons for the selection of one or the other pattern are still unclear. Here we report experimental and theoretical investigations of the pattern-formation of mixtures of cells starved for different times. The excitability of the amoebae depends on the starvation time due to time dependent gene expressions. Cells starved for longer times are known to exhibit increased excitability. We report phase maps of the patterns for mixtures of different combinations of excitability. Numerical simulations of a modified Kessler-Levine model allow us to explain the experimental results and provide new insights into the dynamical behavior of the system. This work is supported by the Max Planck Society.

  16. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-12-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented.

  17. Atmospheric excitation of the earth's annual wobble - 1980-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. Fong; Au, Andrew Y.

    1991-01-01

    Global meteorological analyses from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts are employed to compute the atmospheric excitation psi of the polar motion for the 9-year period of 1980-1988. Both the matter component psi(matter) and the motion component psi (motion) are computed, the former with and without the oceanic inverted barometer (IB) effect. It is found that psi(motion) contributes significantly to the total excitation psi overall and nonnegligibly to the annual signal in psi, or the annual wobble excitation in particular. The results for the annual wobble excitation, in terms of the prograde component psi(t) and the retrogade component phsi(-) for January 1, are within the (rather large) range of previous estimates. The IB effect has a small impact on psi(+), whereas its impact on psi(-) is considerable.

  18. Barker-coded excitation in ophthalmological ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Jun; Ji, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yan-Qun

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound is an attractive means to obtain fine-resolution images of biological tissues for ophthalmologic imaging. To solve the tradeoff between axial resolution and detection depth, existing in the conventional single-pulse excitation, this study develops a new method which uses 13-bit Barker-coded excitation and a mismatched filter for high-frequency ophthalmologic imaging. A novel imaging platform has been designed after trying out various encoding methods. The simulation and experiment result show that the mismatched filter can achieve a much higher out signal main to side lobe which is 9.7 times of the matched one. The coded excitation method has significant advantages over the single-pulse excitation system in terms of a lower MI, a higher resolution, and a deeper detection depth, which improve the quality of ophthalmic tissue imaging. Therefore, this method has great values in scientific application and medical market. PMID:25356093

  19. Harmonic Golay coded excitation based on harmonic quadrature demodulation method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Min; Song, Jae-Hee; Song, Tai-Kyong

    2008-01-01

    Harmonic coded excitation techniques have been used to increase SNR of harmonic imaging with limited peak voltage. Harmonic Golay coded excitation, in particular, generates each scan line using four transmit-receive cycles, unlike conventional Golay coded excitation method, thus resulting in low frame rates. In this paper we propose a method of increasing the frame rate of said method without impacting the image quality. The proposed method performs two transmit-receive cycles using QPSK code to ensure that the harmonic components of incoming signals are Golay coded and uses harmonic quadrature demodulation to extract compressed second harmonic component only. The proposed method has been validated through mathematical analysis and MATLAB simulation, and has been verified to yield a limited error of -52.08dB compared to the ideal case. Therefore, the proposed method doubles the frame rate compared to the existing harmonic Golay coded excitation method without significantly deteriorating the image quality.

  20. Coulomb excitation of 31Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidlitz, M.; Mücher, D.; Reiter, P.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Bruyneel, B.; Cederkäll, J.; Clement, E.; Davinson, T.; Van Duppen, P.; Ekström, A.; Finke, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Geibel, K.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Holler, A.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Jolie, J.; Kalkühler, M.; Kotthaus, T.; Krücken, R.; Lutter, R.; Piselli, E.; Scheit, H.; Stefanescu, I.; Van de Walle, J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wiens, A.

    2011-06-01

    The ground state properties of 31Mg indicate a change of nuclear shape at N = 19 with a deformed Jπ = 1 /2+ intruder state as a ground state, implying that 31Mg is part of the "island of inversion". The collective properties of excited states were the subject of a Coulomb excitation experiment at REX-ISOLDE, CERN, employing a radioactive 31Mg beam. De-excitation γ-rays were detected by the MINIBALL γ-spectrometer in coincidence with scattered particles in a segmented Si-detector. The level scheme of 31Mg was extended. Spin and parity assignment of the 945 keV state yielded 5 /2+ and its de-excitation is dominated by a strong collective M1 transition. Comparison of the transition probabilities of 30,31,32Mg establishes that for the N = 19 magnesium isotope not only the ground state but also excited states are largely dominated by a deformed pf intruder configuration.

  1. Excited waves in shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  2. Vibrational excitation induces double reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Leung, Lydie; Lim, Tingbin; Ning, Zhanyu; Polanyi, John C

    2014-12-23

    Electron-induced reaction at metal surfaces is currently the subject of extensive study. Here, we broaden the range of experimentation to a comparison of vibrational excitation with electronic excitation, for reaction of the same molecule at the same clean metal surface. In a previous study of electron-induced reaction by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we examined the dynamics of the concurrent breaking of the two C-I bonds of ortho-diiodobenzene physisorbed on Cu(110). The energy of the incident electron was near the electronic excitation threshold of E0=1.0 eV required to induce this single-electron process. STM has been employed in the present work to study the reaction dynamics at the substantially lower incident electron energies of 0.3 eV, well below the electronic excitation threshold. The observed increase in reaction rate with current was found to be fourth-order, indicative of multistep reagent vibrational excitation, in contrast to the first-order rate dependence found earlier for electronic excitation. The change in mode of excitation was accompanied by altered reaction dynamics, evidenced by a different pattern of binding of the chemisorbed products to the copper surface. We have modeled these altered reaction dynamics by exciting normal modes of vibration that distort the C-I bonds of the physisorbed reagent. Using the same ab initio ground potential-energy surface as in the prior work on electronic excitation, but with only vibrational excitation of the physisorbed reagent in the asymmetric stretch mode of C-I bonds, we obtained the observed alteration in reaction dynamics.

  3. Deletion of AcMNPV ac146 eliminates the production of budded virus.

    PubMed

    Dickison, Virginia L; Willis, Leslie G; Sokal, Nadia R; Theilmann, David A

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac146 is a highly conserved gene in the Alpha- and Betabaculovirus genera that has an unknown function. Northern blot analysis and transcript mapping showed that ac146 is transcribed at late times post infection as a 1.2 kb mRNA. To determine the role of ac146 in the baculovirus life cycle ac146 knock out viruses were constructed. Transfection and plaque assays showed that all the ac146 deletions produced a single cell phenotype indicating that no infectious budded virus (BV) was produced, however occlusion bodies were formed. The lack of BV production was confirmed by viral titration utilizing both qPCR and TCID₅₀. Analysis of BV and occlusion derived virus (ODV) revealed that AC146 is associated with both forms of the virus and is modified specifically in ODV. This study therefore demonstrates that AC146 is a late virion associated protein and is essential for the viral life cycle.

  4. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-06-05

    A system is provided for controlling two alternating current (AC) machines via a five-phase PWM inverter module. The system comprises a first control loop, a second control loop, and a current command adjustment module. The current command adjustment module operates in conjunction with the first control loop and the second control loop to continuously adjust current command signals that control the first AC machine and the second AC machine such that they share the input voltage available to them without compromising the target mechanical output power of either machine. This way, even when the phase voltage available to either one of the machines decreases, that machine outputs its target mechanical output power.

  5. STIRAP on helium: Excitation to Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Deqian

    Research in optically induced transitions between dierent atomic levels has a long history. For transitions between states driven by a coherent optical eld, the theoretical eciency could be ideally high as 100% but there could be many factors preventing this. In the three state helium atom excitation process, i.e. 23S→33P→nL , the stimulated emission from intermediate state makes it hard to achieve ecient population transfer to the nal state through an intuitive excitation order. One technique to achieve a higher eciency is Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) which is being studied and under research in our lab. Unlike traditional three level excitation processes, STIRAP actually uses a counter intuitive pulsed laser beams timing arrangement. The excitation objects are metastable helium atoms traveling in a vacuum system with a longitudinal velocity of ~ 1070 m/s. We are using a 389 nm UV laser to connect the 23S and the 33P state and a frequency tunable ~790 nm IR laser to connect the 33P state and the dierent Rydberg states. A third 1083 nm wavelength laser beam drives the 23S → 23P transition to transversely separate the residual metastable atoms and the Rydberg atoms for eciency measurements. The data is taken by a stainless steel detector in the vacuum system. As the Rydberg atoms will get ionized by blackbody radiation under room temperature, we can utilize this for their detection. An ion detector sitting on the eld plate is capable to collect the ion signals of the Rydberg atoms for detection. So far the whole system has not been ready for data collection and measurement, so here we are using data and results from previous theses for discussions. The highest transition frequency that has ever been achieved in our lab is around 70% after corrections.

  6. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    PubMed

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney.

  7. Design and synthesis of 225Ac radioimmunopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Michael R; Ma, Dangshe; Simon, Jim; Frank, R Keith; Scheinberg, David A

    2002-12-01

    The alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides 213Bi, 211At, 224Ra are under investigation for the treatment of leukemias, gliomas, and ankylosing spondylitis, respectively. 213Bi and 211At were attached to monoclonal antibodies and used as targeted immunotherapeutic agents while unconjugated 224Ra chloride selectively seeks bone. 225Ac possesses favorable physical properties for radioimmunotherapy (10d half-life and 4 net alpha particles), but has a history of unfavorable radiolabeling chemistry and poor metal-chelate stability. We selected functionalized derivatives of DOTA as the most promising to pursue from out of a group of potential 225Ac chelate compounds. A two-step synthetic process employing either MeO-DOTA-NCS or 2B-DOTA-NCS as the chelating moiety was developed to attach 225Ac to monoclonal antibodies. This method was tested using several different IgG systems. The chelation reaction yield in the first step was 93+/-8% radiochemically pure (n=26). The second step yielded 225Ac-DOTA-IgG constructs that were 95+/-5% radiochemically pure (n=27) and the mean percent immunoreactivity ranged from 25% to 81%, depending on the antibody used. This process has yielded several potential novel targeted 225Ac-labeled immunotherapeutic agents that may now be evaluated in appropriate model systems and ultimately in humans.

  8. Low energy excitations in iridates studied with Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuerong

    2013-03-01

    In the iridium oxides, the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of the 5d iridium electrons entangles the orbital and spin degrees of freedom, providing opportunities for exotic magnetic states with highly anisotropic exchange interactions. At the same time, the spatially extended 5d electrons are expected to have much stronger hybridization with the oxygen 2p orbitals, comparing with that in 3d transition element compounds. Both factors make crystal symmetry and local environment crucial in determining the electronic and magnetic properties of the iridates. We present here our resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) studies of a number of octahedrally coordinated iridates with special structures, exploring these effects. In particular, for the 1-D spin 1/2 chain compound, Sr3CuIrO6, the wavefunction of the hole in the t2g manifold was reconstructed based on the RIXS spectra. Our results show that it is significantly modified from the isotropic shape expected for Jeff = 1 / 2 states in the strong SOC limit, due to the distortion of the oxygen octahedral cage. This distortion is comparable to, or smaller than, that present in most iridates and thus this work emphasizes the importance of local symmetry for the iridate families. Further, the magnetic excitations of this material were also measured. A large gap of ~30 meV, was found, comparable to the magnetic dispersion bandwidth. This is in contrast to the gapless dispersion expected for linear chain with isotropic Heisenberg exchange interaction. We also studied Na4Ir3O8 which has a hyperkagome lattice, and is a candidate quantum spin liquid. Here, a low energy continuum is observed below the d-d excitations. Optical conductivity measurements performed on the same sample and polarization dependence of the RIXS signal suggest that these excitations are magnetic in origin, agreeing with the spin-liquid state prediction. The work at Brookhaven was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Materials Science

  9. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  10. Atrial-caval shunting (ACS) after trauma.

    PubMed

    Kudsk, K A; Sheldon, G F; Lim, R C

    1982-02-01

    Since 1968 the atrial-caval shunt (ACS), along with inflow occlusion at the porta hepatis, has been used at San Francisco General Hospital in 18 trauma patients to control massive hemorrhage from the inferior vena cava, hepatic veins, or liver. Thirteen patients died from irreversible shock. Five patients survived their initial injuries; one of them died 45 days later from the complications of shock and sepsis. No patients survived who sustained blunt trauma and were admitted in cardiac arrest. Only one of ten patients with BP less than 70 mm Hg after resuscitation survived, whereas four of eight with BP greater than 70 mm Hg survived. ACS was used to control caval injuries in seven patients (one survivor), severe hepatic parenchymal fractures in four patients (two survivors), and combined hepatic and caval injuries in seven patients (two survivors). Survivors had an average of 5.75 associated injuries; nonsurvivors had 3.8. No complications of ACS occurred in the surviving patients.

  11. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef; Hehl, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT-PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain.

  12. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT–PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain. PMID:20512402

  13. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef; Hehl, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT-PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain. PMID:20512402

  14. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-02-14

    A system is provided for controlling two AC machines. The system comprises a DC input voltage source that provides a DC input voltage, a voltage boost command control module (VBCCM), a five-phase PWM inverter module coupled to the two AC machines, and a boost converter coupled to the inverter module and the DC input voltage source. The boost converter is designed to supply a new DC input voltage to the inverter module having a value that is greater than or equal to a value of the DC input voltage. The VBCCM generates a boost command signal (BCS) based on modulation indexes from the two AC machines. The BCS controls the boost converter such that the boost converter generates the new DC input voltage in response to the BCS. When the two AC machines require additional voltage that exceeds the DC input voltage required to meet a combined target mechanical power required by the two AC machines, the BCS controls the boost converter to drive the new DC input voltage generated by the boost converter to a value greater than the DC input voltage.

  15. ACS after SM4: New Life for an Old Workhorse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golimowski, David; Anderson, Jay; Armstrong, Amber; Arslanian, Steve; Bedin, Luigi; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyce, Kevin; Chapman, George; Cheng, Edward; Chiaberge, Marco; Cox, Colin; Desiardins, Tyler; Dye, Darryl; Ellis, Tracy; Ferguson, Brian; Fruchter, Andrew; Grogin, Norman; Lim, Pey Lian; Loose, Markus; Lucas, Ray; Lupie, Olivia; Mack, Jennifer; Maybhate, Aparna; Mil, Kathleen; Mutchler, Max; Ricardo, Raphael; Scott, Barbara; Serrano, Beverly; Sirianni, Marco; Smith, Linda; Suchkov, Anatoly A.; Waczynski, Augustyn; Welty, Alan; Wheeler, Thomas; Wilson, Erin

    2010-07-01

    The ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement (CEB-R) installed during SM4 features a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC that permits optimization of the WFC via adjustment of CCD clock voltages, bias voltages, and pixel transmission timing. An on-orbit campaign to optimize the performance of the WFC was undertaken at the start of the SMOV period. Initial tests with pre-SM4 default voltages and timing patterns showed that WFC's performance matches or exceeds its pre-failure levels, notwithstanding the expected increases in dark current and hot pixels and the decline in charge-transfer efficiency due to prolonged exposure to HST's radiation environment. One WFC CCD exhibited anomalous behavior when operated with nondefault settings of its reset drain voltage. Consequently, the optimization campaign was truncated after two iterations, and ACS science operations commenced with the pre-SM4 default configuration. Several artifacts attributed to the CEB-R appear in post-SM4 WFC images: large-scale but stable bias gradients, low-level but temporally variable horizontal stripes, a signal-dependent bias shift, and amplifier crosstalk. STScI has developed algorithms for the correction or mitigation of these electronic artifacts as well as for the restoration of images affected by continuously degrading CTE. Standalone correction packages are now or will soon be publicly available. These packages will be incorporated into the calacs package of the OPUS data pipeline by September 2011.

  16. ACS after Servicing Mission 4: The WFC Optimization Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golimowski, David; Cheng, Ed; Loose, Markus; Sirianni, Marco; Lupie, Olivia; Smith, Linda; Arslanian, Steve; Boyce, Kevin; Chapman, George; Chiaberge, Marco; Desjardins, Tyler; Dye, Darryl; Grogin, Norman; Lim, Pey Lian; Lucas, Ray; Maybhate, Aparna; Mil, Kathleen; Mutchler, Max; Ricardo, Raphael; Scott, Barbara; Serrano, Beverly; Suchkov, Anatoly; Waczynski, Augustyn; Welty, Alan; Wheeler, Thomas; Wilson, Erin

    2011-07-01

    The ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement (CEB-R) installed during SM4 features a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC that permits optimization of the WFC via adjustment of CCD clock voltages, bias voltages, and pixel transmission timing. A built-in oscilloscope mode allows sensing of the analog signal from each output amplifier. An on-orbit campaign to optimize the performance of the WFC was undertaken at the start of the SMOV period. Initial tests with pre-SM4 default voltages and timing patterns showed that WFC's performance matches or exceeds its pre-failure levels, notwithstanding the expected increases in dark current and hot pixels and the decline in charge-transfer efficiency due to prolonged exposure to HST's radiation environment. The WFC2 CCD exhibited anomalous behavior when operated with nondefault settings of its amplifiers' reset-drain voltage (VOD). The CCD again displayed normal behavior when VOD was restored to its default setting. Consequently, the Optimization Campaign was truncated after two iterations, and ACS science operations commenced with the pre-SM4 default configuration.

  17. Instabilities across the isotropic conductivity point in a nematic phenyl benzoate under AC driving.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramoda; Patil, Shivaram N; Hiremath, Uma S; Krishnamurthy, K S

    2007-08-01

    We characterize the sequence of bifurcations generated by ac fields in a nematic layer held between unidirectionally rubbed ITO electrodes. The material, which possesses a negative dielectric anisotropy epsilona and an inversion temperature for electrical conductivity anisotropy sigmaa, exhibits a monostable tilted alignment near TIN, the isotropic-nematic point. On cooling, an anchoring transition to the homeotropic configuration occurs close to the underlying smectic phase. The field experiments are performed for (i) negative sigmaa and homeotropic alignment, and (ii) weakly positive sigmaa and nearly homeotropic alignment. Under ac driving, the Freedericksz transition is followed by bifurcation into various patterned states. Among them are the striped states that seem to belong to the dielectric regime and localized hybrid instabilities. Very significantly, the patterned instabilities are not excited by dc fields, indicating their possible gradient flexoelectric origin. The Carr-Helfrich mechanism-based theories that take account of flexoelectric terms can explain the observed electroconvective effects only in part. PMID:17616118

  18. Coulomb excitation of 107In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiJulio, D. D.; Cederkall, J.; Fahlander, C.; Ekström, A.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Albers, M.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Darby, I.; Davinson, T.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Fransen, Ch.; Geibel, K.; Gernhäuser, R.; Görgen, A.; Hess, H.; Heyde, K.; Iwanicki, J.; Lutter, R.; Reiter, P.; Scheck, M.; Seidlitz, M.; Siem, S.; Taprogge, J.; Tveten, G. M.; Van de Walle, J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive isotope 107In was studied using sub-barrier Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Two γ rays were observed during the experiment, corresponding to the low-lying 11/2+ and 3/2- states. The reduced transition probability of the 11/2+ state was determined with the semiclassical Coulomb excitation code gosia2. The result is discussed in comparison to large-scale shell-model calculations, previous unified-model calculations, and earlier Coulomb excitation measurements in the odd-mass In isotopes.

  19. Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Allan C. G.; Zemansky, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Physical and chemical effects connected with resonance radiation; 3. Absorption lines and measurements of the lifetime of the resonance state; 4. Collision processes involving excited atoms; 5. The polarization of resonance radiation; Appendix; Index.

