Science.gov

Sample records for ac load flow

  1. High-power ac/dc variable load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joncas, K. P.; Birnbach, S.; Bruce, L. D.; Smith, L.

    1975-01-01

    Design of medium-power dynamic electrical load simulator has been extended to permit simulation of ac as well as dc loads and to provide for operation at higher power levels. Simulator is internally protected against reverse voltage, overvoltage, overcurrent, and overload conditions.

  2. Dielectrophoretic particle-particle interaction under AC electrohydrodynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh-Hyoung; Yu, Chengjie; Papazoglou, Elisabeth; Farouk, Bakhtier; Noh, Hongseok M

    2011-09-01

    We used the Maxwell stress tensor method to understand dielectrophoretic particle-particle interactions and applied the results to the interpretation of particle behaviors under alternating current (AC) electrohydrodynamic conditions such as AC electroosmosis (ACEO) and electrothermal flow (ETF). Distinct particle behaviors were observed under ACEO and ETF. Diverse particle-particle interactions observed in experiments such as particle clustering, particles keeping a certain distance from each other, chain and disc formation and their rotation, are explained based on the numerical simulation data. The improved understanding of particle behaviors in AC electrohydrodynamic flows presented here will enable researchers to design better particle manipulation strategies for lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:21823132

  3. Characterization of flow-through electrode processes by AC impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, C.Y. ); Selman, J.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Flow-through porous electrodes, such as packed-bed and fluidized-bed electrodes, are attractive for electrowinning, electro-organic synthesis and flow-battery applications. The extensive surface area of the porous electrodes makes high volumetric reaction rate more possible than in a cell with smooth electrodes. Forced convection also enhances mass-transfer rate and hence reduces concentration polarization. AC-impedance method has been used successfully in characterizing a packed-bed flow-through electrode system. A macrohomogeneous model was developed to simulate the effect of structural, physical and flow parameters. The relative importance of kinetics and mass transfer can be inferred from the AC-impedance analysis. Kinetic information about copper deposition in supported cupric sulfate solution has been obtained successfully using this technique.

  4. ac power control in the Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    This work represents a status report on a development effort to design an ac power controller for the Core Flow Test Loop. The Core Flow Test Loop will be an engineering test facility which will simulate the thermal environment of a gas-cooled fast-breeder reactor. The problems and limitations of using sinusoidal ac power to simulate the power generated within a nuclear reactor are addressed. The transformer-thyristor configuration chosen for the Core Flow Test Loop power supply is presented. The initial considerations, design, and analysis of a closed-loop controller prototype are detailed. The design is then analyzed for improved performance possibilities and failure modes are investigated at length. A summary of the work completed to date and a proposed outline for continued development completes the report.

  5. Fate and transport of some selected PhACs in a river receiving a high load of treated sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendz, D.; Ginn, T. R.; Paxeus, N.

    2003-04-01

    Pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) have lately been acknowledged to constitute a risk for humans and for the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Human and veterinary applications are the main sources of PhACs in the environment and the major pathway are excretion and discharge to the environment. Sewage treatment plants (STPs) play a crucial role for the introduction of the human PhACs in the environment through its removal efficiency and by separating these compounds into two exposure pathways associated with the aquatic and the solid (sludge) phase, respectively. Actually, STPs are recognized as being the main point discharge sources of human PhACs to the aquatic environment. In this study the fate and transport of a selected human PhACs belonging to different therapeutic classes (NSAIDs- non-steroidal antiinflamatory drugs, lipid regulators, antiepileptics, antibiotics and &beta-blockers) are investigated in a small river in the very south of Sweden receiving a high load of treated wastewater. In addition to the PhACs, triclosan (commonly used biocide) was included in this study. Water samples were taken of incoming and outgoing wastewater from the treatment plant, at the effluent in the river, and along the river up to 8 kilometers downstream were the river flows into the sea. After enrichment by solid-phase extraction the compounds were analyzed using GC-MS (methylated derivatives) or LC-MS/MS. In addition to the target compounds a screening analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of other wastewater related pollutants (caffeine, flame retardants, antioxidants). Several of the investigated substances demonstrate a surprising persistence in the aquatic environment. This emphasizes the need for a broader view on the concept of persistence by taking into account the recharge/loading rate in addition to removal mechanisms; transformation, volatility and physical sequestration by solids and the influence of different environmental media (Soil organic

  6. Microfluidic flow-focusing in ac electric fields.

    PubMed

    Tan, Say Hwa; Semin, Benoît; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-21

    We demonstrate the control of droplet sizes by an ac voltage applied across microelectrodes patterned around a flow-focusing junction. The electrodes do not come in contact with the fluids to avoid electrochemical effects. We found several regimes of droplet production in electric fields, controlled by the connection of the chip, the conductivity of the dispersed phase and the frequency of the applied field. A simple electrical modelling of the chip reveals that the effective voltage at the tip of the liquid to be dispersed controls the production mechanism. At low voltages (≲ 600 V), droplets are produced in dripping regime; the droplet size is a function of the ac electric field. The introduction of an effective capillary number that takes into account the Maxwell stress can explain the dependance of droplet size with the applied voltage. At higher voltages (≳ 600 V), jets are observed. The stability of droplet production is a function of the fluid conductivity and applied field frequency reported in a set of flow diagrams. PMID:24401868

  7. Incorporating residential AC load control into ancillary service markets: Measurement and settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Bode, Josh L.; Sullivan, Michael J.; Berghman, Dries; Eto, Joseph H.

    2013-05-01

    Many pre-existing air conditioner load control programs can provide valuable operational flexibility but have not been incorporated into electricity ancillary service markets or grid operations. Multiple demonstrations have shown that residential air conditioner (AC) response can deliver resources quickly and can provide contingency reserves. A key policy hurdle to be overcome before AC load control can be fully incorporated into markets is how to balance the accuracy, cost, and complexity of methods available for the settlement of load curtailment. Overcoming this hurdle requires a means for assessing the accuracy of shorter-term AC load control demand reduction estimation approaches in an unbiased manner. This paper applies such a method to compare the accuracy of approaches varying in cost and complexity ? including regression analysis, load matching and control group approaches ? using feeder data, household data and AC end-use data. We recommend a practical approach for settlement, relying on an annually updated set of tables, with pre-calculated reduction estimates. These tables allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on daily maximum temperature, geographic region and hour of day, simplifying settlement and providing a solution to the policy problem presented in this paper.

  8. Solid-loaded flows: applications in technology

    SciTech Connect

    Molerus, O.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of experiments and the representation of the resulting data by nondimensional groups defined ad hoc largely governs the treatment of problems arising with solid-loaded flows in practice. Without doubt, this is a result of the very complex nature of solid-loaded flows and, consequently, empiricism tends to prevail, more or less. To overcome this situation, two sets of nondimensional groups, which take into consideration the translatory, as well as the rotary, motion of particles suspended in a fluid, are derived from the equations of motion of a solid body. The intuitive meaning of these nondimensional groups arises from their derivation. With respect to applications in engineering, the influence of the rotary motion of a particle on the motion of its center of gravity can thus be taken into account. As such, a common basis for the representation of the different phenomena observed with solid-loaded flows is established. The application of the above concepts to fluidization and hydraulic and pneumatic conveying proves their usefulness. New insights into well-known facts as well as new results demonstrate that taking the real nature of solid particles (i.e., those of finite dimensions) into consideration will provide a common and profound basis for the representation of different phenomena observed with solid-loaded flows in practice.

  9. RG flow of AC conductivity in soft wall model of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Neha; Siwach, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    We study the Renormalization Group (RG) flow of AC conductivity in soft wall model of holographic QCD. We consider the charged black hole metric and the explicit form of AC conductivity is obtained at the cutoff surface. We plot the numerical solution of conductivity flow as a function of radial coordinate. The equation of gauge field is also considered and the numerical solution is obtained for AC conductivity as a function of frequency. The results for AC conductivity are also obtained for different values of chemical potential and Gauss-Bonnet couplings.

  10. pH-Controlled Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Protoxin Loading and Release from Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenhui; He, Kanglai; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Shuyuan

    2012-01-01

    Crystal proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been used as biopesticides because of their toxicity to the insect larval hosts. To protect the proteins from environmental stress to extend their activity, we have developed a new microcapsule formulation. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAH) and poly (styrene sulfonate) (PSS) were fabricated through layer-by-layer self-assembly based on a CaCO3 core. Cry1Ac protoxins were loaded into microcapsules through layer-by-layer self-assembly at low pH, and the encapsulated product was stored in water at 4°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the capsules. To confirm the successful encapsulation, the loading results were observed with a confocal laser scattering microscope (CLSM), using fluorescein-labeled Cry1Ac protoxin (FITC-Cry1Ac). The protoxins were released from the capsule under the alkaline condition corresponding to the midgut of certain insects, a condition which seldom exists elsewhere in the environment. The following bioassay experiment demonstrated that the microcapsules with Cry1Ac protoxins displayed approximately equivalent insecticidal activity to the Asian corn borer compared with free Cry1Ac protoxins, and empty capsules proved to have no effect on insects. Further result also indicated that the formulation could keep stable under the condition of heat and desiccation. These results suggest that this formulation provides a promising methodology that protects protoxins from the environment and releases them specifically in the target insects’ midgut, which has shown potential as biopesticide in the field. PMID:23024810

  11. System for conveniently providing load testing termination of an AC power source having at least one battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, Wilbert J., III

    1995-05-01

    An AC uninterruptible power source is disclosed that provides multiphase power output signals for actual use and a selectable single phase power output signal for use in testing. The AC uninterruptible power source further comprises at least one battery. The single phase output signal is connected to a dummy load by means of a power switch of the break before make type. The invention further includes the dummy load as preferably having metering capabilities to measure the frequency, current, and voltage parameters of the single phase output signal. The arrangement of the present invention allows for the single phase output to be mated to the dummy load without the need of removing input power to the AC uninterruptible power source so as to reduce, or even eliminate, transient caused failures to the AC uninterruptible power source and to its sensitive load equipment which the power source services.

  12. A system for conveniently providing load testing termination of an AC power source having at least one battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Wilbert J., III

    1994-10-01

    An AC uninterruptible power source is disclosed that provides multi-phase power output signals for actual use and a selectable single phase power output signal for use in testing. The AC uninterruptible power source further comprises at least one battery. The single phase output signal is connected to a dummy load by means of a power switch of the break-before-make type. The invention further includes the dummy load as preferably having metering capabilities to measure the frequency, current, and voltage parameters of the single phase output signal. The arrangement of the present invention allows for the single phase output to be mated to the dummy load without the need of removing input power to the AC uninterruptible power source so as to reduce, or even eliminate, transient caused failures to the AC uninterruptible power source and to its sensitive load equipment which the power source services.

  13. Enhanced loading efficiency and retention of 225Ac in rigid liposomes for potential targeted therapy of micrometastases.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min-Yuan; Seideman, Jonathan; Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-06-01

    Targeted alpha-particle emitters are promising therapeutics for micrometastatic disease. Actinium-225 has a 10-day half-life and generates a total of four alpha-particles per parent decay rendering (225)Ac an attractive candidate for alpha-therapy. For cancer cells with low surface expression levels of molecular targets, targeting strategies of (225)Ac using radiolabeled carriers of low specific radioactivities (such as antibodies) may not deliver enough alpha-particle emitters at the targeted cancer cells to result in killing. We previously proposed and showed using passive (225)Ac entrapment that liposomes can stably retain encapsulated (225)Ac for long time periods, and that antibody-conjugated liposomes (immunoliposomes) with encapsulated (225)Ac can specifically target and become internalized by cancer cells. However, to enable therapeutic use of (225)Ac-containing liposomes, high activities of (225)Ac need to be stably encapsulated into liposomes. In this study, various conditions for active loading of (225)Ac in preformed liposomes (ionophore-type, encapsulated buffer solution, and loading time) were evaluated, and liposomes with up to 73 +/- 9% of the initial activity of (225)Ac (0.2-200 microCi) were developed. Retention of radioactive contents by liposomes was evaluated at 37 degrees C in phosphate buffer and in serum-supplemented media. The main fraction of released (225)Ac from liposomes occurs within the first two hours of incubation. Beyond this two hour point, the encapsulated radioactivity is released from liposomes slowly with an approximate half-life of the order of several days. In some cases, after 30 days, (225)Ac retention as high as 81 +/- 7% of the initially encapsulated radioactivity was achieved. The (225)Ac loading protocol was also applied to immunoliposome loading without significant loss of targeting efficacy. Liposomes with surface-conjugated antibodies that are loaded with (225)Ac overcome the limitations of low specific activity for

  14. Enhanced loading efficiency and retention of 225Ac in rigid liposomes for potential targeted therapy of micrometastases.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min-Yuan; Seideman, Jonathan; Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-06-01

    Targeted alpha-particle emitters are promising therapeutics for micrometastatic disease. Actinium-225 has a 10-day half-life and generates a total of four alpha-particles per parent decay rendering (225)Ac an attractive candidate for alpha-therapy. For cancer cells with low surface expression levels of molecular targets, targeting strategies of (225)Ac using radiolabeled carriers of low specific radioactivities (such as antibodies) may not deliver enough alpha-particle emitters at the targeted cancer cells to result in killing. We previously proposed and showed using passive (225)Ac entrapment that liposomes can stably retain encapsulated (225)Ac for long time periods, and that antibody-conjugated liposomes (immunoliposomes) with encapsulated (225)Ac can specifically target and become internalized by cancer cells. However, to enable therapeutic use of (225)Ac-containing liposomes, high activities of (225)Ac need to be stably encapsulated into liposomes. In this study, various conditions for active loading of (225)Ac in preformed liposomes (ionophore-type, encapsulated buffer solution, and loading time) were evaluated, and liposomes with up to 73 +/- 9% of the initial activity of (225)Ac (0.2-200 microCi) were developed. Retention of radioactive contents by liposomes was evaluated at 37 degrees C in phosphate buffer and in serum-supplemented media. The main fraction of released (225)Ac from liposomes occurs within the first two hours of incubation. Beyond this two hour point, the encapsulated radioactivity is released from liposomes slowly with an approximate half-life of the order of several days. In some cases, after 30 days, (225)Ac retention as high as 81 +/- 7% of the initially encapsulated radioactivity was achieved. The (225)Ac loading protocol was also applied to immunoliposome loading without significant loss of targeting efficacy. Liposomes with surface-conjugated antibodies that are loaded with (225)Ac overcome the limitations of low specific activity for

  15. Numerical study of dc-biased ac-electrokinetic flow over symmetrical electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yang Ng, Wee; Ramos, Antonio; Cheong Lam, Yee; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of DC-biased AC-electrokinetic (DC-biased ACEK) flow over a pair of symmetrical electrodes. The flow mechanism is based on a transverse conductivity gradient created through incipient Faradaic reactions occurring at the electrodes when a DC-bias is applied. The DC biased AC electric field acting on this gradient generates a fluid flow in the form of vortexes. To understand more in depth the DC-biased ACEK flow mechanism, a phenomenological model is developed to study the effects of voltage, conductivity ratio, channel width, depth, and aspect ratio on the induced flow characteristics. It was found that flow velocity on the order of mm/s can be produced at higher voltage and conductivity ratio. Such rapid flow velocity is one of the highest reported in microsystems technology using electrokinetics. PMID:22662084

  16. Numerical study of dc-biased ac-electrokinetic flow over symmetrical electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yang Ng, Wee; Ramos, Antonio; Cheong Lam, Yee; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of DC-biased AC-electrokinetic (DC-biased ACEK) flow over a pair of symmetrical electrodes. The flow mechanism is based on a transverse conductivity gradient created through incipient Faradaic reactions occurring at the electrodes when a DC-bias is applied. The DC biased AC electric field acting on this gradient generates a fluid flow in the form of vortexes. To understand more in depth the DC-biased ACEK flow mechanism, a phenomenological model is developed to study the effects of voltage, conductivity ratio, channel width, depth, and aspect ratio on the induced flow characteristics. It was found that flow velocity on the order of mm/s can be produced at higher voltage and conductivity ratio. Such rapid flow velocity is one of the highest reported in microsystems technology using electrokinetics. PMID:22662084

  17. Internet traffic load balancing using dynamic hashing with flow volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Yoohwan; Chao, H. Jonathan; Merat, Francis L.

    2002-07-01

    Sending IP packets over multiple parallel links is in extensive use in today's Internet and its use is growing due to its scalability, reliability and cost-effectiveness. To maximize the efficiency of parallel links, load balancing is necessary among the links, but it may cause the problem of packet reordering. Since packet reordering impairs TCP performance, it is important to reduce the amount of reordering. Hashing offers a simple solution to keep the packet order by sending a flow over a unique link, but static hashing does not guarantee an even distribution of the traffic amount among the links, which could lead to packet loss under heavy load. Dynamic hashing offers some degree of load balancing but suffers from load fluctuations and excessive packet reordering. To overcome these shortcomings, we have enhanced the dynamic hashing algorithm to utilize the flow volume information in order to reassign only the appropriate flows. This new method, called dynamic hashing with flow volume (DHFV), eliminates unnecessary flow reassignments of small flows and achieves load balancing very quickly without load fluctuation by accurately predicting the amount of transferred load between the links. In this paper we provide the general framework of DHFV and address the challenges in implementing DHFV. We then introduce two algorithms of DHFV with different flow selection strategies and show their performances through simulation.

  18. Controller for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply, and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Cantin, Luc; Deschenes, Mario; D'Amours, Mario

    1995-08-15

    A controller is provided for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply having a typical frequency, the AC supply being provided via power transformers by an electrical power distribution grid. The controller is associated with the load and comprises an input interface for coupling the controller to the grid, a frequency detector for detecting the frequency of the AC supply and producing a signal indicative of the frequency, memory modules for storing preprogrammed commands, a frequency monitor for reading the signal indicative of the frequency and producing frequency data derived thereof, a selector for selecting at least one of the preprogrammed commands with respect to the frequency data, a control unit for producing at least one command signal representative of the selected preprogrammed commands, and an output interface including a device responsive to the command signal for controlling the load. Therefore, the load can be controlled by means of the controller depending on the frequency of the AC supply.

  19. Design of a robust modulation controller over a wide range of load characteristics for ac/dc systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choudry, M.A.; Reza, M.A. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Ellithy, K.A. )

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a method to design a robust modulation controller to improve the dynamic performance of ac/dc systems. Static load is modeled as a nonlinear function of load bus voltage and dynamic load is modeled by an equivalent induction motor. Reactive power and dc power are considered for the modulation control. Static var compensator (SVC) is used for the reactive power modulation. The rotor speed and angle deviations of the synchronous generator are used as a stabilizing signal to the SVC. The controller gains are selected based on the eigenvalue sensitivity of electromechanical mode of the closed loop system with respect to load characteristic. Eigenvalue analysis and simulation results show that the proposed reactive power modulation control improves the system response over a wide range of voltage dependent load characteristic as compared with the control using only the rotor speed deviation.

  20. Data qualification summary for 1985 L-Area AC Flow Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.B.; Eghbali, D.A.; Liebmann, M.L.; Shine, E.P.

    1992-03-01

    The 1985 L-Area AC Flow Tests were conducted to provide an extended data base for upgrading the reactor system models employed in predicting normal process water flows. This report summarizes the results of the recently completed, formal, technical review of the data from the 1985 L-Area AC Flow Tests as detailed in document SCS-CMAS-910045. The purpose of that review was to provide corroborating technical information as to the quality (fitness for use) of these experimental data. Reference [1] required three volumes to fully document the results of that Data Qualification process. This report has been prepared to provide the important conclusions from that process in a manageable and understandable format. Consult reference [1] if any additional information or detail is needed. This report provides highlights from that study: an overview of the tests and data, a description of the instrumentation used, an explanation of the data qualification methods employed to review the data, and the important conclusions reached from the study. Reference 1: Edwards, T.B., D.A. Eghbali, M.L. Liebmann, and E.P. Shine, [open quotes]Data Qualification for 1985 L-Area AC Flow Tests,[close quotes] SCS-CMAS-910045, December 31, 1991.

  1. Data qualification summary for 1985 L-Area AC Flow Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.B.; Eghbali, D.A.; Liebmann, M.L.; Shine, E.P.

    1992-03-01

    The 1985 L-Area AC Flow Tests were conducted to provide an extended data base for upgrading the reactor system models employed in predicting normal process water flows. This report summarizes the results of the recently completed, formal, technical review of the data from the 1985 L-Area AC Flow Tests as detailed in document SCS-CMAS-910045. The purpose of that review was to provide corroborating technical information as to the quality (fitness for use) of these experimental data. Reference [1] required three volumes to fully document the results of that Data Qualification process. This report has been prepared to provide the important conclusions from that process in a manageable and understandable format. Consult reference [1] if any additional information or detail is needed. This report provides highlights from that study: an overview of the tests and data, a description of the instrumentation used, an explanation of the data qualification methods employed to review the data, and the important conclusions reached from the study. Reference 1: Edwards, T.B., D.A. Eghbali, M.L. Liebmann, and E.P. Shine, {open_quotes}Data Qualification for 1985 L-Area AC Flow Tests,{close_quotes} SCS-CMAS-910045, December 31, 1991.

  2. Transport of particles and microorganisms in microfluidic channels using rectified ac electro-osmotic flow

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-I; Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi; Ching, Chan Y.

    2011-01-01

    A new method is demonstrated to transport particles, cells, and other microorganisms using rectified ac electro-osmotic flows in open microchannels. The rectified flow is obtained by synchronous zeta potential modulation with the driving potential in the microchannel. Experiments were conducted to transport both neutral, charged particles, and microorganisms of various sizes. A maximum speed of 50 μm∕s was obtained for 8 μm polystyrene beads, without any electrolysis, using a symmetrical square waveform driving electric field of 5 V∕mm at 10 Hz and a 360 V gate potential with its polarity synchronized with the driving potential (phase lag=0°). PMID:21522497

  3. Accumulated span loadings of an arrow wing having vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. Subba

    1989-01-01

    The vortex flow over an arrow wing is theoretically investigated using the free-vortex-sheet method. The sectional lift coefficient and accumulated span loadings, which are important in determining the root bending moment, are calculated. The longitudinal stability variation is also estimated.

  4. Mechanism and flow measurement of AC electrowetting propulsion on free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Junqi; Cho, Sung Kwon

    2015-03-01

    A free surface in contact with a floating object can be vertically oscillated by applying an alternating current electrowetting-on-dielectric (AC EWOD). The oscillation of the free surface generates a propelling force on the centimeter-sized floating object. This paper describes a propulsion mechanism in free-surface oscillation along with its experimental results. Flow visualizations, wave patterns measured by the free-surface synthetic schlieren method, and PIV measurements show that the oscillation generates a capillary Stokes drift on the water surface and two counter-rotating spiral underwater vortices, leading to an ejecting flow (streaming flow) normal to the wall of the boat. The momentum of the ejecting flow produces a reaction force on the wall and ultimately propels the floating boat. The propulsion speed of the boat highly depends on the amplitude, frequency, and shape of the AC EWOD signal. Curve fittings based on the Stokes drift well match the experimental measurements of propulsion speed. The width of the EWOD electrode also has significant effects on the boat speed.

  5. Reducing minimum air flow at low boiler loads

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, B.L.; Lange, H.B.; Brown, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    One aspect of boiler operation that impairs performance at low loads is the practice of maintaining the flow of air to the boiler at or above 25% of the full-load air flow even though the boiler load may be reduced well below 25%. This is done in accordance with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 8502, a guideline which boiler insurers generally require. The intent of the minimum air flow rate guideline is to reduce the likelihood of a boiler explosion being caused by an unexpected accumulation of unburned fuel in the boiler, by maintaining a minimum purge rate through the boiler. Operation at high excess air reduces boiler efficiency, increases NO{sub x} emissions and, in some cases, negatively impacts flame stability. Under a contract with EPRI, Carnot is currently engaged in a program aimed at more fully establishing the economics of and technical basis for safe reduced air flow operation at low boiler loads and developing guidelines for its implementation on any boiler. In Phase 1 of this program, discussions were initiated with the NFPA, and detailed boiler combustion and heat-transfer analyses were combined with cost models to quantify the benefits and costs of reduced air flow operation on a wide variety of boilers. The cost/benefit analysis investigated gas- and/or oil-fired boilers including tangential, wall and opposed-fired designs. Phase 2 of the program is to consist of a series of demonstrations of reduced air flow operation on working utility boilers. These demonstrations are to cover gas, oil and coal fuels and the major boiler design types.

  6. Heat-transfer enhancement in AC electro-osmotic micro-flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. P.; Speetjens, M. F. M.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Heat transfer in micro-flows is essential to emerging technologies as advanced microelectronics cooling systems and chemical processes in lab-on-a-chip applications. The present study explores the potential of AC electro-osmotic (ACEO) flow forcing, a promising technique for the actuation and manipulation of micro-flows, for heat-transfer enhancement. Subjects of investigation include the 3D flow structure due to ACEO forcing via an array of electrodes in a micro-channel by way of 3D velocity measurements. Presence and properties of vortical structures of the 3D flow are quantified in laboratory experiments. Typical outcomes of the experimental study result from a number of 3D particle trajectories obtained by using 3D micro-Particle-Tracking Velocimetry (3D μ-PTV). The steady nature of the flow enables combination of results from a series of measurements into one dense data set. This facilitates accurate evaluation of quantities relevant for heat transfer by data-processing methods. The primary circulation is given above one half of an electrode in terms of the spanwise component of vorticity. The outline of the vortex boundary is determined via the eigenvalues of the strain-rate tensor. To estimate convective heat transfer, wall shear rate above one half of an electrode is quantitatively analyzed as function of voltage amplitude and frequency. These results yield first insights into the characteristics of 3D ACEO flows and ways to exploit and manipulate them for heat-transfer enhancement.

  7. Finite element analysis of current flowing patterns and AC loss in the multifilament strand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Wurui; Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2013-12-01

    Intrinsic current flow and field distribution scheme under the imposed low current injection and the applied weak field is meaningful to interpret Ic degradation and AC loss in a strand that performs as a normal composite conductor. A 2D finite element (FE) transport model is built in COMSOL to identify the various transverse resistance components and reveal the interrelation among them. Then the transverse resistivity components are taken as the basic electrical components in a 3D composite strand model. The 3D model follows the realistic trajectories of twisted filaments in strand composite and experimental material properties. To address the potential/current map in the stationary transport, the FE model is thoroughly analyzed for the short-sample and long-sample strand, imposed by two in-plane steady current injections and a potential boundary condition at one strand end with the other end grounded, respectively. The results show that the short-sample longitudinal current is uniform with little resistivity loss, and flows from the positive source and converges to the negative one in the cross section with different paths and current proportions between filaments and matrix. However, for the long-sample, there is a serious reduction in electric potential along the strand axis and the currents mostly concentrate on filaments. The time-varying problem is also implemented by computing AC loss induced by a relatively far-away alternating line current. It is discussed where appropriate that the effect of the twist pitch and contact resistivity on the pattern and magnitude of the current flow and AC loss.