  20. Regional Multi-Fluid-Based Geophysical Excitation of Polar Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David A.; Gross, Richard

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing geophysical fluids geographic distribution, we can isolate the regional provenance for some of the important signals in polar motion. An understanding of such will enable us to determine whether certain climate signals can have an impact on polar motion. Here we have compared regional patterns of three surficial fluids: the atmosphere, ocean and land-based hydrosphere. The oceanic excitation function of polar motion was estimated with the ECCO/JPL data - assimilating model, and the atmospheric excitation function was determined from NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. The excitation function due to land hydrology was estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data by an indirect approach that determines water thickness. Our attention focuses on the regional distribution of atmospheric and oceanic excitation of the annual and Chandler wobbles during 1993-2010, and on hydrologic excitation of these wobbles during 2002.9-2011.5. It is found that the regions of maximum fractional covariance (those exceeding a value of 3 .10 -3) for the annual band are over south Asia, southeast Asia and south central Indian ocean, for hydrology, atmosphere and ocean respectively; and for the Chandler period, areas over North America, Asia, and South America; and scattered across the southern oceans for the atmosphere and oceans respectively

  1. Collisional excitation of interstellar formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.; Garrison, B. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.; Miller, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous calculations for rates of excitation of ortho-H2CO by collisions with He have been extended to higher rotational levels and kinetic temperatures to 80 K. Rates for para-H2CO have also been computed. Pressure-broadening widths for several spectral lines have been obtained from these calculations and are found to agree with recent data within the experimental uncertainty of 10%. Excitation of formaldehyde by collisions with H2 molecules is also discussed.

  2. Excitations of strange bottom baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woloshyn, R. M.

    2016-09-01

    The ground-state and first-excited-state masses of Ωb and Ω_{bb} baryons are calculated in lattice QCD using dynamical 2 + 1 flavour gauge fields. A set of baryon operators employing different combinations of smeared quark fields was used in the framework of the variational method. Results for radial excitation energies were confirmed by carrying out a supplementary multiexponential fitting analysis. Comparison is made with quark model calculations.

  3. Exciting Polaritons with Quantum Light.

    PubMed

    López Carreño, J C; Sánchez Muñoz, C; Sanvitto, D; del Valle, E; Laussy, F P

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the excitation of polaritons-strongly coupled states of light and matter-by quantum light, instead of the usual laser or thermal excitation. As one illustration of the new horizons thus opened, we introduce "Mollow spectroscopy"-a theoretical concept for a spectroscopic technique that consists of scanning the output of resonance fluorescence onto an optical target-from which weak nonlinearities can be read with high precision even in strongly dissipative environments. PMID:26588401

  4. The application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xiaodong; Bao, Jing; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-03-01

    Medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging is one of the most important domains of modern medical imaging technology. The application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging system has the potential of higher SNR and deeper penetration depth than conventional pulse-echo imaging system, it also improves the image quality, and enhances the sensitivity of feeble signal, furthermore, proper coded excitation is beneficial to received spectrum of Doppler signal. Firstly, this paper analyzes the application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging system abstractly, showing the advantage and bright future of coded excitation technology, then introduces the principle and the theory of coded excitation. Secondly, we compare some coded serials (including Chirp and fake Chirp signal, Barker codes, Golay's complementary serial, M-sequence, etc). Considering Mainlobe Width, Range Sidelobe Level, Signal-to-Noise Ratio and sensitivity of Doppler signal, we choose Barker codes as coded serial. At last, we design the coded excitation circuit. The result in B-mode imaging and Doppler flow measurement coincided with our expectation, which incarnated the advantage of application of coded excitation technology in Digital Medical Ultrasonic Doppler Endoscope Imaging System.

  5. The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 increases mucin5AC production in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chunyi; Li, Qi; Zhou, Xiangdong; Kolosov, Victor P.; Perelman, Juliy M.

    2013-11-01

    Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms that mediate excessive mucin production remain elusive. Recently, the level of YKL-40, a chitinase-like protein, has been found to be significantly increased in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and has been shown to be associated with the severity of these diseases. In this study, we sought to explore the effect of YKL-40 on mucin5AC (MUC5AC) production in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and the potential signaling pathways involved in this process. We found that elevated YKL-40 levels increased the mRNA and protein expression of MUC5AC in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in association with the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), reflecting their activation. These responses were significantly suppressed by the knockdown of protease-activating receptor 2 (PAR2) with specific small interfering RNA or the inhibitors of ERK and NF-κB. YKL-40-induced MUC5AC overproduction was also effectively attenuated by the inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Taken together, these results imply that YKL-40 can stimulate excessive MUC5AC production through PAR2- and FAK-mediated mechanisms. - Highlights: • MUC5AC is the major secreted mucin in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. • YKL-40 is a prototype of the chitinase-like protein in mammals. • YKL-40 is an active player in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. • YKL-40 can increase MUC5AC production via PAR2-mediated pathway. • FAK is another candidate to mediate YKL-40-induced MUC5AC overexpression.

  6. Experimental investigations on flow induced vibration of an externally excited flexible plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Ashish; Darpe, Ashish K.; Singh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Flow-induced vibration of a harmonically actuated flexible plate in the wake of an upstream bluff body is experimentally investigated. The experiments are performed in an open-ended wind tunnel. A flexible plate trailing a bluff body is under fluid induced excitation due to the flowing fluid. The additional external excitation to the trailing plate is applied using an electro-magnetic exciter. The frequency and amplitude of the external harmonic excitation are selected as variable parameters in the experiments and their effect on the plate vibration and is investigated. To know the nature of acoustic pressure wave generated from the vibrating system, near-field acoustic pressure is also measured. A laser vibrometer, a pressure microphone and a high-speed camera are employed to measure the plate vibration, pressure signal, and instantaneous images of the plate motion respectively. The results obtained indicate that the dynamics of the plate is influenced by both the flow-induced excitation and external harmonic excitation. When frequency of the two excitations is close enough, a large vibration level and a high tonal sound pressure are observed. At higher amplitude of external excitation, the frequency component corresponding to the flow-induced excitation is found to reduce significantly in the frequency spectrum of the vibration signal. It is observed that, for certain range of excitation frequency, the plate vibration first reduces, reaches a minimum value and then increases with increase in the level of external excitation. A fair qualitative agreement of the experimental results with numerical simulation result of the past study has been noted. In addition to the experiments, the role of phase difference between the flow-induced excitation generated from the front obstacle and externally applied harmonic excitation is investigated through numerical simulations. The result obtained reveals that the final steady state vibration of the coupled system is

  7. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs.

  8. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  9. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx.

  10. Brassinosteroid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Sae-Seaw, Juthamas; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The brassinosteroid (BR) class of steroid hormones regulates plant development and physiology. The BR signal is transduced by a receptor kinase-mediated signal transduction pathway, which is distinct from animal steroid signalling systems. Recent studies have fully connected the BR signal transduction chain and have identified thousands of BR target genes, linking BR signalling to numerous cellular processes. Molecular links between BR and several other signalling pathways have also been identified. Here, we provide an overview of the highly integrated BR signalling network and explain how this steroid hormone functions as a master regulator of plant growth, development and metabolism. PMID:23533170

  11. Core and valence excitations in resonant X-ray spectroscopy using restricted excitation window time-dependent density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Healion, Daniel; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-01-01

    We report simulations of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and 1D stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy (SXRS) signals of cysteine at the oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur K and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal}\\begin{document}$\\textrm {L}_{2,3}$\\end{document}L2,3 edges. Comparison of the simulated XANES signals with experiment shows that the restricted window time-dependent density functional theory is more accurate and computationally less expensive than the static exchange method. Simulated RIXS and 1D SXRS signals give some insights into the correlation of different excitations in the molecule. PMID:23181305

  12. Core and Valence Excitations in Resonant X-ray Spectroscopy using Restricted Excitation Window Time-dependent Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Healion, Daniel; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-11-21

    We report simulations of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and 1D stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy (SXRS) signals of cysteine at the oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur K and L2,3 edges. The simulated XANES signals from the restricted window time-dependent density functional theory (REW-TDDFT) and the static exchange (STEX) method are compared with experiments, showing that REW-TDDFT is more accurate and computationally less expensive than STEX. Simulated RIXS and 1D SXRS signals from REW-TDDFT give some insights on the correlation of different excitations in the molecule.

  13. The photochemistry of [Fe(III)N3(cyclam-ac)]PF6 at 266 nm.

    PubMed

    Torres-Alacan, Joel; Krahe, Oliver; Filippou, Alexander C; Neese, Frank; Schwarzer, Dirk; Vöhringer, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The photochemistry of iron azido complexes is quite challenging and poorly understood. For example, the photochemical decomposition of [Fe(III)N(3)(cyclam-ac)]PF(6) ([1]PF(6)), where cyclam-ac represents the 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1-acetate ligand, has been shown to be wavelength-dependent, leading either to the rare high-valent iron(V) nitrido complex [Fe(V)N(cyclam-ac)]PF(6) ([3]PF(6)) after cleavage of the azide N(α)-N(β) bond, or to a photoreduced Fe(II) species after Fe-N(azide) bond homolysis. The mechanistic details of this intriguing reactivity have never been studied in detail. Here, the photochemistry of 1 in acetonitrile solution at room temperature has been investigated using step-scan and rapid-scan time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy following a 266 nm, 10 ns pulsed laser excitation. Using carbon monoxide as a quencher for the primary iron-containing photochemical product, it is shown that 266 nm excitation of 1 results exclusively in the cleavage of the Fe-N(azide) bond, as was suspected from earlier steady-state irradiation studies. In argon-purged solutions of [1]PF(6), the solvent-stabilized complex cation [Fe(II)(CH(3)CN)(cyclam-ac)](+) (2red) together with the azide radical (N(3)(.)) is formed with a relative yield of 80%, as evidenced by the appearance of their characteristic vibrational resonances. Strikingly, step-scan experiments with a higher time resolution reveal the formation of azide anions (N(3)(-)) during the first 500 ns after photolysis, with a yield of 20%. These azide ions can subsequently react thermally with 2red to form [Fe(II)N(3)(cyclam-ac)] (1red) as a secondary product of the photochemical decomposition of 1. Molecular oxygen was further used to quench 1red and 2red to form what seems to be the elusive complex [Fe(O(2))(cyclam-ac)](+) (6).

  14. A dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, M.; Starkloff, M.; Peiselt, K.; Anders, S.; Knipper, R.; Lee, J.; Behr, R.; Palafox, L.; Böck, A. C.; Schaidhammer, L.; Fleischmann, P. M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes a dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter system operated up to kilohertz frequencies and 7 V rms. A 10 V programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) array was installed on a pulse tube cooler (PTC) driven with a 4 kW air-cooled compressor. The operating margins at 70 GHz frequencies were investigated in detail and found to exceed 1 mA Shapiro step width. A key factor for the successful chip operation was the low on-chip power consumption of 65 mW in total. A thermal interface between PJVS chip and PTC cold stage was used to avoid a significant chip overheating. By installing the cryocooled PJVS array into an AC quantum voltmeter setup, several calibration measurements of dc standards and calibrator ac voltages up to 2 kHz frequencies were carried out to demonstrate the full functionality. The results are discussed and compared to systems with standard liquid helium cooling. For dc voltages, a direct comparison measurement between the dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter and a liquid-helium based 10 V PJVS shows an agreement better than 1 part in 1010.

  15. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  16. Manipulating Flames with AC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kyle

    2013-11-01

    Time-oscillating electric fields applied to plasmas present in flames create steady flows of gas capable of shaping, directing, enhancing, or even extinguishing flames. Interestingly, electric winds induced by AC electric fields can be stronger that those due to static fields of comparable magnitude. Furthermore, unlike static fields, the electric force due to AC fields is localized near the surface of the flame. Consequently, the AC response depends only on the local field at the surface of the flame - not on the position of the electrodes used to generate the field. These results suggest that oscillating electric fields can be used to manipulate and control combustion processes at a distance. To characterize and explain these effects, we investigate a simple experimental system comprising a laminar methane-air flame positioned between two parallel-plate electrodes. We quantify both the electric and hydrodynamic response of the flame as a function of frequency and magnitude of the applied field. A theoretical model shows how steady gas flows emerge from the time-averaged electrical force due to the field-induced motion of ions generated within the flame and by their disappearance by recombination. These results provide useful insights into the application of AC fields to direct combustion processes.

  17. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening. PMID:22419220

  18. N2ac: An ERP Component Associated with the Focusing of Attention Within an Auditory Scene

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Marissa L.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Humans must often focus attention onto relevant sensory signals in the presence of simultaneous irrelevant signals. This type of attention has been explored in vision with the N2pc component, and the present study sought to find an analogous auditory effect. In Experiment 1, two 750-ms sounds were presented simultaneously, one from each of two lateral speakers. On each trial, participants indicated whether one of the two sounds was a pre-defined target. We found that targets elicited an N2ac component: a negativity in the N2 latency range at anterior contralateral electrodes. We also observed a later and more posterior contralateral positivity. Experiment 2 replicated these effects and demonstrated that they arose from competition between attended and unattended tones rather than reflecting lateralized effects of attention for individual tones. The N2ac component may provide a useful tool for studying selective attention within auditory scenes. PMID:21261633

  19. Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2014-06-01

    In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease.

  20. Search for Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition in U-235

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodash, P. A.; Norman, E. B.; Burke, J. T.; Wilks, S. C.; Casperson, R. J.; Swanberg, E. L.; Wakeling, M. A.; Cordeiro, T. J.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) is a rare nuclear excitation that is predicted to occur in numerous isotopes, including U-235. When a nuclear transition matches the energy and the multipolarity of an electronic transition, there is a possibility that NEET will occur. If NEET were to occur in U-235, the nucleus would be excited to its 1/2 + isomeric state that subsequently decays by internal conversion with a decay energy of 77 eV and a half-life of 26 minutes. Theory predicts that NEET can occur in partially ionized uranium plasma with a charge state of 23 +. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with a pulse energy of 780 mJ and a pulse width of 9 ns was used to generate the uranium plasma. The plasma was collected on a plate and the internal conversion electrons were focused onto a microchannel plate detector by a series of electrostatic lenses. Depleted uranium and highly enriched uranium samples were used for the experiment. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work was further supported by the U.S. DHS, UC Berkeley, and the NNIS Fellowship.

  1. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  2. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  3. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus which allows measurement of retinal or visual function by perceptual or electrical methods (e.g.,...

  5. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  6. Two-photon excitation energy transfer microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periasamy, Ammasi

    2000-04-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging is a unique tool used to visualize the spaciotemporal dynamics of protein-protein interactions in living cells. We used FRET to study the dimerization of the pituitary-specific transcription factor of Pit-1 fused with blue flourescent protein and green fluorescent protein. Transcriptional activity of the GFP- and BFP-Pit-1 fusion proteins was demonstrated by their ability to activate the prolactin gene promoter. The energy transfer in the conventional fluorescence microscopy was less efficient due to photobleaching of the BFP-Pit-1 donor molecules. In our studies we developed two-photon excitation energy transfer microscopy, where the photobleaching of blue flourescent protein was considerably reduced. This 2p-FRET imaging system was used to acquire the donor and acceptor images for a living HeLa cell nucleus. We selected 732 nm from the tunable Verdi pumped ti:sapphire laser, in a way that only excites the BFP-Pit-1 and not the GFP-Pit-1 proteins. The efficiency of the 2p-FRET signal increased to 30 percent compared to the conventional FRET imaging, which clearly demonstrates that there is considerable reduction in photobleaching of donor molecules in the 2p-FRET microscopy.

  7. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  8. Force Sensor Characterization Under Sinusoidal Excitations

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Nieves; de Vicente, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The aim in the current work is the development of a method to characterize force sensors under sinusoidal excitations using a primary standard as the source of traceability. During this work the influence factors have been studied and a method to minimise their contributions, as well as the corrections to be performed under dynamic conditions have been established. These results will allow the realization of an adequate characterization of force sensors under sinusoidal excitations, which will be essential for its further proper use under dynamic conditions. The traceability of the sensor characterization is based in the direct definition of force as mass multiplied by acceleration. To do so, the sensor is loaded with different calibrated loads and is maintained under different sinusoidal accelerations by means of a vibration shaker system that is able to generate accelerations up to 100 m/s2 with frequencies from 5 Hz up to 2400 Hz. The acceleration is measured by means of a laser vibrometer with traceability to the units of time and length. A multiple channel data acquisition system is also required to simultaneously acquire the electrical output signals of the involved instrument in real time. PMID:25290287

  9. Unstable resonators with excited converging wave

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, N. ); Weber, H. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports the properties of unstable resonators with an additional mirror inside or outside the resonator investigated, both experimentally and theoretically. The additional mirror excites the converging wave, and by this, output coupling is decreased without affecting beam quality. Experiments were performed with a pulsed Nd:YAG system. The theoretical model was based on the coupled Kirchhoff integrals and solved numerically. Agreement between theory and experiments indicates that this kind of resonator provides high focusability and maximum extraction efficiency simultaneously, even with low-gain media. This enables one to apply unstable resonators to solid-state lasers with low small-signal gain, like alexandrite or CW-pumped Nd:YAG.

  10. Nanoparticles inside nanodishes for plasmon excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Jung-Sub; Son, Jin Gyeong; Han, Sang Woo; Lee, Tae Geol

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a simple route to hybridize two different nanomaterials by using three-dimensional nanodishes that can serve as small plasmonic containers to host guest nanoparticles. The nanodishes were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and oblique-angle film deposition, and the guest nanoparticles were drop-cast onto the host nanodishes. Based on the proposed method, colloidal Au nanoparticles were assembled inside the Au nanodishes in the form of a labyrinth. These Au nanoparticle-nanodish hybrids excited a strong surface plasmon resonance, as verified by a numerical simulation of the local field enhancement and by direct observation of both the enhanced Raman signals and photochemical reactions. Our results point to the potential of the nanodishes as a useful platform for combining diverse nanomaterials and their functionalities.

  11. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an...

  12. Methods for Addressing Missing Data with Applications from ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandriet, Alexandra; Holme, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ACS Examinations Institute (ACS-EI) national norming process, student performance data sets are collected from professors at colleges and universities from around the United States. Because the data sets are collected on a volunteer basis, the ACS-EI often receives data sets with only students' total scores and without the students'…

  13. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  15. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  17. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  18. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  19. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  20. Controller for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply, and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Cantin, Luc; Deschenes, Mario; D'Amours, Mario

    1995-08-15

    A controller is provided for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply having a typical frequency, the AC supply being provided via power transformers by an electrical power distribution grid. The controller is associated with the load and comprises an input interface for coupling the controller to the grid, a frequency detector for detecting the frequency of the AC supply and producing a signal indicative of the frequency, memory modules for storing preprogrammed commands, a frequency monitor for reading the signal indicative of the frequency and producing frequency data derived thereof, a selector for selecting at least one of the preprogrammed commands with respect to the frequency data, a control unit for producing at least one command signal representative of the selected preprogrammed commands, and an output interface including a device responsive to the command signal for controlling the load. Therefore, the load can be controlled by means of the controller depending on the frequency of the AC supply.

  1. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    PubMed Central

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H.; Granitzka, Patrick W.; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions. PMID:26733106

  2. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization.