  8. Flow Separation Side Loads Excitation of Rocket Nozzle FEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Kurt B.; Brown, Andrew; Ruf, Joseph; Gilbert, John

    2007-01-01

    Modern rocket nozzles are designed to operate over a wide range of altitudes, and are also built with large aspect ratios to enable high efficiencies. Nozzles designed to operate over specific regions of a trajectory are being replaced in modern launch vehicles by those that are designed to operate from earth to orbit. This is happening in parallel with modern manufacturing and wall cooling techniques allowing for larger aspect ratio nozzles to be produced. Such nozzles, though operating over a large range of altitudes and ambient pressures, are typically designed for one specific altitude. Above that altitude the nozzle flow is 'underexpanded' and below that altitude, the nozzle flow is 'overexpanded'. In both conditions the nozzle produces less than the maximum possible thrust at that altitude. Usually the nozzle design altitude is well above sea level, leaving the nozzle flow in an overexpanded state for its start up as well as for its ground testing where, if it is a reusable nozzle such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the nozzle will operate for the majority of its life. Overexpansion in a rocket nozzle presents the critical, and sometimes design driving, problem of flow separation induced side loads. To increase their understanding of nozzle side loads, engineers at MSFC began an investigation in 2000 into the phenomenon through a task entitled "Characterization and Accurate Modeling of Rocket Engine Nozzle Side Loads", led by A. Brown. The stated objective of this study was to develop a methodology to accurately predict the character and magnitude of nozzle side loads. The study included further hot-fire testing of the MC-l engine, cold flow testing of subscale nozzles, CFD analyses of both hot-fire and cold flow nozzle testing, and finite element (fe.) analysis of the MC-1 engine and cold flow tested nozzles. A follow on task included an effort to formulate a simplified methodology for modeling a side load during a two nodal diameter fluid

  9. Electrodeposition of Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites assisted by Faradaic AC-electroosmosis flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jianlong; Li, Pengwei; Sang, Shengbo Zhang, Wendong Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Zhaoying Yang, Xing; Dong, Hualai

    2014-03-15

    Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites were synthesized successfully from the corresponding aqueous solution via the AC electrodeposition method. Both of the morphologies and compositions could be tuned by the electrolyte concentration and AC frequency. The prepared bimetallic dendrites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The underlying dendrite growth mechanism was then proposed in the context of the Directed Electrochemical Nanowires Assembly (DENA) models. Owing to the unscreened voltage dropping in the electrolyte bulk, electromigration dominates the species flux process, and cations tend to accumulate in areas with strong electric field intensity, such as electrode edges. Moreover, Faradaic AC-electro-osmosis (ACEO) flow could increase the effective diffusion layer thickness in these areas during the electrochemical reaction, and leads to dendrite growth. Further Micro-Raman observations illustrated that the Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites exhibited pronounced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity, using 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP) as model molecules.

  10. Electrodeposition of Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites assisted by Faradaic AC-electroosmosis flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianlong; Li, Pengwei; Sang, Shengbo; Zhang, Wendong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Yang, Xing; Dong, Hualai; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites were synthesized successfully from the corresponding aqueous solution via the AC electrodeposition method. Both of the morphologies and compositions could be tuned by the electrolyte concentration and AC frequency. The prepared bimetallic dendrites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The underlying dendrite growth mechanism was then proposed in the context of the Directed Electrochemical Nanowires Assembly (DENA) models. Owing to the unscreened voltage dropping in the electrolyte bulk, electromigration dominates the species flux process, and cations tend to accumulate in areas with strong electric field intensity, such as electrode edges. Moreover, Faradaic AC-electro-osmosis (ACEO) flow could increase the effective diffusion layer thickness in these areas during the electrochemical reaction, and leads to dendrite growth. Further Micro-Raman observations illustrated that the Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites exhibited pronounced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity, using 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP) as model molecules.

  11. Fuzzy modelling of power system optimal load flow

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, V.; Saraiva, J.T. )

    1992-05-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy model for power system operation is presented. Uncertainties in loads and generations are modeled as fuzzy numbers. System behavior under known (while uncertain) injections is dealt with by a DC fuzzy power flow model. System optimal (while uncertain) operation is calculated with linear programming procedures where the problem nature and structure allows some efficient techniques such as Dantzig Wolfe decomposition and dual simplex to be used. Among the results, one obtains a fuzzy cost value for system operation and possibility distributions for branch power flows and power generations. Some risk analysis is possible, as system robustness and exposure indices can be derived and hedging policies can be investigated.

  12. Bed load transport formulas in dam break flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolás Cantero-Chinchilla, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Ayuso-Muñoz, Jose Luis

    2015-04-01

    Classic formulas for bed load transport have been widely applied to river and channel dynamics with satisfactory results. Most of these equations were developed under ideal or steady flow conditions, which make them relevant for studying sediment transport processes in natural streams. However, they are not suitable in situations of dam break flows. In these cases, sediment concentration in lower layers of the flow is very high and could be nearly the same as that of bed material [1]. In order to account this phenomenon in the formulation, Wu and Wang [2] introduce the correction factor kt for the transport stage number. This correction factor does not only recover sediment concentration features in lower layers, but also dynamic pressure characteristics of the flow, which are mainly present in the dam break wavefront. By an iterative solution procedure, the kt value was developed for the Taipei and Louvain-la-Neuve tests, and it was used to address the sediment transport process with the Van Rijn formulas [3]. Nevertheless, albeit the results from Wu and Wang were acceptable, there was no research in the type of bed load transport formula applied from those existing in the literature. Although suspended load is of a greater importance, the bed load regulates the bed profiles in sediment transport processes. Bed material profiles also induce changes in the free surface flow. The longitudinal bed gradient infers in velocity changes and even can provoke dynamic pressure. Consequently, choosing a proper bed load formula is essential, since a wrong choice could imply including undesirable secondary effects in the flow. In this regard, for the sake of clarity, a comparison between the classic bed load transport formulas performance is done in this work. As a framework the Taipei and Louvain-la-Neuve test cases are considered. The transport stage number can be rearranged in each of the traditional equations [4,5], so the newfangled correction proposed by Wu and Wang can

  13. Some aspects of aircraft dynamic loads due to flow separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, D. G.

    Topics discussed in this paper include the need for consistent definitions of buffet and buffeting, the advantages of a consistent notation, buffeting due to wings and other components, the alleviation of buffeting, the special difficulties of flight tests and the special advantages of buffeting measurements in cryogenic wind-tunnels. Single degree of freedom flutter due to flow separation is not discussed, but may contribute significant dynamic loads.

  14. Dynamic Load Balancing Strategies for Parallel Reacting Flow Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciuneri, Patrick; Meneses, Esteban; Givi, Peyman

    2014-11-01

    Load balancing in parallel computing aims at distributing the work as evenly as possible among the processors. This is a critical issue in the performance of parallel, time accurate, flow simulators. The constraint of time accuracy requires that all processes must be finished with their calculation for a given time step before any process can begin calculation of the next time step. Thus, an irregularly balanced compute load will result in idle time for many processes for each iteration and thus increased walltimes for calculations. Two existing, dynamic load balancing approaches are applied to the simplified case of a partially stirred reactor for methane combustion. The first is Zoltan, a parallel partitioning, load balancing, and data management library developed at the Sandia National Laboratories. The second is Charm++, which is its own machine independent parallel programming system developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The performance of these two approaches is compared, and the prospects for their application to full 3D, reacting flow solvers is assessed.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Wall Heat Load in Combustor Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panara, D.; Hase, M.; Krebs, W.; Noll, B.

    2007-09-01

    Due to the major mechanism of NOx generation, there is generally a temperature trade off between improved cycle efficiency, material constraints and low NOx emission. The cycle efficiency is proportional to the highest cycle temperature, but unfortunately also the NOx production increases with increasing combustion temperature. For this reason, the modern combustion chamber design has been oriented towards lean premixed combustion system and more and more attention must be focused on the cooling air management. The challenge is to ensure sufficiently low temperature of the combustion liner with very low amount of film or effusion cooling air. Correct numerical prediction of temperature fields and wall heat load are therefore of critical interest in the modern combustion chamber design. Moreover, lean combustion technology has shown the appearance of thermo-acoustic instabilities which have to be taken into account in the simulation and, more in general, in the design of reliable combustion systems. In this framework, the present investigation addresses the capability of a commercial multiphysics code (ANSYS CFX) to correctly predict the wall heat load and the core flow temperature field in a scaled power generation combustion chamber with a simplified ceramic liner. Comparison are made with the experimental results from the ITS test rig at the University of Karlsruhe [1] and with a previous numerical campaign from [2]. In addition the effect of flow unsteadyness on the wall heat load is discussed showing some limitations of the traditional steady state flow thermal design.

  16. Flow instability and bifurcation in gas-loaded reflux thermosyphons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, P. F.; Tien, C. L.; Lee, K. W.; Elkouh, N.

    1991-02-01

    In vertical gas-loaded two-phase reflux thermosyphons, the temperature and concentration gradients between the active and shut-off regions can create double-diffusive mixed convection flows. When the noncondensable gas molecular weight is greater than that of the vapor, different steady and time-dependent gas recirculation patterns develop, similar to those observed during Rayleigh-Benard convection in vertical slots. Experimental results presented here show that bifurcations from axisymmetric to three-dimensional, then asymmetric, and finally multiple distinct gas-flow patterns occur as the Rayleigh number increases. Ultimately, a sudden transition to a large-amplitude oscillatory gas flow takes place. Detailed concentration maps and power-density spectra from point wet-bulb temperature measurements clearly chart these transitions. These results impact the design of many condensing systems where noncondensables are present.

  17. Thermal loading in flow-through electroporation microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    del Rosal, Blanca; Sun, Chen; Loufakis, Despina Nelie; Lu, Chang; Jaque, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Thermal loading effects in flow-through electroporation microfluidic devices have been systematically investigated by using dye-based ratiometric luminescence thermometry. Fluorescence measurements have revealed the crucial role played by both the applied electric field and flow rate on the induced temperature increments at the electroporation sections of the devices. It has been found that Joule heating could raise the intra-channel temperature up to cytotoxic levels (>45 °C) only when conditions of low flow rates and high applied voltages are applied. Nevertheless, when flow rates and electric fields are set to those used in real electroporation experiments we have found that local heating is not larger than a few degrees, i.e. temperature is kept within the safe range (<32 °C). We also provide thermal images of electroporation devices from which the heat affected area can be elucidated. Experimental data have been found to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations that have also revealed the presence of a non-homogeneous temperature distribution along the electroporation channel whose magnitude is critically dependent on both applied electric field and flow rate. Results included in this work will allow for full control over the electroporation conditions in flow-through microfluidic devices.

  18. How does ice sheet loading affect ocean flow around Antarctica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, H. A.; Rugenstein, M. A.; Stocchi, P.; von der Heydt, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Interactions and dynamical feedbacks between ocean circulation, heat and atmospheric moisture transport, ice sheet evolution, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) are overlooked issues in paleoclimatology. Here we will present first results on how ocean flows were possibly affected by the glaciation of Antarctica across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (~ 34 Ma) through GIA and bathymetry variations. GIA-induced gravitationally self-consistent bathymetry variations are determined by solving the Sea Level Equation (SLE), which describes the time dependent shape of (i) the solid Earth and (ii) the equipotential surface of gravity. Since the ocean circulation equations are defined relative to the equipotential surface of gravity, only bathymetry variations can influence ocean flows, although the sea surface slope will also change through time due to gravitational attraction. We use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model under late Eocene conditions to calculate equilibrium ocean flows in a domain in which the bathymetry evolves under ice loading according to the SLE. The bathymetric effects of the glaciation of Antarctica lead to substantial spatial changes in ocean flows, and close to the coast, the flow even reverses direction. Volume transports through the Drake Passage and Tasman Seaway adjust to the new bathymetry. The results indicate that GIA-induced ocean flow variations alone may have had an impact on sedimentation and erosion patterns, the repositioning of fronts, ocean heat transport and grounding line and ice sheet stability.

  19. Debris-flow runout predictions based on the average channel slope (ACS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prochaska, A.B.; Santi, P.M.; Higgins, J.D.; Cannon, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of the runout distance of a debris flow is an important element in the delineation of potentially hazardous areas on alluvial fans and for the siting of mitigation structures. Existing runout estimation methods rely on input parameters that are often difficult to estimate, including volume, velocity, and frictional factors. In order to provide a simple method for preliminary estimates of debris-flow runout distances, we developed a model that provides runout predictions based on the average channel slope (ACS model) for non-volcanic debris flows that emanate from confined channels and deposit on well-defined alluvial fans. This model was developed from 20 debris-flow events in the western United States and British Columbia. Based on a runout estimation method developed for snow avalanches, this model predicts debris-flow runout as an angle of reach from a fixed point in the drainage channel to the end of the runout zone. The best fixed point was found to be the mid-point elevation of the drainage channel, measured from the apex of the alluvial fan to the top of the drainage basin. Predicted runout lengths were more consistent than those obtained from existing angle-of-reach estimation methods. Results of the model compared well with those of laboratory flume tests performed using the same range of channel slopes. The robustness of this model was tested by applying it to three debris-flow events not used in its development: predicted runout ranged from 82 to 131% of the actual runout for these three events. Prediction interval multipliers were also developed so that the user may calculate predicted runout within specified confidence limits. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High power ac/dc variable R dynamic electrical load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joncas, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    A study program was undertaken to investigate various concepts and techniques for identifying and simulating both the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of electrical loads for use during integrated system test and evaluation. The development of hardware capable of providing the simulation capability is discussed. A general purpose simulator was developed with the capability of realizing a variety of models where element values were discretely variable. The different models, each corresponding to real spacecraft equipment, are set up manually for each case by suitable switching and patching. The models are capable of duplicating the dynamic and steady-state response of real loads at full power.

  1. The flow field investigations of no load conditions in axial flow fixed-blade turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Gao, L.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhou, X. Z.; Xu, H. X.

    2014-03-01

    During the start-up process, the strong instabilities happened at no load operation in a low head axial flow fixed-blade turbine, with strong pressure pulsation and vibration. The rated speed can not reach until guide vane opening to some extent, and stable operation could not be maintained under the rated speed at some head, which had a negative impact on the grid-connected operation of the unit. In order to find the reason of this phenomenon, the unsteady flow field of the whole flow passage at no load conditions was carried out to analyze the detailed fluid field characteristics including the pressure pulsation and force imposed on the runner under three typical heads. The main hydraulic cause of no load conditions instability was described. It is recommended that the power station should try to reduce the no-load running time and go into the high load operation as soon as possible when connected to grid at the rated head. Following the recommendations, the plant operation practice proved the unstable degree of the unit was reduced greatly during start up and connect to the power grid.

  2. Road load simulator tests of the Gould Phase I functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  3. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  4. AC electrified jets in a flow-focusing device: Jet length scaling.

    PubMed

    Castro-Hernández, Elena; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Alzaga-Gimeno, Javier; Tan, Say Hwa; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Ramos, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We use a microfluidic flow-focusing device with integrated electrodes for controlling the production of water-in-oil drops. In a previous work, we reported that very long jets can be formed upon application of AC fields. We now study in detail the appearance of the long jets as a function of the electrical parameters, i.e., water conductivity, signal frequency, and voltage amplitude. For intermediate frequencies, we find a threshold voltage above which the jet length rapidly increases. Interestingly, this abrupt transition vanishes for high frequencies of the signal and the jet length grows smoothly with voltage. For frequencies below a threshold value, we previously reported a transition from a well-behaved uniform jet to highly unstable liquid structures in which axisymmetry is lost rather abruptly. These liquid filaments eventually break into droplets of different sizes. In this work, we characterize this transition with a diagram as a function of voltage and liquid conductivity. The electrical response of the long jets was studied via a distributed element circuit model. The model allows us to estimate the electric potential at the tip of the jet revealing that, for any combination of the electrical parameters, the breakup of the jet occurs at a critical value of this potential. We show that this voltage is around 550 V for our device geometry and choice of flow rates.

  5. AC electrified jets in a flow-focusing device: Jet length scaling.

    PubMed

    Castro-Hernández, Elena; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Alzaga-Gimeno, Javier; Tan, Say Hwa; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Ramos, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We use a microfluidic flow-focusing device with integrated electrodes for controlling the production of water-in-oil drops. In a previous work, we reported that very long jets can be formed upon application of AC fields. We now study in detail the appearance of the long jets as a function of the electrical parameters, i.e., water conductivity, signal frequency, and voltage amplitude. For intermediate frequencies, we find a threshold voltage above which the jet length rapidly increases. Interestingly, this abrupt transition vanishes for high frequencies of the signal and the jet length grows smoothly with voltage. For frequencies below a threshold value, we previously reported a transition from a well-behaved uniform jet to highly unstable liquid structures in which axisymmetry is lost rather abruptly. These liquid filaments eventually break into droplets of different sizes. In this work, we characterize this transition with a diagram as a function of voltage and liquid conductivity. The electrical response of the long jets was studied via a distributed element circuit model. The model allows us to estimate the electric potential at the tip of the jet revealing that, for any combination of the electrical parameters, the breakup of the jet occurs at a critical value of this potential. We show that this voltage is around 550 V for our device geometry and choice of flow rates. PMID:27375826

  6. Flow-through devices for the ac electrokinetic construction of microstructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Rodriguez, N.; Markx, G. H.

    2006-02-01

    With the aid of computer simulation, flow-through devices have been devised for the continuous construction of microstructured materials using non-uniform ac electric fields. Particles can be concentrated and guided along channels defined by non-uniform electric fields generated between microelectrodes. The resulting streams of particles emanating from the microelectrode structures can subsequently be immobilized to form materials with particles embedded in defined locations. Experiments with latex beads with a diameter of 6 µm, suspended in high purity low-melting agarose at a concentration of 0.75% and temperatures over 60 °C, showed that a linear stream of particles can be created by the combined application of negative dielectrophoresis and hydrodynamic flow forces. By guiding the stream of particles onto a conveyor, it was then possible to create a continuous film of agarose containing latex beads in defined positions. Potential applications of the method in the creation of biomaterials such as tissues and biofilms are discussed.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Flow through Phloem Considering Active Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Sze, Tsun-Kay Jackie; Dutta, Prashanta

    2013-11-01

    Transport through phloem is of significant interest in engineering applications including self-powered microfluidic pumps. We present a phloem model, combining protein level mechanics with cellular level fluid transport. Fluid flow and sucrose transport through a petiole sieve tube are simulated using the Nernst-Planck, Navier-Stokes, and continuity equations. Governing equations are solved using the finite volume method with dynamically calculated boundary conditions. Sieve tube cell structure consisting of sieve plates is included in a two dimensional model by computational cell blocking. Sucrose transport is incorporated as a boundary condition through a six-state model, bringing in active loading mechanisms with consideration of physical plant properties. The effects of reaction rates and leaf sucrose concentration are investigated to understand the transport mechanism in petiole sieve tubes. Numerical results show that increasing forward reactions of the proton sucrose transporter significantly promotes the pumping ability. A lower leaf sieve sucrose concentration results in a lower wall inflow velocity, but yields a higher inflow of water due to the active loading mechanism. The overall effect is higher outflow velocity for lower leaf sieve sucrose concentration because the increase in inflow velocity outweighs wall velocity. This new phloem model provides new insights on mechanisms potentially useful for fluidic pumping in self-powered microfluidic pumps. This work is supported in part by the National Science Fundation grant CBET-1250107.

  8. Effect of the load size on the efficiency of microwave heating under stop flow and continuous flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Narendra G; Rebrov, Evgeny V; Eränen, Kari; Benaskar, Faysal; Meuldijk, Jan; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Hessel, Volker; Hulshof, Lumbertus A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Schouten, Jaap C

    2012-01-01

    A novel heating efficiency analysis of the microwave heated stop-flow (i.e. stagnant liquid) and continuous-flow reactors has been presented. The thermal losses to the surrounding air by natural convection have been taken into account for heating efficiency calculation of the microwave heating process. The effect of the load diameter in the range of 4-29 mm on the heating efficiency of ethylene glycol was studied in a single mode microwave cavity under continuous flow and stop-flow conditions. The variation of the microwave absorbing properties of the load with temperature was estimated. Under stop-flow conditions, the heating efficiency depends on the load diameter. The highest heating efficiency has been observed at the load diameter close to the half wavelength of the electromagnetic field in the corresponding medium. Under continuous-flow conditions, the heating efficiency increased linearly. However, microwave leakage above the propagation diameter restricted further experimentation at higher load diameters. Contrary to the stop-flow conditions, the load temperature did not raise monotonously from the inlet to outlet under continuous-flow conditions. This was due to the combined effect of lagging convective heat fluxes in comparison to volumetric heating. This severely disturbs the uniformity of the electromagnetic field in the axial direction and creates areas of high and low field intensity along the load Length decreasing the heating efficiency as compared to stop-flow conditions.

  9. Interleukin-10 promotor -592A/C polymorphism is associated with slow coronary flow in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Gui-Liang; Cai, Xing-Xing; Su, Ya-Min; Chen, Chu; Deng, Xin-Tao; Pan, Hai-Yan; Fan, Meng-Kan; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Pan, Min

    2015-01-01

    An accumulating body of evidence suggests that slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon seems to be an early-form of atherosclerosis and low-grade inflammation plays a major role in the atherosclerotic vascular processes. Interleukin (IL)-10 is a multifunctional cytokine involved in both innate and adaptive immune response. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of IL-10 gene -592A/C polymorphism with SCF in Han Chinese. 250 patients who underwent coronary angiography and had angiographically normal coronary arteries of varying coronary flow rates without any atherosclerotic lesion were enrolled in this study. Patients who had thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame counts (TFC) above the normal cutoffs were considered to have SCF and those within normal limits were considered to have normal coronary flow (NCF). The PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to assess the genotypes frequencies. The distribution of the IL-10 -592A/C genotypes (AA, AC, and CC) was 46.34%, 41.46%, and 12.20% in the NCF group, and 66.51%, 28.71%, and 4.78% in SCF subjects, respectively (P = 0.0280). The frequency of the A allele in the SCF group was significantly higher than that in the NCF group (80.86% vs. 67.07%, P = 0.0054). Compared with the CC genotype, the AA genotype had increased risk of SCF in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In SCF patients, the average serum IL-10 levels in AA genotype were statistically lower than in AC + CC genotype (P = 0.0000). These findings suggest that IL-10 -592A/C polymorphism is associated with SCF and the A allele has increased risk for SCF in Han Chinese. PMID:26097597

  10. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 2: Side loads due to asymmetric separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for measuring the lateral forces, occurring as a result of asymmetric nozzle flow separation, are discussed. The effect of some parameters on the side load is explained. A new method was developed for calculation of the side load. The values calculated are compared with side load data of the J-2 engine. Results are used for predicting side loads of the space shuttle main engine.

  11. Power flow in long MITLs with high-inductance loads

    SciTech Connect

    Poukey, J.W.; Mazarkis, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    The authors are using the 2-D TWOQUICK simulation code to study a system consisting of a voltage adder, a long magnetically-insulated transmission line (MITL), and a large-inductance load which includes a conducting foil (short circuit). The object of this work is to produce a voltage pulse of typically 10 MV and several hundred ns which travels down a MITL of about 10 meters length and 5--10 ohms vacuum impedance, and then couples efficiently to a load of a few hundred nH inductance. They discuss modeling issues such as the use of simple transmission lines for parts of the system, and methods for representing the load. Important physics issues include voltage-pulse erosion in long MITLs, effects of reflected waves from the highly overmatched load impedance, and energy fraction delivered to the load. They calculate electron losses in all parts of the system. Parameter variations of interest include input voltage waveform, adder geometry, MITL length and impedance, and loaded configuration and inductance. Comparisons with circuit models (SCREAMER) will be shown.

  12. Service Oriented Architectural Model for Load Flow Analysis in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, Balasingh Moses; Veilumuthu, Ramachandran; Ponnusamy, Lakshmi

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to develop the Service Oriented Architectural (SOA) Model for representation of power systems, especially of computing load flow analysis of large interconnected power systems. The proposed SOA model has three elements namely load flow service provider, power systems registry and client. The exchange of data using XML makes the power system services standardized and adaptable. The load flow service is provided by the service provider, which is published in power systems registry for enabling universal visibility and access to the service. The message oriented style of SOA using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) makes the service provider and the power systems client to exist in a loosely coupled environment. This proposed model, portraits the load flow services as Web services in service oriented environment. To suit the power system industry needs, it easily integrates with the Web applications which enables faster power system operations.

  13. Improvements in sparse matrix/vector technique applications for on-line load flow calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Ristanovic, P.; Bjelogrlic, M.; Babic, B.S.

    1989-02-01

    Sparsity technique is applied to a wide range of problems in power systems analysis. In this paper the authors propose several analytical and computational improvements in sparsity applications. The new partial matrix refactorization method and ordering algorithm are presented. The proposed method is very efficient when applied to various kinds of programs, such as: on-line load flow, optimal power flow and steady-state security analysis. The proposed methodology is applied in a fast decoupled load flow program which include the treatment of tap violations on under-load tap changing (ULTC) transformers and reactive power generation on PV buses. Effects of proposed improvements are well tested and documented on the three networks: 118 bus IEEE test network and two utility networks with 209 and 519 buses, respectively. Keywords: sparsity technique, load flow analysis, security analysis.

  14. Tissue Blood Flow During Remifentanil Infusion With Carbon Dioxide Loading

    PubMed Central

    Kanbe, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masataka; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (ETCO2) during remifentanil (Remi) infusion on oral tissue blood flow in rabbits. Eight male tracheotomized Japan White rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane under mechanical ventilation. The infusion rate of Remi was 0.4 μg/kg/min. Carbon dioxide was added to the inspired gas to change the inspired CO2 tension to prevent changes in the ventilating condition. Observed variables were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), common carotid artery blood flow (CCBF), tongue mucosal blood flow (TBF), mandibular bone marrow tissue blood flow (BBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), upper alveolar tissue blood flow (UBF), and lower alveolar tissue blood flow (LBF). The CCBF, TBF, BBF, UBF, and LBF values were increased, while MBF was decreased, under hypercapnia, and vice versa. The BBF, UBF, and LBF values were increased, while the MBF value was decreased, under hypercapnia during Remi infusion, and vice versa. The BBF, MBF, UBF, and LBF values, but not the CCBF and TBF values, changed along with ETCO2 changes during Remi infusion. PMID:26061573

  15. Tissue Blood Flow During Remifentanil Infusion With Carbon Dioxide Loading.

    PubMed

    Kanbe, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masataka; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (ETCO2) during remifentanil (Remi) infusion on oral tissue blood flow in rabbits. Eight male tracheotomized Japan White rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane under mechanical ventilation. The infusion rate of Remi was 0.4 μg/kg/min. Carbon dioxide was added to the inspired gas to change the inspired CO2 tension to prevent changes in the ventilating condition. Observed variables were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), common carotid artery blood flow (CCBF), tongue mucosal blood flow (TBF), mandibular bone marrow tissue blood flow (BBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), upper alveolar tissue blood flow (UBF), and lower alveolar tissue blood flow (LBF). The CCBF, TBF, BBF, UBF, and LBF values were increased, while MBF was decreased, under hypercapnia, and vice versa. The BBF, UBF, and LBF values were increased, while the MBF value was decreased, under hypercapnia during Remi infusion, and vice versa. The BBF, MBF, UBF, and LBF values, but not the CCBF and TBF values, changed along with ETCO2 changes during Remi infusion. PMID:26061573

  16. Application of the mobility power flow approach to structural response from distributed loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the vibration power flow through coupled substructures when one of the substructures is subjected to a distributed load is addressed. In all the work performed thus far, point force excitation was considered. However, in the case of the excitation of an aircraft fuselage, distributed loading on the whole surface of a panel can be as important as the excitation from directly applied forces at defined locations on the structures. Thus using a mobility power flow approach, expressions are developed for the transmission of vibrational power between two coupled plate substructures in an L configuration, with one of the surfaces of one of the plate substructures being subjected to a distributed load. The types of distributed loads that are considered are a force load with an arbitrary function in space and a distributed load similar to that from acoustic excitation.

  17. Estetrol and utero-placental flow after progesterone load.

    PubMed

    Benassi, L; Alfieri, L; Debiasi, D; Trentadue, R; Salvadori, B

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of recent demonstration in animals of the effect of some hormones on uteroplacental flow, the Authors examined the response of plasmatic Estetrol (15 alpha-hydroxy-estriol) after the administration of progesterone to pregnant women with low Estrogen values. The increase of this compound was related to an improvement of placental function, probably dependent on an increase of available O2, and therefore on uterine blood flow. This can justify a progesterone treatment in such pregnancies. PMID:7168897

  18. [Contribution of Base Flow to Total Nitrogen Loading in Subtropical Agricultural Catchments].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiu-mei; Li, Wei; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xin-liang; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-shui

    2016-04-15

    With the fast development of economics and improvement of people's living standard, non-point source pollution of the agricultural catchments in subtropical China has become more and more severe, where water quality deterioration has become a main barrier for sustainable development and ecological restoration. The process of ecohydrology in catchment is greatly influenced by the process of base flow in channel. This study selected the Tuojia and Jianshan catchments located in Changsha County, Hunan Province, to quantify and compare the contribution of base flow to total nitrogen (TN) loading from January 2011 to December 2013, through field observation and model estimation. The results suggested that the Tuojia catchment with higher intensity of rice agriculture had the greater volume of base flow, higher average flow-weighted TN concentration in base flow, and greater monthly TN loading via base flow [15.2 mm · month⁻¹, 4.14 mg · L⁻¹ and 0.54 kg · (hm² · month)⁻¹, respectively] than those in the Jianshan catchment with lower intensity [11.4 mm · month⁻¹, 1.72 mg · L⁻¹ and 0.20 kg · (hm² · month)⁻¹, respectively]. The base flow contribution to TN loading showed an apparently seasonal pattern. During rice-growing seasons, the contributions of base flow to TN loading were 23.2% and 18.6% in the Tuojia and Jianshan catchments, respectively, lower than those in the fallow seasons (46.9% and 40.0% correspondingly. These results suggested that rice agriculture increased the contribution of base flow in the fallow season to TN loading. Therefore, to alleviate the suffering of non-point source pollution in the rice agriculture catchments, reasonable management measure of rice fields should be implemented to decrease contrihution of base flow to TN loading. PMID:27548958

  19. Effects of Unsteady Flow Interactions on the Performance of a Highly-Loaded Transonic Compressor Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill

    2015-01-01

    Effects of unsteady flow interactions on the aerodynamic performance of a highly-loaded transonic axial compressor are investigated in the present study. The primary focus of the study is to investigate how unsteady flow interactions between blade rows affect the aerodynamic performance of a highly-loaded transonic axial compressor. Recent experimental and numerical studies of current highly-loaded axial compressor performance indicated that predicting calculating the loss generation is very challenging with various analysis tools. In the present study, the effects of generation and transport of shock induced vortices on the compressor performance is investigated in detail.

  20. An Examination of Game-Based Learning from Theories of Flow Experience and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Chu, Chih-Ming; Liu, Hsiang-Hsuan; Yang, Shun-Bo; Chen, Wei-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss whether game-based learning with the integration of games and digital learning could enhance not only the flow experience in learning but achieve the same flow experience in pure games. In addition, the authors discovered that whether the game-based learning could make learners to reveal higher cognitive load. The…

  1. Hierarchy of two-phase flow models for autonomous control of cryogenic loading operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinskiy, Dmitry G.; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Kashani, Ali; Khasin, Michael; Timucin, Dogan; Sass, Jared; Perotti, Jose; Brown, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    We report on the development of a hierarchy of models of cryogenic two-phase flow motivated by NASA plans to develop and maturate technology of cryogenic propellant loading on the ground and in space. The solution of this problem requires models that are fast and accurate enough to identify flow conditions, detect faults, and to propose optimal recovery strategy. The hierarchy of models described in this presentation is ranging from homogeneous moving- front approximation to separated non-equilibrium two-phase cryogenic flow. We compare model predictions with experimental data and discuss possible application of these models to on-line integrated health management and control of cryogenic loading operation.

  2. Verification of rain-flow reconstructions of a variable amplitude load history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothiaux, John D.; Dowling, Norman E.

    1992-10-01

    The suitability of using rain-flow reconstructions as an alternative to an original loading spectrum for component fatigue life testing is investigated. A modified helicopter maneuver history is used for the rain-flow cycle counting and history regenerations. Experimental testing on a notched test specimen over a wide range of loads produces similar lives for the original history and the reconstructions. The test lives also agree with a simplified local strain analysis performed on the specimen utilizing the rain-flow cycle count. The rain-flow reconstruction technique is shown to be a viable test spectrum alternative to storing the complete original load history, especially in saving computer storage space and processing time. A description of the regeneration method, the simplified life prediction analysis, and the experimental methods are included in the investigation.

  3. Quantifying the effects of hydrograph shape and flow transience on coarse sediment bed load transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Colin; Hill, Kimberly; Paola, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The rate of bed load transport under steady flow is known to vary both spatially and temporally due to various hydrologic and granular phenomena. Grain size distributions and riverbed properties (packing, armoring, imbrication, etc.) have been observed to affect flux for a particular value of applied flow stress while hydrology is mainly assumed to control the magnitude of the applied bed stress above the threshold for bed material entrainment. The prediction and measurement of bed load sediment transport in field settings are further complicated by the inherent transience in the flood hydrograph, but relatively little is known about how flood transience differs from a steady flow. Here we investigate the role of flood transience for gravel bed load transport through controlled laboratory experiments in a 28 m long 0.5-meter wide flume. We explore transient flow through the use of short duration hydrographs as the combination of unsteady and intermittent flow, where unsteady flow varies in magnitude over a given duration, and intermittent flow is characterized by turning the flow on and off. Experimental runs consist of sequences of steady and unsteady flood hydrographs of various shapes, but equivalent integrated excess transport capacity. These flood sequences are run for a variety of competent flow durations and peak stress magnitudes. We find that even for a narrow unimodal grain size distribution and constant sediment supply we observe clockwise hysteresis in bed load flux, different thresholds for entrainment and distrainment for the rising and falling limbs of a flood, and a threshold of entrainment that can vary from one flood hydrograph to the next. Despite complex transport phenomena at the particle scale, we find that the total bed load transported for each flood plots along a linear trend with the integrated excess transport capacity, in agreement with prior field results. These experiments indicate that while the effects of transient flow and

  4. Flow Induced by Bacterial Carpets and Transport of Microscale Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Amy; Fauci, Lisa; Leiderman, Karin; Strawbridge, Eva; Zhao, Longhua

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic devices carry very small volumes of liquid though channels and may be used to gain insight into many biological applications including drug delivery and development. In many microfluidic experiments, it would be useful to mix the fluid within the chamber. However, the traditional methods of mixing and pumping at large length scales don't work at small length scales. Experimental work has suggested that the flagella of bacteria may be used as motors in microfluidic devices by creating a bacterial carpet. Mathematical modeling can be used to investigate this idea and to quantify flow induced by bacterial carpets. We simulate flow induced by bacterial carpets using the method of regularized Stokeslets, and also examine the transport of vesicles of finite size by arrays of rotating flagella.

  5. Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

  6. Recent trends in wastewater flow and pollutant load resulting from urbanization in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Huang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    To better control water pollution and to manage water resources, we used input-output analysis to examine structural changes in wastewater flows and pollutant loads following changes in socioeconomic activities in Shanghai. We found that the industrial structure has changed considerably and that total direct emission loads exhibited a decreasing trend between 1997 and 2007. Emission loads from secondary industries, especially from paper manufacturing, have decreased. However, wastewater from primary industries remained constant while wastewater from tertiary industries and domestic sources increased, acting as the largest sources of emission loads since 2002. Wastewater and pollutant loads from household consumption, including indirect sources from food manufacturing, clothing, and transportation, had an especially large influence on emission loads in 2007. These emissions were primarily generated through primary industries and food manufacturing sectors. With continued urbanization, wastewater and pollutants generated by household consumption should be factored into the control of water pollution in Shanghai.

  7. Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, S Emad; Schincariol, Robert A; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10(-7) m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings.

  8. Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, S Emad; Schincariol, Robert A; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10(-7) m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings. PMID:25227154

  9. Numerical investigation of the flow behavior into a Francis runner during load rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, P.; Dumas, G.; Moisan, É.; Boutet-Blais, G.

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of the work presented in this paper is to investigate numerically the flow behavior inside a Francis hydro-turbine during the transient event of load rejection. First, a theoretical description of the flow during the event is presented in order to predict the global flow characteristics to be anticipated since no velocity profiles are available for this transient event. The issue of choosing the proper boundary conditions to obtain the absolute pressure and the correct flow characteristics within the runner when using a typical truncated geometry is then discussed. Finally, by using a hypothesis of "quasi-stationarity" and a validated methodology, global flow characteristics within the turbine are highlighted near the no-load operating condition and the unsteady vortical motions within the runner are assessed.

  10. Fatigue loading history reconstruction based on the rain-flow technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.

    1989-01-01

    Methods are considered for reducing a non-random fatigue loading history to a concise description and then for reconstructing a time history similar to the original. In particular, three methods of reconstruction based on a rain-flow cycle counting matrix are presented. A rain-flow matrix consists of the numbers of cycles at various peak and valley combinations. Two methods are based on a two dimensional rain-flow matrix, and the third on a three dimensional rain-flow matrix. Histories reconstructed by any of these methods produce a rain-flow matrix identical to that of the original history, and as a result the resulting time history is expected to produce a fatigue life similar to that for the original. The procedures described allow lengthy loading histories to be stored in compact form.

  11. Enhanced lateral flow immunoassay using gold nanoparticles loaded with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Parolo, Claudio; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-15

    The use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as labeling carriers in combination with the enzymatic activity of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in order to achieve an improved optical lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) performance is presented here. Briefly in a LFIA with an immune-sandwich format AuNPs are functionalized with a detection antibody already modified with HRP, obtaining an 'enhanced' label. Two different detection strategies have been tested: the first one following just the red color of the AuNPs and the second one using a substrate for the HRP (3 different substrates are evaluated), which produces a darker color that enhances the intensity of the previous red color of the unmodified AuNPs. In such very simple way it is gaining sensitivity (up to 1 order of magnitude) without losing the simplicity of the LFIA format, opening the way to other LFIA applications including their on-demand performance tuning according to the analytical scenario.

  12. Optimization of the AC-gradient method for velocity profile measurement and application to slow flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartäusch, Ralf; Helluy, Xavier; Jakob, Peter Michael; Fidler, Florian

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a spectroscopic method to measure slow flow. Within a single shot the velocity distribution is acquired. This allows distinguishing rapidly between single velocities within the sampled volume with a high sensitivity. The technique is based on signal acquisition in the presence of a periodic gradient and a train of refocussing RF pulses. The theoretical model for trapezoidal bipolar pulse shaped gradients under consideration of diffusion and the outflow effect is introduced. A phase correction technique is presented that improves the spectral accuracy. Therefore, flow phantom measurements are used to validate the new sequence and the simulation based on the theoretical model. It was demonstrated that accurate parabolic flow profiles can be acquired and flow variations below 200 μm/s can be detected. Three post-processing methods that eliminate static background signal are also presented for applications in which static background signal dominates. Finally, this technique is applied to flow measurement of a small alder tree demonstrating a typical application of in vivo plant measurements.

  13. Simulation of fluid flow induced by opposing ac magnetic fields in a continuous casting mold

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F.C.; Hull, J.R.; Beitelman, L.

    1995-07-01

    A numerical simulation was performed for a novel electromagnetic stirring system employing two rotating magnetic fields. The system controls stirring flow in the meniscus region of a continuous casting mold independently from the stirring induced within the remaining volume of the mold by a main electromagnetic stirrer (M-EMS). This control is achieved by applying to the meniscus region an auxiliary electromagnetic field whose direction of rotation is opposite to that of the main magnetic field produced by the M-EMS. The model computes values and spatial distributions of electromagnetic parameters and fluid flow in the stirred pools of mercury in cylindrical and square geometries. Also predicted are the relationships between electromagnetics and fluid flows pertinent to a dynamic equilibrium of the opposing stirring swirls in the meniscus region. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from experiments with mercury pools.

  14. Novel Method for Loading Microporous Ceramics Bone Grafts by Using a Directional Flow

    PubMed Central

    Seidenstuecker, Michael; Kissling, Steffen; Ruehe, Juergen; Suedkamp, Norbert P.; Mayr, Hermann O.; Bernstein, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a process for filling the pores of a β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic with interconnected porosity with an alginate hydrogel. For filling of the ceramics, solutions of alginate hydrogel precursors with suitable viscosity were chosen as determined by rheometry. For loading of the porous ceramics with the gel the samples were placed at the flow chamber and sealed with silicone seals. By using a vacuum induced directional flow, the samples were loaded with alginate solutions. The loading success was controlled by ESEM and fluorescence imaging using a fluorescent dye (FITC) for staining of the gel. After loading of the pores, the alginate is transformed into a hydrogel through crosslinking with CaCl2 solution. The biocompatibility of the obtained composite material was tested with a live dead cell staining by using MG-63 Cells. The loading procedure via vacuum assisted directional flow allowed complete filling of the pores of the ceramics within a few minutes (10 ± 3 min) while loading through simple immersion into the polymer solution or through a conventional vacuum method only gave incomplete filling. PMID:26703749

  15. Intense transport of bed load - modeling based on experimentally observed flow structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoušek, Václav

    2016-04-01

    A modeling approach is discussed which enables to predict characteristics of steady uniform open-channel flow carrying a large amount of sediment (bed load). The approach considers a layered structure of the sediment-laden flow and employs conditions at layer interfaces to evaluate the flow slope, depth, the thickness of the layers and flow rates of both the sediment and sediment-water mixture. It is based on experimental observations obtained for lightweight granular materials in a laboratory tilting flume. Besides visual observations of a development of the layered structure of the flow, detailed profiles of the longitudinal velocity were collected together with integral characteristics of the flow (depths and slopes, flow rates) in the flume. Values of the grain velocity and concentration at the interfaces were determined from the measurements and observations. In the upper plane bed regime of bed load transport, the flow structure appears to be composed of up to three distinct layers (water layer, linear collisional layer and dense sliding layer). Depending on a value of the bed Shields parameter (and associated flow conditions) the number of layers may change and the thicknesses of the particular layers vary. It appears that collisional layers in flows in which they dominate the flow depth (typically Shields bigger than 1) exhibit a virtually constant value of the collisional-layer Richardson number. Velocity and concentration profiles across the collisional layer can be considered linear. At the bottom of the flow, the Coulomb yield criterion with the assumption of the zero fluid contribution balances the bed shear stress applied by the flowing mixture of water and sediment. These features are employed in the discussed modeling approach and lead to a depth-averaged flow model composed of a set of balance and constitutive equations. A kinetic-theory based formula for granular shear stress at the bottom of the collisional layer is added to close the set of

  16. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  17. Contribution of base flow to nonpoint source pollution loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source pollution from base flow ground water was estimated in the Walnut Creek watershed by measuring chemical loads of atrazine, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate at 18 tributary creeks and 19 tiles. Loads were measured during a stable base flow period at creeks and files that discharged into Walnut Creek between two stream gauges. Chemical concentrations of atrazine (< 0.1-12 ??g/L), nitrate (0.1 to 15 mg/L, and chloride (1.5 to 26 mg/L) in water were similar for creek and tile samples. Water draining predominantly agricultural row crop areas had much higher concentrations than water draining restored prairie areas. Three methods were used to estimate base flow discharge in the watershed: (1) Darcy flux; (2) watershed discharge budget; and (3) discharge-drainage area; each yielded similar results (31.2 L/s to 62.3 L/s). Base flow loads to the main channel were estimated by subtracting the loads from the upstream gauge; creeks and tiles, from the total load measured at the downstream gauge station. Base flow concentration for atrazine ranged from 0.15 to 0.29 ??g/L and sulfate concentration ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, whereas concentrations for nitrate and chloride were negative (-1 to -4 mg/L). Calculated base flow concentrations of atrazine and sulfate appeared to be reasonable estimates, but negative concentrations of nitrate and chloride imply either loss of chemical mass in the stream from upstream to downstream sampling points or measurement error. Load data suggest little contribution from base flow pollutants to Walnut Creek water quality, with most of the pollutant load derived from major tributary creeks. Results from this study have implications for determining total maximum daily loads in agricultural watersheds where contributions from point sources (creeks and tiles) can he used to

  18. Energy flow model for thin plate considering fluid loading with mean flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ju-Bum; Hong, Suk-Yoon; Song, Jee-Hun

    2012-11-01

    Energy Flow Analysis (EFA) has been developed to predict the vibration energy density of system structures in the high frequency range. This paper develops the energy flow model for the thin plate in contact with mean flow. The pressure generated by mean flow affects energy governing equation and power reflection-transmission coefficients between plates. The fluid pressure is evaluated by using velocity potential and Bernoulli's equation, and energy governing equations are derived by considering the flexural wavenumbers of a plate, which are different along the direction of flexural wave and mean flow. The derived energy governing equation is composed of two kinds of group velocities. To verify the developed energy flow model, various numerical analyses are performed for a simple plate and a coupled plate for several excitation frequencies. The EFA results are compared with the analytical solutions, and correlations between the EFA results and the analytical solutions are verified.

  19. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to approximately 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow.

  20. A network flow model for load balancing in circuit-switched multicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1990-01-01

    In multicomputers that utilize circuit switching or wormhole routing, communication overhead depends largely on link contention - the variation due to distance between nodes is negligible. This has a major impact on the load balancing problem. In this case, there are some nodes with excess load (sources) and others with deficit load (sinks) and it is required to find a matching of sources to sinks that avoids contention. The problem is made complex by the hardwired routing on currently available machines: the user can control only which nodes communicate but not how the messages are routed. Network flow models of message flow in the mesh and the hypercube were developed to solve this problem. The crucial property of these models is the correspondence between minimum cost flows and correctly routed messages. To solve a given load balancing problem, a minimum cost flow algorithm is applied to the network. This permits one to determine efficiently a maximum contention free matching of sources to sinks which, in turn, tells one how much of the given imbalance can be eliminated without contention.

  1. A network flow model for load balancing in circuit-switched multicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1993-01-01

    In multicomputers that utilize circuit switching or wormhole routing, communication overhead depends largely on link contention - the variation due to distance between nodes is negligible. This has a major impact on the load balancing problem. In this case, there are some nodes with excess load (sources) and others with deficit load (sinks) and it is required to find a matching of sources to sinks that avoids contention. The problem is made complex by the hardwired routing on currently available machines: the user can control only which nodes communicate but not how the messages are routed. Network flow models of message flow in the mesh and the hypercube were developed to solve this problem. The crucial property of these models is the correspondence between minimum cost flows and correctly routed messages. To solve a given load balancing problem, a minimum cost flow algorithm is applied to the network. This permits one to determine efficiently a maximum contention free matching of sources to sinks which, in turn, tells one how much of the given imbalance can be eliminated without contention.

  2. Low-Load Resistance Training with Blood Flow Occlusion as a Countermeasure to Disuse Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Cook, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Decreases in strength and neuromuscular function are observed following prolonged disuse. Exercise countermeasures to prevent muscle dysfunction during disuse typically involve high intensity resistance training. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow occlusion to mitigate muscle loss and dysfunction during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS).

  3. Cavitation erosion prediction based on analysis of flow dynamics and impact load spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Mihatsch, Michael S. Schmidt, Steffen J.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2015-10-15

    Cavitation erosion is the consequence of repeated collapse-induced high pressure-loads on a material surface. The present paper assesses the prediction of impact load spectra of cavitating flows, i.e., the rate and intensity distribution of collapse events based on a detailed analysis of flow dynamics. Data are obtained from a numerical simulation which employs a density-based finite volume method, taking into account the compressibility of both phases, and resolves collapse-induced pressure waves. To determine the spectrum of collapse events in the fluid domain, we detect and quantify the collapse of isolated vapor structures. As reference configuration we consider the expansion of a liquid into a radially divergent gap which exhibits unsteady sheet and cloud cavitation. Analysis of simulation data shows that global cavitation dynamics and dominant flow events are well resolved, even though the spatial resolution is too coarse to resolve individual vapor bubbles. The inviscid flow model recovers increasingly fine-scale vapor structures and collapses with increasing resolution. We demonstrate that frequency and intensity of these collapse events scale with grid resolution. Scaling laws based on two reference lengths are introduced for this purpose. We show that upon applying these laws impact load spectra recorded on experimental and numerical pressure sensors agree with each other. Furthermore, correlation between experimental pitting rates and collapse-event rates is found. Locations of high maximum wall pressures and high densities of collapse events near walls obtained numerically agree well with areas of erosion damage in the experiment. The investigation shows that impact load spectra of cavitating flows can be inferred from flow data that captures the main vapor structures and wave dynamics without the need for resolving all flow scales.

  4. Effects of inspiratory loading on the chaotic dynamics of ventilatory flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Samara, Ziyad; Raux, Mathieu; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Gharbi, Alexandre; Gottfried, Stewart B; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits complexity and chaos. The aim of this study was to determine whether suprapontine interferences with the automatic breathing control could contribute to ventilatory chaos. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous study performed in awake volunteers exhibiting cortical pre-motor potentials during inspiratory loading. In eight subjects, flow was recorded at rest, while breathing against inspiratory threshold loads (median 21.5 cm H(2)O) and resistive loads (50 cm H(2)Ol(-1)s(-1)) loads, and while inhaling 7% CO(2)-93% O(2). Chaos was identified through noise titration (noise limit, NL) and the sensitivity to initial conditions was assessed through the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). Breath-by-breath variability was evaluated using the coefficient of variation of several ventilatory variables. Chaos was consistently present in ventilatory flow recordings, but mechanical loading did not alter NL, LLE, or variability. In contrast, CO(2) altered chaos and reduced variability. In conclusion, inspiratory loading - and any resultant respiratory-related cortical activity - were not associated with changes in ventilatory chaos in this study, arguing against suprapontine contributions to ventilatory complexity. PMID:19013545

  5. Effects of dynamic load on flow and heat transfer of two-phase boiling water in a horizontal pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qiu-Ping; Song, Bao-Yin; Zhao, Mei; Cao, Xi

    2009-07-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to obtain the flow and heat transfer characteristics of single-phase water flow and two-phase pipe boiling water flow under high gravity (Hi-G) in present work. The experiments were conducted on a rotating platform, and boiling two-phase flow state was obtained by means of electric heating. The data were collected specifically in the test section, which was a lucite pipe with inner diameter of 20 mm and length of 400 mm. By changing the parameters, such as rotation speed, inlet temperature, flow rate, and etc., and analyzing the fluid resistance, effective heat and heat transfer coefficient of the experimental data, the effects of dynamic load on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of single phase water and two-phase boiling water flow were investigated and obtained. The two-phase flow patterns under Hi-G condition were obtained with a video camera. The results show that the dynamic load significantly influences the flow characteristic and boiling heat transfer of the two-phase pipe flow. As the direction of the dynamic load and the flow direction are opposite, the greater the dynamic load, the higher the outlet pressure and the flow resistance, and the lower the flow rate, the void fraction, the wall inner surface temperature and the heat transfer capability. Therefore, the dynamic load will block the fluid flow, enhance heat dissipation toward the ambient environment and reduce the heat transfer to the two-phase boiling flow.

  6. Application of acoustical methods for estimating water flow and constituent loads in Perdido Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.; Pittman, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Water flow and quality data were collected from December 1994 to September 1995 to evaluate variations in discharge, water quality, and chemical fluxes (loads) through Perdido Bay, Florida. Data were collected at a cross section parallel to the U.S. Highway 98 bridge. Discharges measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and computed from stage-area and velocity ratings varied roughly between + or - 10,000 cubic feet per second during a typical tidal cycle. Large reversals in flow direction occurred rapidly (less than 1 hour), and complete reversals (resulting in near peak net-upstream or downstream discharges) occurred within a few hours of slack water. Observations of simultaneous upstream and downstream flow (bidirectional flow) were quite common in the ADCP measurements, with opposing directions of flow occurring predominantly in vertical layers. Continuous (every 15 minutes) discharge data were computed for the period from August 18, 1995, to September 28, 1995, and filtered daily mean discharge values were computed for the period from August 19 to September 26, 1995. Data were not computed prior to August 18, 1995, either because of missing data or because the velocity rating was poorly defined (because of insufficient data) for the period prior to landfall of hurricane Erin (August 3, 1995). The results of the study indicate that acoustical techniques can yield useful estimates of continuous (instantaneous) discharge in Perdido Bay. Useful estimates of average daily net flow rates can also be obtained, but the accuracy of these estimates will be limited by small rating shifts that introduce bias into the instantaneous values that are used to compute the net flows. Instantaneous loads of total nitrogen ranged from -180 to 220 grams per second for the samples collected during the study, and instantaneous loads of total phosphorous ranged from -10 to 11 grams per second (negative loads indicate net upstream transport). The chloride concentrations

  7. Effects of intermittent loading on nitrogen removal in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Margaret G; Yelderman, Joe C; Potterton, Tina; Doyle, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Removal of CBOD(5) and nitrogen from septic tank effluent was evaluated in four horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) wetlands. An intermittently loaded cell was compared to a continuously loaded control cell, with both treatments receiving the same weekly volume. The intermittent cell was rapidly drained and "rested" for 24-hr, then refilled in steps, twice weekly. Two media with different particle sizes but similar porosities were also compared. The two media, light weight expanded shale and gravel, were both continuously loaded. As hypothesized, the wetland cell that was intermittently loaded had higher dissolved oxygen, greater ammonia removal, and greater nitrate production than the continuously loaded cells. Areal NH(3)-N removal for the intermittently loaded cell was 0.90 g m(-2) d(-1) compared to 0.47 g m(-2) d(-1) for the control. Ammonia removal was also higher in continuously loaded gravel cells than in cells with expanded shale. Ammonia-N removal was an order of magnitude lower in a similar SSF wetland that had been in operation for 3 years. However, CBOD(5), total suspended solids, and total nitrogen did not vary substantially among the treatments.