    PubMed

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bharati; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H; Granitzka, Patrick W; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions. PMID:26733106

  3. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    DOE PAGES

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; et al

    2016-01-06

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset andmore » at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. As a result, our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.« less

  4. Excitation optimization for damage detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bement, Matthew T; Bewley, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

  5. Pair Excitations in Fermi Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Helga M.; Krotscheck, Eckhard; Schörkhuber, Karl; Springer, Josef

    2006-09-01

    We present a theory of multi-pair excitations in strongly interacting Fermi systems. Based on an equations-of-motion approach for time-dependent pair correlations it leads to a qualitatively new structure of the density-density response function. Our theory reduces to both, i) the "correlated" random-phase approximation (RPA) for fermions if the two-pair excitations are ignored, and ii) the correlated Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory for bosons in the appropriate limit. The theory preserves the two first energy-weighted sum rules. A familiar problem of the standard RPA is that its zero-sound mode is energetically much higher than found in experiments. The popular cure of introducing an average effective mass in the Lindhard function violates sum rules and describes the physics incorrectly. We demonstrate that the inclusion of correlated pair excitations gives the correct dispersion. As in 4He, a modification of the effective mass is unnecessary also in 3He.

  6. Signal Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, and they describe the acute (short-term) toxicity ... red letters on the front panel of the product label. 2,4 Acute Oral LD 50 Inhalation LC ...

  7. Calculation of molecular excitation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, George

    1993-01-01

    State-to-state collisional excitation rates for interstellar molecules observed by radio astronomers continue to be required to interpret observed line intensities in terms of local temperatures and densities. A problem of particular interest is collisional excitation of water which is important for modeling the observed interstellar masers. In earlier work supported by a different NASA Grant, excitation of water in collisions with He atoms was studied; after many years of successively more refined calculations that problem now seems to be well understood, and discrepancies with earlier experimental data for related (pressure broadening) phenomena are believed to reflect experimental errors. Because of interstellar abundances, excitation by H2, the dominant interstellar species, is much more important than excitation by He, although it has been argued that rates for excitation by these are similar. Under the current grant theoretical study of this problem has begun which is greatly complicated by the additional degrees of freedom which must be included both in determining the interaction potential and also in the molecular scattering calculation. We have now computed the interaction forces for nearly a thousand molecular geometries and are close to having an acceptable global fit to these points which is necessary for the molecular dynamics calculations. Also, extensive modifications have been made to the molecular scattering code, MOLSCAT. These included coding the rotational basis sets and coupling matrix elements required for collisions of an asymmetric top with a linear rotor. A new method for numerical solution of the coupled equations has been incorporated. Because of the long-ranged nature of the water-hydrogen interaction it is necessary to integrate the equations to rather large intermolecular separations, and the integration methods previously available in MOLSCAT are not ideal for such cases. However, the method used by Alexander in his HIBRIDON code is

  8. Modeling of autoresonant control of a parametrically excited screen machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfazl Zahedi, S.; Babitsky, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Modelling of nonlinear dynamic response of a screen machine described by the nonlinear coupled differential equations and excited by the system of autoresonant control is presented. The displacement signal of the screen is fed to the screen excitation directly by means of positive feedback. Negative feedback is used to fix the level of screen amplitude response within the expected range. The screen is anticipated to vibrate with a parametric resonance and the excitation, stabilization and control response of the system are studied in the stable mode. Autoresonant control is thoroughly investigated and output tracking is reported. The control developed provides the possibility of self-tuning and self-adaptation mechanisms that allow the screen machine to maintain a parametric resonant mode of oscillation under a wide range of uncertainty of mass and viscosity.

  9. Excited States of the divacancy in SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstedte, Michel; Garratt, Thomas; Ivady, Viktor; Gali, Adam

    2014-03-01

    The divacancy in SiC - a technologically mature material that fulfills the necessary requirements for hosting defect based quantum computing - is a good candidate for implementing a solid state quantum bit. Its ground state is isovalent to the NV center in diamond as demonstrated by density functional theory (DFT). Furthermore, coherent manipulation of divacancy spins in SiC has been demonstrated. The similarities to NV might indicate that the same inter system crossing (ICS) from the high to the low spin state is responsible for its spin-dependent fluorescent signal. By DFT and a DFT-based multi-reference hamiltonian we analyze the excited state spectrum of the defects. In contrast to the current picture of the spin dynamics of the NV center, we predict that a static Jahn-Teller effect in the first excited triplet states governs an ICS both with the excited and ground state of the divacancy.

  10. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Li, Quan; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-01-01

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities. PMID:26989777

  11. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Li, Quan; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-02-01

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities. PMID:26989777

  12. Hydrological excitation of polar motion by different variables of the GLDAS models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta

    Continental hydrological loading, by land water, snow, and ice, is an element that is strongly needed for a full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (Hydrological Angular Momentum - HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models of land hydrosphere. The main aim of this study is to show the influence of different variables for example: total evapotranspiration, runoff, snowmelt, soil moisture to polar motion excitations in annual and short term scale. In our consideration we employ several realizations of the GLDAS model as: GLDAS Common Land Model (CLM), GLDAS Mosaic Model, GLDAS National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Oregon State University/Air Force/Hydrologic Research Lab Model (Noah), GLDAS Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model. Hydrological excitation functions of polar motion, both global and regional, are determined by using selected variables of these GLDAS realizations. First we compare a timing, spectra and phase diagrams of different regional and global HAMs with each other. Next, we estimate, the hydrological signal in geodetically observed polar motion excitation by subtracting the atmospheric -- AAM (pressure + wind) and oceanic -- OAM (bottom pressure + currents) contributions. Finally, the hydrological excitations are compared to these hydrological signal in observed polar motion excitation series. The results help us understand which variables of considered hydrological models are the most important for the polar motion excitation and how well we can close polar motion excitation budget in the seasonal and inter-annual spectral ranges.

  13. Development of FRET-based dual-excitation ratiometric fluorescent pH probes and their photocaged derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Lin, Weiying; Cao, Zengmei; Wang, Jiaoliang; Chen, Bin

    2012-01-23

    Dual-excitation ratiometric fluorescent probes allow the measurement of fluorescence intensities at two excitation wavelengths, which should provide a built-in correction for environmental effects. However, most of the small-molecule dual-excitation ratiometric probes that have been reported thus far have shown rather limited separation between the excitation wavelengths (20-70 nm) and/or a very small molar absorption coefficient at one of the excitation wavelengths. These shortcomings can lead to cross-excitation and thus to errors in the measurement of fluorescence intensities and ratios. Herein, we report a FRET-based molecular strategy for the construction of small-molecule dual-excitation ratiometric probes in which the donor and acceptor excitation bands exhibit large separations between the excitation wavelengths and comparable excitation intensities, which is highly desirable for determining the fluorescence intensities and signal ratios with high accuracy. Based on this strategy, we created a coumarin-rhodamine FRET platform that was then employed to develop the first class of FRET-based dual-excitation ratiometric pH probes that have two well-resolved excitation bands (excitation separations>160 nm) and comparable excitation intensities. In addition, these pH probes may be considered as in a kind of "secured ratioing mode". As a further application of these pH probes, the dual-excitation ratiometric pH probes were transformed into the first examples of photocaged dual-excitation ratiometric pH probes to improve the spatiotemporal resolution. It is expected that the modular nature of our FRET-based molecular strategy should render it applicable to other small-molecule dual-dye energy-transfer systems based on diverse fluorescent dyes for the development of a wide range of dual-excitation ratiometric probes with outstanding spectral features, including large separations between the excitation wavelengths and comparable excitation intensities.

  14. Magnetically induced pulser laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.S.; Leopold, K.E.

    1985-02-15

    A novel excitation scheme has been developed for excimer discharge lasers. The technique uses pulse transformer technology to induce a fast, high voltage pulse directly onto a ground potential laser electrode resulting in the breakdown of the laser gas mix. Saturation of the pulse transformer core inductance then permits efficient energy transfer from the main energy storage circuit into the discharge. When this excitation technique was used in a XeCl laser an output energy density of 2.5 J/l and an overall electrical to optical efficiency of 2% were obtained. The technique appears promising for the development of high energy, high average power excimer lasers.

  15. Autoresonant excitation of antiproton plasmas.

    PubMed

    Andresen, G B; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2011-01-14

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  16. Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Carpenter, P. T.; Hurt, J. L.; Robicheaux, F.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-01-14

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  17. Directional excitation without breaking reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Hamidreza; Dubois, Marc; Wang, Yuan; Shen, Y. Ron; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    We propose a mechanism for directional excitation without breaking reciprocity. This is achieved by embedding an impedance matched parity-time symmetric potential in a three-port system. The amplitude distribution within the gain and loss regions is strongly influenced by the direction of the incoming field. Consequently, the excitation of the third port is contingent on the direction of incidence while transmission in the main channel is immune. Our design improves the four-port directional coupler scheme, as there is no need to implement an anechoic termination to one of the ports.

  18. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an emergency... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must...

  19. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an emergency... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must...

  20. 46 CFR 111.12-3 - Excitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that those for mobile offshore drilling units must meet... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an emergency... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-3 Excitation. In general, excitation must...

  1. A HTS scanning magnet and AC operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, K.; Nakagawa, J.; Fukuda, M.; Yorita, T.; Saito, T.; Sakemi, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Noda, K.

    2010-04-01

    A scanning magnet using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire was designed, built, and tested for its suitability as a beam scanner. After successful cooling tests, the magnet performance was studied using DC and AC currents. With DC current the magnet was successfully operated to generate designed field distributions and effective length. In AC mode, the magnet was operated at frequencies of 30-59 Hz and a temperature of 77 K as well as 10-20 Hz and 20 K. The power losses dissipated in the coils were measured and compared with the model calculations. The observed losses per cycle were independent of the frequency and the scaling law of the transport current was consistent with theoretical predictions for hysteretic losses in HTS wires.

  2. RHIC AC DIPOLE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; METH,M.; PAI,C.; PARKER,B.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SANDERS,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2001-06-18

    Two ac dipoles with vertical and horizontal magnetic field have been proposed at RHIC for applications in linear and non-linear beam dynamics and spin manipulations. A magnetic field amplitude of 380 Gm is required to produce a coherent oscillation of 5 times the rms beam size at the top energy. We take the ac dipole frequency to be 1.0% of the revolution frequency away from the betatron frequency. To achieve the strong magnetic field with minimum power loss, an air-core magnet with two seven turn winding of low loss Litz wire resonating at 64 kHz is designed. The system is also designed to allow one to connect the two magnet winding in series to resonate at 37 kHz for the spin manipulation. Measurements of a half length prototype magnet are also presented.

  3. Long lived NMR signal in bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Boyang; Lee, Jae-Seung; Khitrin, Anatoly; Jerschow, Alexej

    2013-06-01

    Solids and rigid tissues, such as bone, ligaments, and tendons, typically appear dark in MRI, which is due to the extremely short-lived proton nuclear magnetic resonance signals. This short lifetime is due to strong dipolar interactions between immobilized proton spins, which render it challenging to detect these signals with sufficient resolution and sensitivity. Here we show the possibility of exciting long-lived signals in cortical bone tissue with a signature consistent with that of bound water signals. It is further shown that dipolar coupling networks are an integral requirement for the excitation of these long-lived signals. The use of these signals could enhance the ability to visualize rigid tissues and solid samples with high resolution and sensitivity via MRI.

  4. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY

    SciTech Connect

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Christensen, Charlotte; Gilbert, Karoline; Hodge, Paul; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Olsen, Knut; Freeman, Ken; Gallart, Carme; De Jong, Roelof S. E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu E-mail: stephanie@astro.washington.edu E-mail: fabio@astro.washington.edu E-mail: aseth@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-07-15

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D < 4 Mpc). The survey volume encompasses 69 galaxies in diverse environments, including close pairs, small and large groups, filaments, and truly isolated regions. The galaxies include a nearly complete range of morphological types spanning a factor of {approx}10{sup 4} in luminosity and star formation rate. The survey data consist of images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), supplemented with archival data and new Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging taken after the failure of ACS. Survey images include wide field tilings covering the full radial extent of each galaxy, and single deep pointings in uncrowded regions of the most massive galaxies in the volume. The new wide field imaging in ANGST reaches median 50% completenesses of m {sub F475W} = 28.0 mag, m {sub F606W} = 27.3 mag, and m {sub F814W} = 27.3 mag, several magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). The deep fields reach magnitudes sufficient to fully resolve the structure in the red clump. The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly accessible and contain over 34 million photometric measurements of >14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  5. AC plasma anemometer—characteristics and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Curtis; Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics and design of a high-bandwidth flow sensor that uses an AC glow discharge (plasma) as the sensing element is presented. The plasma forms in the air gap between two protruding low profile electrodes attached to a probe body. The output from the anemometer is an amplitude modulated version of the AC voltage input that contains information about the mean and fluctuating velocity components. The anemometer circuitry includes resistance and capacitance elements that simulate a dielectric-barrier to maintain a diffuse plasma, and a constant-current feedback control that maintains operation within the desired glow discharge regime over an extended range of air velocities. Mean velocity calibrations are demonstrated over a range from 0 to 140 m s-1. Over this velocity range, the mean output voltage varied linearly with air velocity, providing a constant static sensitivity. The effect of the electrode gap and input AC carrier frequency on the anemometer static sensitivity and dynamic response are investigated. Experiments are performed to compare measurements obtained with a plasma sensor operating at two AC carrier frequencies against that of a constant-temperature hot-wire. All three sensors were calibrated against the same known velocity reference. An uncertainty based on the standard deviation of the velocity calibration fit was applied to the mean and fluctuating velocity measurements of the three sensors. The motivation is not to replace hot-wires as a general measurement tool, but rather as an alternative to hot-wires in harsh environments or at high Mach numbers where they either have difficulty in surviving or lack the necessary frequency response.

  6. Graphs for Isotopes of 89-Ac (Actinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 89-Ac (Actinium, atomic number Z = 89).

  7. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal. PMID:20208642

  8. Highlights of the Dallas ACS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeman, Thomas R.; Freilich, Mark; Kelter, Paul B.

    1998-06-01

    Without a doubt, a primary feature of the 1998 Spring National Meeting in Dallas was the High School Program, which was organized by George Hague, and the impact that the Texas teachers had on other participants. Over 150 teachers registered for the meeting and participated in the program. Their organizational skills were used to reinstitute the High School/College Interface Luncheon. (The High School/College Interface Luncheon will also be held at the Fall ACS Meeting in Boston.)

  9. Combined two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation backscattering microscopy of turbid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoumi, Aikaterini; Yeh, Alvin T.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2002-06-01

    A broad range of excitation wavelengths (730-880nm) was used to demonstrate the co-registration of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) in unstained turbid tissues in reflection geometry. The composite TPEF/SHG microscopic technique was applied to imaging an organotypic tissue model (RAFT). The origin of the image-forming signal from the various RAFT constituents was determined by spectral measurements. It was shown that at shorter excitation wavelengths the signal emitted from the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a combination of SHG and TPEF from collagen, whereas at longer excitation wavelengths the ECM signal is exclusively due to SHG. The cellular signal is due to TPEF at all excitation wavelengths. The reflected SHG intensity followed a quadratic dependence on the excitation power and exhibited a spectral dependence in accordance with previous theoretical studies. Understanding the structural origin of signal provided a stratagem for enhancing contrast between cellular structures, and components of the extracellular matrix. The use of SHG and TPEF in combination provides complementary information that allows non-invasive, spatially localized in vivo characterization of cell-ECM interactions and pathology.

  10. 78 FR 49318 - Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-167A

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Systems (78 FR 34935-34958) (Docket No.: FAA-2013-0485; Notice No. 1209). AC 90-106A, Enhanced Flight... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... Federal Aviation Administration Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-...

  11. Nuclear Phosphoproteomic Screen Uncovers ACLY as Mediator of IL-2-induced Proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Osinalde, Nerea; Mitxelena, Jone; Sánchez-Quiles, Virginia; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Aloria, Kerman; Arizmendi, Jesus M; Zubiaga, Ana M; Blagoev, Blagoy; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Anti-cancer immunotherapies commonly rely on the use of interleukin-2 (IL-2) to promote the expansion of T lymphocytes. IL-2- dependent proliferation is the culmination of a complex network of phosphorylation-driven signaling events that impact on gene transcription through mechanisms that are not clearly understood. To study the role of IL-2 in the regulation of nuclear protein function we have performed an unbiased mass spectrometry-based study of the nuclear phosphoproteome of resting and IL-2-treated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We detected 8521distinct phosphosites including many that are not yet reported in curated phosphorylation databases. Although most phosphorylation sites remained unaffected upon IL-2 treatment, 391 sites corresponding to 288 gene products showed robust IL-2-dependent regulation. Importantly, we show that ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is a key phosphoprotein effector of IL-2-mediated T-cell responses. ACLY becomes phosphorylated on serine 455 in T lymphocytes upon IL-2-driven activation of AKT, and depletion or inactivation of ACLY compromises IL-2-promoted T-cell growth. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that ACLY is required for enhancing histone acetylation levels and inducing the expression of cell cycle regulating genes in response to IL-2. Thus, the metabolic enzyme ACLY emerges as a bridge between cytokine signaling and proliferation of T lymphocytes, and may be an attractive candidate target for the development of more efficient anti-cancer immunotherapies.

  12. Level structure and reflection asymmetric shape in sup 223 Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P. )

    1990-07-20

    Mass separated sources of {sup 227}Pa (separated as PaF{sub 4}{sup +} ions) were used to study the level structure of {sup 223}Ac following alpha decay. The levels in {sup 223}Ac are interpreted as K = 5/2{sup {plus minus}} parity doublet bands which occur naturally in reflection asymmetric models and the multiphonon octupole model. The anomalous structure of the K = 3/2{sup {minus}} band is explained in terms of Coriolis coupling. The low lying parity doublet bands in {sup 223}Ac, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 227}Ac are compared and contrasted.

  13. Nonlinear vibrational excitations in molecular crystals molecular mechanics calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumilia, P.; Abbate, S.; Baldini, G.; Ferro, D. R.; Tubino, R.

    1992-03-01

    The coupling constant for vibrational solitons χ has been examined in a molecular mechanics model for acetanilide (ACN) molecular crystal. According to A.C. Scott, solitons can form and propagate in solid acetanilide over a threshold energy value. This can be regarded as a structural model for the spines of hydrogen bond chains stabilizing the α helical structure of proteins. A one dimensional hydrogen bond chain of ACN has been built, for which we have found that, even though experimental parameters are correctly predicted, the excessive rigidity of the isolated chain prevents the formation of a localized distortion around the excitation. Yet, C=O coupling value with softer lattice modes could be rather high, allowing self-trapping to take place.

  14. A Novel Single-Excitation Capacitive Angular Position Sensor Design

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Bo; Zhou, Bin; Song, Mingliang; Lin, Zhihui; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a high-precision capacitive angular position sensor (CAPS). The CAPS is designed to be excited by a single voltage to eliminate the matching errors of multi-excitations, and it is mainly composed of excitation electrodes, coupling electrodes, petal-form sensitive electrodes and a set of collection electrodes. A sinusoidal voltage is applied on the excitation electrodes, then the voltage couples to the coupling electrodes and sensitive electrodes without contact. The sensitive electrodes together with the set of collection electrodes encode the angular position to amplitude-modulated signals, and in order to increase the scale factor, the sensitive electrodes are patterned in the shape of petal-form sinusoidal circles. By utilizing a resolver demodulation method, the amplitude-modulated signals are digitally decoded to get the angular position. A prototype of the CAPS is fabricated and tested. The measurement results show that the accuracy of the sensor is 0.0036°, the resolution is 0.0009° and the nonlinearity over the full range is 0.008° (after compensation), indicating that the CAPS has great potential to be applied in high-precision applications with a low cost. PMID:27483278

  15. A Novel Single-Excitation Capacitive Angular Position Sensor Design.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bo; Zhou, Bin; Song, Mingliang; Lin, Zhihui; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a high-precision capacitive angular position sensor (CAPS). The CAPS is designed to be excited by a single voltage to eliminate the matching errors of multi-excitations, and it is mainly composed of excitation electrodes, coupling electrodes, petal-form sensitive electrodes and a set of collection electrodes. A sinusoidal voltage is applied on the excitation electrodes, then the voltage couples to the coupling electrodes and sensitive electrodes without contact. The sensitive electrodes together with the set of collection electrodes encode the angular position to amplitude-modulated signals, and in order to increase the scale factor, the sensitive electrodes are patterned in the shape of petal-form sinusoidal circles. By utilizing a resolver demodulation method, the amplitude-modulated signals are digitally decoded to get the angular position. A prototype of the CAPS is fabricated and tested. The measurement results show that the accuracy of the sensor is 0.0036°, the resolution is 0.0009° and the nonlinearity over the full range is 0.008° (after compensation), indicating that the CAPS has great potential to be applied in high-precision applications with a low cost.

  16. Elementary Excitations in Quantum Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, David

    1981-01-01

    Discusses elementary excitations and their role in condensed matter physics, focusing on quantum plasma, helium liquids, and superconductors. Considers research primarily conducted in the 1950s and concludes with a brief survey of some closely related further developments. (Author/JN)

  17. Communicating the Excitement of Science

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Turner

    2016-07-12

    In this talk (which will include some exciting science) I will discuss some lessons I have learned about communicating science to scientists (in my own field and others), students, the public, the press, and policy makers in giving 500+ colloquia and seminars, 300+ public lectures and many informal presentations (including cocktail parties).

  18. Collisional excitation of interstellar water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palma, Amedeo; Green, Sheldon; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Rates for rotational excitation of water molecules in collisions with He atoms have been obtained from a new, accurate theoretical interaction potential. Rates among the lowest 40 ortho levels are given for kinetic temperatures to 1400 K and among the lowest 29 para levels for kinetic temperatures to 800 K.

  19. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  20. Communicating the Excitement of Science

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Turner

    2009-06-05

    In this talk (which will include some exciting science) I will discuss some lessons I have learned about communicating science to scientists (in my own field and others), students, the public, the press, and policy makers in giving 500+ colloquia and seminars, 300+ public lectures and many informal presentations (including cocktail parties).

  1. Perceptual Load Alters Visual Excitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…

  2. Molecular biology of maize Ac/Ds elements: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lazarow, Katina; Doll, My-Linh; Kunze, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Maize Activator (Ac) is one of the prototype transposable elements of the hAT transposon superfamily, members of which were identified in plants, fungi, and animals. The autonomous Ac and nonautonomous Dissociation (Ds) elements are mobilized by the single transposase protein encoded by Ac. To date Ac/Ds transposons were shown to be functional in approximately 20 plant species and have become the most widely used transposable elements for gene tagging and functional genomics approaches in plants. In this chapter we review the biology, regulation, and transposition mechanism of Ac/Ds elements in maize and heterologous plants. We discuss the parameters that are known to influence the functionality and transposition efficiency of Ac/Ds transposons and need to be considered when designing Ac transposase expression constructs and Ds elements for application in heterologous plant species.

  3. Higher order parametric excitation modes for spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-12-15

    This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system. When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.

  4. Tuneable, non-degenerated, nonlinear, parametrically-excited amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolev, Amit; Bucher, Izhak

    2016-01-01

    The proposed parametric amplifier scheme can be tuned to amplify a wide range of input frequencies by altering the parametric excitation with no need to physically modify the oscillator. Parametric amplifiers had been studied extensively, although most of the work focused on amplifiers that are parametrically excited at a frequency twice the amplifier's natural frequency. These amplifiers are confined to amplifying predetermined frequencies. The proposed parametric amplifier's bandwidth is indeed tuneable to nearly any input frequency, not bound to be an integer multiple of a natural frequency. In order to tune the stiffness and induce a variable frequency parametric excitation, a digitally controlled electromechanical element must be incorporated in the realization. We introduce a novel parametric amplifier with nonlinearity, Duffing type hardening, that bounds the otherwise unlimited amplitude. Moreover, we present a multi degree of freedom system in which a utilization of the proposed method enables the projection of low frequency vector forces on any eigenvector and corresponding natural frequency of the system, and thus to transform external excitations to a frequency band where signal levels are considerably higher. Using the method of multiple scales, analytical expressions for the responses have been retrieved and verified numerically. Parametric studies of the amplifiers' gain, sensitivities and spatial projection of the excitation on the system eigenvectors were carried out analytically. The results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach over existing schemes. Practical applications envisaged for the proposed method will be outlined.

  5. Coherent control of multiple vibrational excitations for optimal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrane, S. D.; Scharff, R. J.; Greenfield, M.; Moore, D. S.

    2009-10-01

    While the means to selectively excite a single vibrational mode using ultrafast pulse shaping are well established, the subsequent problem of selectively exciting multiple vibrational modes simultaneously has been largely neglected. The coherent control of multiple vibrational excitations has applications in control of chemistry, chemical detection and molecular vibrational quantum information processing. Using simulations and experiments, we demonstrate that multiple vibrational modes can be selectively excited with the concurrent suppression of multiple interfering modes by orders of magnitude. While the mechanism of selectivity is analogous to that of single mode selectivity, the interferences required to select multiple modes require complicated non-intuitive pulse trains. Additionally, we show that selective detection can be achieved by the optimal pulse shape, even when the nature of the interfering species is varied, suggesting that optimized detection should be practical in real world applications. Experimental measurements of the multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra (CARS) and CARS decay times of toluene, acetone, cis-stilbene and nitromethane liquids are reported, along with optimizations attempting to selectively excite nitromethane in a mixture of the four solvents. The experimental implementation exhibits a smaller degree of signal to background enhancement than predicted, which is primarily attributed to the single objective optimization methodology and not to fundamental limitations.

  6. Circle diagram approach for self excited induction generators

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Carlin, P.W.; Osgood, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    When an induction generator is connected to a utility line supply, the voltage and frequency at the terminal output are the same as the voltage and frequency of the utility line supply to which the generator is connected. The reactive power needed by the induction generator is supplied by the utility and the real power is returned to the utility. With a fixed frequency dictated by the utility, the induction machine starts generating above the synchronous speed. The range of speed is also limited by the slip. At a very high slip, the copper losses increases as the current increases. On the other hand, in an isolated operation, the induction generator operates in self-excitation mode. It determines its own voltage and frequency. These two quantities depend on the size of the AC capacitor, the induction machine parameters, the electrical load, and the speed of the generator. The operating speed of the induction generator is extended without generating excessive loss. This paper presents an analytical study by utilizing a circle diagram to illustrate the operation of the induction generator in isolated operation. The steady-state calculations are presented to support the analysis. Possible applications for the system in variable-speed generation are currently under investigation. The output can be directly connected to equipment that is non-sensitive to the frequency (a heater, battery charger, etc.) or can be connected to a converter to get a fixed-frequency AC output.

  7. Signal transduction mechanisms in plants: an overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Thompson, G. Jr; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview on recent advances in some of the basic signalling mechanisms that participate in a wide variety of stimulus-response pathways. The mechanisms include calcium-based signalling, G-protein-mediated-signalling and signalling involving inositol phospholipids, with discussion on the role of protein kinases and phosphatases interspersed. As a further defining feature, the article highlights recent exciting findings on three extracellular components that have not been given coverage in previous reviews of signal transduction in plants, extracellular calmodulin, extracellular ATP, and integrin-like receptors, all of which affect plant growth and development.

  8. Band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy utilizing photothermal excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Liam E-mail: liq1@ORNL.gov; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei; Li, Qian E-mail: liq1@ORNL.gov

    2015-03-09

    A multifrequency open loop Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) approach utilizing photothermal as opposed to electrical excitation is developed. Photothermal band excitation (PthBE)-KPFM is implemented here in a grid mode on a model test sample comprising a metal-insulator junction with local charge-patterned regions. Unlike the previously described open loop BE-KPFM, which relies on capacitive actuation of the cantilever, photothermal actuation is shown to be highly sensitive to the electrostatic force gradient even at biases close to the contact potential difference (CPD). PthBE-KPFM is further shown to provide a more localized measurement of true CPD in comparison to the gold standard ambient KPFM approach, amplitude modulated KPFM. Finally, PthBE-KPFM data contain information relating to local dielectric properties and electronic dissipation between tip and sample unattainable using conventional single frequency KPFM approaches.

  9. Coded excitation plane wave imaging for shear wave motion detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2015-07-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave SNR compared with conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2 to 4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (body mass index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  10. An automatic AC/DC thermal voltage converter and AC voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1985-10-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frquency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  11. Automatic ac/dc thermal voltage converter and ac voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1984-11-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frequency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  12. Efficiency improvement in the cantilever photothermal excitation method using a photothermal conversion layer.

    PubMed

    Inada, Natsumi; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Taiki; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Photothermal excitation is a cantilever excitation method that enables stable and accurate operation for dynamic-mode AFM measurements. However, the low excitation efficiency of the method has often limited its application in practical studies. In this study, we propose a method for improving the photothermal excitation efficiency by coating cantilever backside surface near its fixed end with colloidal graphite as a photothermal conversion (PTC) layer. The excitation efficiency for a standard cantilever of PPP-NCHAuD with a spring constant of ≈40 N/m and a relatively stiff cantilever of AC55 with a spring constant of ≈140 N/m were improved by 6.1 times and 2.5 times, respectively, by coating with a PTC layer. We experimentally demonstrate high stability of the PTC layer in liquid by AFM imaging of a mica surface with atomic resolution in phosphate buffer saline solution for more than 2 h without any indication of possible contamination from the coating. The proposed method, using a PTC layer made of colloidal graphite, greatly enhances photothermal excitation efficiency even for a relatively stiff cantilever in liquid. PMID:27335733

  13. Proton-induced cross sections relevant to production of 225Ac and 223Ra in natural thorium targets below 200 MeV.

    PubMed

    Weidner, J W; Mashnik, S G; John, K D; Hemez, F; Ballard, B; Bach, H; Birnbaum, E R; Bitteker, L J; Couture, A; Dry, D; Fassbender, M E; Gulley, M S; Jackman, K R; Ullmann, J L; Wolfsberg, L E; Nortier, F M

    2012-11-01

    Cross sections for (223,)(225)Ra, (225)Ac and (227)Th production by the proton bombardment of natural thorium targets were measured at proton energies below 200 MeV. Our measurements are in good agreement with previously published data and offer a complete excitation function for (223,)(225)Ra in the energy range above 90 MeV. Comparison of theoretical predictions with the experimental data shows reasonable-to-good agreement. Results indicate that accelerator-based production of (225)Ac and (223)Ra below 200 MeV is a viable production method.

  14. Proton-induced cross sections relevant to production of 225Ac and 223Ra in natural thorium targets below 200 MeV.

    PubMed

    Weidner, J W; Mashnik, S G; John, K D; Hemez, F; Ballard, B; Bach, H; Birnbaum, E R; Bitteker, L J; Couture, A; Dry, D; Fassbender, M E; Gulley, M S; Jackman, K R; Ullmann, J L; Wolfsberg, L E; Nortier, F M

    2012-11-01

    Cross sections for (223,)(225)Ra, (225)Ac and (227)Th production by the proton bombardment of natural thorium targets were measured at proton energies below 200 MeV. Our measurements are in good agreement with previously published data and offer a complete excitation function for (223,)(225)Ra in the energy range above 90 MeV. Comparison of theoretical predictions with the experimental data shows reasonable-to-good agreement. Results indicate that accelerator-based production of (225)Ac and (223)Ra below 200 MeV is a viable production method. PMID:22940414

  15. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A.

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc{sup 109KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc{sup 109KO} results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc{sup 109KO}-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID{sub 50} showed that vAc{sup 109KO} produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc{sup 109KO} BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  16. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious.

    PubMed

    Fang, Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc(109KO)). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc(109KO) results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc(109KO)-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID(50) showed that vAc(109KO) produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc(109KO) BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  17. N-Terminal Acetylation-Targeted N-End Rule Proteolytic System: The Ac/N-End Rule Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Eun; Heo, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Mok; Hwang, Cheol-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Although Nα-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) is a pervasive protein modification in eukaryotes, its general functions in a majority of proteins are poorly understood. In 2010, it was discovered that Nt-acetylation creates a specific protein degradation signal that is targeted by a new class of the N-end rule proteolytic system, called the Ac/N-end rule pathway. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism and biological functions of the Ac/N-end rule pathway, and its crosstalk with the Arg/N-end rule pathway (the classical N-end rule pathway). PMID:26883906

  18. Verification of low frequency ac-dc transfer differences of thermal converters using sampling with sine-wave fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Torsten; Spiegel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Thermal converters show significant ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies due to nonlinearities of the heat transport mechanism and of the thermal-to-electric conversion. It is assumed that the ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies are proportional to the input power. We have proved this assumption by an independent method with sampling techniques. A novel approach based on sine-wave fitting is used to calculate the RMS value of the sampled signal from the samples. It makes use of the low noise in a metrological environment. Expanded uncertainties in the order of 1.2 μV/V have been achieved.

  19. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  20. Two-color two-photon excitation using femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Quentmeier, Stefan; Denicke, Stefan; Ehlers, Jan-Eric; Niesner, Raluca A; Gericke, Karl-Heinz

    2008-05-01

    The use of two-color two-photon (2c2p) excitation easily extends the wavelength range of Ti:sapphire lasers to the UV, widening the scope of its applications especially in biological sciences. We report observation of 2c2p excitation fluorescence of p-terphenyl (PTP), 2-methyl-5-t-butyl-p-quaterphenyl (DMQ) and tryptophan upon excitation with 400 and 800 nm wavelengths using the second harmonic and fundamental wavelength of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. This excitation is energetically equivalent to a one-photon excitation wavelength at 266 nm. The fluorescence signal is observed only when both wavelengths are spatially and temporally overlapping. Adjustment of the relative delay of the two laser pulses renders a cross correlation curve which is in good agreement with the pulse width of our laser. The fluorescence signal is linearly dependent on the intensity of each of the two colors but quadratically on the total incident illumination power of both colors. In fluorescence microscopy, the use of a combination of intense IR and low-intensity blue light as a substitute for UV light for excitation can have numerous advantages. Additionally, the effect of differently polarized excitation photons relative to each other is demonstrated. This offers information about different transition symmetries and yields deeper insight into the two-photon excitation process. PMID:18407711

  1. Dipole excitations in 96Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, A.; Fransen, C.; Gorska, M.; Jolie, J.; Kneissl, U.; Knoch, P.; Mücher, D.; Pitz, H. H.; Scheck, M.; Scholl, C.; Brentano, P. Von

    2005-12-01

    Candidates for the two-phonon quadrupole-octupole 1- state and the two-phonon mixed-symmetry 1+ms state have been identified in the N=52 isotope 96Ru using the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique at the bremsstrahlung facility of the Stuttgart Dynamitron accelerator. Detailed information on energies, spins, branching ratios, and transition strengths of four new dipole excitations in 96Ru have been obtained. The observed dipole excitations are nearly at the same energies as in 94Mo, and the transition probabilities are comparable to those for the decay of the (2+1⊗3-1)1- and the (2+1⊗2+ms)1+ms states in 94Mo.

  2. Excitation energies from ensemble DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgoo, Alex; Teale, Andy M.; Helgaker, Trygve

    2015-12-01

    We study the evaluation of the Gross-Oliveira-Kohn expression for excitation energies E1-E0=ɛ1-ɛ0+∂E/xc,w[ρ] ∂w | ρ =ρ0. This expression gives the difference between an excitation energy E1 - E0 and the corresponding Kohn-Sham orbital energy difference ɛ1 - ɛ0 as a partial derivative of the exchange-correlation energy of an ensemble of states Exc,w[ρ]. Through Lieb maximisation, on input full-CI density functions, the exchange-correlation energy is evaluated accurately and the partial derivative is evaluated numerically using finite difference. The equality is studied numerically for different geometries of the H2 molecule and different ensemble weights. We explore the adiabatic connection for the ensemble exchange-correlation energy. The latter may prove useful when modelling the unknown weight dependence of the exchange-correlation energy.

  3. Data pattern sensitivity in tracking performance of an AC coupled Costas loop with hard-limited in-phase channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Y. H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is concerned with data pattern sensitivity in carrier tracking performance of an AC coupled Costas loop with a suppressed BPSK signal. The signal amplitude suppression factor is derived as a function of data 'asymmetry ratio' - the ratio of '1's to the total number of bits in a period of a periodic signal. For an asymmetric pattern, the effect of AC coupling is noticeable whereas there is almost no effect for symmetric square wave. The tracking performance with an asymmetric pattern is worse than that with a symmetric pattern. However, it is also shown that as expected, the tracking performance of a DC coupled loop with an asymmetric pattern is better than that with a symmetric pattern.

  4. Collisional excitation of interstellar cyclopropenylidene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Sheldon; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical rotational excitation rates were computed for C3H2 in collisions with He atoms at temperatures from 30 to 120 K. The intermolecular forces were obtained from accurate self-consistent field and perturbation theory calculations, and collision dynamics were treated within the infinite-order sudden approximation. The accuracy of the latter was examined by comparing with the more exact coupled states approximation.

  5. Excitation rates of heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, C. A.; Santangelo, E. M.; Ducati, M. B.

    1985-06-01

    We obtain the production rates for c, b, and t quarks in deep-inelastic neutrino- (antineutrino-) nucleon interactions, in the standard six-quark model with left-handed couplings. The results are obtained with the most recent mixing parameters and we include a comparison between quark parametrizations. The excitations are calculated separately for each flavor, allowing the understanding of the role of threshold effects when considered through different rescaling variables.

  6. High frame rate photoacoustic computed tomography using coded excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Masataka; Zhang, Haichong K.; Kondo, Kengo; Namita, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic Computed Tomography (PACT) records signals from a wide range of angles to achieve uniform, highresolution images. A high-power laser is generally used for PACT, but the long acquisition time with a single probe is a problem due to the low pulse-repetition frequency (PRF). For PACT, this degrades image resolution and contrast because it is hard to scan with a small step interval. Moreover, in vivo measurement requires a fast image acquisition system to avoid motion artifacts. The problem can be resolved by using a high PRF laser, which provides only weak energy. Averaging measured signals many times can mitigate the low signal-to-noise issue, but the PRF is restricted by the acoustic time of flight, so this is a new source of measurement time increase. Here, we present the coded-excitation approach, which we previously proposed for linear scanning, to increase the PACT frame rate. Coded excitation irradiates temporally encoded pulses and enhances the signal amplitude through decoding. The PRF is thus not restricted to acoustic time of flight. Consequently, acquisition time can be shortened by increasing PRF, and the SNR increases for the same measurement time. To validate the proposed idea, we conducted experiments using a high PRF laser with a revolving motor and compared the performance of coded excitation to that of averaging. Results demonstrated that the contamination of a signal acquired from different angles was negligible, and that the scanning pitch was remarkably improved because the start point of decoding can be set in any code in the periodic sequence.