  8. Effects of intermittent loading on nitrogen removal in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Margaret G; Yelderman, Joe C; Potterton, Tina; Doyle, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Removal of CBOD(5) and nitrogen from septic tank effluent was evaluated in four horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) wetlands. An intermittently loaded cell was compared to a continuously loaded control cell, with both treatments receiving the same weekly volume. The intermittent cell was rapidly drained and "rested" for 24-hr, then refilled in steps, twice weekly. Two media with different particle sizes but similar porosities were also compared. The two media, light weight expanded shale and gravel, were both continuously loaded. As hypothesized, the wetland cell that was intermittently loaded had higher dissolved oxygen, greater ammonia removal, and greater nitrate production than the continuously loaded cells. Areal NH(3)-N removal for the intermittently loaded cell was 0.90 g m(-2) d(-1) compared to 0.47 g m(-2) d(-1) for the control. Ammonia removal was also higher in continuously loaded gravel cells than in cells with expanded shale. Ammonia-N removal was an order of magnitude lower in a similar SSF wetland that had been in operation for 3 years. However, CBOD(5), total suspended solids, and total nitrogen did not vary substantially among the treatments. PMID:20962402

  9. The Cardiomyopathy Lamin A/C D192G Mutation Disrupts Whole-Cell Biomechanics in Cardiomyocytes as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy Loading-Unloading Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lanzicher, Thomas; Martinelli, Valentina; Puzzi, Luca; Del Favero, Giorgia; Codan, Barbara; Long, Carlin S.; Mestroni, Luisa; Taylor, Matthew R. G.; Sbaizero, Orfeo

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) cell loading/unloading curves were used to provide comprehensive insights into biomechanical behavior of cardiomyocytes carrying the lamin A/C (LMNA) D192G mutation known to cause defective nuclear wall, myopathy and severe cardiomyopathy. Our results suggested that the LMNA D192G mutation increased maximum nuclear deformation load, nuclear stiffness and fragility as compared to controls. Furthermore, there seems to be a connection between this lamin nuclear mutation and cell adhesion behavior since LMNA D192G cardiomyocytes displayed loss of AFM probe-to-cell membrane adhesion. We believe that this loss of adhesion involves the cytoskeletal architecture since our microscopic analyses highlighted that mutant LMNA may also lead to a morphological alteration in the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, chemical disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D in control cardiomyocytes mirrored the alterations in the mechanical properties seen in mutant cells, suggesting a defect in the connection between the nucleoskeleton, cytoskeleton and cell adhesion molecules in cells expressing the mutant protein. These data add to our understanding of potential mechanisms responsible for this fatal cardiomyopathy, and show that the biomechanical effects of mutant lamin extend beyond nuclear mechanics to include interference of whole-cell biomechanical properties. PMID:26323789

  10. The effect of variable stator on performance of a highly loaded tandem axial flow compressor stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshraghi, Hamzeh; Boroomand, Masoud; Tousi, Abolghasem M.; Fallah, Mohammad Toude; Mohammadi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the aerodynamic load on compressor blades helps to obtain a higher pressure ratio in lower rotational speeds. Considering the high aerodynamic load effects and structural concerns in the design process, it is possible to obtain higher pressure ratios compared to conventional compressors. However, it must be noted that imposing higher aerodynamic loads results in higher loss coefficients and deteriorates the overall performance. To avoid the loss increase, the boundary layer quality must be studied carefully over the blade suction surface. Employment of advanced shaped airfoils (like CDAs), slotted blades or other boundary layer control methods has helped the designers to use higher aerodynamic loads on compressor blades. Tandem cascade is a passive boundary layer control method, which is based on using the flow momentum to control the boundary layer on the suction surface and also to avoid the probable separation caused by higher aerodynamic loads. In fact, the front pressure side flow momentum helps to compensate the positive pressure gradient over the aft blade's suction side. Also, in comparison to the single blade stators, tandem variable stators have more degrees of freedom, and this issue increases the possibility of finding enhanced conditions in the compressor off-design performance. In the current study, a 3D design procedure for an axial flow tandem compressor stage has been applied to design a highly loaded stage. Following, this design is numerically investigated using a CFD code and the stage characteristic map is reported. Also, the effect of various stator stagger angles on the compressor performance and especially on the compressor surge margin has been discussed. To validate the CFD method, another known compressor stage is presented and its performance is numerically investigated and the results are compared with available experimental results.

  11. Effects of hypercapnia and inspiratory flow-resistive loading on respiratory activity in chronic airways obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Altose, M D; McCauley, W C; Kelsen, S G; Cherniack, N S

    1977-01-01

    The respiratory responses to hypercapnia alone and to hypercapnia and flow-resistive loading during inspiration were studied in normal individuals and in eucapnic and hypercapnic patients with chronic airways obstruction. Responses were assessed in terms of minute ventilation and occlusion pressure (mouth pressure during airway occlusion 100 ms after the onset of inspiration). Ventilatory responses to CO2 (deltaV/deltaPCO2) were distinctly subnormal in both groups of patients with airways obstruction. The two groups of patients, however, showed different occlusion pressure responses to CO2 (deltaP100/deltaPCO2): deltaP100/deltaPCO2 was normal in the eucapnic patients but subnormal in the hypercapnic patients. Flow-resistive loading during inspiration reduced deltaV/deltaPCO2 both in normal subjects and in patients with airways obstruction. The occlusion pressure response to CO2 increased in normal subjects during flow-resistive loading but remained unchanged in both groups of patients with chronic airways obstruction. These results indicate that while chemosensitivity as determined by deltaP100/deltaPCO2 is impaired only in hypercapnic patients with chronic airways obstruction, an acute increase in flow resistance elicits a subnormal increase in respiratory efferent activity in both eucapnic and hypercapnic patients. PMID:838862

  12. Nutrition Coupled with High-Load Traditional or Low-Load Blood Flow Restricted Exercise During Human Limb Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, K. J.; Everett, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    High-load resistance exercise (HRE) and low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise have demonstrated efficacy for attenuating unloading related muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In recreational exercisers, protein consumption immediately before and/or after exercise has been shown to increase the skeletal muscle anabolic response to resistance training. PURPOSE: To compare the skeletal muscle adaptations when chocolate milk intake was coupled with HRE or low-load BFR exercise [3 d/wk] during simulated lower limb weightlessness. METHODS: Eleven subjects were counterbalanced [based on age and gender] to HRE (31 +/- 14 yr, 170 +/- 13 cm, 71 +/- 18 kg, 2M/3W) or low-load BFR exercise (31 +/- 12 yr, 169 +/- 13 cm, 66 +/- 14 kg, 2M/4W) during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Both HRE and BFR completed 3 sets of single leg press and calf raise exercise during ULLS. BFR exercise intensity was 20% of repetition maximum (1RM) with a cuff inflation pressure of 1.3 systolic blood pressure (143 4 mmHg). Cuff pressure was maintained during all 3 sets including rest intervals (90s). HRE intensity was 75% 1RM and was performed without cuff inflation. Immediately (<10 min) before and after exercise 8 fl oz of chocolate milk (150 kcal, 2.5g total fat, 22g total carbohydrate, 8g protein) was consumed to optimize acute exercise responses in favor of muscle anabolism. ULLS analog compliance was assessed from leg skin temperature recordings and plantar accelerometry. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) for knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle groups were determined from analysis of magnetic resonance images using ImageJ software. 1RM strength for leg press and calf raise was assessed on the Agaton exercise system. Muscular endurance during leg press and calf raise was evaluated from the maximal number of repetitions performed to volitional fatigue using 40% of pre-ULLS 1RM. RESULTS: Steps detected by plantar acceleometry declined by 98.9% during ULLS relative to an

  13. Stochastic empirical loading and dilution model for analysis of flows, concentrations, and loads of highway runoff constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Jones, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    In cooperation with FHWA, the U.S. Geological Survey developed the stochastic empirical loading and dilution model (SELDM) to supersede the 1990 FHWA runoff quality model. The SELDM tool is designed to transform disparate and complex scientific data into meaningful information about the adverse risks of runoff on receiving waters, the potential need for mitigation measures, and the potential effectiveness of such measures for reducing such risks. The SELDM tool is easy to use because much of the information and data needed to run it are embedded in the model and obtained by defining the site location and five simple basin properties. Information and data from thousands of sites across the country were compiled to facilitate the use of the SELDM tool. A case study illustrates how to use the SELDM tool for conducting the types of sensitivity analyses needed to properly assess water quality risks. For example, the use of deterministic values to model upstream stormflows instead of representative variations in prestorm flow and runoff may substantially overestimate the proportion of highway runoff in downstream flows. Also, the risks for total phosphorus excursions are substantially affected by the selected criteria and the modeling methods used. For example, if a single deterministic concentration is used rather than a stochastic population of values to model upstream concentrations, then the percentage of water quality excursions in the downstream receiving waters may depend entirely on the selected upstream concentration.

  14. Three-phase ac-to-ac series-resonant power converter with a reduced number of thyristors

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassens, J.B.; de Beer, F. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that ac-ac series-resonant converters have been proven to be functional and useful. Power pulse modulation with internal frequencies of tens of kHz and suited for multikilowatt power levels is applied to a series-resonant converter system for generating synthesized multiphase bipolar waveforms with reversible power flow and flow distortion. The use of a series-resonant circuit for power transfer and control obtains natural current commutation of the thyristors and the prevention of excessive stresses on components. Switches are required which have bidirectional current conduction and voltage blocking ability. The conventional series-resonant ac-ac converter applies a total for 24 anti-parallel thyristors. An alternative circuit configuration for the series-resonant ac-ac converter with only 12 thyristors is also presented. The alternative power circuit has three neutrals, related to the polyphase source, the load and the converter, which may be interconnected. If they are connected, the high-frequency component of the source and load currents will flow through the connection between the neutrals. The test results of a converter system generating three-phase sinusoidal input and output waveforms have demonstrated the significant aspects of this type of power interfaces.

  15. Label-free whole blood cell differentiation based on multiple frequency AC impedance and light scattering analysis in a micro flow cytometer.

    PubMed

    Simon, Peter; Frankowski, Marcin; Bock, Nicole; Neukammer, Jörg

    2016-06-21

    We developed a microfluidic sensor for label-free flow cytometric cell differentiation by combined multiple AC electrical impedance and light scattering analysis. The measured signals are correlated to cell volume, membrane capacity and optical properties of single cells. For an improved signal to noise ratio, the microfluidic sensor incorporates two electrode pairs for differential impedance detection. One-dimensional sheath flow focusing was implemented, which allows single particle analysis at kHz count rates. Various monodisperse particles and differentiation of leukocytes in haemolysed samples served to benchmark the microdevice applying combined AC impedance and side scatter analyses. In what follows, we demonstrate that AC impedance measurements at selected frequencies allow label-free discrimination of platelets, erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes in whole blood samples involving dilution only. Immunofluorescence staining was applied to validate the results of the label-free cell analysis. Reliable differentiation and enumeration of cells in whole blood by AC impedance detection have the potential to support medical diagnosis for patients with haemolysis resistant erythrocytes or abnormally sensitive leucocytes, i.e. for patients suffering from anaemia or leukaemia.

  16. A New Finite Element Approach for Prediction of Aerothermal Loads: Progress in Inviscid Flow Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, K. S.; Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of finite element methodology for the prediction of aerothermal loads is described. Two dimensional, inviscid computations are presented, but emphasis is placed on development of an approach extendable to three dimensional viscous flows. Research progress is described for: (1) utilization of a commerically available program to construct flow solution domains and display computational results, (2) development of an explicit Taylor-Galerkin solution algorithm, (3) closed form evaluation of finite element matrices, (4) vector computer programming strategies, and (5) validation of solutions. Two test problems of interest to NASA Langley aerothermal research are studied. Comparisons of finite element solutions for Mach 6 flow with other solution methods and experimental data validate fundamental capabilities of the approach for analyzing high speed inviscid compressible flows.

  17. Effect of microgravity on renal and femoral flows during LBNP & intravenous saline load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbeille, P.; Gaffney, F. A.; Beck, L.; Coulon, J.; Porcher, M.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    Renal and femoral hemodynamics were studied in crew members at rest and during lower body negative pressure before and after the D-2 Spacelab mission and with intravenous saline loading. Specific measurements included renal vascular resistance, femoral arterial flow, and vascular resistance, along with other cardiovascular parameters. Cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity is discussed with a focus on changes observed in femoral and renal vascular resistance.

  18. Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Air Flow on Fungal Growth Rate on Loaded Ventilation Filters.

    PubMed

    Tang, W; Kuehn, T H; Simcik, Matt F

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the fungal growth ratio on loaded ventilation filters under various temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air flow conditions in a controlled laboratory setting. A new full-size commercial building ventilation filter was loaded with malt extract nutrients and conidia of Cladosporium sphaerospermum in an ASHRAE Standard 52.2 filter test facility. Small sections cut from this filter were incubated under the following conditions: constant room temperature and a high RH of 97%; sinusoidal temperature (with an amplitude of 10°C, an average of 23°C, and a period of 24 hr) and a mean RH of 97%; room temperature and step changes between 97% and 75% RH, 97% and 43% RH, and 97% and 11% RH every 12 hr. The biomass on the filter sections was measured using both an elution-culture method and by ergosterol assay immediately after loading and every 2 days up to 10 days after loading. Fungal growth was detected earlier using ergosterol content than with the elution-culture method. A student's t-test indicated that Cladosporium sphaerospermum grew better at the constant room temperature condition than at the sinusoidal temperature condition. By part-time exposure to dry environments, the fungal growth was reduced (75% and 43% RH) or even inhibited (11% RH). Additional loaded filters were installed in the wind tunnel at room temperature and an RH greater than 95% under one of two air flow test conditions: continuous air flow or air flow only 9 hr/day with a flow rate of 0.7 m(3)/s (filter media velocity 0.15 m/s). Swab tests and a tease mount method were used to detect fungal growth on the filters at day 0, 5, and 10. Fungal growth was detected for both test conditions, which indicates that when temperature and relative humidity are optimum, controlling the air flow alone cannot prevent fungal growth. In real applications where nutrients are less sufficient than in this laboratory study, fungal growth rate may be reduced under the same operating conditions.

  19. Estimation of historic flows and sediment loads to San Francisco Bay,1849–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moftakhari, H.R.; Jay, D.A.; Talke, S.A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2016-01-01

    River flow and sediment transport in estuaries influence morphological development over decadal and century time scales, but hydrological and sedimentological records are typically too short to adequately characterize long-term trends. In this study, we recover archival records and apply a rating curve approach to develop the first instrumental estimates of daily delta inflow and sediment loads to San Francisco Bay (1849–1929). The total sediment load is constrained using sedimentation/erosion estimated from bathymetric survey data to produce continuous daily sediment transport estimates from 1849 to 1955, the time period prior to sediment load measurements. We estimate that ∼55% (45–75%) of the ∼1500 ± 400 million tons (Mt) of sediment delivered to the estuary between 1849 and 2011 was the result of anthropogenic alteration in the watershed that increased sediment supply. Also, the seasonal timing of sediment flux events has shifted because significant spring-melt floods have decreased, causing estimated springtime transport (April 1st to June 30th) to decrease from ∼25% to ∼15% of the annual total. By contrast, wintertime sediment loads (December 1st to March 31st) have increased from ∼70% to ∼80%. A ∼35% reduction of annual flow since the 19th century along with decreased sediment supply has resulted in a ∼50% reduction in annual sediment delivery. The methods developed in this study can be applied to other systems for which unanalyzed historic data exist.

  20. Non-linear hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid flow in open fractures under dynamical stress loading

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself.

  1. The changing flow regime and sediment load of the Red River, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Garnier, Josette; Gilles, Billen; Sylvain, Théry; Van Minh, Chau

    2007-02-01

    SummarySouth-East Asian Rivers contribute very significantly to the global sediment load to the ocean, hence to global biogeochemical cycles, and are subject to rapid changes owing to recent population and economic growth. The Red River system (Viet Nam and China) offers a good example of these changes. Previous estimates (before the year 1980) of the suspended matter loading of the Red River ranged from 100 to 170 × 10 6 t yr -1, i.e. from 640 to 1060 t km -2 yr -1. The strong dependence of suspended solid transport on hydrology results in a large year-to-year variability. Based on the available hydrological data from the period 1997-2004, and on a one-year survey of daily suspended matter of the three main tributaries of the Red River system in 2003, a simplified modeling approach, distinguishing between surface runoff and base flow, is established to estimate the mean suspended loading of the Red River under present conditions. The obtained value is 40 × 10 6 t yr -1, corresponding to a specific load of 280 t km -2 yr -1. It reflects a 70% decrease of the total suspended load since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh and Thac Ba reservoirs in the 1980s. Following the planned construction of two additional reservoirs, the model predicts a further reduction by 20% of the suspended load of the Red River, which might be compensated by an expected increase in suspended loading due to enhanced rainfall induced by climate change. Using measurements of the total phosphorus content of the suspended material in the different Red River tributaries, the present phosphorus delivery by the Red River can be estimated as 36 × 10 6 kgP yr -1.

  2. Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Wang, S. Q.; Fu, J.; Peng, Y. X.

    2013-02-01

    So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.

  3. Computer modeling of gas flow and gas loading of rock in a bench blasting environment

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.; Baer, M.R. ); Knudsen, S.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Numerical modeling can contribute greatly to an understanding of the physics involved in the blasting process. This paper will describe the latest enhancements to the blast modeling code DMC (Distinct Motion Code) (Taylor and Preece, 1989) and will demonstrate the ability of DMC to model gas flow and rock motion in a bench blasting environment. DMC has been used previously to model rock motion associated with blasting in a cratering environment (Preece and Taylor, 1990) and in confined volume blasting associated with in-situ oil shale retorting (Preece, 1990 a b). These applications of DMC treated the explosive loading as force versus time functions on specific spheres which were adjusted to obtain correct face velocities. It was recognized that a great need in explosives modeling was the coupling of an ability to simulate gas flow with the rock motion simulation capability of DMC. This was accomplished by executing a finite difference code that computes gas flow through a porous media (Baer and Gross, 1989) in conjunction with DMC. The marriage of these two capabilities has been documented by Preece and Knudsen, 1991. The capabilities that have been added recently to DMC and which will be documented in this paper include: (1) addition of a new equation of state for the explosive gases; (2) modeling of gas flow and sphere loading in a bench environment. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Patterns of deformation and volcanic flows associated with lithospheric loading by large volcanoes on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1993-01-01

    Magellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanoes on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are negligible, so tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanoes should be evident except where buried by very young flows. Radar images reveal that most tectonic features and flow units on the flanks of these volcanoes have predominantly radial orientations. However, both Tepev Mons in Bell Regio and Sapas Mons in Atla Regio exhibit circumferential graben on their flanks. In addition, images reveal several flow units with an annular character around the north and west flanks of Tepev Mons. This pattern most likely results from ponding of flows in an annular flexural moat. Maat Mons in Atla Regio and Sif Mons in Eistla Regio are examples of volcanoes that lack circumferential graben and annular flows; discernible flow units and fractures on these constructs appear to be predominantly radial. Altimetry data can also provide evidence of flexural response. Tepev Mons is partially encircled by depressions that may be sections of a flexural moat that has not been completely filled. The locations of these depressions generally coincide with the annular flows described above. There is weaker evidence for such depressions around Maat Mons as well. The lack of circumferential tectonic features around most volcanoes on Venus might be explained by gradual moat filling and coverage by radial flows. The depressions around Tepev (and possible Maat) may indicate that this process is currently continuing. We use analytic models of plate flexure in an axisymmetric geometry to constrain the elastic plate thickness supporting Tepev Mons. If we consider the outer radius of the ponded flows to be the edge of a moat, we find that models with elastic plate thickness of 10-20 km fit best. Finite element

  5. Controlling secondary flows in very highly-loaded low-pressure turbine cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevici, Daniel C.

    This thesis documents experimental and computational results of a research program investigating the aerodynamic losses generated by extremely highly loaded low-pressure turbine blades, with particular focus on the three-dimensional flow near the endwall. The study identifies the physical mechanisms associated with loss generation and documents changes in the flow field that result from the application of passive flow control techniques. The experimental study was conducted in Carleton University's low-speed, linear cascade wind tunnel. Quantitative results include seven-hole pneumatic probe pressure measurements downstream of the cascade to assess blade row losses, as well as detailed measurements within the blade passage to track the development of flow structures. Qualitative results in the form of oil surface flow visualization on the endwall and blade suction surface are used to assist in the interpretation of the physics. The complementary computational studies were performed using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations, providing detailed resolution of the various vortical structures comprising the endwall flow. The work examined two passive flow control techniques for mitigating endwall loss. The techniques were applied to very high-lift, low-pressure turbine airfoils with the goal of expanding the design space. The airfoils and both flow control techniques were designed by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft (PWA) using proprietary tools. It was found that endwall loss could be significantly reduced and the mechanisms of loss reduction were identified. The loss measurements have allowed plausible limits to be defined for a high-lift replacement of the baseline airfoil used in the study.

  6. Development of a hardware-based AC microgrid for AC stability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Robert R.

    As more power electronic-based devices enable the development of high-bandwidth AC microgrids, the topic of microgrid power distribution stability has become of increased interest. Recently, researchers have proposed a relatively straightforward method to assess the stability of AC systems based upon the time-constants of sources, the net bus capacitance, and the rate limits of sources. In this research, a focus has been to develop a hardware test system to evaluate AC system stability. As a first step, a time domain model of a two converter microgrid was established in which a three phase inverter acts as a power source and an active rectifier serves as an adjustable constant power AC load. The constant power load can be utilized to create rapid power flow transients to the generating system. As a second step, the inverter and active rectifier were designed using a Smart Power Module IGBT for switching and an embedded microcontroller as a processor for algorithm implementation. The inverter and active rectifier were designed to operate simultaneously using a synchronization signal to ensure each respective local controller operates in a common reference frame. Finally, the physical system was created and initial testing performed to validate the hardware functionality as a variable amplitude and variable frequency AC system.

  7. Quantification of the bed load effects on turbulent open-channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Detian; Liu, Xiaofeng; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-04-01

    With a computational model combining large eddy simulation and a discrete element model, detailed quantification of the bed load effects on turbulent open-channel flows is presented. The objective is the revelation of bed load particle impact on the mean flow properties and coherent structures. Two comparative numerical experiments with mobile and immobile beds are conducted. Mean properties (e.g., velocity and Reynolds stress profiles) show good agreement with experimental data. Comparing the mobile and immobile cases, the effective bed position is nearly the same, whereas the equivalent sand roughness is changed. The flow experiences higher bottom shear stress over immobile bed. To quantify impact on turbulent structures, a revised quadrant analysis is performed to calculate four key parameters of ejection and sweep events (duration, maximum shear stress, transported momentum, and period). Results show that the ejection and sweep events have comparable importance in the outer region. However, sweep becomes dominant in the near-wall region. The motion of particles enhances the sweep dominance by breaking up the ejection structures and decreasing their occurrence ratio. The results also suggest that the ejection events are easier to be influenced by the particle motions because they originate from the near-wall region. The duration, maximum shear stress, and transported momentum decrease close to the bed. The period remains relatively constant in the outer region but decreases near the bed. Visualization of the coherent structure reveals that the instantaneous particle motion has strong correlation with the bursting cycle events.

  8. Nitrogen and salt loads in the irrigation return flows of the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells, Maria; Clavería, Ignacio; Dechmi, Farida; Quílez, Dolores; Aragüés, Ramón

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the quality of surface waters demanded by the European Water Framework Directive requires, among others, an assessment of the irrigation-induced pollution. The contribution of the irrigation return flows (IRF) to the pollution of the receiving water bodies is given by its pollutant load, since this load determines the quality status or pollutant concentration in these water bodies. The aim of this work was to quantify the annual nitrogen and salt loads in the IRF of four irrigated catchments within the Ebro River Basin: Violada (2006-10), Alcanadre (2008-10), Valcuerna (2010), and Clamor Amarga (2010). The daily flow (Q), salt (EC) and nitrate concentration (NO3) were measured in the drainage outlets of each basin. The net irrigation-induced salt and nitrogen loads were obtained from these measurements after discounting the salt and nitrogen inputs from outside the catchments and the non-irrigated areas. The N-fertilizer applications were obtained from farmer surveys and animal farming statistical sources. Irrigation water salinity was very low in all catchments (EC < 0.4 dS/m), but IRF salinity was very high in Valcuerna (7.9 dS/m) with underlain saline lutites, high to moderate in Clamor (2.6 dS/m) and Violada (2.1 dS/m) with gypsum-rich soils, and low in Alcanadre (1.0 dS/m) due to dilution in the inefficient traditional flood-irrigation system. Annual salt loads were highest in Valcuerna (11.9 Mg/ha) and lowest in Alcanadre (3.6 Mg/ha) and Clamor (3.3 Mg/ha). Salt load was also high in flood-irrigated Violada (10.3 Mg/ha), but dropped to 2.6 Mg/ha after its modernization to sprinkler irrigation (in 2008-09). N-fertilizer applications ranged from 221 kg/ha in the corn-dominated Valcuerna in 2010 to 63 kg/ha in 2008 in Violada, when farmers barely applied fertilizers due to the irrigation modernization works in progress that year. The highest N applications derived from pig slurry applications by farmers that used their lands as disposal sites

  9. Modeling the Effect of Changing Sediment Load on the Flow Regime of the Lower Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, G.; Yeh, T.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of hundreds of dams on the lower Mississippi River system has been to reduce sediment supply to about half its pre-settlement value. This decline appears to be continuing today. The lower Mississippi River undergoes a transition from a purely alluvial river to a mixed alluvial-bedrock river at a point upstream of Baton Rouge. Here attention is focused upon the alluvial reach. A model that treats a) both bedload and suspended load transport of mixed sizes of sand and mud, b) the effect of flow self-stratification due to suspended sediment and c) the effect of flow-dependent bedform resistance is used to study the long-term effect of varying sediment supply on river depth and slope under a variety of scenarios.

  10. AC magnetohydrodynamic microfluidic switch

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoff, A V; Lee, A P

    2000-03-02

    A microfluidic switch has been demonstrated using an AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping mechanism in which the Lorentz force is used to pump an electrolytic solution. By integrating two AC MHD pumps into different arms of a Y-shaped fluidic circuit, flow can be switched between the two arms. This type of switch can be used to produce complex fluidic routing, which may have multiple applications in {micro}TAS.

  11. Reduction of aerodynamic load fluctuation on wind turbine blades through active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, John-Michael; Coleman, Thomas; Magstadt, Andrew; Aggarwal, Somil; Glauser, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The current set of experiments deals with implementing active flow control on a Bergey Excel 1, 1kW turbine. The previous work in our group demonstrated successfully that implementation of a simple closed-loop controller could reduce unsteady aerodynamic load fluctuation by 18% on a vertically mounted wing. Here we describe a similar flow control method adapted to work in the rotating frame of a 2.5m diameter wind turbine. Strain gages at the base of each blade measure the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and pressure taps distributed along the span of the blades feed information to the closed-loop control scheme. A realistic, unsteady flow field has been generated by placing a cylinder upstream of the turbine to induce shedding vortices at frequencies in the bandwidth of the first structural bending mode of the turbine blades. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate closed-loop flow control as a means to reduce the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and increase the overall lifespan of the wind turbine.

  12. Recovery of partial nitrification in a down-flow hanging sponge reactor by salt shock loading.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Miri; Harada, Hideki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Uemura, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Partial nitrification of ammonium-containing artificial wastewater was achieved using a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h by adjusting the influent salinity to 25 g Cl L(-1) with NaCl. The effect of HRT on partial nitrification was examined by varying HRT from 1 to 4 h. Extending HRT from 2 to 4 h had the effect of decreasing nitrite production and increasing nitrates. Since partial nitrification was not completely recovered after returning the HRT to 2 h, we examined the effect of salt shock loading on the recovery of partial nitrification. Salt shock loading with 150 gCl L(-1) for 72 h resulted in the fraction of NO2-N to total inorganic nitrogen in the effluent reaching 83.0% as much as 83 days after returning the salinity to the original level. Thus, despite the time required for the restoration of partial nitrification, the effectiveness of salt shock loading to achieve this aim was verified. PMID:26653861

  13. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2012-01-01

    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  14. Verification of rain-flow reconstructions of a variable amplitude load history. M.S. Thesis, 1990 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clothiaux, John D.; Dowling, Norman E.

    1992-01-01

    The suitability of using rain-flow reconstructions as an alternative to an original loading spectrum for component fatigue life testing is investigated. A modified helicopter maneuver history is used for the rain-flow cycle counting and history regenerations. Experimental testing on a notched test specimen over a wide range of loads produces similar lives for the original history and the reconstructions. The test lives also agree with a simplified local strain analysis performed on the specimen utilizing the rain-flow cycle count. The rain-flow reconstruction technique is shown to be a viable test spectrum alternative to storing the complete original load history, especially in saving computer storage space and processing time. A description of the regeneration method, the simplified life prediction analysis, and the experimental methods are included in the investigation.

  15. Stress loading from viscous flow in the lower crust and triggering of aftershocks following the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deng, J.; Hudnut, K.; Gurnis, M.; Hauksson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following the M(w) 6.7 Northridge earthquake, significant postseismic displacements were resolved with GPS. Using a three-dimensional viscoelastic model, we suggest that this deformation is mainly driven by viscous flow in the lower crust. Such flow can transfer stress to the upper crust and load the rupture zone of the main shock at a decaying rate. Most aftershocks within the rupture zone, especially those that occurred after the first several weeks of the main shock, may have been triggered by continuous stress loading from viscous flow. The long-term decay time of aftershocks (about 2 years) approximately matches the decay of viscoelastic loading, and thus is controlled by the viscosity of the lower crust. Our model provides a physical interpretation of the observed correlation between aftershock decay rate and surface heat flow.Following the Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquake, significant postseismic displacements were resolved with GPS. Using a three-dimensional viscoelastic model, we suggest that this deformation is mainly driven by viscous flow in the lower crust. Such flow can transfer stress to the upper crust and load the rupture zone of the main shock at a decaying rate. Most aftershocks within the rupture zone, especially those that occurred after the first several weeks of the main shock, may have been triggered by continuous stress loading from viscous flow. The long-term decay time of aftershocks (about 2 years) approximately matches the decay of viscoelastic loading, and thus is controlled by the viscosity of the lower crust. Our model provides a physical interpretation of the observed correlation between aftershock decay rate and surface heat flow.

  16. Performance back-deduction from a loading to flow coefficient map: Application to radial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonneau, Xavier; Binder, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Radial turbine stages are often used for applications requiring off-design operation, as turbocharging for instance. The off-design ability of such stages is commonly analyzed through the traditional turbine map, plotting the reduced mass-flow against the pressure-ratio, for reduced-speed lines. However, some alternatives are possible, such as the flow-coefficient ( Ψ) to loading-coefficient ( φ) diagram where the pressure-ratio lines are actually straight lines, very convenient property to perform prediction. A robust method re-creating this map from a predicted Ψ-φ diagram is needed. Recent work has shown that this back-deduction quality, without the use of any loss models, depends on the knowledge of an intermediate pressure-ratio. A modelization of this parameter is then proposed. The comparison with both experimental and CFD results is presented, with quite good agreement for mass flow rate and rotational speed, and for the intermediate pressure ratio. The last part of the paper is dedicated to the application of the intermediate pressure-ratio knowledge to the improvement of the deduction of the pressure ratio lines in the Ψ-φ diagram. Beside this improvement, the back-deduction method of the classical map is structured, applied and evaluated.

  17. Unscheduled load flow effect due to large variation in the distributed generation in a subtransmission network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mujahidul

    A sustainable energy delivery infrastructure implies the safe and reliable accommodation of large scale penetration of renewable sources in the power grid. In this dissertation it is assumed there will be no significant change in the power transmission and distribution structure currently in place; except in the operating strategy and regulatory policy. That is to say, with the same old structure, the path towards unveiling a high penetration of switching power converters in the power system will be challenging. Some of the dimensions of this challenge are power quality degradation, frequent false trips due to power system imbalance, and losses due to a large neutral current. The ultimate result is the reduced life of many power distribution components - transformers, switches and sophisticated loads. Numerous ancillary services are being developed and offered by the utility operators to mitigate these problems. These services will likely raise the system's operational cost, not only from the utility operators' end, but also reflected on the Independent System Operators and by the Regional Transmission Operators (RTO) due to an unforeseen backlash of frequent variation in the load-side generation or distributed generation. The North American transmission grid is an interconnected system similar to a large electrical circuit. This circuit was not planned but designed over 100 years. The natural laws of physics govern the power flow among loads and generators except where control mechanisms are installed. The control mechanism has not matured enough to withstand the high penetration of variable generators at uncontrolled distribution ends. Unlike a radial distribution system, mesh or loop networks can alleviate complex channels for real and reactive power flow. Significant variation in real power injection and absorption on the distribution side can emerge as a bias signal on the routing reactive power in some physical links or channels that are not distinguishable

  18. Real-Time Measurement of Solute Transport Within the Lacunar-Canalicular System of Mechanically Loaded Bone: Direct Evidence for Load-Induced Fluid Flow

    PubMed Central

    Price, Christopher; Zhou, Xiaozhou; Li, Wen; Wang, Liyun

    2011-01-01

    Since proposed by Piekarski and Munro in 1977, load-induced fluid flow through the bone lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) has been accepted as critical for bone metabolism, mechanotransduction, and adaptation. However, direct unequivocal observation and quantification of load-induced fluid and solute convection through the LCS have been lacking due to technical difficulties. Using a novel experimental approach based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and synchronized mechanical loading and imaging, we successfully quantified the diffusive and convective transport of a small fluorescent tracer (sodium fluorescein, 376 Da) in the bone LCS of adult male C57BL/6J mice. We demonstrated that cyclic end-compression of the mouse tibia with a moderate loading magnitude (–3 N peak load or 400 µɛ surface strain at 0.5 Hz) and a 4-second rest/imaging window inserted between adjacent load cycles significantly enhanced (+31%) the transport of sodium fluorescein through the LCS compared with diffusion alone. Using an anatomically based three-compartment transport model, the peak canalicular fluid velocity in the loaded bone was predicted (60 µm/s), and the resulting peak shear stress at the osteocyte process membrane was estimated (∼5 Pa). This study convincingly demonstrated the presence of load-induced convection in mechanically loaded bone. The combined experimental and mathematical approach presented herein represents an important advance in quantifying the microfluidic environment experienced by osteocytes in situ and provides a foundation for further studying the mechanisms by which mechanical stimulation modulates osteocytic cellular responses, which will inform basic bone biology, clinical understanding of osteoporosis and bone loss, and the rational engineering of their treatments. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20715178

  19. Flow-directed loading of block copolymer micelles with hydrophobic probes in a gas-liquid microreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Wei; Bains, Aman; Sinton, David; Moffitt, Matthew G

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the loading efficiencies of two chemically distinct hydrophobic fluorescent probes, pyrene and naphthalene, for self-assembly and loading of polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) micelles in gas-liquid segmented microfluidic reactors under different chemical and flow conditions. On-chip loading efficiencies are compared to values obtained via off-chip dropwise water addition to a solution of copolymer and probe. On-chip, probe loading efficiencies depend strongly on the chemical probe, initial solvent, water content, and flow rate. For pyrene and naphthalene probes, maximum on-chip loading efficiencies of 73 ± 6% and 11 ± 3%, respectively, are obtained, in both cases using the more polar solvent (DMF), an intermediate water content (2 wt % above critical), and a low flow rate (∼5 μL/min); these values are compared to 81 ± 6% and 48 ± 2%, respectively, for off-chip loading. On-chip loading shows a significant improvement over the off-chip process where shear-induced formation of smaller micelles enables increased encapsulation of probe. As well, we show that on-chip loading allows off-chip release kinetics to be controlled via flow rate: compared to vehicles produced at ∼5 μL/min, pyrene release kinetics from vehicles produced at ∼50 μL/min showed a longer initial period of burst release, followed by slow release over a longer total period. These results demonstrate the necessity to match probes, solvents, and running conditions to achieve effective loading, which is essential information for further developing these on-chip platforms for manufacturing drug delivery formulations.

  20. Characterization of aggregate load and pattern in living yeast cells by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Itahisa Hernández; Fleming, Thomas; Eckstein, Volker; Herzig, Stephan; Nawroth, Peter P; Tyedmers, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation is both a hallmark of and a driving force for a number of diseases. It is therefore important to identify the nature of these aggregates and the mechanism(s) by which the cell counteracts their detrimental properties. Currently, the study of aggregation in vivo is performed primarily using fluorescently tagged versions of proteins and analyzing the aggregates by fluorescence microscopy. While this strategy is considered the gold standard, it has several limitations, particularly with respect to its suitability for high-throughput screening (HTS). Here, using a GFP fusion of the well-characterized yeast prion amyloid protein [PSI+], we demonstrate that flow cytometry, which utilizes the same physical principles as fluorescence microscopy, can be used to determine the aggregate load and pattern in live and fixed yeast cells. Furthermore, our approach can easily be applied to high-throughput analyses such as screenings with a yeast deletion library. PMID:27625208

  1. Cross-flow membrane emulsification technique for fabrication of drug-loaded particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Thanh Ha; Phuong Tuyen Dao, Thi; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Dam Le, Duy; Chien Dang, Mau

    2013-12-01

    Cross-flow membrane emulsification is a new technique which was used in this study to achieve uniform and controllable emulsion systems. In this method, the droplet is individually formed at the pore on the surface of membrane in the more mild, controllable and efficient way as compared to traditional emulsification techniques. In this study, we used silicon nitride membranes of very precise parameters of pore size, shape and inter-pore distance in order to create curcumin loaded poly(d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles. It was demonstrated that more uniform and pore-size dependent particles was created by using different membrane pore sizes (ø200 nm, ø450 nm and ø2 μm). Other factors that could impact particle size and morphology such as membrane polarity, concentration and volume of two phases were investigated. Further tests on comparison to mechanical stirring method were also realized.

  2. Nutrient Loads Flowing into Coastal Waters from the Main Rivers of China (2006-2012).

    PubMed

    Tong, Yindong; Zhao, Yue; Zhen, Gengchong; Chi, Jie; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Wang, Xuejun; Yao, Ruihua; Chen, Junyue; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Based on monthly monitoring data of unfiltered water, the nutrient discharges of the eight main rivers flowing into the coastal waters of China were calculated from 2006 to 2012. In 2012, the total load of NH3-N (calculated in nitrogen), total nitrogen (TN, calculated in nitrogen) and total phosphorus (TP, calculated in phosphorus) was 5.1 × 10(5), 3.1 × 10(6) and 2.8 × 10(5) tons, respectively, while in 2006, the nutrient load was 7.4 × 10(5), 2.2 × 10(6) and 1.6 × 10(5) tons, respectively. The nutrient loading from the eight major rivers into the coastal waters peaked in summer and autumn, probably due to the large water discharge in the wet season. The Yangtze River was the largest riverine nutrient source for the coastal waters, contributing 48% of the NH3-N discharges, 66% of the TN discharges and 84% of the TP discharges of the eight major rivers in 2012. The East China Sea received the majority of the nutrient discharges, i.e. 50% of NH3-N (2.7 × 10(5) tons), 70% of TN (2.2 × 10(6) tons) and 87% of TP (2.5 × 10(5) tons) in 2012. The riverine discharge of TN into the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea was lower than that from the direct atmospheric deposition, while for the East China Sea, the riverine TN input was larger. PMID:26582206

  3. Nutrient Loads Flowing into Coastal Waters from the Main Rivers of China (2006–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yindong; Zhao, Yue; Zhen, Gengchong; Chi, Jie; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Wang, Xuejun; Yao, Ruihua; Chen, Junyue; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Based on monthly monitoring data of unfiltered water, the nutrient discharges of the eight main rivers flowing into the coastal waters of China were calculated from 2006 to 2012. In 2012, the total load of NH3-N (calculated in nitrogen), total nitrogen (TN, calculated in nitrogen) and total phosphorus (TP, calculated in phosphorus) was 5.1 × 105, 3.1 × 106 and 2.8 × 105 tons, respectively, while in 2006, the nutrient load was 7.4 × 105, 2.2 × 106 and 1.6 × 105 tons, respectively. The nutrient loading from the eight major rivers into the coastal waters peaked in summer and autumn, probably due to the large water discharge in the wet season. The Yangtze River was the largest riverine nutrient source for the coastal waters, contributing 48% of the NH3-N discharges, 66% of the TN discharges and 84% of the TP discharges of the eight major rivers in 2012. The East China Sea received the majority of the nutrient discharges, i.e. 50% of NH3-N (2.7 × 105 tons), 70% of TN (2.2 × 106 tons) and 87% of TP (2.5 × 105 tons) in 2012. The riverine discharge of TN into the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea was lower than that from the direct atmospheric deposition, while for the East China Sea, the riverine TN input was larger. PMID:26582206

  4. Nutrient Loads Flowing into Coastal Waters from the Main Rivers of China (2006-2012).

    PubMed

    Tong, Yindong; Zhao, Yue; Zhen, Gengchong; Chi, Jie; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Wang, Xuejun; Yao, Ruihua; Chen, Junyue; Zhang, Wei

    2015-11-19

    Based on monthly monitoring data of unfiltered water, the nutrient discharges of the eight main rivers flowing into the coastal waters of China were calculated from 2006 to 2012. In 2012, the total load of NH3-N (calculated in nitrogen), total nitrogen (TN, calculated in nitrogen) and total phosphorus (TP, calculated in phosphorus) was 5.1 × 10(5), 3.1 × 10(6) and 2.8 × 10(5) tons, respectively, while in 2006, the nutrient load was 7.4 × 10(5), 2.2 × 10(6) and 1.6 × 10(5) tons, respectively. The nutrient loading from the eight major rivers into the coastal waters peaked in summer and autumn, probably due to the large water discharge in the wet season. The Yangtze River was the largest riverine nutrient source for the coastal waters, contributing 48% of the NH3-N discharges, 66% of the TN discharges and 84% of the TP discharges of the eight major rivers in 2012. The East China Sea received the majority of the nutrient discharges, i.e. 50% of NH3-N (2.7 × 10(5) tons), 70% of TN (2.2 × 10(6) tons) and 87% of TP (2.5 × 10(5) tons) in 2012. The riverine discharge of TN into the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea was lower than that from the direct atmospheric deposition, while for the East China Sea, the riverine TN input was larger.

  5. Pressure drop increase by biofilm accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane systems: role of substrate concentration, flow velocity, substrate load and flow direction.

    PubMed

    Vrouwenvelder, J S; Hinrichs, C; Van der Meer, W G J; Van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier study, it was shown that biofouling predominantly is a feed spacer channel problem. In this article, pressure drop development and biofilm accumulation in membrane fouling simulators have been studied without permeate production as a function of the process parameters substrate concentration, linear flow velocity, substrate load and flow direction. At the applied substrate concentration range, 100-400 microg l(-1) as acetate carbon, a higher concentration caused a faster and greater pressure drop increase and a greater accumulation of biomass. Within the range of linear flow velocities as applied in practice, a higher linear flow velocity resulted in a higher initial pressure drop in addition to a more rapid and greater pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Reduction of the linear flow velocity resulted in an instantaneous reduction of the pressure drop caused by the accumulated biomass, without changing the biofilm concentration. A higher substrate load (product of substrate concentration and flow velocity) was related to biomass accumulation. The effect of the same amount of accumulated biomass on the pressure drop increase was related to the linear flow velocity. A decrease of substrate load caused a gradual decline in time of both biomass concentration and pressure drop increase. It was concluded that the pressure drop increase over spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems can be reduced by lowering both substrate load and linear flow velocity. There is a need for RO and NF systems with a low pressure drop increase irrespective of the biomass formation. Current efforts to control biofouling of spiral wound membranes focus in addition to pretreatment on membrane improvement. According to these authors, adaptation of the hydrodynamics, spacers and pressure vessel configuration offer promising alternatives. Additional approaches may be replacing heavily biofouled elements and flow direction reversal.

  6. Space station electrical power distribution analysis using a load flow approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Ervin M.

    1987-01-01

    The space station's electrical power system will evolve and grow in a manner much similar to the present terrestrial electrical power system utilities. The initial baseline reference configuration will contain more than 50 nodes or busses, inverters, transformers, overcurrent protection devices, distribution lines, solar arrays, and/or solar dynamic power generating sources. The system is designed to manage and distribute 75 KW of power single phase or three phase at 20 KHz, and grow to a level of 300 KW steady state, and must be capable of operating at a peak of 450 KW for 5 to 10 min. In order to plan far into the future and keep pace with load growth, a load flow power system analysis approach must be developed and utilized. This method is a well known energy assessment and management tool that is widely used throughout the Electrical Power Utility Industry. The results of a comprehensive evaluation and assessment of an Electrical Distribution System Analysis Program (EDSA) is discussed. Its potential use as an analysis and design tool for the 20 KHz space station electrical power system is addressed.

  7. Motion of a cylinder adjacent to a free-surface: flow patterns and loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Lin, J.-C.; Unal, M. F.; Rockwell, D.

    The flow structure and loading due to combined translatory and sinusoidal motion of a cylinder adjacent to a free-surface are characterized using a cinema technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry and simultaneous force measurements. The instantaneous patterns of vorticity and streamline topology are interpreted as a function of degree of submergence beneath the free-surface. The relative magnitudes of the peak vorticity and the circulation of vortices formed from the upper and lower surfaces of the cylinder, as well as vortex formation from the free-surface, are remarkably affected by the nominal submergence. The corresponding streamline topology, interpreted in terms of foci, saddle points, and multiple separation and reattachment points also exhibit substantial changes with submergence. All of these features affect the instantaneous loading of the cylinder. Calculation of instantaneous moments of vorticity and the incremental changes in these moments during the cylinder motion allow identification of those vortices that contribute most substantially to the instantaneous lift and drag. Furthermore, the calculated moments are in general accord with the time integrals of the measured lift and drag acting on the cylinder for sufficiently large submergence.

  8. Inspiratory loading and limb blood flow in COPD: The modulating effects of resting lung hyperinflation.

    PubMed

    Berton, Danilo C; de Castro, Marina A; Merola, Pietro; Benedetto, Igor; Castilho, Mariah; Vieira, Paulo J C; Knorst, Marli M; Neder, J Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Inspiratory resistive loading (IRL) may have deleterious cardiocirculatory effects leading to poor peripheral perfusion in severely-hyperinflated patients with COPD. Nineteen patients (13 severely-hyperinflated with inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio≤0.28) underwent calf blood flow (CBF) measurements by venous occlusion plethysmography at rest and during IRL at 60% maximal inspiratory pressure. Severely-hyperinflated patients had lower resting CBF and greater calf vascular resistance (CVR) than moderately-hyperinflated patients (p<0.05). All severely-hyperinflated patients had markedly reduced CBF (p=0.01). Opposite to our main hypothesis, however, IRL did not further reduce CBF in these patients (p>0.05). Conversely, it significantly decreased CBF and increased CVR in moderately-hyperinflated patients; in fact, end-trial CBF and CVR did not differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, marked impairments in resting appendicular blood flow in severely-hyperinflated patients with COPD were seen only after acute IRL in less hyperinflated patients. These findings set the stage for studies investigating the effects of lung deflation on peripheral hemodynamics in patients with severe hyperinflation.

  9. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. PMID:27472749

  10. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading.

  11. Investigation of Francis Turbine Part Load Instabilities using Flow Simulations with a Hybrid RANS-LES Turbulence Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krappel, Timo; Ruprecht, Albert; Riedelbauch, Stefan; Jester-Zuerker, Roland; Jung, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The operation of Francis turbines in part load condition causes high pressure fluctuations and dynamic loads in the turbine as well as high flow losses in the draft tube. Owing to the co-rotating velocity distribution at the runner blade trailing edge a low pressure zone arises in the hub region finally leading to a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube. A better understanding and a more accurate prediction of this phenomenon can help in the design process of a Francis turbine. The goal of this study is to reach a quantitatively better numerical prediction of the flow at part load and to evaluate the necessary numerical depth with respect to effort and benefit. As standard practice, simulation results are obtained for the steady state approach with SST turbulence modelling. Those results are contrasted with transient simulations applying a SST as well as a SAS (Scale Adaptive Simulation) turbulence model. The structure of the SAS model is such, that it is able to resolve the turbulent flow behaviour in more detail. The investigations contain a comparison of the flow losses in different turbine components. A detailed flow evaluation is done in the cone and the diffuser of the draft tube. The different numerical approaches show a different representation of the vortex rope phenomenon indicating differences in pressure pulsations at different geometric positions in the entire turbine. Finally, the turbulent flow structures in the draft tube are illustrated with several evaluation methods, such as turbulent eddy viscosity, velocity invariant and turbulent kinetic energy spectra.

  12. Characterization of the wind loads and flow fields around a gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Yang, Zifeng; Sarkar, Partha; Haan, Fred

    2011-09-01

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the characteristics of a tornado-like vortex and to reveal the dynamics of the flow-structure interactions between a low-rise, gable-roof building model and swirling, turbulent tornado-like winds. The experimental work was conducted by using a large-scale tornado simulator located in the Aerospace Engineering Department of Iowa State University. In addition to measuring the pressure distributions and resultant wind loads acting on the building model, a digital Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to quantify the evolution of the unsteady vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds. The effects of important parameters, such as the distance between the centers of the tornado-like vortex and the test model and the orientation angles of the building model related to the tornado-like vortex, on the evolutions of the wake vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model as well as the wind loads induced by the tornado-like vortex were assessed quantitatively. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the surface pressure and wind load measurements to elucidate the underlying physics to gain further insight into flow-structure interactions between the gable-roof building model and tornado-like winds in order to provide more accurate prediction of wind damage potential to built structures.

  13. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  14. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  15. Effects of Unsteady Flow Interactions on the Performance of a Highly-Loaded Transonic Compressor Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to investigate the loss sources in an advanced GE transonic compressor design with high reaction and high stage loading. This advanced compressor has been investigated both experimentally and analytically in the past. The measured compressor efficiency is significantly lower than the efficiency calculated with various existing tools based on RANS and URANS. The general understanding is that some important flow physics in this modern compressor design are not represented in the current tools. To pinpoint the source of the efficiency miss, an advanced test with detailed flow traverse was performed for the front one and a half stage at the NASA Glenn Research Center. In the present paper, a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is employed to determine whether a higher-fidelity simulation can pick up any additional flow physics that can explain past efficiency miss with RANS and URANS. The results from the Large Eddy Simulation were compared with the NASA test results and the GE interpretation of the test data. LES calculates lower total pressure and higher total temperature on the pressure side of the stator, resulting in large loss generation on the pressure side of the stator. On the other hand, existing tools based on the RANS and URANS do not calculate this high total temperature and low total pressure on the pressure side of the stator. The calculated loss through the stator from LES seems to match the measured data and the GE data interpretation. Detailed examination of the unsteady flow field from LES indicates that the accumulation of high loss near the pressure side of the stator is due to the interaction of the rotor wake with the stator blade. The strong rotor wake interacts quite differently with the pressure side of the stator than with the suction side of the stator blade. The concave curvature on the pressure side of the stator blade increases the mixing of the rotor wake with the pressure side boundary layer significantly. On

  16. Numerical 3D flow simulation of attached cavitation structures at ultrasonic horn tips and statistical evaluation of flow aggressiveness via load collectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottyll, S.; Skoda, R.

    2015-12-01

    A compressible inviscid flow solver with barotropic cavitation model is applied to two different ultrasonic horn set-ups and compared to hydrophone, shadowgraphy as well as erosion test data. The statistical analysis of single collapse events in wall-adjacent flow regions allows the determination of the flow aggressiveness via load collectives (cumulative event rate vs collapse pressure), which show an exponential decrease in agreement to studies on hydrodynamic cavitation [1]. A post-processing projection of event rate and collapse pressure on a reference grid reduces the grid dependency significantly. In order to evaluate the erosion-sensitive areas a statistical analysis of transient wall loads is utilised. Predicted erosion sensitive areas as well as temporal pressure and vapour volume evolution are in good agreement to the experimental data.

  17. Inspiratory flow resistive loading improves respiratory muscle function and endurance capacity in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, T D; Nichols, T; Lindley, M R; Chatham, K; Ionescu, A A

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of inspiratory flow resistive loading (IFRL) on respiratory muscle function, exercise performance and cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to exercise. Twenty-four recreational road runners (12 male) were randomly assigned from each gender into an IFRL group (n=8) and sham-IFRL group (n=8), which performed IFRL for 6 weeks, or a control group (n=8). Strength (+43.9%Delta), endurance (+26.6%Delta), maximum power output (+41.9%Delta) and work capacity (+38.5%Delta) of the inspiratory muscles were significantly increased (P<0.05) at rest following the study period in IFRL group only. In addition, ventilation (-25.7%Delta), oxygen consumption (-13.3%Delta), breathing frequency (-11.9%Delta), tidal volume (-16.0%Delta), heart rate (HR) (-13.1%Delta), blood lactate concentration (-38.9%Delta) and the perceptual response (-33.5%Delta) to constant workload exercise were significantly attenuated (P<0.05), concomitant with a significant improvement (P<0.05) in endurance exercise capacity (+16.4%Delta) during a treadmill run set at 80% VO2max in IFRL group only. These data suggest that IFRL can alter breathing mechanics, attenuate the oxygen cost, ventilation, HR, blood lactate and the perceptual response during constant workload exercise and improve endurance exercise performance in recreational runners.