  7. Highly efficient degradation of 4-nitrophenol over the catalyst of Mn2O3/AC by microwave catalytic oxidation degradation method.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cheng; Cai, Jinjun; Gao, Lingfei; Yin, Jingya; Zhou, Jicheng

    2016-03-15

    A new microwave catalytic oxidation process based on two kinds of catalysts, the commercially available activated carbon (AC) and Mn2O3 nanoparticle modified AC (Mn2O3/AC), was reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) without adding any oxidant. Effects of microwave power, catalyst dosage, irradiation time, and initial concentration for the degradation efficiency were studied. Results indicated that catalyst of Mn2O3/AC showed much higher catalytic activity than pure AC and Mn2O3 particles. Significantly, 4-NP degradation efficiency reached 99.6%, corresponding to 93.5% TOC removal under optimal conditions with microwave power of 400W, Mn2O3/AC dosage of 2g, reaction time of 5min, and initial concentration of 100mg/L. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) generated during catalytic reaction is the main oxidant, and O2 can not effectively improve removal rate. We proposed the microwave 'photoelectric effect' to interpret the generation of OH in view that microwave irradiation can directly excite the catalyst to produce electron-hole pairs and then transform H2O into OH on the surface of catalyst in solution. The obtained kinetic equation for microwave catalytic oxidation degradation of 4-NP was in line with pseudo-first-order kinetic model, that is, apparent rate constant increased as microwave power density increase.

  8. Highly efficient degradation of 4-nitrophenol over the catalyst of Mn2O3/AC by microwave catalytic oxidation degradation method.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cheng; Cai, Jinjun; Gao, Lingfei; Yin, Jingya; Zhou, Jicheng

    2016-03-15

    A new microwave catalytic oxidation process based on two kinds of catalysts, the commercially available activated carbon (AC) and Mn2O3 nanoparticle modified AC (Mn2O3/AC), was reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) without adding any oxidant. Effects of microwave power, catalyst dosage, irradiation time, and initial concentration for the degradation efficiency were studied. Results indicated that catalyst of Mn2O3/AC showed much higher catalytic activity than pure AC and Mn2O3 particles. Significantly, 4-NP degradation efficiency reached 99.6%, corresponding to 93.5% TOC removal under optimal conditions with microwave power of 400W, Mn2O3/AC dosage of 2g, reaction time of 5min, and initial concentration of 100mg/L. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) generated during catalytic reaction is the main oxidant, and O2 can not effectively improve removal rate. We proposed the microwave 'photoelectric effect' to interpret the generation of OH in view that microwave irradiation can directly excite the catalyst to produce electron-hole pairs and then transform H2O into OH on the surface of catalyst in solution. The obtained kinetic equation for microwave catalytic oxidation degradation of 4-NP was in line with pseudo-first-order kinetic model, that is, apparent rate constant increased as microwave power density increase. PMID:26642442

  9. Wedding ring shaped excitation coil

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency.

  10. Local Optical Excitations in Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Laurence Kay Doon

    Core spectra of p('6) (--->) p('5)s excitations of rare gas, halogen, and alkali impurities located on the surface and in the bulk of host alkali and Mg metals are presented. The data were obtained by means of differential reflectance spectroscopy in the energy range 5-20 eV using synchrotron radiation. In striking contrast to the absorption profiles of the pure alkalis, linear redshifted profiles are observed at dilution for rare gas adsorbates on alkali surfaces, for Cs adsorbed on Mg, and for Cs dispersed in bulk Na as an alloy. When Cs is dispersed in bulk K the sharp edge characteristic of the pure alkalis is observed. The spectra of Cs and Rb adsorbates on alkali surfaces mirror these same trends, but retain a distinct atomic character. A central result of the present research is that the linear profile may be associated with strong coupling of the excitation to the conduction electrons. A criterion for strong coupling is given which depends on the degree to which the excited impurity level mixes with the host conduction band. There is not at present any theory which can explain these observations. Spectra of halogen adsorbates on alkali and Mg surfaces are also presented; it is found that the ground configuration of isolated halogen atoms on these surfaces is ionic. All the impurity-metal complexes are studied at high concentration when impurity-impurity interactions are important.

  11. Entanglement entropy of electronic excitations.

    PubMed

    Plasser, Felix

    2016-05-21

    A new perspective into correlation effects in electronically excited states is provided through quantum information theory. The entanglement between the electron and hole quasiparticles is examined, and it is shown that the related entanglement entropy can be computed from the eigenvalue spectrum of the well-known natural transition orbital (NTO) decomposition. Non-vanishing entanglement is obtained whenever more than one NTO pair is involved, i.e., in the case of a multiconfigurational or collective excitation. An important implication is that in the case of entanglement it is not possible to gain a complete description of the state character from the orbitals alone, but more specific analysis methods are required to decode the mutual information between the electron and hole. Moreover, the newly introduced number of entangled states is an important property by itself giving information about excitonic structure. The utility of the formalism is illustrated in the cases of the excited states of two interacting ethylene molecules, the conjugated polymer para-phenylene vinylene, and the naphthalene molecule.

  12. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  13. Entanglement entropy of electronic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plasser, Felix

    2016-05-01

    A new perspective into correlation effects in electronically excited states is provided through quantum information theory. The entanglement between the electron and hole quasiparticles is examined, and it is shown that the related entanglement entropy can be computed from the eigenvalue spectrum of the well-known natural transition orbital (NTO) decomposition. Non-vanishing entanglement is obtained whenever more than one NTO pair is involved, i.e., in the case of a multiconfigurational or collective excitation. An important implication is that in the case of entanglement it is not possible to gain a complete description of the state character from the orbitals alone, but more specific analysis methods are required to decode the mutual information between the electron and hole. Moreover, the newly introduced number of entangled states is an important property by itself giving information about excitonic structure. The utility of the formalism is illustrated in the cases of the excited states of two interacting ethylene molecules, the conjugated polymer para-phenylene vinylene, and the naphthalene molecule.

  14. Convective Excitation of Internal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoanet, Daniel; Le Bars, Michael; Burns, Keaton; Vasil, Geoffrey; Quataert, Eliot; Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    We will present a joint experimental & computational study of internal wave generation by convection. First we describe an experiment using the peculiar property of water that its density maximum is at 4° C . A tank of water cooled from below and heated from above develops a cold, convective layer near 4° C at the bottom of the tank, adjacent to a hot stably stratified layer at the top of the tank. We simulate this setup in 2D using the open-source Dedalus code (dedalus-project.org). Our simulations show that waves are excited from within the convection zone, opposed to at the interface between the convective and stably stratified regions. Finally, we will present 3D simulations of internal wave excitation by convection in a fully compressible atmosphere with multiple density scaleheights. These simulations provide greater freedom in choosing the thermal equilibrium of the system, and are run at higher Rayleigh number. The simulated waves are then compared to analytic predictions of the bulk excitation model.

  15. Self-excited multifractal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, V.; Sornette, D.

    2011-05-01

    We introduce the self-excited multifractal (SEMF) model, defined such that the amplitudes of the increments of the process are expressed as exponentials of a long memory of past increments. The principal novel feature of the model lies in the self-excitation mechanism combined with exponential nonlinearity, i.e. the explicit dependence of future values of the process on past ones. The self-excitation captures the microscopic origin of the emergent endogenous self-organization properties, such as the energy cascade in turbulent flows, the triggering of aftershocks by previous earthquakes and the "reflexive" interactions of financial markets. The SEMF process has all the standard stylized facts found in financial time series, which are robust to the specification of the parameters and the shape of the memory kernel: multifractality, heavy tails of the distribution of increments with intermediate asymptotics, zero correlation of the signed increments and long-range correlation of the squared increments, the asymmetry (called "leverage" effect) of the correlation between increments and absolute value of the increments and statistical asymmetry under time reversal.

  16. Assessment of excitation mechanisms and structural flexibility influence in excitation propagation in multi-megawatt wind turbine gearboxes: Experiments and flexible multibody model optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsen, Jan; Marrant, Ben; Vanhollebeke, Frederik; De Coninck, Filip; Berckmans, Dries; Vandepitte, Dirk; Desmet, Wim

    2013-10-01

    Reliable gearbox design calculations require sufficient insight in gearbox dynamics, which is determined by the interaction between the different excitation mechanisms and the gearbox modal behavior. Both external gearbox excitation originating from the wind turbine drive train and internal gearbox excitation are important. Moreover with regard to the modal behavior the different gearbox structural components: planet carrier, shafts and housing are of influence. The main objective of this article is the experimental investigation of the interaction between the different excitation mechanisms and the gearbox modal behavior. The insights gathered are used to prove the need for accurate gear mesh representation and structural flexibility within the corresponding flexible multibody gearbox simulation model. Experiments are conducted on a dynamic 13.2 MW test facility on which two multi-megawatt wind turbine gearboxes are placed back to back and subjected to a speed run-up. Measurement sensors consist of bearing displacement sensors, torque sensors, encoders and accelerometers distributed over the gearbox. Excitation order amplitudes on different locations in the gearbox are determined by means of a Time Varying Discrete Fourier Transform (TVDFT) order tracking on the measured sensor signals. Moreover the propagation of this excitation throughout the gearbox is assessed. Relating the orders to the corresponding excitation source allows the definition of order influence regions within the gearbox. The interaction between the gear mesh order excitation and structural flexibility is shown.

  17. Hadron collider potential for excited bosons search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhov, M. V.; Boyko, I. R.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Budagov, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    The e + e - and μ+μ- dilepton final states are the most clear channels for a new heavy neutral resonance search. Their advantage is that usually in the region of expected heavy-mass resonance peak the main irreducible background, from the Standard Model Drell-Yan process, contributes two orders of magnitude smaller than the signal. In this paper we consider the future prospects for search for the excited neutral Z*-bosons. The bosons can be observed as a Breit-Wigner resonance peak in the dilepton invariant mass distributions in the same way as the well-known extra gauge Z' bosons. However, the Z* bosons have unique signatures in transverse momentum, angular and pseudorapidity distributions of the final leptons, which allow to distinguish them from the other heavy neutral resonances. At present only the ATLAS Collaboration has looked for such new excitations at the Large Hadron Collider and has published its results for 7 TeV collision energy. After successful comparison of our evaluation with these official results we present our estimations for the discovery potential and the exclusion limits on the Z*-boson search in pp collisions at higher centre-of-mass energies and different luminosities. In particular, LHC Run 2 can discover Z*-boson with its mass up to 5.3 TeV, while the High Luminosity LHC can extend that reach to 6.2 TeV. The High Energy LHC (with collision energy of 33 TeV) will be able to probe two times heavier resonance masses at the same integrated luminosities.

  18. User-friendly software for modeling collective spin wave excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Steven; Peterson, Peter; Fishman, Randy; Ehlers, Georg

    There exists a great need for user-friendly, integrated software that assists in the scientific analysis of collective spin wave excitations measured with inelastic neutron scattering. SpinWaveGenie is a C + + software library that simplifies the modeling of collective spin wave excitations, allowing scientists to analyze neutron scattering data with sophisticated models fast and efficiently. Furthermore, one can calculate the four-dimensional scattering function S(Q,E) to directly compare and fit calculations to experimental measurements. Its generality has been both enhanced and verified through successful modeling of a wide array of magnetic materials. Recently, we have spent considerable effort transforming SpinWaveGenie from an early prototype to a high quality free open source software package for the scientific community. S.E.H. acknowledges support by the Laboratory's Director's fund, ORNL. Work was sponsored by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  19. Spurious Excitations in Semiclassical Scattering Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, D. H. E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Shows how through proper handling of the nonuniform motion of semiclassical coordinates spurious excitation terms are eliminated. An application to the problem of nuclear Coulomb excitation is presented as an example. (HM)

  20. Optical pulse shaping for selective excitation of coherent molecular vibrations by stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, Joseph B., III; Marks, Daniel L.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2009-02-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) can be used to identify biological molecules from their vibrational spectra in tissue. A single double-chirped broadband optical pulse can excite a broad spectrum of resonant molecular vibrations in the fingerprint spectral region. Such a pulse also excites nonresonant CARS, particularly from water. We describe a theoretical technique to design an optical pulse to selectively excite coherent vibrations in a target molecular species so that the CARS signal generated is increased. The signal from other molecules is reduced, since the incident pulse does not excite them to have coherent vibrations. As an example, we apply the technique to design pulses to elicit increased CARS signal from a mixture of one or more of the alcohols methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol. We also show how such pulse designs can be used to selectively excite one member of closely related complex biological species. As measured interferometrically, the CARS signal from three phosphodiester stretch modes of DNA can be increased to more than ten times that of the analogous signal from RNA when the pulse design technique is used.

  1. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  2. AC Electroosmotic Pumping in Nanofluidic Funnels.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Andrew R; Haywood, Daniel G; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2016-06-21

    We report efficient pumping of fluids through nanofluidic funnels when a symmetric AC waveform is applied. The asymmetric geometry of the nanofluidic funnel induces not only ion current rectification but also electroosmotic flow rectification. In the base-to-tip direction, the funnel exhibits a lower ion conductance and a higher electroosmotic flow velocity, whereas, in the tip-to-base direction, the funnel has a higher ion conductance and a lower electroosmotic flow velocity. Consequently, symmetric AC waveforms easily pump fluid through the nanofunnels over a range of frequencies, e.g., 5 Hz to 5 kHz. In our experiments, the nanofunnels were milled into glass substrates with a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument, and the funnel design had a constant 5° taper with aspect ratios (funnel tip width to funnel depth) of 0.1 to 1.0. We tracked ion current rectification by current-voltage (I-V) response and electroosmotic flow rectification by transport of a zwitterionic fluorescent probe. Rectification of ion current and electroosmotic flow increased with increasing electric field applied to the nanofunnel. Our results support three-dimensional simulations of ion transport and electroosmotic transport through nanofunnels, which suggest the asymmetric electroosmotic transport stems from an induced pressure at the junction of the nanochannel and nanofunnel tip. PMID:27230495

  3. AC impedance analysis of polypyrrole thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The AC impedance spectra of thin polypyrrole films were obtained at open circuit potentials from -0.4 to 0.4 V vs SCE. Two limiting cases are discussed for which simplified equivalent circuits are applicable. At very positive potentials, the predominantly nonfaradaic AC impedance of polypyrrole is very similar to that observed previously for finite porous metallic films. Modeling of the data with the appropriate equivalent circuit permits effective pore diameter and pore number densities of the oxidized film to be estimated. At potentials from -0.4 to -0.3 V, the polypyrrole film is essentially nonelectronically conductive and diffusion of polymer oxidized sites with their associated counterions can be assumed to be linear from the film/substrate electrode interface. The equivalent circuit for the polypyrrole film at these potentials is that previously described for metal oxide, lithium intercalation thin films. Using this model, counterion diffusion coefficients are determined for both semi-infinite and finite diffusion domains. In addition, the limiting low frequency resistance and capacitance of the polypyrrole thin fims was determined and compared to that obtained previously for thicker films of the polymer. The origin of the observed potential dependence of these low frequency circuit components is discussed.

  4. Discovering work excitement among navy nurses.

    PubMed

    Savage, S; Simms, L M; Williams, R A; Erbin-Roesemann, M

    1993-01-01

    An interest in what makes work exciting among Navy Nurse Corps officers led to the use of Simms' work excitement data collection protocol in Navy Medical Centers. Significant levels of work excitement were found among Navy nurses when compared to civilian nurses in non-military settings. Overall, results indicated that Navy nurses are excited about the variety, the leadership/management experiences, and the opportunities for teaching and learning--elements that are the very essence of Navy nursing practice. PMID:8345880

  5. Modelling intracellular competition for calcium: kinetic and thermodynamic control of different molecular modes of signal decoding

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Gabriela; Roque, Antonio C.; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M.

    2016-01-01

    Frequently, a common chemical entity triggers opposite cellular processes, which implies that the components of signalling networks must detect signals not only through their chemical natures, but also through their dynamic properties. To gain insights on the mechanisms of discrimination of the dynamic properties of cellular signals, we developed a computational stochastic model and investigated how three calcium ion (Ca2+)-dependent enzymes (adenylyl cyclase (AC), phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1), and calcineurin (CaN)) differentially detect Ca2+ transients in a hippocampal dendritic spine. The balance among AC, PDE1 and CaN might determine the occurrence of opposite Ca2+-induced forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). CaN is essential for LTD. AC and PDE1 regulate, indirectly, protein kinase A, which counteracts CaN during LTP. Stimulations of AC, PDE1 and CaN with artificial and physiological Ca2+ signals demonstrated that AC and CaN have Ca2+ requirements modulated dynamically by different properties of the signals used to stimulate them, because their interactions with Ca2+ often occur under kinetic control. Contrarily, PDE1 responds to the immediate amplitude of different Ca2+ transients and usually with the same Ca2+ requirements observed under steady state. Therefore, AC, PDE1 and CaN decode different dynamic properties of Ca2+ signals. PMID:27033299

  6. The syncytial Drosophila embryo as a mechanically excitable medium.

    PubMed

    Idema, Timon; Dubuis, Julien O; Kang, Louis; Manning, M Lisa; Nelson, Philip C; Lubensky, Tom C; Liu, Andrea J

    2013-01-01

    Mitosis in the early syncytial Drosophila embryo is highly correlated in space and time, as manifested in mitotic wavefronts that propagate across the embryo. In this paper we investigate the idea that the embryo can be considered a mechanically-excitable medium, and that mitotic wavefronts can be understood as nonlinear wavefronts that propagate through this medium. We study the wavefronts via both image analysis of confocal microscopy videos and theoretical models. We find that the mitotic waves travel across the embryo at a well-defined speed that decreases with replication cycle. We find two markers of the wavefront in each cycle, corresponding to the onsets of metaphase and anaphase. Each of these onsets is followed by displacements of the nuclei that obey the same wavefront pattern. To understand the mitotic wavefronts theoretically we analyze wavefront propagation in excitable media. We study two classes of models, one with biochemical signaling and one with mechanical signaling. We find that the dependence of wavefront speed on cycle number is most naturally explained by mechanical signaling, and that the entire process suggests a scenario in which biochemical and mechanical signaling are coupled.

  7. Photoacoustic chemical sensing: layered systems and excitation source analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Logan S.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a versatile tool that is well suited for the ranged interrogation of layered samples. We have previously demonstrated standoff photoacoustic (PA) chemical detection of condensed phase samples at one meter distance using an interferometric sensing platform. Current research investigates layered solid samples constructed from a thin layer of energetic material deposited on a substrate. The PA signal from the system, as measured by the interferometer, changes based on the differing optical and mechanical properties of the substrate. This signal variance must be understood in order to develop a sensor capable of detecting trace quantities of hazardous materials independent of the surface. Optical absorption and modal excitation are the two biggest sources of PA signal generated in the sample/substrate system. Finally, the mode of operation of the excitation source is investigated. Most PA sensing paradigms use a quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating in either pulsed or modulated CW mode. We will discuss photoacoustic signal generation with respect to these different operating modes.

  8. Signal Waveform Detection with Statistical Automaton for Internet and Web Service Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiming; Huang, Nai-Lun; Zeng, Fufu; Lin, Fang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many approaches have been suggested for Internet and web streaming detection. In this paper, we propose an approach to signal waveform detection for Internet and web streaming, with novel statistical automatons. The system records network connections over a period of time to form a signal waveform and compute suspicious characteristics of the waveform. Network streaming according to these selected waveform features by our newly designed Aho-Corasick (AC) automatons can be classified. We developed two versions, that is, basic AC and advanced AC-histogram waveform automata, and conducted comprehensive experimentation. The results confirm that our approach is feasible and suitable for deployment. PMID:25032231

  9. Signal waveform detection with statistical automaton for internet and web service streaming.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Ji, Yuzhu; Liu, Yiming; Huang, Nai-Lun; Zeng, Fufu; Lin, Fang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many approaches have been suggested for Internet and web streaming detection. In this paper, we propose an approach to signal waveform detection for Internet and web streaming, with novel statistical automatons. The system records network connections over a period of time to form a signal waveform and compute suspicious characteristics of the waveform. Network streaming according to these selected waveform features by our newly designed Aho-Corasick (AC) automatons can be classified. We developed two versions, that is, basic AC and advanced AC-histogram waveform automata, and conducted comprehensive experimentation. The results confirm that our approach is feasible and suitable for deployment.