  18. Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of AC power systems for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1991-01-01

    A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of the Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three phase, balanced, AC system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, AC systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20 kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

  19. Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of ac power systems for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. A.; Kankam, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three-phase, balanced, ac system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, ac systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20-kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of the present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

  20. Ground-water discharge and base-flow nitrate loads of nontidal streams, and their relation to a hydrogeomorphic classification of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, middle Atlantic Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, L. Joseph; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Brakebill, John W.; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Existing data on base-flow and groundwater nitrate loads were compiled and analyzed to assess the significance of groundwater discharge as a source of the nitrate load to nontidal streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. These estimates were then related to hydrogeomorphic settings based on lithology and physiographic province to provide insight on the areal distribution of ground-water discharge. Base-flow nitrate load accounted for 26 to about 100 percent of total-flow nitrate load, with a median value of 56 percent, and it accounted for 17 to 80 percent of total-flow total-nitrogen load, with a median value of 48 percent. Hydrograph separations were conducted on continuous streamflow records from 276 gaging stations within the watershed. The values for base flow thus calculated were considered an estimate of ground-water discharge. The ratio of base flow to total flow provided an estimate of the relative importance of ground-water discharge within a basin. Base-flow nitrate loads, total-flow nitrate loads, and total-flow total-nitrogen loads were previously computed from water-quality and discharge measurements by use of a regression model. Base-flow nitrate loads were available from 78 stations, total-flow nitrate loads were available from 86 stations, and total-flow total-nitrogen loads were available for 48 stations. The percentage of base-flow nitrate load to total-flow nitrate load could be computed for 57 stations, whereas the percentage of base-flow nitrate load to totalflow total-nitrogen load could be computed for 36 stations. These loads were divided by the basin area to obtain yields, which were used to compare the nitrate discharge from basins of different sizes. The results indicate that ground-water discharge is a significant source of water and nitrate to the total streamflow and nitrate load. Base flow accounted for 16 to 92 percent of total streamflow at the 276 sampling sites, with a median value of 54 percent. It is estimated that of the 50

  1. Scaling up watershed model parameters--Flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are some of the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River basin were made with the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). The potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River basin, was assessed. Scaling up was done in a step-wise process beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic wetness index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made with subsequent simulations culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the two models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the significant difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variables in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD-H, and LOADEST

  2. Water and waste load allocation in rivers with emphasis on agricultural return flows: application of fractional factorial analysis.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Ali; Kerachian, Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Maryam; Estalaki, Siamak Malakpour

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is developed to handle parameter and input uncertainties in water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers by using factorial interval optimization and the Soil, Water, Atmosphere, and Plant (SWAP) simulation model. A fractional factorial analysis is utilized to provide detailed effects of uncertain parameters and their interaction on the optimization model outputs. The number of required optimizations in a fractional factorial analysis can be much less than a complete sensitivity analysis. The most important uncertain inputs and parameters can be also selected using a fractional factorial analysis. The uncertainty of the selected inputs and parameters should be incorporated real time water and waste load allocation. The proposed methodology utilizes the SWAP simulation model to estimate the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow based on the allocated water quantity and quality. In order to control the pollution loads of agricultural dischargers, it is assumed that a part of their return flows can be diverted to evaporation ponds. Results of applying the methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern part of Iran show its effectiveness and applicability for simultaneous water and waste load allocation in rivers. It is shown that in our case study, the number of required optimizations in the fractional factorial analysis can be reduced from 64 to 16. Analysis of the interactive effects of uncertainties indicates that in a low flow condition, the upstream water quality would have a significant effect on the total benefit of the system. PMID:24880723

  3. Fecal coliform removal in a lightly loaded surface-flow constructed treatment wetland polishing agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Marc W; Whritenour, Victoria; Brouillard, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands can be an effective and sustainable method to remove pathogens that pose health risks from agricultural runoff. This study evaluated the removal of fecal coliform (FC) from agricultural runoff in a lightly loaded surface-flow treatment wetland prior to discharge to the Yakima River, Washington State, USA. The 1.6 ha system consisted of a sedimentation basin (1.4 d hydraulic retention time) followed by two wetlands (5-6 d hydraulic retention time). FC in inflow ranged from 100 to 1,000 cfu/100 mL. Mean annual FC log-removal in the sedimentation basin was 0.66 ± 0.17 (mean plus/minus standard deviation; n = 7). However, there was a comparable production of FC within the two wetlands where annual log-removal averaged -0.71 ± 0.39 in the north wetland and -0.57 ± 0.17 in the south wetland. FC removal in the sedimentation basin weakly correlated with turbidity removal (R(2) = 0.13, p < 0.01, n = 61), suggesting that settling was an important FC loss mechanism. FC removal in the wetlands negatively correlated with temperature (R(2) = 0.27-0.33, p < 0.01, n = 26) indicating that survival and/or reproduction was an important FC production mechanism. Muskrat colonization in the wetlands in 2007 and 2008 corresponded with a marked increase in FC in wetland outflow. Results suggest that, regardless of the presence of muskrats, sedimentation basins alone are more effective than a combined sedimentation basin-wetland system in removing FC from dilute agricultural runoff.

  4. Vertical flow constructed wetlands subject to load variations: an improved design methodology connected to outlet quality objectives.

    PubMed

    Boutin, C; Prost-Boucle, S

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed four campsites and four rural villages of major tourist interest, called tourist-interest or ti-villages, that were monitored for several years, generating over 70 performance balances for vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) that were intentionally scaled down for experimental trials. The wastewater effectively qualifies as domestic sewage, although relatively concentrated, with the campsites presenting particularly high nitrogen concentrations (122 gTKN L(-1)) (TKN: total Kjeldahl nitrogen). The applied daily loads were also particularly high, with some combinations of load parameters (hydraulic load, organic matter, TKN) leading to 400% overloading. Even under those drastic conditions, the quality of effluent remained excellent on the characteristic organic matter parameters, with removal performances always over 85%. Analysis of the dataset points to two major design thresholds: for campsites, in order to maintain a 73% nitrification rate even at the height of the summer season, the load applied onto the first stage filter in operation could achieve up to 600 gCOD m(-2) day(-1) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). For tourist-interest villages, in order to maintain an 85% nitrification rate, the load applied onto the second stage filter in operation could achieve up to 22 gTKN m(-2).day(-1). Here, VFCWs were demonstrated to robustly handle a massive increase in loads applied, providing the construction and operation stringently follow design standards and practices. PMID:26287842

  5. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81.

  6. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. PMID:27295254

  7. Silicon microfluidic flow focusing devices for the production of size-controlled PLGA based drug loaded microparticles.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Kieran; Brennan, Des; Galvin, Paul; Griffin, Brendan T

    2014-06-01

    The increasing realisation of the impact of size and surface properties on the bio-distribution of drug loaded colloidal particles has driven the application of micro fabrication technologies for the precise engineering of drug loaded microparticles. This paper demonstrates an alternative approach for producing size controlled drug loaded PLGA based microparticles using silicon Microfluidic Flow Focusing Devices (MFFDs). Based on the precise geometry and dimensions of the flow focusing channel, microparticle size was successfully optimised by modifying the polymer type, disperse phase (Qd) flow rate, and continuous phase (Qc) flow rate. The microparticles produced ranged in sizes from 5 to 50 μm and were highly monodisperse (coefficient of variation <5%). A comparison of Ciclosporin (CsA) loaded PLGA microparticles produced by MFFDs vs conventional production techniques was also performed. MFFDs produced microparticles with a narrower size distribution profile, relative to the conventional approaches. In-vitro release kinetics of CsA was found to be influenced by the production technique, with the MFFD approach demonstrating the slowest rate of release over 7 days (4.99 ± 0.26%). Finally, MFFDs were utilised to produce pegylated microparticles using the block co-polymer, PEG-PLGA. In contrast to the smooth microparticles produced using PLGA, PEG-PLGA microparticles displayed a highly porous surface morphology and rapid CsA release, with 85 ± 6.68% CsA released after 24h. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of silicon MFFDs for the precise control of size and surface morphology of PLGA based microparticles with potential drug delivery applications.

  8. Hydrologic landscapes on the Delmarva Peninsula - Part 2: Estimates of base-flow nitrogen load to Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, Bachman L.; Phillips, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Base-flow samples were collected from 47 sampling sites for four seasons from 1990-91 on the Delmarva Peninsula in Delaware and Maryland to relate stream chemistry to a "hydrologic landscape" and season. Two hydrologic landscapes were determined: (1) a well-drained landscape, characterized by a combination of a low percentage of forest cover, a low percentage of poorly drained soil, and elevated channel slope; and (2) poorly drained landscape, characterized by a combination of an elevated percentage of forest cover, an elevated percentage of poorly drained soil, and low channel slope. Concentrations of nitrogen were significantly related to the hydrologic landscape. Nitrogen concentrations tended to be higher in well-drained landscapes than in poorly drained ones. The highest instantaneous nitrogen yields occurred in well-drained landscapes during the winter. These yields were extrapolated over the part of the study area draining to Chesapeake Bay in order to provide a rough estimate of nitrogen load from base flow to the Bay and its estuarine tributaries. This estimate was compared to an estimate made by extrapolating from an existing long-term monitoring station. The load estimate from the stream survey data was 5 ?? 106 kg of N per year, which was about four times the estimate made from the existing long-term monitoring station. The stream-survey estimate of base flow represents about 40 percent of the total nitrogen load that enters the Bay and estuarine tributaries from all sources in the study area.

  9. Performance evaluation of different horizontal subsurface flow wetland types by characterization of flow behavior, mass removal and depth-dependent contaminant load.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Eva M; Maier, Uli; Grathwohl, Peter; Kuschk, Peter; Kaestner, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    For several pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs: a planted and unplanted gravel filter) and a hydroponic plant root mat (operating at two water levels), used for treating groundwater contaminated with BTEX, the fuel additive MTBE and ammonium, the hydrodynamic behavior was evaluated by means of temporal moment analysis of outlet tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs): hydraulic indices were related to contaminant mass removal. Detailed investigation of flow within the model gravel CWs allowed estimation of local flow rates and contaminant loads within the CWs. Best hydraulics were observed for the planted gravel filter (number of continuously stirred tank reactors N = 11.3, dispersion number = 0.04, Péclet number = 23). The hydroponic plant root mat revealed lower N and pronounced dispersion tendencies, whereby an elevated water table considerably impaired flow characteristics and treatment efficiencies. Highest mass removals were achieved by the plant root mat at low level: 98% (544 mg m⁻² d⁻¹), 78% (54 mg m⁻² d⁻¹) and 74% (893 mg m⁻² d⁻¹) for benzene, MTBE and ammonium-nitrogen, respectively. Within the CWs the flow behavior was depth-dependent, with the planting and the position of the outlet tube being key factors resulting in elevated flow rate and contaminant flux immediately below the densely rooted porous media zone in the planted CW, and fast bottom flow in the unplanted reference.

  10. ac electroosmotic pumping induced by noncontact external electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shau-Chun; Chen, Hsiao-Ping; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2007-01-01

    Electroosmotic (EO) pumps based on dc electroosmosis is plagued by bubble generation and other electrochemical reactions at the electrodes at voltages beyond 1 V for electrolytes. These disadvantages limit their throughput and offset their portability advantage over mechanical syringe or pneumatic pumps. ac electroosmotic pumps at high frequency (>100 kHz) circumvent the bubble problem by inducing polarization and slip velocity on embedded electrodes,1 but they require complex electrode designs to produce a net flow. We report a new high-throughput ac EO pump design based on induced-polarization on the entire channel surface instead of just on the electrodes. Like dc EO pumps, our pump electrodes are outside of the load section and form a cm-long pump unit consisting of three circular reservoirs (3 mm in diameter) connected by a 1x1 mm channel. The field-induced polarization can produce an effective Zeta potential exceeding 1 V and an ac slip velocity estimated as 1 mmsec or higher, both one order of magnitude higher than earlier dc and ac pumps, giving rise to a maximum throughput of 1 mulsec. Polarization over the entire channel surface, quadratic scaling with respect to the field and high voltage at high frequency without electrode bubble generation are the reasons why the current pump is superior to earlier dc and ac EO pumps. PMID:19693362

  11. A preliminary evaluation of Trinity river sediment and nutrient loads into Galveston Bay, Texas, during two periods of high flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Suspend-sediment and water-quality data were measured during two periods o high flow, one during April 20-23, 2009 and a second during September 22-November 3, 2009. On the basis of streamflow and continuous and discrete water-quality measurements, the two periods of high flow had different flood and nutrient loading characteristics. Some differences in the nature of these two periods of high flow were evident. Preliminary results indicate that it might be possible to better understand the extent of sediment and nutrient loading in Galveston Bay using selected measurements of discrete and continuous water-quality data. An apparent correlation was observed between the concentrations of selected nutrients and suspended sediment, and an apparent correlation was observed between suspended sediment and total nutrient concentration measured with in-situ turbidity measurements during periods of high flow in Trinity River at the Wallisville, Texas gage, about 3.5 miles upstream from where the Trinity River enters Galveston Bay. Additional data are needed to confirm these preliminary results.  

  12. Development of an aerodyanmic theory capable of predicting surface loads on slender wings with vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.; Johnson, F. T.

    1976-01-01

    The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company developed an inviscid three-dimensional lifting surface method that shows promise in being able to accurately predict loads, subsonic and supersonic, on wings with leading-edge separation and reattachment.

  13. Approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  14. Investigation of the jet-wake flow of a highly loaded centrifugal compressor impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckardt, D.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations, aimed at developing a better understanding of the complex flow field in high performance centrifugal compressors were performed. Newly developed measuring techniques for unsteady static and total pressures as well as flow directions, and a digital data analysis system for fluctuating signals were thoroughly tested. The loss-affected mixing process of the distorted impeller discharge flow was investigated in detail, in the absolute and relative system, at impeller tip speeds up to 380 m/s. A theoretical analysis proved good coincidence of the test results with the DEAN-SENOO theory, which was extended to compressible flows.

  15. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  16. Impact of sediment load on manning coefficient in supercritical shallow flow on steep slopes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Manning equation is one of the most widely used formulas for calculating velocity of overland flow in hydrological and erosion models. Precise estimation of the Manning’s friction coefficient (n) is critical to simulate the processes of overland flow and soil erosion. Few studies were conducted ...

  17. Producing monodisperse drug-loaded polymer microspheres via cross-flow membrane emulsification: the effects of polymers and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Robert F; Rogers, W Benjamin; McClendon, Mark T; Crocker, John C

    2010-09-21

    Cross-flow membrane emulsification (XME) is a method for producing highly uniform droplets by forcing a fluid through a small orifice into a transverse flow of a second, immiscible fluid. We investigate the feasibility of using XME to produce monodisperse solid microspheres made of a hydrolyzable polymer and a hydrophobic drug, a model system for depot drug delivery applications. This entails the emulsification of a drug and polymer-loaded volatile solvent into water followed by evaporation of the solvent. We use a unique side-view visualization technique to observe the details of emulsion droplet production, providing direct information regarding droplet size, dripping frequency, wetting of the membrane surface by the two phases, neck thinning during droplet break off, and droplet deformation before and after break off. To probe the effects that dissolved polymers, surfactants, and dynamic interfacial tension may have on droplet production, we compare our results to a polymer and surfactant-free fluid system with closely matched physical properties. Comparing the two systems, we find little difference in the variation of particle size as a function of continuous phase flow rate. In contrast, at low dripping frequencies, dynamic interfacial tension causes the particle size to vary significantly with drip frequency, which is not seen in simple fluids. No effects due to shear thinning or fluid elasticity are detected. Overall, we find no significant impediments to the application of XME to forming highly uniform drug-loaded microspheres.

  18. Low-load resistance muscular training with moderate restriction of blood flow after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Haruyasu; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Iwase, Yoshiyuki; Satou, Naohiro; Nakamura, Shinji

    2003-02-01

    We performed a prospective study to determine the effects of introducing low-load muscular training with moderate restriction of blood flow during the first 16 weeks after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. 44 subjects (average age 29 (18-52) years) were randomized into a group that trained restriction of blood flow (group R, n = 22) and a group that trained without restriction (group N, n = 22). Both groups followed the same training schedule. Evaluations of knee extensor and flexor torques before surgery and 16 weeks after it showed a significant increase in muscular strength in group R as compared to group N. The preoperative/16-week postoperative ratio of the cross-sectional area of the knee extensor muscles showed a statistically significant enlargement in group R as compared to group N. 16 weeks after surgery, the short diameters of type 1 and type 2 fibers of M. vastus lateralis tended to be larger in group R (n = 8) than in group N (n = 8), although the differences were not significant. These findings show that low-load resistance muscular training during moderate restriction of blood flow is an effective exercise for early muscular training after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

  19. Study on the laser irradiation effects on carbon fiber reinforced resin composite subjected to tangential gas flow loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minsun; Jiang, Houman; Jiao, Luguang; Li, Junshen; Liu, Zejin

    2013-05-01

    The irradiation effects of 976nm continuous-wave laser on carbon fiber reinforced E-51 resin composite is studied experimentally, with a 0.4Ma tangential airflow or 0.4Ma tangential nitrogen gas flow on the target surface. In order to simulate the thermal response of fiber reinforced resin composite materials subjected to combined laser and tangential gas flow loading, a three-dimensional thermal response model of resin composite materials is developed. In the model, the thermal decomposition of resin is described by a multi-step model. The motion of the decomposition gas is assumed to be one-dimensional, for the case that the laser spot is significantly larger than the thickness of the sample. According the above assumption, the flow of the decomposition gas is considered in the three-dimensional model without introducing any mechanical quantities. The influences of the tangential gas flow, the outflow of the thermal decomposition gas and the ablation-including phase change ablation or oxidative ablation-of the surface material on the laser irradiation effects are included in the surface boundary conditions. The three-dimensional thermal response model is calculated numerically by use of the modified smooth particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) method which is coded with FORTRAN. The model is tested by experimentally measuring the temperature profiles during carbon fiber reinforced E-51 resin composite subjected to combined laser and tangential gas flow. The predicted temperature profiles are in good agreement with experimental temperatures obtained using thermocouples.

  20. Nitrate Loads and Concentrations in Surface-Water Base Flow and Shallow Groundwater for Selected Basins in the United States, Water Years 1990-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Franke, O. Lehn; Wolock, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrograph separation was used to determine the base-flow component of streamflow for 148 sites sampled as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Sites in the Southwest and the Northwest tend to have base-flow index values greater than 0.5. Sites in the Midwest and the eastern portion of the Southern Plains generally have values less than 0.5. Base-flow index values for sites in the Southeast and Northeast are mixed with values less than and greater than 0.5. Hypothesized flow paths based on relative scaling of soil and bedrock permeability explain some of the differences found in base-flow index. Sites in areas with impermeable soils and bedrock (areas where overland flow may be the primary hydrologic flow path) tend to have lower base-flow index values than sites in areas with either permeable bedrock or permeable soils (areas where deep groundwater flow paths or shallow groundwater flow paths may occur). The percentage of nitrate load contributed by base flow was determined using total flow and base flow nitrate load models. These regression-based models were calibrated using available nitrate samples and total streamflow or base-flow nitrate samples and the base-flow component of total streamflow. Many streams in the country have a large proportion of nitrate load contributed by base flow: 40 percent of sites have more than 50 percent of the total nitrate load contributed by base flow. Sites in the Midwest and eastern portion of the Southern Plains generally have less than 50 percent of the total nitrate load contributed by base flow. Sites in the Northern Plains and Northwest have nitrate load ratios that generally are greater than 50 percent. Nitrate load ratios for sites in the Southeast and Northeast are mixed with values less than and greater than 50 percent. Significantly lower contributions of nitrate from base flow were found at sites in areas with impermeable soils and impermeable bedrock. These areas could be most responsive to

  1. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joel T.; Mannheimer, Richard J.; Grimley, Terrence A.; Morrow, Thomas B.

    1989-06-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and fully-developed turbulent pipe flow regimes was the primary objective of this research. Experiments were conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Approximately, 550 liters (145 gal) of slurry were necessary in the operation of the loop. Detailed velocity profile measurements by a two-color, two-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) were accomplished in a transparent test section with an optically transparent slurry. These velocity measurements were apparently the first ever reported for a non-Newtonian slurry with a yield value. The transparent slurry was formulated for these experiments from silica with a particle size of one to two microns, mineral oil, and Stoddard solvent. From linear regression analysis of concentric-cylinder viscometer data, the slurry exhibited yield-power-law behavior with a yield stress of 100 dynes/cm(sup 2), and an exponent of 0.630 for a solids concentration of 5.65 percent by weight. Good agreement was attained with rheological data derived from the pressure drop data in the flow loop under laminar flow conditions. The rheological properties of the transparent slurry were similar to many industrial slurries, including coal slurries, which have a yield value.

  2. Combined Operation of AC and DC Distribution System with Distributed Generation Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noroozian, Reza; Abedi, Mehrdad; Gharehpetian, Gevorg

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a DC distribution system which has been supplied by external AC systems as well as local DG units in order to demonstrate an overall solution to power quality issue. In this paper, the proposed operation method is demonstrated by simulation of power transfer between external AC systems, DG units, AC and DC loads. The power flow control in DC distribution system has been achieved by network converters and DG converters. Also, the mathematical model of the network, DG and load converters are obtained by using the average technique, which allows converter systems accurately simulated and control strategies for this converters is achieved. A suitable control strategy for network converters has been proposed that involves DC voltage droop regulator and novel instantaneous power regulation scheme. Also, a novel control technique has been proposed for DG converters. In this paper, a novel control system based on stationary and synchronously rotating reference frame has been proposed for load converters for supplying AC loads connected to the DC bus by balanced voltages. The several case studies have been studied based on proposed methods. The simulation results show that DC distribution systems including DG units can improve the power quality at the point of common coupling (PCC) in the power distribution system or industrial power system.

  3. Estimation of streamflow, base flow, and nitrate-nitrogen loads in Iowa using multiple linear regression models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen variables, including precipitation, soils and geology, land use, and basin morphologic characteristics, were evaluated to develop Iowa regression models to predict total streamflow (Q), base flow (Qb), storm flow (Qs) and base flow percentage (%Qb) in gauged and ungauged watersheds in the state. Discharge records from a set of 33 watersheds across the state for the 1980 to 2000 period were separated into Qb and Qs. Multiple linear regression found that 75.5 percent of long term average Q was explained by rainfall, sand content, and row crop percentage variables, whereas 88.5 percent of Qb was explained by these three variables plus permeability and floodplain area variables. Qs was explained by average rainfall and %Qb was a function of row crop percentage, permeability, and basin slope variables. Regional regression models developed for long term average Q and Qb were adapted to annual rainfall and showed good correlation between measured and predicted values. Combining the regression model for Q with an estimate of mean annual nitrate concentration, a map of potential nitrate loads in the state was produced. Results from this study have important implications for understanding geomorphic and land use controls on streamflow and base flow in Iowa watersheds and similar agriculture dominated watersheds in the glaciated Midwest. (JAWRA) (Copyright ?? 2005).

  4. Exit blade geometry and part-load performance of small axial flow propeller turbines: An experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz

    2010-09-15

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects of exit blade geometry on the part-load performance of low-head, axial flow propeller turbines is presented. Even as these turbines find important applications in small-scale energy generation using micro-hydro, the relationship between the layout of blade profile, geometry and turbine performance continues to be poorly characterized. The experimental results presented here help understand the relationship between exit tip angle, discharge through the turbine, shaft power, and efficiency. The modification was implemented on two different propeller runners and it was found that the power and efficiency gains from decreasing the exit tip angle could be explained by a theoretical model presented here based on classical theory of turbomachines. In particular, the focus is on the behaviour of internal parameters like the runner loss coefficient, relative flow angle at exit, mean axial flow velocity and net tangential flow velocity. The study concluded that the effects of exit tip modification were significant. The introspective discussion on the theoretical model's limitation and test facility suggests wider and continued experimentation pertaining to the internal parameters like inlet vortex profile and exit swirl profile. It also recommends thorough validation of the model and its improvement so that it can be made capable for accurate characterization of blade geometric effects. (author)

  5. The Influence of Relative Submergence on the Near-bed Flow Field: Implications for Bed-load Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Tait, S.; Marion, A.

    2005-12-01

    Bed-load is governed by interdependent mechanisms, the most significant being the interaction between bed roughness, surface layer composition and near-bed flow. Despite this, practically all transport rate equations are described as a function of average bed shear stress. Some workers have examined the role of turbulence in sediment transport (Nelson et al. 1995) but have not explored the potential significance of spatial variations in the near-bed flow field. This is unfortunate considering evidence showing that transport is spatially heterogeneous and could be linked to the spatial nature of the near-bed flow (Drake et al., 1988). An understanding is needed of both the temporal and spatial variability in the near-bed flow field. This paper presents detailed spatial velocity measurements of the near-bed flow field over a gravel-bed, obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry. These data have been collected in a laboratory flume under two regimes: (i) tests with one bed slope and different flow depths; and (ii) tests with a combination of flow depths and slopes at the same average bed shear stress. Results indicate spatial variation in the streamwise velocities of up to 45 per cent from the double-averaged velocity (averaged in both time and space). Under both regimes, as the depth increased, spatial variability in the flow field increased. The probability distributions of near-bed streamwise velocities became progressively more skewed towards the higher velocities. This change was more noticeable under regime (i). This has been combined with data from earlier tests in which the near-bed velocity close to an entraining grain was measured using a PIV/image analysis system (Chegini et al, 2002). This along with data on the shape of the probability density function of velocities capable of entraining individual grains derived from a discrete-particle model (Heald et al., 2004) has been used to estimate the distribution of local velocities required for grain motion in

  6. Subsonic flow past an oscillating cascade with steady blade loading - Basic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, J. M.; Caspar, J. R.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A nonlinear boundary value problem governing the subsonic flow in a single, extended, blade passage region of a high-deflection, two dimensional, oscillating cascade is derived. The blades are assumed to be undergoing identical harmonic motions of small amplitude with constant phase angle between the motion of adjacent blades. An asymptotic perturbation approach is used to determine the velocity potential. This formulation can be used in the numerical determination of unsteady potential and thus the unsteady aerodynamic force and moment under various combinations of cascade and flow parameters.

  7. The role of loading rate, backwashing, water and air velocities in an up-flow nitrifying tertiary filter.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Emmanuelle; Choubert, Jean-Marc; Canler, Jean-Pierre; Heduit, Alain; Sørensen, Kim Helleshøj; Lessard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of nitrification performances in an up-flow biological aerated filter operated at tertiary nitrification stage is evaluated in this paper. Experimental data were collected from a semi-industrial pilot-plant under various operating conditions. The actual and the maximum nitrification rates were measured at different levels inside the up-flow biofilter. A nitrogen loading rate higher than 1.0 kg NH4-Nm(-3)_mediad(-1) is necessary to obtain nitrification activity over all the height of the biofilter. The increase in water and air velocities from 6 to 10 m h(-1) and 10 to 20 m h(-1) has increased the nitrification rate by 80% and 20% respectively. Backwashing decreases the maximum nitrification rate in the media by only 3-14%. The nitrification rate measured at a level of 0.5 m above the bottom of the filter is four times higher than the applied daily average volumetric nitrogen loading rate up to 1.5 kg NH4-N m(-3)_mediad(-1). Finally, it is shown that 58% of the available nitrification activity is mobilized in steady-state conditions while up to 100% is used under inflow-rate increase.

  8. Numerical simulation of full load surge in Francis turbines based on three-dimensional cavitating flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkov, D.; Panov, L.; Cherny, S.; Pylev, I.

    2014-03-01

    The two-phase 1D-3D model of full load surge, presented previously by the authors, is applied to simulation of self-excited oscillations in prototype power station. The model consists in 1D hydro-acoustic equations for the penstock domain, and 3D two-phase unsteady RANS equations for turbine domain, including the cavitating flow in the draft tube. Both systems of equations are linked together by pressure and discharge at the penstock-turbine interface and solved simultaneously. To demonstrate the work of the model over-load pressure pulsations are simulated for high head prototype power plant. The influence of numerical parameters is investigated. It was shown that the choice of cavitation model has a strong effect on the amplitude of pulsations. The structure of the vapor cavity is investigated. The computed frequency is compared to the results of 1D model and with experimental data. Amplitudes and frequencies of the pulsations agree well with experiment, showing the potential of the method to predict full-load surge.