  10. Two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Meshalkin, Yu P; Alfimov, E E; Makukha, V K; Vasil'ev, N E; Denisov, A N; Ogirenko, A P

    1999-12-31

    A demonstration is given of the feasibility of two-photon excitation of aluminium phthalocyanine and of the pharmaceutical preparation 'Fotosens', used in photodynamic therapy. The excitation source was an Nd:YAG laser emitting at the 1064 nm wavelength. The spectra of the two-photon-excited luminescence were obtained and the two-photon absorption cross sections were determined. (lasers in medicine)

  11. Resource Paper: Molecular Excited State Relaxation Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, William

    1979-01-01

    Develops the concept of oscillatory v dissipative limits as it applies to electronic excited state processes in molecular systems. Main emphasis is placed on the radiative and nonradiative dynamics of the excited state of a molecule prepared by interaction with light or some other excitation source. (BT)

  12. AC corrosion -- A new challenge to pipeline integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e. less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels when cathodic protection was applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in the initiation of several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, normal levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion to acceptable levels and that AC mitigation is often required to prevent serious corrosion. Several other AC corrosion sites were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. A graph, relating AC voltage to holiday size at the minimum AC current density for corrosion, is presented to assist the pipeline operator in determining whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion activity.

  13. AC corrosion -- a new threat to pipeline integrity?

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e., less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels with cathodic protection applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, standard levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion and AC mitigation is required to prevent further corrosion. Several other corrosion anomalies were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. The authors have investigated several corrosion occurrences on pipelines in Ontario during the last 2--3 years which appear to be caused by AC corrosion. This presentation traces the literature record on AC electrolysis from the past to the present and discusses the key parameters which determine the likelihood of corrosion attack. Several case histories of suspected AC corrosion will be discussed and guidelines on how to assess whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion will be offered.

  14. Fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Hiroyo; Okano, Hironaga; Wada, Kenji; Inoue, Satoru

    2014-02-01

    Anodization techniques by alternating current (ac) are introduced in this review. By using ac anodization, laminated alumina films are fabricated. Different types of alumina films consisting of 50-200 nm layers were obtained by varying both the ac power supply and the electrolyte. The total film thickness increased with an increase in the total charge transferred. The thickness of the individual layers increased with the ac voltage; however, the anodization time had little effect on the film thickness. The laminated alumina films resembled the nacre structure of shells, and the different morphologies exhibited by bivalves and spiral shells could be replicated by controlling the rate of increase of the applied potentials.

  15. The caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK attenuates acute gastric injury in mice: involvement of silencing NLRP3 inflammasome activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jun-jie; Luo, Peng-fei; Wang, Xing-tong; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of inhibiting caspase-1 activity or gastric acid secretion on acute gastric injury in mice. AC-YVAD-CMK, omeprazole, or vehicle were administered to mice before cold-restraint stress- or ethanol-induced gastric injury. Survival rates and histological evidence of gastric injury of mice pretreated with AC-YVAD-CMK or omeprazole, and exposed to cold-restraint stress, improved significantly relative to the vehicle group. The increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 following cold-stress injury were decreased by AC-YVAD-CMK, but not omeprazole, pretreatment. The increased expression of CD68 in gastric tissues was inhibited significantly by AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment. Inhibiting caspase-1 activity in the NLRP3 inflammasome decreased gastric cell apoptosis, and the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment significantly inhibited cold-restraint stress-induced increases in the expression of phosphorylated IκB-alpha and P38. General anatomy and histological results showed the protective effect of AC-YVAD-CMK on ethanol-induced acute gastric injury. Overall, our results showed that the caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK protected against acute gastric injury in mice by affecting the NLRP3 inflammasome and attenuating inflammatory processes and apoptosis. This was similar to the mechanism associated with NF-κB and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways. PMID:27053298

  16. The caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK attenuates acute gastric injury in mice: involvement of silencing NLRP3 inflammasome activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jun-jie; Luo, Peng-fei; Wang, Xing-tong; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2016-04-07

    This study evaluated the protective effects of inhibiting caspase-1 activity or gastric acid secretion on acute gastric injury in mice. AC-YVAD-CMK, omeprazole, or vehicle were administered to mice before cold-restraint stress- or ethanol-induced gastric injury. Survival rates and histological evidence of gastric injury of mice pretreated with AC-YVAD-CMK or omeprazole, and exposed to cold-restraint stress, improved significantly relative to the vehicle group. The increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-18 following cold-stress injury were decreased by AC-YVAD-CMK, but not omeprazole, pretreatment. The increased expression of CD68 in gastric tissues was inhibited significantly by AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment. Inhibiting caspase-1 activity in the NLRP3 inflammasome decreased gastric cell apoptosis, and the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. AC-YVAD-CMK pretreatment significantly inhibited cold-restraint stress-induced increases in the expression of phosphorylated IκB-alpha and P38. General anatomy and histological results showed the protective effect of AC-YVAD-CMK on ethanol-induced acute gastric injury. Overall, our results showed that the caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK protected against acute gastric injury in mice by affecting the NLRP3 inflammasome and attenuating inflammatory processes and apoptosis. This was similar to the mechanism associated with NF-κB and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways.

  17. Turbulent swirling jets with excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi, Rahmat; Farokhi, Saeed

    1988-01-01

    An existing cold-jet facility at NASA Lewis Research Center was modified to produce swirling flows with controllable initial tangential velocity distribution. Two extreme swirl profiles, i.e., one with solid-body rotation and the other predominated by a free-vortex distribution, were produced at identical swirl number of 0.48. Mean centerline velocity decay characteristics of the solid-body rotation jet flow exhibited classical decay features of a swirling jet with S - 0.48 reported in the literature. However, the predominantly free-vortex distribution case was on the verge of vortex breakdown, a phenomenon associated with the rotating flows of significantly higher swirl numbers, i.e., S sub crit greater than or equal to 0.06. This remarkable result leads to the conclusion that the integrated swirl effect, reflected in the swirl number, is inadequate in describing the mean swirling jet behavior in the near field. The relative size (i.e., diameter) of the vortex core emerging from the nozzle and the corresponding tangential velocity distribution are also controlling factors. Excitability of swirling jets is also investigated by exciting a flow with a swirl number of 0.35 by plane acoustic waves at a constant sound pressure level and at various frequencies. It is observed that the cold swirling jet is excitable by plane waves, and that the instability waves grow about 50 percent less in peak r.m.s. amplitude and saturate further upstream compared to corresponding waves in a jet without swirl having the same axial mass flux. The preferred Strouhal number based on the mass-averaged axial velocity and nozzle exit diameter for both swirling and nonswirling flows is 0.4.

  18. Concentrating membrane proteins using asymmetric traps and AC electric fields.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Matthew R; Bramble, Jonathan P; McMillan, Duncan G G; Krzeminski, Lukasz; Han, Xiaojun; Johnson, Benjamin R G; Bushby, Richard J; Olmsted, Peter D; Jeuken, Lars J C; Marritt, Sophie J; Butt, Julea N; Evans, Stephen D

    2011-05-01

    Membrane proteins are key components of the plasma membrane and are responsible for control of chemical ionic gradients, metabolite and nutrient transfer, and signal transduction between the interior of cells and the external environment. Of the genes in the human genome, 30% code for membrane proteins (Krogh et al. J. Mol. Biol.2001, 305, 567). Furthermore, many FDA-approved drugs target such proteins (Overington et al. Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 2006, 5, 993). However, the structure-function relationships of these are notably sparse because of difficulties in their purification and handling outside of their membranous environment. Methods that permit the manipulation of membrane components while they are still in the membrane would find widespread application in separation, purification, and eventual structure-function determination of these species (Poo et al. Nature 1977, 265, 602). Here we show that asymmetrically patterned supported lipid bilayers in combination with AC electric fields can lead to efficient manipulation of charged components. We demonstrate the concentration and trapping of such components through the use of a "nested trap" and show that this method is capable of yielding an approximately 30-fold increase in the average protein concentration. Upon removal of the field, the material remains trapped for several hours as a result of topographically restricted diffusion. Our results indicate that this method can be used for concentrating and trapping charged membrane components while they are still within their membranous environment. We anticipate that our approach could find widespread application in the manipulation and study of membrane proteins.

  19. An AC electrokinetics facilitated biosensor cassette for rapid pathogen identification.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Mohan, Ruchika; Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Mach, Kathleen E; Sin, Mandy L Y; McComb, Mason; Joshi, Janhvi; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C

    2013-07-01

    To develop a portable point-of-care system based on biosensors for common infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, the sensing process needs to be implemented within an enclosed fluidic system. On chip sample preparation of clinical samples remains a significant obstacle to achieving robust sensor performance. Herein AC electrokinetics is applied in an electrochemical biosensor cassette to enhance molecular convection and hybridization efficiency through electrokinetics induced fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation. Using E. coli as an exemplary pathogen, we determined the optimal electrokinetic parameters for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA in the biosensor cassette based on the current output, signal-to-noise ratio, and limit of detection. In addition, a panel of six probe sets targeting common uropathogenic bacteria was demonstrated. The optimized parameters were also validated using patient-derived clinical urine samples. The effectiveness of electrokinetics for on chip sample preparation will facilitate the implementation of point-of-care diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the future.

  20. Concentrating membrane proteins using asymmetric traps and AC electric fields.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Matthew R; Bramble, Jonathan P; McMillan, Duncan G G; Krzeminski, Lukasz; Han, Xiaojun; Johnson, Benjamin R G; Bushby, Richard J; Olmsted, Peter D; Jeuken, Lars J C; Marritt, Sophie J; Butt, Julea N; Evans, Stephen D

    2011-05-01

    Membrane proteins are key components of the plasma membrane and are responsible for control of chemical ionic gradients, metabolite and nutrient transfer, and signal transduction between the interior of cells and the external environment. Of the genes in the human genome, 30% code for membrane proteins (Krogh et al. J. Mol. Biol.2001, 305, 567). Furthermore, many FDA-approved drugs target such proteins (Overington et al. Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery 2006, 5, 993). However, the structure-function relationships of these are notably sparse because of difficulties in their purification and handling outside of their membranous environment. Methods that permit the manipulation of membrane components while they are still in the membrane would find widespread application in separation, purification, and eventual structure-function determination of these species (Poo et al. Nature 1977, 265, 602). Here we show that asymmetrically patterned supported lipid bilayers in combination with AC electric fields can lead to efficient manipulation of charged components. We demonstrate the concentration and trapping of such components through the use of a "nested trap" and show that this method is capable of yielding an approximately 30-fold increase in the average protein concentration. Upon removal of the field, the material remains trapped for several hours as a result of topographically restricted diffusion. Our results indicate that this method can be used for concentrating and trapping charged membrane components while they are still within their membranous environment. We anticipate that our approach could find widespread application in the manipulation and study of membrane proteins. PMID:21476549

  1. Multi-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy based on modified multi-energy constrained iterative deconvolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Wenlong; Cai, Zhijian; Zhou, Hongwu; Wu, Jianhong

    2013-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy is fast and nondestructive, and it is widely used in chemistry, biomedicine, food safety and other areas. However, Raman spectroscopy is often hampered by strong fluorescence background, especially in food additives detection and biomedicine researching. In this paper, one efficient technique was the multi-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (MERDS) which incorporated a series of small wavelength-shift wavelengths as excitation sources. A modified multi-energy constrained iterative deconvolution (MMECID) algorithm was proposed to reconstruct the Raman Spectroscopy. Computer simulation and experiments both demonstrated that the Raman spectrum can be well reconstructed from large fluorescence background. The more excitation sources used, the better signal to noise ratio got. However, many excitation sources were equipped on the Raman spectrometer, which increased the complexity of the experimental system. Thus, a trade-off should be made between the number of excitation frequencies and experimental complexity.

  2. Coded excitation for infrared non-destructive testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

    PubMed

    Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Venkata Ghali, Subbarao

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a Barker coded excitation for defect detection using infrared non-destructive testing. Capability of the proposed excitation scheme is highlighted with recently introduced correlation based post processing approach and compared with the existing phase based analysis by taking the signal to noise ratio into consideration. Applicability of the proposed scheme has been experimentally validated on a carbon fiber reinforced plastic specimen containing flat bottom holes located at different depths.

  3. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, David C.; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported. PMID:27363565

  4. Multiarmed Spirals in Excitable Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiev, Bakthier; Siegert, Florian; Weijer, Cornelis

    1997-03-01

    Numerical studies of the properties of multiarmed spirals show that they can form spontaneously in low excitability media. The maximum number of arms in a multiarmed spiral is proportional to the ratio of the single spiral period to the refractoriness of the medium. Multiarmed spirals are formed due to attraction of single spirals if these spirals rotate in the same direction and their tips are less than one wavelength apart, i.e., a spiral broken not far from its tip can evolve into a 2-armed spiral. We propose this mechanism to be responsible for the formation of multiarmed spirals in mounds of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

  5. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    Variations of Earth rotation on sub-daily to secular timescales are caused by mass redistributions in the Earth system as a consequence of geophysical processes and gravitational influences. Forced oscillations of polar motion are superposed by free oscillations of the Earth, i.e. the Chandler wobble and the free core nutation. In order to study the interactions between externally induced polar motion and the Earth's free oscillations, a non-linear gyroscopic model has been developed. In most of the former investigations on polar motion, the Chandler wobble is introduced as a damped oscillation with predetermined frequency and amplitude. However, as the effect of rotational deformation is a backcoupling mechanism of polar motion on the Earth's rotational dynamics, both period and amplitude of the Chandler wobble are time-dependent when regarding additional excitations from, e.g., atmospheric or oceanic mass redistributions. The gyroscopic model is free of any explicit information concerning amplitude, phase, and period of free oscillations. The characteristics of the Earth's free oscillation is reproduced by the model from rheological and geometrical parameters and rotational deformation is taken into account. This enables to study the time variable Chandler oscillation when the gyro is forced with atmospheric and oceanic angular momentum from the global atmospheric ECHAM3-T21 general circulation model together with the ocean model for circulation and tides OMCT driven by ECHAM including surface pressure. Besides, mass redistributions in the Earth's body due to gravitational and loading deformations are regarded and external torques exerted by Moon and Sun are considered. The numerical results of the gyro are significantly related with the geodetically observed time series of polar motion published by the IERS. It is shown that the consistent excitation is capable to counteract the damping and thus to maintain the Chandler amplitude. Spectral analyses of the ECHAM

  6. Nucleon resonance excitation with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    R. De Vita; CLAS Collaboration

    2004-09-01

    The study of the baryon spectrum is a fundamental part of the scientific program in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. The so called N* program indeed concerns the measurement of the electromagnetic production of exclusive hadronic final states, with the purpose of extracting information on baryon excited states. CLAS, the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, is explicitly designed for conducting a broad experimental program in hadronic physics, using the continuous electron beam provided by the laboratory. An overview of the most recent results is presented.

  7. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation.

    PubMed

    Schedl, David C; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported. PMID:27363565

  8. Mechanically-Excited Sessile Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Bostwick, Joshua; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2010-11-01

    The volume and contact-line mobility of a sessile drop determine the frequency response of the drop to mechanical excitation. A useful signature of the drop is its response to a sweep of frequency. At particular frequencies the drop exhibits standing wave patterns of different mode numbers and/or azimuthal, spinning motion. We report observations of the spectrum of standing wave patterns and compare to predictions of a linear stability theory. On the side of application, the results suggest how to tune the pinning-unpinning of a sessile drop in order to maximize its translation.

  9. [Neurosteroids. Neuromodulators of cerebral excitability].

    PubMed

    Calixto González, E; Brailowsky, S

    1998-01-01

    Steroids which are produced by the brain are called neurosteroids, and they are able to modulate neurotransmissions: GABAergic; glutamatergic; glycinergic, and cholinergic (nicotine receptor). These effects are of short latency and duration, and do not implicate the cellular genome. The interaction of these neurosteroids with membrane receptors contribute to the regulation of neuronal excitability, and their study has allowed a better understanding of cognitive, hormonal, and epileptic phenomena as well as the development of new drugs with anxiolytic, antidepressive, anesthetic and anti-epileptic effects. PMID:9658699

  10. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation.

    PubMed

    Schedl, David C; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported.

  11. [Neurosteroids. Neuromodulators of cerebral excitability].

    PubMed

    Calixto González, E; Brailowsky, S

    1998-01-01

    Steroids which are produced by the brain are called neurosteroids, and they are able to modulate neurotransmissions: GABAergic; glutamatergic; glycinergic, and cholinergic (nicotine receptor). These effects are of short latency and duration, and do not implicate the cellular genome. The interaction of these neurosteroids with membrane receptors contribute to the regulation of neuronal excitability, and their study has allowed a better understanding of cognitive, hormonal, and epileptic phenomena as well as the development of new drugs with anxiolytic, antidepressive, anesthetic and anti-epileptic effects.

  12. Volumetric Light-Field Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schedl, David C.; Bimber, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We explain how to concentrate light simultaneously at multiple selected volumetric positions by means of a 4D illumination light field. First, to select target objects, a 4D imaging light field is captured. A light field mask is then computed automatically for this selection to avoid illumination of the remaining areas. With one-photon illumination, simultaneous generation of complex volumetric light patterns becomes possible. As a full light-field can be captured and projected simultaneously at the desired exposure and excitation times, short readout and lighting durations are supported.

  13. An Absolute Measurement of Resonance-Resolved Electron Impact Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, Daniel Brett

    1998-11-01

    An experiment to measure electron-impact excitation (EIE) of multiply-charged ions is described. An absolute measurement has been carried out of the cross section for EIE of Si2+(3s2/ 1S/to3s3p/ 1P) from energies below threshold to 11 eV above. A beams modulation technique with inclined electron and ion beams was used. Radiation at 120.7 nm from the excited ions was detected using an absolutely calibrated optical system. The analysis of the experimental data requires a determination of the population fraction of the Si2+ (3s3p/ 3Po) metastable state in the incident ion beam, which was measured to be 0.210 ± 0.018. The data have been corrected for contributions to the signal from radiative decay following excitation from the metastable state to 3s3p1P and 3p2/ 3P, and excitation of the ground state to levels above 3s3p/ 1P. The experimental 0.56 ± 0.08 eV energy spread has allowed us to resolve complex resonance structure throughout the studied energy range. At the reported ±14% uncertainty level (90% confidence limit), the measured structure and absolute scale of the cross section are in good agreement with 12-state close-coupling R-matrix calculations.

  14. Role of rut adenylyl cyclase in the ensemble regulation of presynaptic terminal excitability: reduced synaptic strength and precision in a Drosophila memory mutant.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Although modulation of presynaptic terminal excitability can profoundly affect transmission efficacy, how excitability along axonal terminal branches is regulated requires further investigations. We performed focal patch recording in Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) to monitor the activity of individual synaptic boutons along the presynaptic terminal. Analysis of the learning mutant rutabaga (rut) suggests a tight regulation of presynaptic terminal excitability by rut adenylyl cyclase (AC) that is responsible for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent cAMP synthesis. Focal excitatory junctional currents (ejcs) demonstrated that disrupted cAMP metabolism in rut mutant boutons leads to decreased transmitter release, coupled with temporal dispersion and amplitude fluctuation of ejcs during repetitive activity. Strikingly, rut motor terminals displayed greatly increased variability among corresponding terminal branches of identified NMJs in different preparations. However, boutons throughout single terminal branches were relatively uniform in either WT or rut mutant larvae. The use of electrotonic depolarization to directly evoke transmitter release from axonal terminals revealed that variability in neurotransmission originated from varying degrees of weakened excitability in rut terminals. Pharmacological treatments and axonal action potential recordings raised the possibility that defective rut AC resulted in reduced Ca2+ currents in the nerve terminal. Thus, our data indicate that rut AC not only affects transmitter release machinery, but also plays a previously unsuspected role in local excitability control, both contributing to transmission level and precision along the entire axonal terminal. PMID:19101836

  15. Ultrafast internal conversion in ethylene. I. The excited state lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, H.; Allison, T. K.; Wright, T. W.; Stooke, A. M.; Khurmi, C.; van Tilborg, J.; Liu, Y.; Falcone, R. W.; Belkacem, A.; Martinez, T. J.

    2011-06-01

    Using a combined theoretical and experimental approach, we investigate the non-adiabatic dynamics of the prototypical ethylene (C2H4) molecule upon π → π* excitation. In this first part of a two part series, we focus on the lifetime of the excited electronic state. The femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectrum (TRPES) of ethylene is simulated based on our recent molecular dynamics simulation using the ab initio multiple spawning method with multi-state second order perturbation theory [H. Tao, B. G. Levine, and T. J. Martinez, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 13656 (2009)], 10.1021/jp9063565. We find excellent agreement between the TRPES calculation and the photoion signal observed in a pump-probe experiment using femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet (hν = 7.7 eV) pulses for both pump and probe. These results explain the apparent discrepancy over the excited state lifetime between theory and experiment that has existed for ten years, with experiments [e.g., P. Farmanara, V. Stert, and W. Radloff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 518 (1998), 10.1016/S0009-2614(98)00312-1 and K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. Fuss, and W. E. Schmid, J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7514 (2008)], 10.1021/jp803548c reporting much shorter lifetimes than predicted by theory. Investigation of the TRPES indicates that the fast decay of the photoion yield originates from both energetic and electronic factors, with the energetic factor playing a larger role in shaping the signal.

  16. An improved RF circuit for Overhauser magnetometer excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Di; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Fu, Haoyang

    2015-08-01

    Overhauser magnetometer is a high-precision device for magnetostatic field measurement, which can be used in a wide variety of purposes: UXO detection, pipeline mapping and other engineering and environmental applications. Traditional proton magnetometer adopts DC polarization, suffering from low polarization efficiency, high power consumption and low signal noise ratio (SNR). Compared with the traditional proton magnetometer, nitroxide free radicals are used for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enhance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). RF excitation is very important for electron resonance in nitrogen oxygen free radical solution, and it is primarily significant for the obtention of high SNR signal and high sensitive field observation. Therefore, RF excitation source plays a crucial role in the development of Overhauser magnetometer. In this paper, an improved design of a RF circuit is discussed. The new RF excitation circuit consists of two parts: Quartz crystal oscillator circuit and RF power amplifier circuit. Simulation and optimization designs for power amplifier circuit based on software ADS are presented. Finally we achieve a continuous and stable sine wave of 60MHz with 1-2.5 W output power, and the second harmonic suppression is close to -20dBc. The improved RF circuit has many merits such as small size, low-power consumption and high efficiency, and it can be applied to Overhauser magnetometer to obtain high sensitive field observation.

  17. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  18. Gene circuit designs for noisy excitable dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rué, Pau; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    Certain cellular processes take the form of activity pulses that can be interpreted in terms of noise-driven excitable dynamics. Here we present an overview of different gene circuit architectures that exhibit excitable pulses of protein expression, when subject to molecular noise. Different types of excitable dynamics can occur depending on the bifurcation structure leading to the specific excitable phase-space topology. The bifurcation structure is not, however, linked to a particular circuit architecture. Thus a given gene circuit design can sustain different classes of excitable dynamics depending on the system parameters.

  19. Theoretical studies of electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Besley, Nicholas A.

    2014-10-06

    Time-dependent density functional theory is the most widely used quantum chemical method for studying molecules in electronically excited states. However, excited states can also be computed within Kohn-Sham density functional theory by exploiting methods that converge the self-consistent field equations to give excited state solutions. The usefulness of single reference self-consistent field based approaches for studying excited states is demonstrated by considering the calculation of several types of spectroscopy including the infrared spectroscopy of molecules in an electronically excited state, the rovibrational spectrum of the NO-Ar complex, core electron binding energies and the emission spectroscopy of BODIPY in water.

  20. Peculiarities of collisional excitation transfer with excited screened energy levels of atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, V. A.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Pavlinskiy, A. V.

    2007-09-15

    We report an experimental discovery of deviations from the known regularities in collisional excitation transfer processes for metal atoms. The collisional excitation transfer with excited screened energy levels of thulium and dysprosium atoms is studied. The selecting role of the screening 6s shell in collisional excitation transfer is shown.

  1. Evidence on the Molecular Basis of the Ac/ac Adaptive Cyanogenesis Polymorphism in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Small, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    White clover is polymorphic for cyanogenesis, with both cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants occurring in nature. This chemical defense polymorphism is one of the longest-studied and best-documented examples of an adaptive polymorphism in plants. It is controlled by two independently segregating genes: Ac/ac controls the presence/absence of cyanogenic glucosides; and Li/li controls the presence/absence of their hydrolyzing enzyme, linamarase. Whereas Li is well characterized at the molecular level, Ac has remained unidentified. Here we report evidence that Ac corresponds to a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 of the CYP79D protein subfamily (CYP79D15), and we describe the apparent molecular basis of the Ac/ac polymorphism. CYP79D orthologs catalyze the first step in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in other cyanogenic plant species. In white clover, Southern hybridizations indicate that CYP79D15 occurs as a single-copy gene in cyanogenic plants but is absent from the genomes of ac plants. Gene-expression analyses by RT–PCR corroborate this finding. This apparent molecular basis of the Ac/ac polymorphism parallels our previous findings for the Li/li polymorphism, which also arises through the presence/absence of a single-copy gene. The nature of these polymorphisms may reflect white clover's evolutionary origin as an allotetraploid derived from cyanogenic and acyanogenic diploid progenitors. PMID:18458107

  2. Mapping Ultrafast Dynamics of Highly Excited H2by Attosecond VUV-Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Thorsten; Sturm, Felix; Wright, Travis; Ray, Dipanwita; Shivaram, Niranjan; Slaughter, Daniel; Bocharova, Irina; Ranitovic, Predrag; Belkacem, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We show how attosecond vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and femtosecond infrared (IR) radiation can be used to excite and map dynamics of a highly excited neutral hydrogen molecule. By using time-delayed, strong laser pulses and ion imaging, we map the dynamics of highly-excited, bound states of hydrogen molecules. Due to the large stretching amplitude of the B electronic state, excited by the 9th harmonic of the fundamental laser frequency, the effective ionization potential of the hydrogen molecular ion changes substantially as the nuclear wave packet (NWP) vibrates in the bound, B potential energy curve. Therefore, the probability of ionizing the neutrally-excited hydrogen molecule by the IR probe pulse changes as the NWP evolves in the B potential. We probe this dynamics by ionizing the vibrating molecule by means of time-delayed IR radiation, and identify the dissociation channels with 3D-momentum ion imaging. Supported by DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  3. Remote excitation-tip-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy using silver nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yasuhiko; Walke, Peter; De Feyter, Steven; Uji-i, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) microscopy is a promising technique for use in surface analysis, allowing both topographic and spectroscopic information to be obtained simultaneously at a scale below 10 nm. One proposed method to further improve spatial resolution is the use of propagating surface plasmons as an excitation light source (i.e., remote excitation). However, this requires a specialized tip that can only be fabricated via expensive procedures, such as electron-beam lithography. Here, we propose a new method for fabricating silver nanowire-based tips that are suitable for remote excitation-TERS, removing the need for such techniques. A silver nanowire was fixed onto a tungsten-tip using a micromanipulator, before gold nanoparticles were attached in a site-specific manner using AC-dielectrophoresis. All the processes were completed using an optical microscope in the ambient. The background intensities in TERS spectra were suppressed with remote excitation relative to the conventional excitation configuration, indicating an increase in TERS sensitivity.

  4. Eliminating Unwanted Far-Field Excitation in Objective-Type TIRF. Part II. Combined Evanescent-Wave Excitation and Supercritical-Angle Fluorescence Detection Improves Optical Sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Brunstein, Maia; Hérault, Karine; Oheim, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Azimuthal beam scanning makes evanescent-wave (EW) excitation isotropic, thereby producing total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) images that are evenly lit. However, beam spinning does not fundamentally address the problem of propagating excitation light that is contaminating objective-type TIRF. Far-field excitation depends more on the specific objective than on cell scattering. As a consequence, the excitation impurities in objective-type TIRF are only weakly affected by changes of azimuthal or polar beam angle. These are the main results of the first part of this study (Eliminating unwanted far-field excitation in objective-type TIRF. Pt.1. Identifying sources of nonevanescent excitation light). This second part focuses on exactly where up beam in the illumination system stray light is generated that gives rise to nonevanescent components in TIRF. Using dark-field imaging of scattered excitation light we pinpoint the objective, intermediate lenses and, particularly, the beam scanner as the major sources of stray excitation. We study how adhesion-molecule coating and astrocytes or BON cells grown on the coverslip surface modify the dark-field signal. On flat and weakly scattering cells, most background comes from stray reflections produced far from the sample plane, in the beam scanner and the objective lens. On thick, optically dense cells roughly half of the scatter is generated by the sample itself. We finally show that combining objective-type EW excitation with supercritical-angle fluorescence (SAF) detection efficiently rejects the fluorescence originating from deeper sample regions. We demonstrate that SAF improves the surface selectivity of TIRF, even at shallow penetration depths. The coplanar microscopy scheme presented here merges the benefits of beam spinning EW excitation and SAF detection and provides the conditions for quantitative wide-field imaging of fluorophore dynamics at or near the plasma membrane. PMID:24606929

  5. Efficient second-harmonic imaging of collagen in histological slides using Bessel beam excitation.

    PubMed

    Vuillemin, Nelly; Mahou, Pierre; Débarre, Delphine; Gacoin, Thierry; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Supatto, Willy; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is the most specific label-free indicator of collagen accumulation in widespread pathologies such as fibrosis, and SHG-based measurements hold important potential for biomedical analyses. However, efficient collagen SHG scoring in histological slides is hampered by the limited depth-of-field of usual nonlinear microscopes relying on focused Gaussian beam excitation. In this work we analyze theoretically and experimentally the use of Bessel beam excitation to address this issue. Focused Bessel beams can provide an axially extended excitation volume for nonlinear microscopy while preserving lateral resolution. We show that shaping the focal volume has consequences on signal level and scattering directionality in the case of coherent signals (such as SHG) which significantly differ from the case of incoherent signals (two-photon excited fluorescence, 2PEF). We demonstrate extended-depth SHG-2PEF imaging of fibrotic mouse kidney histological slides. Finally, we show that Bessel beam excitation combined with spatial filtering of the harmonic light in wave vector space can be used to probe collagen accumulation more efficiently than the usual Gaussian excitation scheme. These results open the way to SHG-based histological diagnoses. PMID:27435390

  6. Carrier dynamics in colloidal indium arsenide quantum dots in the weak excitation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Austin; Peters, William; Tiwari, Vivek; Cho, Byungmoon; Neale, Nathan; Jonas, David

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of photo-excited carriers in colloidal indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots are characterized by degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy at 1.5 times the band gap. This material is of particular interest due to reports of efficient multiple exciton generation and its potential application in third-generation photovoltaic devices. Use of a sample renewal technique based on laser beam scanning enables long resampling times (>0.5 s) with minimal spatial overlap between successive laser shots thereby minimizing repetitive excitation. Pump-probe transients at a range of excitation probabilities are reported, from 2.6%, where signal from biexcitons is small (1.9%), to 36%, where the biexcitons contribute 45% of the signal. These transients are well described by a tri-exponential fit which includes time constants of approximately 1 ps, 16 ps, and 750 ps tentatively attributed to carrier cooling, multi-exciton recombination, and single exciton recombination respectively. By an excitation probability of 10%, biexciton dynamics are detectable and continue to grow in magnitude as the excitation probability increases. The pump power dependence of the signal at 20 ps, which deviates from linearity at an excitation probability of 10%, reflects biexciton recombination.

  7. Efficient second-harmonic imaging of collagen in histological slides using Bessel beam excitation

    PubMed Central

    Vuillemin, Nelly; Mahou, Pierre; Débarre, Delphine; Gacoin, Thierry; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Supatto, Willy; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is the most specific label-free indicator of collagen accumulation in widespread pathologies such as fibrosis, and SHG-based measurements hold important potential for biomedical analyses. However, efficient collagen SHG scoring in histological slides is hampered by the limited depth-of-field of usual nonlinear microscopes relying on focused Gaussian beam excitation. In this work we analyze theoretically and experimentally the use of Bessel beam excitation to address this issue. Focused Bessel beams can provide an axially extended excitation volume for nonlinear microscopy while preserving lateral resolution. We show that shaping the focal volume has consequences on signal level and scattering directionality in the case of coherent signals (such as SHG) which significantly differ from the case of incoherent signals (two-photon excited fluorescence, 2PEF). We demonstrate extended-depth SHG-2PEF imaging of fibrotic mouse kidney histological slides. Finally, we show that Bessel beam excitation combined with spatial filtering of the harmonic light in wave vector space can be used to probe collagen accumulation more efficiently than the usual Gaussian excitation scheme. These results open the way to SHG-based histological diagnoses. PMID:27435390

  8. Exponential excitation pulses for improved water content mapping in the presence of background gradients.

    PubMed

    Preibisch, Christine; Volz, Steffen; Anti, Sandra; Deichmann, Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Several water content mapping techniques are based on the acquisition of multiple gradient echoes (GE) with different echo times (TE). However, in the presence of linear magnetic field gradients G(susc) the signal decay is no longer exponential but in the case of a rectangular slice profile weighted by a sinc function, giving rise to erroneous initial amplitudes S(0) in monoexponential fitting. Generally, it can be shown that the signal decay is weighted by the time profile of the excitation pulse. Thus, for an excitation pulse with an exponential time profile, i.e., a Lorentzian slice profile, the signal decay remains exponential and exponential fitting still yields the correct amplitude S(0). Multiecho GE images of a gel phantom and five human volunteers were acquired at 3 T using a sinc-shaped and an exponential excitation pulse. In addition, simulations were performed to investigate the influence of saturation effects due to distortion of the ideal Lorentzian slice profile. A considerable overestimation of S(0) when using a sinc-shaped excitation pulse was observed. Errors were greatly reduced with an exponential excitation pulse. We thus propose the use of excitation pulses with exponential time profile to obtain accurate estimates for S(0) from exponential fitting. PMID:18816811

  9. Efficient second-harmonic imaging of collagen in histological slides using Bessel beam excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuillemin, Nelly; Mahou, Pierre; Débarre, Delphine; Gacoin, Thierry; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Supatto, Willy; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is the most specific label-free indicator of collagen accumulation in widespread pathologies such as fibrosis, and SHG-based measurements hold important potential for biomedical analyses. However, efficient collagen SHG scoring in histological slides is hampered by the limited depth-of-field of usual nonlinear microscopes relying on focused Gaussian beam excitation. In this work we analyze theoretically and experimentally the use of Bessel beam excitation to address this issue. Focused Bessel beams can provide an axially extended excitation volume for nonlinear microscopy while preserving lateral resolution. We show that shaping the focal volume has consequences on signal level and scattering directionality in the case of coherent signals (such as SHG) which significantly differ from the case of incoherent signals (two-photon excited fluorescence, 2PEF). We demonstrate extended-depth SHG-2PEF imaging of fibrotic mouse kidney histological slides. Finally, we show that Bessel beam excitation combined with spatial filtering of the harmonic light in wave vector space can be used to probe collagen accumulation more efficiently than the usual Gaussian excitation scheme. These results open the way to SHG-based histological diagnoses.

  10. Electronic states of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers: Extreme-ultra violet excited photoelectron spectroscopy observations and density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Sasaki, Fumio; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Ishitsuka, Tomoaki; Tomie, Toshihisa; Ootsuka, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Shuji; Shimoi, Yukihiro; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2013-02-28

    We have investigated electronic states in the valence electron bands for the thin films of three thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) compounds, 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)thiophene (BP1T), 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)benzene (AC5), and 1,4-bis{l_brace}5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]thiophen-2-yl{r_brace}benzene (AC5-CF{sub 3}), by using extreme-UV excited photoelectron spectroscopy (EUPS). By comparing both EUPS spectra and secondary electron spectra between AC5 and AC5-CF{sub 3}, we confirm that CF{sub 3} substitution to AC5 deepens valence states by 2 eV, and increases the ionization energy by 3 eV. From the cut-off positions of secondary electron spectra, the work functions of AC5, AC5-CF{sub 3}, and BP1T are evaluated to be 3.8 eV, 4.8 eV, and 4.0 eV, respectively. We calculate molecular orbital (MO) energy levels by the density functional theory and compare results of calculations with those of experiments. Densities of states obtained by broadening MO levels well explain the overall features of experimental EUPS spectra of three TPCOs.

  11. Excitation rate and background measurements during LIF studies on krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, C. A.; Cannon, B. D.; Wacker, J. F.

    1993-04-01

    The Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is being developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to measure Kr-85 concentrations in small air samples. The technique uses high-resolution lasers to excite individual isotopes of krypton specifically to induce Kr-85 to fluorescence for detection by optical means. Production of krypton metastables via two-photon excitation to the 2p(sub 6) state has been shown to be 0.15% efficient in 0.13 mTorr of krypton--sufficiently high to demonstrate overall feasibility of the KILA method. Since this goal was met, focus has been directed toward development of a working vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence detection system and toward understanding the VUV background. This report describes the progress made in these two areas. The second step of the KILA process is to optically pump all except the Kr-85 isotopes from the metastable state back to the ground state using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate of this process and the VUV background afterward will determine the sensitivity and selectivity of the KILA approach. De-excitation of the metastable population was accomplished via one-photon absorption of a continuous-wave (c-w) laser to the 2p(sub 8) energy level. Non-isotopically selective de-excitation rates as high as 5 x 10(exp 5)/sec have been measured, yielding a signal-to-background ratio of g reater than 10(exp 6). The lifetime of the metastables is 1.2 msec in 200 mTorr of neon--much longer than the time required to de-excite krypton metastables and to detect fluorescence produced by Kr-85. After attaining these high de-excitation rates, a gated VUV detection system was built with a dynamic range large enough to measure a small background following de-excitation of large metastable populations. Future experiments will focus on reducing the background level by another 2-3 orders of magnitude and perfecting the isotopically selective de-excitation technique with known samples.