  9. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading: a theoretical analysis of the polymer trap mechanism for sugar transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander; Bohr, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    Plants create sugar in the mesophyll cells of their leaves by photosynthesis. This sugar, mostly sucrose, has to be loaded via the bundle sheath into the phloem vascular system (the sieve elements), where it is distributed to growing parts of the plant. We analyze the feasibility of a particular loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from diffusing back requires that the plasmodesmata connecting the bundle sheath with the intermediary cell act as extremely precise filters, which are able to distinguish between molecules that differ by less than 20% in size. In our modeling, we take into account the coupled water and sugar movement across the relevant interfaces, without explicitly considering the chemical reactions transforming the sucrose into the heavier sugars. Based on the available data for plasmodesmata geometry, sugar concentrations, and flux rates, we conclude that this mechanism can in principle function, but that it requires pores of molecular sizes. Comparing with the somewhat uncertain experimental values for sugar export rates, we expect the pores to be only 5%-10% larger than the hydraulic radius of the sucrose molecules. We find that the water flow through the plasmodesmata, which has not been quantified before, contributes only 10%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all the necessary water for phloem translocation would be supplied in this way with no need for additional water uptake across the plasma membranes of the

  10. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading: A theoretical analysis of the polymer trap mechanism for sugar transport in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander; Bohr, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    Plants create sugar in the mesophyll cells of their leaves by photosynthesis. This sugar, mostly sucrose, has to be loaded via the bundle sheath into the phloem vascular system (the sieve elements), where it is distributed to growing parts of the plant. We analyze the feasibility of a particular loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from diffusing back requires that the plasmodesmata connecting the bundle sheath with the intermediary cell act as extremely precise filters, which are able to distinguish between molecules that differ by less than 20% in size. In our modeling, we take into account the coupled water and sugar movement across the relevant interfaces, without explicitly considering the chemical reactions transforming the sucrose into the heavier sugars. Based on the available data for plasmodesmata geometry, sugar concentrations, and flux rates, we conclude that this mechanism can in principle function, but that it requires pores of molecular sizes. Comparing with the somewhat uncertain experimental values for sugar export rates, we expect the pores to be only 5%-10% larger than the hydraulic radius of the sucrose molecules. We find that the water flow through the plasmodesmata, which has not been quantified before, contributes only 10%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all the necessary water for phloem translocation would be supplied in this way with no need for additional water uptake across the plasma membranes of the

  11. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading: a theoretical analysis of the polymer trap mechanism for sugar transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander; Bohr, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    Plants create sugar in the mesophyll cells of their leaves by photosynthesis. This sugar, mostly sucrose, has to be loaded via the bundle sheath into the phloem vascular system (the sieve elements), where it is distributed to growing parts of the plant. We analyze the feasibility of a particular loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from diffusing back requires that the plasmodesmata connecting the bundle sheath with the intermediary cell act as extremely precise filters, which are able to distinguish between molecules that differ by less than 20% in size. In our modeling, we take into account the coupled water and sugar movement across the relevant interfaces, without explicitly considering the chemical reactions transforming the sucrose into the heavier sugars. Based on the available data for plasmodesmata geometry, sugar concentrations, and flux rates, we conclude that this mechanism can in principle function, but that it requires pores of molecular sizes. Comparing with the somewhat uncertain experimental values for sugar export rates, we expect the pores to be only 5%-10% larger than the hydraulic radius of the sucrose molecules. We find that the water flow through the plasmodesmata, which has not been quantified before, contributes only 10%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all the necessary water for phloem translocation would be supplied in this way with no need for additional water uptake across the plasma membranes of the

  12. Impact of flow unsteadiness on maneuvers and loads of agile aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrah, M. Ameen; Ashley, Holt

    1989-01-01

    A program of airload measurements on a family of low-aspect-ratio delta wings with sharp leading edges, subjected to large amplitude pitch transients with angles of attack up to 90 deg, is reviewed. Even for small values of the pitch-rate parameter, representative of maneuvers anticipated for agile aircraft, the force and moment overshoots can exceed by 50 percent their steady-state values. This is explained in terms of the hysteretic behavior of the breakdown locations of leading-edge vortices. An approximate theoretical model is proposed which includes the breakdown hysteresis as part of a three-term representation of the unsteady chordwise load distribution.

  13. Particle loading time and humidity effects on the efficiency of an N95 filtering facepiece respirator model under constant and inhalation cyclic flows.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Alireza; Haghighat, Fariborz; Bahloul, Ali; Brochot, Clothilde; Ostiguy, Claude

    2015-06-01

    It is necessary to investigate the efficiencies of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) exposed to ultrafine particles (UFPs) for long periods of time, since the particle loading time may potentially affect the efficiency of FFRs. This article aims to investigate the filtration efficiency for a model of electrostatic N95 FFRs with constant and 'inhalation-only' cyclic flows, in terms of particle loading time effect, using different humidity conditions. Filters were exposed to generated polydisperse NaCl particles. Experiments were performed mimicking an 'inhalation-only' scenario with a cyclic flow of 85 l min(-1) as the minute volume [or 170 l min(-1) as mean inhalation flow (MIF)] and for two constant flows of 85 and 170 l min(-1), under three relative humidity (RH) levels of 10, 50, and 80%. Each test was performed for loading time periods of 6h and the particle penetration (10-205.4nm in electrical mobility diameter) was measured once every 2h. For a 10% RH, the penetration of smaller size particles (<80nm), including the most penetrating particle size (MPPS), decreased over time for both constant and cyclic flows. For 50 and 80% RH levels, the changes in penetration were typically observed in an opposite direction with less magnitude. The penetrations at MPPS increased with respect to loading time under constant flow conditions (85 and 170 l min(-1)): it did not substantially increase under cyclic flows. The comparison of the cyclic flow (85 l min(-1) as minute volume) and constant flow equal to the cyclic flow minute volume indicated that, for all conditions the penetration was significantly less for the constant flow than that of cyclic flow. The comparison between the cyclic (170 l min(-1) as MIF) and constant flow equal to cyclic flow MIF indicated that, for the initial stage of loading, the penetrations were almost equal, but they were different for the final stages of the loading time. For a 10% RH, the penetration of a wide range of sizes was observed

  14. Particle loading time and humidity effects on the efficiency of an N95 filtering facepiece respirator model under constant and inhalation cyclic flows.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Alireza; Haghighat, Fariborz; Bahloul, Ali; Brochot, Clothilde; Ostiguy, Claude

    2015-06-01

    It is necessary to investigate the efficiencies of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) exposed to ultrafine particles (UFPs) for long periods of time, since the particle loading time may potentially affect the efficiency of FFRs. This article aims to investigate the filtration efficiency for a model of electrostatic N95 FFRs with constant and 'inhalation-only' cyclic flows, in terms of particle loading time effect, using different humidity conditions. Filters were exposed to generated polydisperse NaCl particles. Experiments were performed mimicking an 'inhalation-only' scenario with a cyclic flow of 85 l min(-1) as the minute volume [or 170 l min(-1) as mean inhalation flow (MIF)] and for two constant flows of 85 and 170 l min(-1), under three relative humidity (RH) levels of 10, 50, and 80%. Each test was performed for loading time periods of 6h and the particle penetration (10-205.4nm in electrical mobility diameter) was measured once every 2h. For a 10% RH, the penetration of smaller size particles (<80nm), including the most penetrating particle size (MPPS), decreased over time for both constant and cyclic flows. For 50 and 80% RH levels, the changes in penetration were typically observed in an opposite direction with less magnitude. The penetrations at MPPS increased with respect to loading time under constant flow conditions (85 and 170 l min(-1)): it did not substantially increase under cyclic flows. The comparison of the cyclic flow (85 l min(-1) as minute volume) and constant flow equal to the cyclic flow minute volume indicated that, for all conditions the penetration was significantly less for the constant flow than that of cyclic flow. The comparison between the cyclic (170 l min(-1) as MIF) and constant flow equal to cyclic flow MIF indicated that, for the initial stage of loading, the penetrations were almost equal, but they were different for the final stages of the loading time. For a 10% RH, the penetration of a wide range of sizes was observed

  15. Pulmonary venous flow determinants of left atrial pressure under different loading conditions in a chronic animal model with mitral regurgitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Hua; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Qin, Jian Xin; Kim, Yong Jin; Popovic, Zoran B.; Pu, Min; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Eto, Yoko; Sitges, Marta; Zetts, Arthur D.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to quantitatively compare the changes and correlations between pulmonary venous flow variables and mean left atrial pressure (mLAP) under different loading conditions in animals with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) and without MR. METHODS: A total of 85 hemodynamic conditions were studied in 22 sheep, 12 without MR as control (NO-MR group) and 10 with MR (MR group). We obtained pulmonary venous flow systolic velocity (Sv) and diastolic velocity (Dv), Sv and Dv time integrals, their ratios (Sv/Dv and Sv/Dv time integral), mLAP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and MR stroke volume. We also measured left atrial a, x, v, and y pressures and calculated the difference between v and y pressures. RESULTS: Average MR stroke volume was 10.6 +/- 4.3 mL/beat. There were good correlations between Sv (r = -0.64 and r = -0.59, P <.01), Sv/Dv (r = -0.62 and r = -0.74, P <.01), and mLAP in the MR and NO-MR groups, respectively. Correlations were also observed between Dv time integral (r = 0.61 and r = 0.57, P <.01) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in the MR and NO-MR groups. In velocity variables, Sv (r = -0.79, P <.001) was the best predictor of mLAP in both groups. The sensitivity and specificity of Sv = 0 in predicting mLAP 15 mm Hg or greater were 86% and 85%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary venous flow variables correlated well with mLAP under altered loading conditions in the MR and NO-MR groups. They may be applied clinically as substitutes for invasively acquired indexes of mLAP to assess left atrial and left ventricular functional status.

  16. Studies of aerothermal loads generated in regions of shock/shock interaction in hypersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Michael S.; Moselle, John R.; Lee, Jinho

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted to examine the aerothermal characteristics of shock/shock/boundary layer interaction regions generated by single and multiple incident shocks. The presented experimental studies were conducted over a Mach number range from 6 to 19 for a range of Reynolds numbers to obtain both laminar and turbulent interaction regions. Detailed heat transfer and pressure measurements were made for a range of interaction types and incident shock strengths over a transverse cylinder, with emphasis on the 3 and 4 type interaction regions. The measurements were compared with the simple Edney, Keyes, and Hains models for a range of interaction configurations and freestream conditions. The complex flowfields and aerothermal loads generated by multiple-shock impingement, while not generating as large peak loads, provide important test cases for code prediction. The detailed heat transfer and pressure measurements proved a good basis for evaluating the accuracy of simple prediction methods and detailed numerical solutions for laminar and transitional regions or shock/shock interactions.

  17. Coupled dam-break flow and bed load modelling using HLLC-WAF scheme.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh-Tabrizi, Alireza; Ghaeini-Hessaroeyeh, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model predicting flow over a mobile bed has been developed. Governing equations consist of the shallow water equations and the Exner equation. The finite volume method on an unstructured triangular grid was deployed to discretize the governing equations. The local Riemann problem is solved by the Harten, Lax and van Leer-contact (HLLC) method in the interface of the cells and the equations are solved using a fully coupled method. Then the flux modelling has been deployed by the total variation diminishing (TVD) version of the weighted average flux (WAF) scheme. The model was verified by comparison of the results and available experimental data for dam-break flow, in a laboratory test, via a channel with sudden enlargement and erodible bed conditions. Comparison of these two sets of results shows that increasing the accuracy of flux modelling caused the model results to have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. PMID:26398031

  18. Fish responses to flow velocity and turbulence in relation to size, sex and parasite load.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Brew, A; Cable, J

    2014-02-01

    Riverine fish are subjected to heterogeneous flow velocities and turbulence and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions that balance energy expenditure for station holding while maximizing energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies Poecilia reticulata in terms of flow characteristics generated by hemisphere boulders in an open channel flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced the variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the areas of high-velocity and low-turbulence regions beside the boulders, whereas smaller guppies frequented the low-velocity and high-turbulence regions directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the regions of low velocity, indicating possible reduced swimming ability owing to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing Gyrodactylus turnbulli burden, fish spent more time in regions with moderate velocity and lowest turbulent kinetic energy which were the most spatially and temporally homogeneous in terms of velocity and turbulence. These findings highlight the importance of heterogeneous flow conditions in river channel design owing to the behavioural variability within a species in response to velocity and turbulence. PMID:24284893

  19. Fish responses to flow velocity and turbulence in relation to size, sex and parasite load.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Brew, A; Cable, J

    2014-02-01

    Riverine fish are subjected to heterogeneous flow velocities and turbulence and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions that balance energy expenditure for station holding while maximizing energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies Poecilia reticulata in terms of flow characteristics generated by hemisphere boulders in an open channel flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced the variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the areas of high-velocity and low-turbulence regions beside the boulders, whereas smaller guppies frequented the low-velocity and high-turbulence regions directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the regions of low velocity, indicating possible reduced swimming ability owing to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing Gyrodactylus turnbulli burden, fish spent more time in regions with moderate velocity and lowest turbulent kinetic energy which were the most spatially and temporally homogeneous in terms of velocity and turbulence. These findings highlight the importance of heterogeneous flow conditions in river channel design owing to the behavioural variability within a species in response to velocity and turbulence.

  20. A Fuzzy Goal Programming Procedure for Solving Multiobjective Load Flow Problems via Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Papun; Chakraborti, Debjani

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes how the genetic algorithms (GAs) can be efficiently used to fuzzy goal programming (FGP) formulation of optimal power flow problems having multiple objectives. In the proposed approach, the different constraints, various relationships of optimal power flow calculations are fuzzily described. In the model formulation of the problem, the membership functions of the defined fuzzy goals are characterized first for measuring the degree of achievement of the aspiration levels of the goals specified in the decision making context. Then, the achievement function for minimizing the regret for under-deviations from the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership goals to the extent possible on the basis of priorities is constructed for optimal power flow problems. In the solution process, the GA method is employed to the FGP formulation of the problem for achievement of the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership functions to the extent possible in the decision making environment. In the GA based solution search process, the conventional Roulette wheel selection scheme, arithmetic crossover and random mutation are taken into consideration to reach a satisfactory decision. The developed method has been tested on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus System. Numerical results show that this method is promising for handling uncertain constraints in practical power systems.

  1. Numerical modelling of the stability of loaded shells of revolution containing fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, S. A.; Matveenko, V. P.

    2008-03-01

    A mixed finite-element algorithm is proposed to study the dynamic behavior of loaded shells of revolution containing a stationary or moving compressible fluid. The behavior of the fluid is described by potential theory, whose equations are reduced to integral form using the Galerkin method. The dynamics of the shell is analyzed with the use of the variational principle of possible displacements, which includes the linearized Bernoulli equation for calculating the hydrodynamic pressure exerted on the shell by the fluid. The solution of the problem reduces to the calculation and analysis of the eigenvalues of the coupled system of equations. As an example, the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the dynamic behavior of shells of revolution containing a moving fluid is studied under various boundary conditions.

  2. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangwei; Tan, Meijuan; Chong, Yunxiao; Long, Xinxian

    2015-01-01

    For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs), two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF) CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF) CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P) were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  3. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guangwei; Tan, Meijuan; Chong, Yunxiao; Long, Xinxian

    2015-01-01

    For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs), two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF) CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF) CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P) were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation. PMID:26218872

  4. Impact of Periodic Unsteadiness on Performance and Heat Load in Axial Flow Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Om P.; Stetson, Gary M.; Daniels, William A,; Greitzer, Edward M.; Blair, Michael F.; Dring, Robert P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of an analytical and experimental investigation, directed at the understanding of the impact of periodic unsteadiness on the time-averaged flows in axial flow turbomachines, are presented. Analysis of available experimental data, from a large-scale rotating rig (LSRR) (low speed rig), shows that in the time-averaged axisymmetric equations the magnitude of the terms representing the effect of periodic unsteadiness (deterministic stresses) are as large or larger than those due to random unsteadiness (turbulence). Numerical experiments, conducted to highlight physical mechanisms associated with the migration of combustor generated hot-streaks in turbine rotors, indicated that the effect can be simulated by accounting for deterministic stress like terms in the time-averaged mass and energy conservation equations. The experimental portion of this program shows that the aerodynamic loss for the second stator in a 1-1/2 stage turbine are influenced by the axial spacing between the second stator leading edge and the rotor trailing edge. However, the axial spacing has little impact on the heat transfer coefficient. These performance changes are believed to be associated with the change in deterministic stress at the inlet to the second stator. Data were also acquired to quantify the impact of indexing the first stator relative to the second stator. For the range of parameters examined, this effect was found to be of the same order as the effect of axial spacing.

  5. Mobility power flow analysis of an L-shaped plate structure subjected to distributed loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.; Cimmerman, B.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical investigation based in the Mobility Power Flow (MPF) method is presented for the determination of the vibrational response and power flow for two coupled flat plate structures in an L-shaped configuration, subjected to distributed excitation. The principle of the MPF method consists of dividing the global structure into a series of subsystems coupled together using mobility functions. Each separate subsystem is analyzed independently to determine the structural mobility functions for the junction and excitation locations. The mobility functions, together with the characteristics of the junction between the subsystems, are then used to determine the response of the global structure and the MPF. In the considered coupled plate structure, MPF expressions are derived for distributed mechanical excitation which is independent of the structure response. However using a similar approach with some modifications excitation by an acoustic plane wave can be considered. Some modifications are required to deal with the latter case are necessary because the forces (acoustic pressure) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure due to the presence of the scattered pressure.

  6. Impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAnPBR).

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Zaiat, Marcelo; Gupta, Medhavi; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George

    2014-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production from glucose in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAnPBR). Two mesophilic UAPBRs (UAnPBR1 and 2) were tested at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 6.5 to 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1). To overcome biomass washout, design modifications were made in the UAnPBR2 to include a settling zone to capture the detached biomass. The design modifications in UAnPBR2 increased the average hydrogen yield from 0.98 to 2.0 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose at an OLR of 25.7 g COD L(-1)d(-1). Although, a maximum hydrogen production rate of 23.4 ± 0.9 L H2 L(-1)d(-1) was achieved in the UAnPBR2 at an OLR of 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1), the hydrogen yield dropped by 50% to around 1 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose. The microbiological analysis (PCR/DGGE) showed that the biohydrogen production was due to the presence of the hydrogen and volatile acid producers such as Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium butyricum, Megasphaera elsdenii and Propionispira arboris.

  7. Recirculation or artificial aeration in vertical flow constructed wetlands: a comparative study for treating high load wastewater.

    PubMed

    Foladori, Paola; Ruaben, Jenny; Ortigara, Angela R C

    2013-12-01

    Vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands at pilot-scale have been applied to treat high hydraulic and organic loads by implementing the following configurations: (1) intermittent recirculation of the treated wastewater from the bottom to the top of the bed, (2) intermittent artificial aeration supplied at the bottom of the bed and (3) the combination of both. These configurations were operated with a saturated bottom layer for a 6h-treatment phase, followed by a free drainage phase prior to a new feeding. COD removal efficiency was 85-90% in all the configurations and removed loads were 54-70 gCOD m(-2)d(-1). The aerated and recirculated wetland resulted in a higher total nitrogen removal (8.6 gN m(-2)d(-1)) due to simultaneous nitrification/denitrification, even in the presence of intermittent aeration (6.8 Nm(3)m(-2)d(-1)). The extra investment needed for implementing aeration/recirculation would be compensated for by a reduction of the surface area per population equivalent, which decreased to 1.5m(2)/PE.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF REPOSITORY THERMAL LOAD ON MULTIPHASE FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Shu Wu, Sumit Mukhopadhyay, Keni Zhang, and G. S. Bodvarsson

    2006-04-16

    This paper investigates the impact of proposed repository thermal-loading on mountain-scale flow and heat transfer in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this context, a model has been developed to study the coupled thermal-hydrological (TH) processes at the scale of the entire Yucca Mountain. This mountain-scale TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the latest rock thermal and hydrological properties. The TH model consists of a two-dimensional north-south vertical cross section across the entire unsaturated zone model domain and uses refined meshes near and around the proposed repository block, based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climatic conditions. The model simulations provide insights into thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and elevated water and rock temperature, which in turn allow modelers to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts.

  9. Numerical Analysis of a Pulse Detonation Cross Flow Heat Load Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Naples, Andrew .; Hoke, John L.; Schauer, Fred

    2011-01-01

    A comparison between experimentally measured and numerically simulated, time-averaged, point heat transfer rates in a pulse detonation (PDE) engine is presented. The comparison includes measurements and calculations for heat transfer to a cylinder in crossflow and to the tube wall itself using a novel spool design. Measurements are obtained at several locations and under several operating conditions. The measured and computed results are shown to be in substantial agreement, thereby validating the modeling approach. The model, which is based in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is then used to interpret the results. A preheating of the incoming fuel charge is predicted, which results in increased volumetric flow and subsequent overfilling. The effect is validated with additional measurements.

  10. Flow resistance and suspended load in sand-bed rivers: Simplified stratification model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.; Parker, G.

    2004-01-01

    New methods are presented for the prediction of the flow depth, grain-size specific near-bed concentration, and bed-material suspended sediment transport rate in sand-bed rivers. The salient improvements delineated here all relate to the need to modify existing formulations in order to encompass the full range of sand-bed rivers, and in particular large, low-slope sand-bed rivers. They can be summarized as follows: (1) the inclusion of density stratification effects in a simplified manner, which have been shown in the companion paper to be particularly relevant for large, low-slope, sand-bed rivers; (2) a new predictor for near-bed entrainment rate into suspension which extends a previous relation to the range of large, low-slope sand-bed rivers; and (3) a new predictor for form drag which again extends a previous relation to include large, low-slope sand-bed rivers. Finally, every attempt has been made to cast the relations in the simplest form possible, including the development of software, so that practicing engineers may easily use the methods. ?? ASCE.

  11. An experimental study on a suction flow control method to reduce the unsteadiness of the wind loads acting on a circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Hui; Hu, Hui

    2014-04-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a suction flow control method for vortex-induced vibration (VIV) suppression. The flow control method uses a limited number of isolated suction holes to manipulate the vortex shedding in the wake behind a circular cylinder in order to reduce the unsteadiness of the dynamic wind loads acting on the cylinder. The experimental study was performed at Re ≈ 3.0 × 104, i.e., in the typical Reynolds number range of VIV for the cables of cable-stayed bridges. In addition to measuring the surface pressure distributions to determine the resultant dynamic wind loads acting on the test model, a digital particle image velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to reveal the changes in the shedding process of the unsteady wake vortex structures from the test model with and without the suction flow control. The effects of important controlling parameters (i.e., the azimuthal locations of the suction holes in respect to the oncoming airflow, the spanwise spacing between the suction holes, and the suction flow rate through the suction holes) on the wake flow characteristics, the surface pressure distributions, and the resultant dynamic wind loads were assessed quantitatively. While a higher suction flow rate and smaller spanwise spacing between the suction holes were beneficial to the effectiveness of the suction flow control, the azimuthal locations of the suction holes were found to be very critical for reducing the fluctuating amplitudes of the dynamic wind loads acting on the test model using the suction flow control method. With the suction holes located at the proper azimuthal locations on the test model (i.e., at the azimuthal angle of θ = 90° and 270° for the present study), the characteristics of the wake flow behind the test model were found to change significantly along the entire span of the test model, even though only a limited number of the isolated suction

  12. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing dynamic knee extensions at low load.

    PubMed

    Wernbom, Mathias; Järrebring, Rickard; Andreasson, Mikael A; Augustsson, Jesper

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing low-intensity dynamic knee extension exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Eleven healthy subjects with strength training experience performed 3 sets of unilateral knee extensions with no relaxation between repetitions to concentric torque failure at 30% of the 1 repetition maximum. One leg was randomized to exercise with cuff occlusion and the other leg to exercise without occlusion. The muscle activity in the quadriceps was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and acute pain were collected immediately, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was rated before and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The results demonstrated high EMG levels in both experimental conditions, but there were no significant differences regarding maximal muscle activity, except for a higher EMG in the eccentric phase in set 3 for the nonoccluded condition (p = 0.005). Significantly more repetitions were performed with the nonoccluded leg in every set (p < 0.05). The RPE and acute pain ratings were similar, but DOMS was higher in the nonoccluded leg (p < 0.05). We conclude that blood flow restriction during low-intensity dynamic knee extension decreases the endurance but does not increase the maximum muscle activity compared with training without restriction when both regimes are performed to failure. The high levels of muscle activity suggest that performing low-load dynamic knee extensions in a no-relaxation manner may be a useful method in knee rehabilitation settings when large forces are contraindicated. However, similarly to fatiguing blood flow restricted exercise, this method is associated with ischemic muscle pain, and thus its applications may be limited to highly motivated individuals.

  13. Large-scale Particle Simulations for Debris Flows using Dynamic Load Balance on a GPU-rich Supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Satori; Aoki, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulations for debris flows including a countless of objects is one of important topics in fluid dynamics and many engineering applications. Particle-based method is a promising approach to carry out the simulations for flows interacting with objects. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to realize a large-scale simulation for fluid-structure interaction by combining SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) method for fluid with DEM (Discrete Element Method) for objects on a multi-GPU system. By applying space filling curves to decomposition of the computational domain, we are able to contain the same number of particles in each decomposed domain. In our implementation, several techniques for particle counting and data movement have been introduced. Fragmentation of the memory used for particles happens during the time-integration and the frequency of de-fragmentation is examined by taking account for computational load balance and the communication cost between CPU and GPU. A link-list technique of the particle interaction is introduced to save the memory drastically. It is found that the sorting of particle data for the neighboring particle list using linked-list method improves the memory access greatly with a certain interval. The weak and strong scalabilities for a SPH simulation using 111 Million particles was measured from 4 GPUs to 512 GPUs for three types of space filling curves. A large-scale debris flow simulation of tsunami with 10,368 floating rubbles using 117 Million particles were successfully carried out with 256 GPUs on the TSUBAME 2.5 supercomputer at Tokyo Institute of Technology.

  14. Soft-sediment deformations (convolute lamination and load structures) in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections against bounding slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinterri, Roberto; Muzzi Magalhaes, Pierre; Tagliaferri, Alessio; Cunha, Rogerio S.; Laporta, Michele

    2015-04-01

    turbidites containing these deformative structures show that they are genetically linked to contained-reflected beds in structurally-confined basins, suggesting a trigger mechanism associated with the cyclic-wave loading produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to ponded turbidity currents. The data that can demonstrate this hypothesis come from the foredeep turbidites of the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (southwestern France), where a basin scale high-resolution stratigraphic framework with bed-by-bed correlations is now available. These data show that the lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures is not random but has an evident depositional logic related to reflection processes against bounding slopes. Therefore, the main objectives of this work are: 1) to show that convolute laminae and load structures are strictly associated with other sedimentary structures that are unequivocally related to reflection and rebound processes of turbidity currents against morphological obstacles; 2) to show that their lateral and vertical distribution increases concomitantly with the number of contained-reflected beds in the proximity of structurally-controlled morphological highs; 3) to show that the increase in contained-reflected beds with convolute laminae is strictly related to the increase in the synsedimentary-structural uplifts producing more pronounced morphologic highs; 4) to discuss the processes that link soft-sediment deformations with cyclic-wave loading related to internal waves and bores produced by reflection processes.