  12. Excitation rate and background measurements during LIF studies on krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, C.A.; Cannon, B.D.; Wacker, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    The Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is being developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to measure {sup 85}Kr concentrations in small air samples. The technique uses high-resolution lasers to excite individual isotopes of krypton specifically to induce {sup 85}Kr to fluorescence for detection by optical means. Production of krypton metastables via two-photon excitation to the 2p{sub 6} state has been shown to be 0.15% efficient in 0.13 mTorr of krypton--sufficiently high to demonstrate overall feasibility of the KILA method. Since this goal was met, focus has been directed toward development of a working vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence detection system and toward understanding the VUV background. This report describes the progress made in these two areas. The second step of the KILA process is to optically pump all except the {sup 85}Kr isotopes from the metastable state back to the ground state using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate of this process and the VUV background afterward will determine the sensitivity and selectivity of the KILA approach. De-excitation of the metastable population was accomplished via one-photon absorption of a continuous-wave (c-w) laser to the 2p{sub 8} energy level. Non-isotopically selective de-excitation rates as high as 5 {times} 10{sup 5} sec{sup {minus}1} have been measured, yielding a signal-to-background ratio of >10{sup 6}. The lifetime of the metastables is 1.2 msec in 200 mTorr of neon--much longer than the time required to de-excite krypton metastables and to detect fluorescence produced by {sup 85}Kr. After attaining these high de-excitation rates, a gated VUV detection system was built with a dynamic range large enough to measure a small background following de-excitation of large metastable populations. Future experiments will focus on reducing the background level by another 2--3 orders of magnitude and perfecting the isotopically selective de-excitation technique with known samples.

  13. Excitation rate and background measurements during LIF studies on krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, C.A.; Cannon, B.D.; Wacker, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    The Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is being developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to measure [sup 85]Kr concentrations in small air samples. The technique uses high-resolution lasers to excite individual isotopes of krypton specifically to induce [sup 85]Kr to fluorescence for detection by optical means. Production of krypton metastables via two-photon excitation to the 2p[sub 6] state has been shown to be 0.15% efficient in 0.13 mTorr of krypton--sufficiently high to demonstrate overall feasibility of the KILA method. Since this goal was met, focus has been directed toward development of a working vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence detection system and toward understanding the VUV background. This report describes the progress made in these two areas. The second step of the KILA process is to optically pump all except the [sup 85]Kr isotopes from the metastable state back to the ground state using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The rate of this process and the VUV background afterward will determine the sensitivity and selectivity of the KILA approach. De-excitation of the metastable population was accomplished via one-photon absorption of a continuous-wave (c-w) laser to the 2p[sub 8] energy level. Non-isotopically selective de-excitation rates as high as 5 [times] 10[sup 5] sec[sup [minus]1] have been measured, yielding a signal-to-background ratio of >10[sup 6]. The lifetime of the metastables is 1.2 msec in 200 mTorr of neon--much longer than the time required to de-excite krypton metastables and to detect fluorescence produced by [sup 85]Kr. After attaining these high de-excitation rates, a gated VUV detection system was built with a dynamic range large enough to measure a small background following de-excitation of large metastable populations. Future experiments will focus on reducing the background level by another 2--3 orders of magnitude and perfecting the isotopically selective de-excitation technique with known samples.

  14. Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

  15. Fuzzy efficiency optimization of AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant; Sousa, Gilberto; Turner, Wayne; Spiegel, Ron; Chappell, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the early states of work to implement a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the efficiency of AC induction motor/adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems running at less than optimal speed and torque conditions. In this paper, the process by which the membership functions of the controller were tuned is discussed and a controller which operates on frequency as well as voltage is proposed. The membership functions for this dual-variable controller are sketched. Additional topics include an approach for fuzzy logic to motor current control which can be used with vector-controlled drives. Incorporation of a fuzzy controller as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) microchip is planned.

  16. Coulomb excitation of Ga73

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diriken, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Balabanski, D.; Blasi, N.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Cederkäll, J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Eberth, J.; Ekström, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Georgiev, G.; Gladnishki, K.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Kröll, Th.; Krücken, R.; Köster, U.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lo Bianco, G.; Maierbeck, P.; Marsh, B. A.; Napiorkowski, P.; Patronis, N.; Pauwels, D.; Reiter, P.; Seliverstov, M.; Sletten, G.; van de Walle, J.; van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Walters, W. B.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wrzosek, K.

    2010-12-01

    The B(E2;Ii→If) values for transitions in 3171Ga40 and 3173Ga42 were deduced from a Coulomb excitation experiment at the safe energy of 2.95 MeV/nucleon using post-accelerated beams of Ga71,73 at the REX-ISOLDE on-line isotope mass separator facility. The emitted γ rays were detected by the MINIBALL γ-detector array, and B(E2;Ii→If) values were obtained from the yields normalized to the known strength of the 2+→0+ transition in the Sn120 target. The comparison of these new results with the data of less neutron-rich gallium isotopes shows a shift of the E2 collectivity toward lower excitation energy when adding neutrons beyond N=40. This supports conclusions from previous studies of the gallium isotopes, which indicated a structural change in this isotopic chain between N=40 and 42. Combined with recent measurements from collinear laser spectroscopy showing a 1/2- spin and parity for the ground state, the extracted results revealed evidence for a 1/2-,3/2- doublet near the ground state in 3173Ga42 differing by at most 0.8 keV in energy.

  17. Beta Band Transcranial Alternating (tACS) and Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Applied After Initial Learning Facilitate Retrieval of a Motor Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Vanessa; Meier, Anna; Dinkelbach, Lars; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) contributes to the acquisition and early consolidation of a motor sequence. Although the relevance of M1 excitability for motor learning has been supported, the significance of M1 oscillations remains an open issue. This study aims at investigating to what extent retrieval of a newly learned motor sequence can be differentially affected by motor-cortical transcranial alternating (tACS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS). Alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz) or sham tACS was applied in 36 right-handers. Anodal or cathodal tDCS was applied in 30 right-handers. Participants learned an eight-digit serial reaction time task (SRTT; sequential vs. random) with the right hand. Stimulation was applied to the left M1 after SRTT acquisition at rest for 10 min. Reaction times were analyzed at baseline, end of acquisition, retrieval immediately after stimulation and reacquisition after eight further sequence repetitions. Reaction times during retrieval were significantly faster following 20 Hz tACS as compared to 10 Hz and sham tACS indicating a facilitation of early consolidation. tDCS yielded faster reaction times, too, independent of polarity. No significant differences between 20 Hz tACS and tDCS effects on retrieval were found suggesting that 20 Hz effects might be associated with altered motor-cortical excitability. Based on the behavioral modulation yielded by tACS and tDCS one might speculate that altered motor-cortical beta oscillations support early motor consolidation possibly associated with neuroplastic reorganization. PMID:26834593

  18. New Insights in 4f(12)5d(1) Excited States of Tm(2+) through Excited State Excitation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mathijs; Biner, Daniel; Krämer, Karl W; Barandiarán, Zoila; Seijo, Luis; Meijerink, Andries

    2016-07-21

    Optical excitation of ions or molecules typically leads to an expansion of the equilibrium bond lengths in the excited electronic state. However, for 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states in lanthanide ions both expansion and contraction relative to the 4f(n) ground state have been reported, depending on the crystal field and nature of the 5d state. To probe the equilibrium distance offset between different 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states, we report excited state excitation (ESE) spectra for Tm(2+) doped in CsCaBr3 and CsCaCl3 using two-color excited state excitation spectroscopy. The ESE spectra reveal sharp lines at low energies, confirming a similar distance offset for 4f(n-1)5d(t2g)(1) states. At higher energies, broader bands are observed, which indicate the presence of excited states with a different offset. On the basis of ab initio embedded-cluster calculations, the broad bands are assigned to two-photon d-d absorption from the excited state. In this work, we demonstrate that ESE is a powerful spectroscopic tool, giving access to information which cannot be obtained through regular one-photon spectroscopy. PMID:27347766

  19. New Insights in 4f(12)5d(1) Excited States of Tm(2+) through Excited State Excitation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mathijs; Biner, Daniel; Krämer, Karl W; Barandiarán, Zoila; Seijo, Luis; Meijerink, Andries

    2016-07-21

    Optical excitation of ions or molecules typically leads to an expansion of the equilibrium bond lengths in the excited electronic state. However, for 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states in lanthanide ions both expansion and contraction relative to the 4f(n) ground state have been reported, depending on the crystal field and nature of the 5d state. To probe the equilibrium distance offset between different 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states, we report excited state excitation (ESE) spectra for Tm(2+) doped in CsCaBr3 and CsCaCl3 using two-color excited state excitation spectroscopy. The ESE spectra reveal sharp lines at low energies, confirming a similar distance offset for 4f(n-1)5d(t2g)(1) states. At higher energies, broader bands are observed, which indicate the presence of excited states with a different offset. On the basis of ab initio embedded-cluster calculations, the broad bands are assigned to two-photon d-d absorption from the excited state. In this work, we demonstrate that ESE is a powerful spectroscopic tool, giving access to information which cannot be obtained through regular one-photon spectroscopy.

  20. Changes in behavioral responses of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) from various applied signal voltages during EPG recordings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3rd-generation AC-DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitor was used to study feeding behaviors of pre-reproductive adult Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) on pinhead (<3mm) cotton squares, applying different signal voltages at several input impedances. The AC-DC monitor allows a user to s...

  1. Optimal Stimulus Shapes for Neuronal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Forger, Daniel B.; Paydarfar, David; Clay, John R.

    2011-01-01

    An important problem in neuronal computation is to discern how features of stimuli control the timing of action potentials. One aspect of this problem is to determine how an action potential, or spike, can be elicited with the least energy cost, e.g., a minimal amount of applied current. Here we show in the Hodgkin & Huxley model of the action potential and in experiments on squid giant axons that: 1) spike generation in a neuron can be highly discriminatory for stimulus shape and 2) the optimal stimulus shape is dependent upon inputs to the neuron. We show how polarity and time course of post-synaptic currents determine which of these optimal stimulus shapes best excites the neuron. These results are obtained mathematically using the calculus of variations and experimentally using a stochastic search methodology. Our findings reveal a surprising complexity of computation at the single cell level that may be relevant for understanding optimization of signaling in neurons and neuronal networks. PMID:21760759

  2. Spectral Properties of Single Gold Nanoparticles in Close Proximity to Biological Fluorophores Excited by 2-Photon Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Andrea; Gabriel, Manuela; Estrada, Laura C.; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are able to modify the excitation and emission rates (plasmonic enhancement) of fluorescent molecules in their close proximity. In this work, we measured the emission spectra of 20 nm Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) fixed on a glass surface submerged in a solution of different fluorophores using a spectral camera and 2-photon excitation. While on the glass surface, we observed the presence in the emission at least 3 components: i) second harmonic signal (SHG), ii) a broad emission from AuNPS and iii) fluorescence arising from fluorophores nearby. When on the glass surface, we found that the 3 spectral components have different relative intensities when the incident direction of linear polarization was changed indicating different physical origins for these components. Then we measured by fluctuation correlation spectroscopy (FCS) the scattering and fluorescence signal of the particles alone and in a solution of 100 nM EGFP using the spectral camera or measuring the scattering and fluorescence from the particles. We observed occasional fluorescence bursts when in the suspension we added fluorescent proteins. The spectrum of these burst was devoid of the SHG and of the broad emission in contrast to the signal collected from the gold nanoparticles on the glass surface. Instead we found that the spectrum during the burst corresponded closely to the spectrum of the fluorescent protein. An additional control was obtained by measuring the cross-correlation between the reflection from the particles and the fluorescence arising from EGFP both excited at 488 nm. We found a very weak cross-correlation between the AuNPs and the fluorescence confirming that the burst originate from a few particles with a fluorescence signal. PMID:25909648

  3. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Christina B; Theilmann, David A

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO)). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  4. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Theilmann, David A.

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  5. Phosphorylation Signals in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Taku; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Kannon, Takayuki; Kuroda, Keisuke; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine signaling in the brain is a complex phenomenon that strongly contributes to emotional behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) play a major role in dopamine signaling through dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) or dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum. cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) regulates phosphorylation signals downstream of D1Rs, which affects the excitability of MSNs, leading to reward-associated emotional expression and memory formation. A combination of phosphoproteomic approaches and the curated KANPHOS database can be used to elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological functions of dopamine signaling and other monoamines. Emerging evidence from these techniques suggests that the Rap1 pathway plays a crucial role in the excitability of MSNs, leading to the expression of emotional behaviors. PMID:27546785

  6. Phosphorylation Signals in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Taku; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Kannon, Takayuki; Kuroda, Keisuke; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine signaling in the brain is a complex phenomenon that strongly contributes to emotional behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) play a major role in dopamine signaling through dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) or dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum. cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) regulates phosphorylation signals downstream of D1Rs, which affects the excitability of MSNs, leading to reward-associated emotional expression and memory formation. A combination of phosphoproteomic approaches and the curated KANPHOS database can be used to elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological functions of dopamine signaling and other monoamines. Emerging evidence from these techniques suggests that the Rap1 pathway plays a crucial role in the excitability of MSNs, leading to the expression of emotional behaviors.

  7. Optogenetic control of intracellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Cui, Bianxiao

    2015-02-01

    Cells employ a plethora of signaling pathways to make their life-and-death decisions. Extensive genetic, biochemical, and physiological studies have led to the accumulation of knowledge about signaling components and their interactions within signaling networks. These conventional approaches, although useful, lack the ability to control the spatial and temporal aspects of signaling processes. The recently emerged optogenetic tools open exciting opportunities by enabling signaling regulation with superior temporal and spatial resolution, easy delivery, rapid reversibility, fewer off-target side effects, and the ability to dissect complex signaling networks. Here we review recent achievements in using light to control intracellular signaling pathways and discuss future prospects for the field, including integration of new genetic approaches into optogenetics.

  8. Optogenetic control of intracellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Cui, Bianxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cells employ a plethora of signaling pathways to make their life-and-death decisions. Extensive genetic, biochemical, and physiological studies have led to the accumulation of knowledge about signaling components and their interactions within signaling networks. These conventional approaches, though useful, lack the ability to control the spatial and temporal aspects of signaling processes. The recently emerged optogenetic tools open up exciting opportunities by enabling signaling regulation with superior temporal and spatial resolution, easy delivery, rapid reversibility, fewer off-target side effects, and the ability to dissect complex signaling networks. Here we review recent achievements in using light to control intracellular signaling pathways, and discuss future prospects for the field, including integration of new genetic approaches into optogenetics. PMID:25529484

  9. Preliminary Geologic Mapping of the Ac-S-3 Hemisphere of Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Scully, J. E. C.; Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.; Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Schenk, P. M.; Marchi, S.; O'Brien, D. P.; Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schafer, M.; Platz, T.; Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Preusker, F.; Stephan, K.

    2015-10-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft [1] was captured into orbit by the dwarf planet (1) Ceres on March 6, 2015. During the Approach phase capture was preceded and followed by a series of optical navigation and rotation characterization observations by Dawn's Framing Camera (FC) [2], which provided the first images of Ceres' surface. As was done at Vesta [3], the Dawn Science Team will conduct a geological mapping campaign at Ceres during the Nominal Mission, including iterative mapping using data obtained during each orbital phase. In this presentation we will describe the approach of the Ceres Mapping Campaign and discuss the preliminary geological mapping of the Ac-S-3 (180- 360˚E) hemisphere of Ceres.

  10. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  11. Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents

    PubMed Central

    Demidov, Vladislav E.; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O.

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics. PMID:26818232

  12. Tunable rubidium excited state Voigt atomic optical filter.

    PubMed

    Yin, Longfei; Luo, Bin; Xiong, Junyu; Guo, Hong

    2016-03-21

    A tunable rubidium excited state Voigt atomic optical filter working at optical communication wavelength (1.5 μm) is realized. The filter achieves a peak transmittance of 57.6% with a double-peak structure, in which each one has a bandwidth of 600 MHz. Benefiting from the Voigt type structure, the magnetic field of the filter can be tuned from 0 to 1600 gauss, and a peak transmittance tunability of 1.6 GHz can thus be realized. Different from the excited state Faraday type filter, the pump efficiency in the Voigt filter is affected a lot by the pump polarization. Measured absorption results of the pump laser and transmittances of the signal laser both prove that the vertical linear polarization pumping is the most efficient in the Voigt filter. PMID:27136803

  13. Prolactin receptor in regulation of neuronal excitability and channels.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mayur J; Henry, Michael A; Akopian, Armen N

    2014-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) activates PRL receptor isoforms to exert regulation of specific neuronal circuitries, and to control numerous physiological and clinically-relevant functions including; maternal behavior, energy balance and food intake, stress and trauma responses, anxiety, neurogenesis, migraine and pain. PRL controls these critical functions by regulating receptor potential thresholds, neuronal excitability and/or neurotransmission efficiency. PRL also influences neuronal functions via activation of certain neurons, resulting in Ca(2+) influx and/or electrical firing with subsequent release of neurotransmitters. Although PRL was identified almost a century ago, very little specific information is known about how PRL regulates neuronal functions. Nevertheless, important initial steps have recently been made including the identification of PRL-induced transient signaling pathways in neurons and the modulation of neuronal transient receptor potential (TRP) and Ca(2+) -dependent K(+) channels by PRL. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and recent progress in understanding the regulation of neuronal excitability and channels by PRL.

  14. Excitation of CO2/+/ by electron impact on CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentall, J. E.; Coplan, M. A.; Kushlis, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of a discrepancy concerning the correct value of the cross section for excitation of the CO2(+) B state by electron impact on CO2. It is suggested that the reason for the disparate results obtained by various authors for the B state can be traced to a calibration error due to scattered light. In particular, the tungsten filament lamps used in the experiments cited have very low intensity at wavelengths below 3000 A where the B state emissions occur, so that even a small amount of scattered light in the spectrometer will produce a large error in the measured cross section. In a remeasurement of the cross section for excitation of the B state at an energy of 150 eV it was found that at 2900 A the scattered light signal, if uncorrected for, would introduce an error of about 50%.

  15. Response measurement by laser Doppler vibrometry in vibration qualification tests with non-Gaussian random excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncossi, M.; Di Sante, R.; Rivola, A.

    2016-10-01

    In the field of vibration qualification testing, random excitations are typically imposed on the tested system in terms of a power spectral density (PSD) profile. This is the one of the most popular ways to control the shaker or slip table for durability tests. However, these excitations (and the corresponding system responses) exhibit a Gaussian probability distribution, whereas not all real-life excitations are Gaussian, causing the response to be also non-Gaussian. In order to introduce non-Gaussian peaks, a further parameter, i.e., kurtosis, has to be controlled in addition to the PSD. However, depending on the specimen behaviour and input signal characteristics, the use of non-Gaussian excitations with high kurtosis and a given PSD does not automatically imply a non-Gaussian stress response. For an experimental investigation of these coupled features, suitable measurement methods need to be developed in order to estimate the stress amplitude response at critical failure locations and consequently evaluate the input signals most representative for real-life, non-Gaussian excitations. In this paper, a simple test rig with a notched cantilevered specimen was developed to measure the response and examine the kurtosis values in the case of stationary Gaussian, stationary non-Gaussian, and burst non-Gaussian excitation signals. The laser Doppler vibrometry technique was used in this type of test for the first time, in order to estimate the specimen stress amplitude response as proportional to the differential displacement measured at the notch section ends. A method based on the use of measurements using accelerometers to correct for the occasional signal dropouts occurring during the experiment is described. The results demonstrate the ability of the test procedure to evaluate the output signal features and therefore to select the most appropriate input signal for the fatigue test.

  16. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current(AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For…

  17. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  18. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  19. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  20. 24 CFR Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A...