  15. Efficacy of Blood Flow Restricted Low-Load Resistance Training in Women with Risk Factors for Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Williams, Glenn N.; Davis, Maria; Wallace, Robert B.; Mikesky, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether concurrent blood flow restriction (BFR) during low-load resistance training is an efficacious and tolerable means of improving quadriceps strength and volume in women with risk factors for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial Setting: Exercise training clinical research laboratory Participants: Women over age 45 years with risk factors for symptomatic knee OA. Methods: Participants were randomized to either low-load resistance training (30% 1RM) alone (control) or with concurrent BFR and completed 4 weeks of 3 times per week leg-press resistance training. Those randomized to BFR wore a cuff that progressively restricted femoral blood flow over the weeks of training. Inter-group differences in outcome measures were compared using regression methods, while adjusting for BMI. Main Outcome Measures: Isotonic bilateral leg press strength, isokinetic knee extensor strength, and quadriceps volume by MRI were assessed before and after participation. Secondary measures included lower limb muscle power (leg press and stair climb). Knee pain was assessed to determine tolerance. Results: Forty women completed the program out of 45 who consented. There were no significant inter-group differences in baseline characteristics except that BMI was lower in the BFR group (p=.0223). Isotonic 1RM improved significantly more in the BFR group (28.3±4.8 kg) than in the control group (15.6±4.5 kg) (p=.0385). Isokinetic knee extensor strength scaled to body mass increased significantly more in the BFR group (0.07±0.03 Nm/kg) than in the control group (-0.05±0.03 Nm/kg) (p=.0048). Changes in quadriceps volume, leg press power, and knee-related pain did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions: Addition of BFR to a 30% 1RM resistance training program was effective in increasing leg press and knee extensor strength in women at risk for knee OA, in comparison with the same program without BFR

  16. Blood flow of the submandibular gland in sodium-depleted and -loaded rats: effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vág, J; Hably, C; Csabai, Z; Tost, H; Bartha, J; Fazekas, A

    1998-08-01

    The present investigations were designed to study the hemodynamic effects of different sodium diets in the submandibular gland of rats with or without nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition. Experimental animals were kept on: (1) standard chow and tap water ad libitum (normal group, N), or (2) wheat and distilled water ad libitum for 4 weeks (sodium-depleted animals, SD), or (3) standard chow and saline ad libitum for 4 weeks (sodium-loaded animals, SL). NO synthase was inhibited by N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg per day) in the last week. The rats were anesthetized, and blood pressure, cardiac output (Stewart-Hamilton's principle) and blood flow (BF) of the submandibular gland (Sapirstein's technique) were determined. High sodium intake resulted in a 47% increase of glandular BF as compared to BF measured in the control group. In all groups L-NAME decreased BF (ml/min per 100 g gland) as compared to those of rats with no L-NAME treatment (N: 76.4 +/- 15.4 vs. 56.0 +/- 11.6, P < 0.05; SD: 71.0 +/- 17.7 vs. 56.2 +/- 15.1, n.s.; SL: 112 +/- 29.4 vs. 66.9 +/- 18.4, P < 0.001), whereas the vascular resistance (VR, mm Hg x ml-1 x s x kg-1) increased (N: 11.0 +/- 2.3 vs. 17.5 +/- 4.1, P < 0.001; SD: 11.0 +/- 2.7 vs. 17.0 +/- 4.2, P < 0.01; SL: 8.5 +/- 2.4 vs. 14.9 +/- 4.6, P < 0.001). The increase in VR after L-NAME treatment was 64% in normal, 55% in sodium-depleted and 75% in sodium-loaded rats. Our results suggest that NO takes part in the regulation of vascular resistance and BF in the submandibular gland. Sodium load itself increases BF of the submandibular gland and this phenomenon may partly be mediated by NO.

  17. Developing a flow control strategy to reduce nutrient load in a reclaimed multi-reservoir system using a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality model.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongeun; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Joon Ha

    2014-01-01

    Blocking the natural bi-directional flow in an estuarine system using an artificial dyke has commonly caused serious water quality problems. In the southwestern part of South Korea, a parallel triple-reservoir system was constructed by blocking the mouth of three different rivers (Yeongsan, Okcheon, and Kumja), which were then interconnected using two open channels. This system has experienced a deterioration in water quality due to pollutants accumulated from the upper watershed, and has continually discharged pollutant loads to the outer ocean. Therefore, the objective of this study is to establish an effective dam operation plan for reducing nutrient loads released from the integrated reservoir. In this study, the CE-QUAL-W2 model, which is a 2-dimentional hydrodynamic and water quality model, was applied to predict the pollutant load released from each reservoir in response to different flow scenarios for the interconnecting channel. The model was calibrated using two novel methods: a sensitivity analysis to determine meaningful model parameters, and a pattern search to optimize the parameters. From the scenario analysis using flow control, it was determined that the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loadings could be reduced by 27.2% and 6.6%, respectively, under the optimal channel flow scenario by regulating the chlorophyll-a concentration in the reservoir. The results confirm that effective dam operation could contribute to a decrease in pollutant loads in the receiving seawater body. As such, this study suggests operational strategies for a multi-reservoir system that can be used to reduce the nutrient load being discharged from reservoirs.

  18. Flow cytometric analysis of pollen grains collected from individual bees provides information about pollen load composition and foraging behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kron, Paul; Kwok, Allison; Husband, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the species composition of pollen on pollinators has applications in agriculture, conservation and evolutionary biology. Current identification methods, including morphological analysis, cannot always discriminate taxa at the species level. Recent advances in flow cytometry techniques for pollen grains allow rapid testing of large numbers of pollen grains for DNA content, potentially providing improved species resolution. Methods A test was made as to whether pollen loads from single bees (honey-bees and bumble-bees) could be classified into types based on DNA content, and whether good estimates of proportions of different types could be made. An examination was also made of how readily DNA content can be used to identify specific pollen species. Key Results The method allowed DNA contents to be quickly found for between 250 and 9391 pollen grains (750–28 173 nuclei) from individual honey-bees and between 81 and 11 512 pollen grains (243–34 537 nuclei) for bumble-bees. It was possible to identify a minimum number of pollen species on each bee and to assign proportions of each pollen type (based on DNA content) present. Conclusions The information provided by this technique is promising but is affected by the complexity of the pollination environment (i.e. number of flowering species present and extent of overlap in DNA content). Nevertheless, it provides a new tool for examining pollinator behaviour and between-species or cytotype pollen transfer, particularly when used in combination with other morphological, chemical or genetic techniques. PMID:24232381

  19. Concentrations and loads of PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, PBDEs, OC pesticides and pyrethroids during storm and low flow conditions in a small urban semi-arid watershed.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Alicia N; McKee, Lester J

    2015-09-01

    Urban runoff has been identified in water quality policy documents for San Francisco Bay as a large and potentially controllable source of pollutants. In response, concentrations of suspended sediments and a range of trace organic pollutants were intensively measured in dry weather and storm flow runoff from a 100% urban watershed. Flow in this highly urban watershed responded very quickly to rainfall and varied widely resulting in rapid changes of turbidity, suspended sediments and pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of each organic pollutant class were within similar ranges reported in other studies of urban runoff, however comparison was limited for several of the pollutants given information scarcity. Consistently among PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs, the more hydrophobic congeners were transported in larger proportions during storm flows relative to low flows. Loads for Water Years 2007-2010 were estimated using regression with turbidity during the monitored months and a flow weighted mean concentration for unmonitored dry season months. More than 91% of the loads for every pollutant measured were transported during storm events, along with 87% of the total discharge. While this dataset fills an important local data gap for highly urban watersheds of San Francisco Bay, the methods, the uniqueness of the analyte list, and the resulting interpretations have applicability for managing pollutant loads in urban watersheds in other parts of the world.

  20. Determination of chemical-constituent loads during base-flow and storm-runoff conditions near historical mines in Prospect Gulch, upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirt, Laurie; Leib, K.J.; Bove, D.J.; Mast, M.A.; Evans, J.B.; Meeker, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of iron, aluminum, zinc, and other metals to Cement Creek. Information is needed to prioritize remediation and develop strategies for cleanup of historical abandoned mine sites in Prospect Gulch. Chemical-constituent loads were determined in Prospect Gulch, a high-elevation alpine stream in southwestern Colorado that is affected by natural acid drainage from weathering of hydro-thermally altered igneous rock and acidic metal-laden discharge from historical abandoned mines. The objective of the study was to identify metal sources to Prospect Gulch. A tracer solution was injected into Prospect Gulch during water-quality sampling so that loading of geochemical constituents could be calculated throughout the study reach. A thunderstorm occurred during the tracer study, hence, metal loads were measured for storm-runoff as well as for base flow. Data from different parts of the study reach represents different flow conditions. The beginning of the reach represents background conditions during base flow immediately upstream from the Lark and Henrietta mines (samples PG5 to PG45). Other samples were collected during storm runoff conditions (PG100 to PG291); during the first flush of metal runoff following the onset of rainfall (PG303 to PG504), and samples PG542 to PG700 were collected during low-flow conditions. During base-flow conditions, the percentage increase in loads for major constituents and trace metals was more than an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding 36 % increase in stream discharge. Within the study reach, the highest percentage increases for dissolved loads were 740 % for iron (Fe), 465 % for aluminum (Al), 500 % for lead (Pb), 380 % for copper (Cu), 100 % for sulfate (SO4), and 50 % for zinc (Zn). Downstream loads near the mouth of Prospect Gulch often greatly exceeded the loads generated within the study reach but varied by metal species. For example, the study reach accounts for about 6 % of the dissolved

  1. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  2. Exploring the influence of loading geometry on the plastic flow properties of geological materials: Results from combined torsion + axial compression tests on calcite rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey-Crump, S. J.; Xiao, W. F.; Mecklenburgh, J.; Rutter, E. H.; May, S. E.

    2016-07-01

    For technical reasons, virtually all plastic deformation experiments on geological materials have been performed in either pure shear or simple shear. These special case loading geometries are rather restrictive for those seeking insight into how microstructure evolves under the more general loading geometries that occur during natural deformation. Moreover, they are insufficient to establish how plastic flow properties might vary with the 3rd invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor (J3) which describes the stress configuration, and so applications that use those flow properties (e.g. glaciological and geodynamical modelling) may be correspondingly compromised. We describe an inexpensive and relatively straightforward modification to the widely used Paterson rock deformation apparatus that allows torsion experiments to be performed under simultaneously applied axial loads. We illustrate the performance of this modification with the results of combined stress experiments performed on Carrara marble and Solnhofen limestone at 500°-600 °C and confining pressures of 300 MPa. The flow stresses are best described by the Drucker yield function which includes J3-dependence. However, that J3-dependence is small. Hence for these initially approximately isotropic calcite rocks, flow stresses are adequately described by the J3-independent von Mises yield criterion that is widely used in deformation modelling. Loading geometry does, however, have a profound influence on the type and rate of development of crystallographic preferred orientation, and hence of mechanical anisotropy. The apparatus modification extends the range of loading geometries that can be used to investigate microstructural evolution, as well as providing greater scope for determining the shape of the yield surface in plastically anisotropic materials.

  3. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Hatzell, Kelsey B; Hatzell, Marta C; Cook, Kevin M; Boota, Muhammad; Housel, Gabrielle M; McBride, Alexander; Kumbur, E Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-01

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. Chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) was examined here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (∼21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g(-1)) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ∼18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (∼60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. It is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.

  4. AC/DC Power Systems with Applications for future Lunar/Mars base and Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowdhury, Badrul H.

    2005-01-01

    redundancies and including emergency generators on both ac and dc sides is proposed. The generation frequency is 400 Hz mostly because of the technology maturity at this frequency in the aerospace industry. Power will be distributed to several ac load distribution buses through solid state variable speed, constant frequency converters on the ac side. A segmented dc ring bus supplied from ac/dc converters and with the capability of connecting/disconnecting the segments will supply power to multiple de load distribution buses. The system will have the capability of reverse flow from dc to ac side in the case of an extreme emergency on the main ac generation side.

  5. Long-range response in ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013)EPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology-for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions-a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014)1951-635510.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found. PMID:27575148

  6. Long-range response in ac electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013), 10.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology—for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions—a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014), 10.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found.

  7. Long-range response in ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013)EPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology-for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions-a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014)1951-635510.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found.

  8. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  9. Aerothermal loads analysis for high speed flow over a quilted surface configuration. [metallic Thermal Protection System panels simulation for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. C.; Smith, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to hypersonic laminar flow over a quilted surface configuration that simulates an array of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System panels bowed in a spherical shape as a result of thermal gradients through the panel thickness. Pressure and heating loads to the surface are determined. The flow field over the configuration was mathematically modeled by means of time-dependent, three-dimensional conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations. A boundary mapping technique was then used to obtain a rectangular, parallelepiped computational domain, and an explicit MacCormack (1972) explicit time-split predictor-corrector finite difference algorithm was used to obtain steady state solutions. Total integrated heating loads vary linearly with bowed height when this value does not exceed the local boundary layer thickness.

  10. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  11. A title-gap flow model for use in aerodynamic loads assessment of space shuttle thermal protection system: Parallel gap faces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwoyer, D. L.; Newman, P. A.; Thames, F. C.; Melson, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of predicting aerodynamic loads on the insulating tiles of the space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is discussed and seen to require a method for predicting pressure and mass flux in the gaps between tiles. A mathematical model of the tile-gap flow is developed, based upon a slow viscous (Stokes) flow analysis, and is verified against experimental data. The tile-gap pressure field is derived from a solution of the two-dimensional Laplace equation; the mass-flux vector is then calculated from the pressure gradient. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The flow model shows tile-gap mass flux to be very sensitive to the gap width indicating a need for coupling the TPS flow and tile displacement calculation. Analytical and experimental work to improve TPS flow predictions and a possible shuttle TPS hardware modification are recommended.

  12. Flow-adjusted trends in dissolved selenium load and concentration in the Gunnison and Colorado Rivers near Grand Junction, Colorado, water years 1986--2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, John W.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of elevated selenium concentrations, many western Colorado rivers and streams are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Colorado 303(d) list, including the main stem of the Colorado River from the Gunnison River confluence to the Utah border. Selenium is a trace metal that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other adverse impacts in birds and fish, including several threatened and endangered fish species. Salinity in the upper Colorado River has been the focus of source-control efforts for many years. Although salinity loads and concentrations have been previously characterized at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations at the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo., and at the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line, trends in selenium load and concentration at these two stations have not been studied. The USGS, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado River Water Conservation District, evaluated dissolved selenium (herein referred to as "selenium") load and concentration trends at these two sites to inform decision makers on the status and trends of selenium. This report presents results of the evaluation of trends in selenium load and concentration for two USGS streamflow-gaging stations: the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo. ("Gunnison River site"), USGS site 09152500, and the Colorado River near Colorado-Utah State line ("Colorado River site"), USGS site 09163500. Flow-adjusted selenium loads were estimated for the beginning water year (WY) of the study, 1986, and the ending WY of the study, 2008. The difference between flow-adjusted selenium loads for WY 1986 and WY 2008 was selected as the method of analysis because flow adjustment removes the natural variations in load caused by changes in mean-daily streamflow, emphasizing human-caused changes in selenium load and concentration. Overall changes in human-caused effects

  13. A study on the effects of different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) on pollutant removal efficiency of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands used for treatment of domestic wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Çakir, Recep; Gidirislioglu, Ali; Çebi, Ulviye

    2015-12-01

    The research into the treatment of domestic wastewaters originating from Büyükdöllük village in Edirne Province was carried out over a 3 year experimental period. The wastewaters of the settlement were treated using a constructed wetland with subsurface horizontal flow, and the effects of different hydraulic loading levels on removal efficiency were studied. In order to achieve this goal, three equal chambers (ponds) of 300 m(2) each were constructed and planted with Phragmites australis. Each of the chambers was loaded with domestic wastewater with average flow discharge creating hydraulic loading rates of 0. m(3) day(-1) m(-2); 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2) and 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2), respectively. According to the results of the study, the inlet levels of the pollutant parameters with carbon origin in the water samples taken from the system entrance are high and the average values for three years are respectively: Biological Oxygen Demand, BOD5 -324.5 mg L(-1); Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD -484,0 mg L(-1); suspended solids (TSS) -147.3 mg L(-1) and Oil and Grease -0.123 mg L(-1). It was also determined that the removal rates of the system were closely dependent on the applied hydraulic loading levels and the highest removal rates of 64.9%, 62.5%, 86.3% and 80.34% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease, respectively, were determined in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.050 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). Lower removal of 57.9%, 55.5%, 81.4% and 74.5% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease were recorded in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2); and these values were 49.1%, 47.8%, 70.9% and 62.1% for the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). High removal rates were also recorded for the other investigated pollution parameters.

  14. A study on the effects of different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) on pollutant removal efficiency of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands used for treatment of domestic wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Çakir, Recep; Gidirislioglu, Ali; Çebi, Ulviye

    2015-12-01

    The research into the treatment of domestic wastewaters originating from Büyükdöllük village in Edirne Province was carried out over a 3 year experimental period. The wastewaters of the settlement were treated using a constructed wetland with subsurface horizontal flow, and the effects of different hydraulic loading levels on removal efficiency were studied. In order to achieve this goal, three equal chambers (ponds) of 300 m(2) each were constructed and planted with Phragmites australis. Each of the chambers was loaded with domestic wastewater with average flow discharge creating hydraulic loading rates of 0. m(3) day(-1) m(-2); 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2) and 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2), respectively. According to the results of the study, the inlet levels of the pollutant parameters with carbon origin in the water samples taken from the system entrance are high and the average values for three years are respectively: Biological Oxygen Demand, BOD5 -324.5 mg L(-1); Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD -484,0 mg L(-1); suspended solids (TSS) -147.3 mg L(-1) and Oil and Grease -0.123 mg L(-1). It was also determined that the removal rates of the system were closely dependent on the applied hydraulic loading levels and the highest removal rates of 64.9%, 62.5%, 86.3% and 80.34% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease, respectively, were determined in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.050 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). Lower removal of 57.9%, 55.5%, 81.4% and 74.5% for BOD5, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease were recorded in the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.075 m(3) day(-1) m(-2); and these values were 49.1%, 47.8%, 70.9% and 62.1% for the pond with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.125 m(3) day(-1) m(-2). High removal rates were also recorded for the other investigated pollution parameters. PMID:26363259

  15. Gas-Solid Interaction, Flow Behavior analysis and Development of a Design Basis equation for the Dense Entry Region of an Asymmetrically Loaded Cold Flow CFB Riser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastane, Rajiv

    The dispersion of a gas tracer was used to indicate the effectiveness of the mixing process of an injected flow of solids into the dense bed region of NETL's cold flow CFB riser in three distinctly different fluidization regimes. NETL's cold flow test facility mimics commercial scale transport reactors with side entry of solids into the vertical riser. Pure CO2 was used as the tracer gas and was introduced continuously into the injected flow of solids and it was assumed to essentially remain in the injected flow stream. The tracer gas would be released from the injected flow stream as the as the flow stream begins to disintegrate. As the stream loses its identity the remaining tracer gas would be released. The tracer gas distribution was measured using inline IR CO2 detectors across the cross-sectional area of the riser at four different elevations, two near the injection point and two further downstream. Due to the high solids hold up and high reactant concentrations, a significant portion of the reaction can take place in the dense bed region. The effectiveness of a Transport Reactor depends on its ability to adequately mix the incoming flows of reactants: fuel, sorbent and air. These reactants have to be dispersed across the reactor's cross-sectional area by the different mixing mechanisms. A good description of the flow behavior is also essential in developing and validating predictor reactor models as well as in developing crucial gas and solids mixing relationships that will can be incorporated and validated for CFD codes (MFIX). In addition there are several operational variables (independent variables) that influence this mixing behavior. Multivariable analysis of variance (MANOVA) model were developed for the NETL cold flow CFB riser based on the dispersion data. The mixing process as a function of the operating parameters is empirically proposed outlining the independent variables (operating and system parameters) which significantly influenced the

  16. The Influence of Proposed Repository Thermal Load on MultiphaseFlow and Heat Transfer in the Unsaturated Zone of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.-S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2006-02-28

    This paper investigates the impact of proposed repositorythermal-loading on mountain-scale flow and heat transfer in theunsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this context, amodel has been developed to study the coupled thermal-hydrological (TH)processes at the scale of the entire Yucca Mountain. This mountain-scaleTH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeologicalconceptual models, and incorporates the latest rock thermal andhydrological properties. The TH model consists of a two-dimensionalnorth-south vertical cross section across the entire unsaturated zonemodel domain and uses refined meshes near and around the proposedrepository block, based on the current repository design, drift layout,thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climaticconditions. The model simulations provide insights into thermallyaffected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and elevatedwater and rock temperature, which in turn allow modelers to predict thechanges in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, anddrainage between drifts.

  17. Encapsulation of α-Particle–Emitting 225Ac3+ Ions Within Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Michael L.; Villa, Carlos H.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Law, Justin J.; Scheinberg, David A.; Wilson, Lon J.

    2016-01-01

    225Ac3+ is a generator of α-particle–emitting radionuclides with 4 net α-particle decays that can be used therapeutically. Targeting 225Ac3+ by use of ligands conjugated to traditional bifunctional chelates limits the amount of 225Ac3+ that can be delivered. Ultrashort, single-walled carbon nanotubes (US-tubes), previously demonstrated as sequestering agents of trivalent lanthanide ions and small molecules, also successfully incorporate 225Ac3+. Methods Aqueous loading of both 225Ac3+ ions and Gd3+ ions via bath sonication was used to construct 225Ac@gadonanotubes (225Ac@GNTs). The 225Ac@GNTs were subsequently challenged with heat, time, and human serum. Results US-tubes internally loaded with both 225Ac3+ ions and Gd3+ ions show 2 distinct populations of 225Ac3+ ions: one rapidly lost in human serum and one that remains bound to the US-tubes despite additional challenge with heat, time, and serum. The presence of the latter population depended on cosequestration of Gd3+ and 225Ac3+ ions. Conclusion US-tubes successfully sequester 225Ac3+ ions in the presence of Gd3+ ions and retain them after a human serum challenge, rendering 225Ac@GNTs candidates for radioimmunotherapy for delivery of 225Ac3+ ions at higher concentrations than is currently possible for traditional ligand carriers. PMID:25931476

  18. Design and performance of a high-pressure-ratio, highly loaded axial-flow transonic compressor space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, G. W., Jr.; Reid, L.; Tysl, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    A 50-cm-diam. axial-flow transonic compressor stage with multiple-circular-arc blades was designed and tested. At design speed, a rotor peak efficiency of 0.85 occurred at an equivalent weight flow of 29.3 kg/sec. Stage peak efficiency was 0.79 at 28.6 kg/sec. Stage total pressure ratio at peak efficiency was 1.84. The stall margin at design speed was 5 percent. Rotor and stator losses were higher than predicted. The stator choked at design flow.

  19. HYPOXIA IN CHESAPEAKE BAY, 1950-2001: LONG-TERM CHANGE IN RELATION TO NUTRIENT LOADING AND RIVER FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 52-yr record of dissolved oxygen in Chesapeake Bay (1950 to 2001) and a record of nitrate (NO3-) loading by the Susquehanna River spanning a longer period (1903, 1945 to 2001) were assembled to describe the long-term pattern of hypoxia and anoxia in Chesapeake Bay an...

  20. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  1. Variable-frequency inverter controls torque, speed, and braking in ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Dc to ac inverter provides optimum frequency and voltage to ac induction motor, in response to different motor-load and speed requirements. Inverter varies slip frequency of motor in proportion to required torque. Inverter protects motor from high current surges, controls negative slip to apply braking, and returns energy stored in momentum of load to dc power source.

  2. ac electroosmosis in rectangular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Michele; Accoto, Dino; Dario, Paolo

    2005-11-22

    Motivated by the growing interest in ac electroosmosis as a reliable no moving parts strategy to control fluid motion in microfluidic devices for biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip, we study transient and steady-state electrokinetic phenomena (electroosmosis and streaming currents) in infinitely extended rectangular charged microchannels. With the aid of Fourier series and Laplace transforms we provide a general formal solution of the problem, which is used to study the time-dependent response to sudden ac applied voltage differences in case of finite electric double layer. The Debye-Huckel approximation has been adopted to allow for an algebraic solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann problem in Fourier space. We obtain the expressions of flow velocity profiles, flow rates, streaming currents, as well as expressions of the complex hydraulic and electrokinetic conductances. We analyze in detail the dependence of the electrokinetic conductance on the extension of linear dimensions relative to the Debye length, with an eye on finite electric double layer effects. PMID:16351310

  3. Isolation of sequences flanking Ac insertion sites by Ac casting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Localizing Ac insertions is a fundamental task in studying Ac-induced mutation and chromosomal rearrangements involving Ac elements. Researchers may sometimes be faced with the situation in which the sequence flanking one side of an Ac/Ds element is known, but the other flank is unknown. Or, a researcher may have a small sequence surrounding the Ac/Ds insertion site and needs to obtain additional flanking genomic sequences. One way to rapidly clone unknown Ac/Ds flanking sequences is via a PCR-based method termed Ac casting. This approach utilizes the somatic transposition activity of Ac during plant development, and provides an efficient means for short-range genome walking. Here we describe the principle of Ac casting, and show how it can be applied to isolate Ac macrotransposon insertion sites.

  4. Laminar and turbulent flow computations of Type 4 shock-shock interference aerothermal loads using unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vemaganti, Gururaja R.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents computations for the Type 4 shock-shock interference flow under laminar and turbulent conditions using unstructured grids. Mesh adaptation was accomplished by remeshing, refinement, and mesh movement. Two two-equation turbulence models were used to analyze turbulent flows. The mean flow governing equations and the turbulence governing equations are solved in a coupled manner. The solution algorithm and the details pertaining to its implementation on unstructured grids are described. Computations were performed at two different freestream Reynolds numbers at a freestream Mach number of 11. Effects of the variation in the impinging shock location are studied. The comparison of the results in terms of wall heat flux and wall pressure distributions is presented.

  5. Concentrations, loads and yields of selected water-quality constituents during low flow and storm runoff from three watersheds at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 1994 through September 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the effects of storm runoff from urban areas on water quality at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, was conducted from May 1994 through September 1996. The purpose of this report is to present information to assess the current (1994-96) conditions and possible methods for anticipating future water-quality effects from storm runoff and changes in land use. Three sampling sites were established to monitor streamflow and water quality from three watersheds draining the study area. Streamflow was monitored continuously, and water-quality samples were collected during low-flow (12 samples) and storm-runoff (21 samples) conditions to determine mean annual constituent loads. Constituent concentrations for the most part were smallest during low flow with the exception of major ions, dissolved solids, and some nutrients. Concentrations of suspended solids and total recoverable metals at all three sites were much larger in storm-runoff samples than in low-flow samples--typically an order of magnitude larger than low-flow concentrations. Mean low-flow nutrient concentrations were either larger than or smaller than storm-runoff concentrations depending on the watershed. Total chloroform and total tetrachloroethylene were the only two volatile organic compounds detected, and acid-base/neutral organic compounds were not detected in any of the samples collected. Eight pesticides were detected in low-flow samples, and 15 pesticides were detected in storm-runoff samples. The only mean concentrations of the selected constituents in this study that exceeded either the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level or the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level were dissolved solids and total recoverable iron and manganese.

  6. Numerical simulation of osteocyte cell in response to directional mechanical loadings and mechanotransduction analysis: Considering lacunar-canalicular interstitial fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Amin; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh; Ghalichi, Farzan

    2016-09-01

    The osteocyte cell is a bone cell that also functions as a bone mechanosensor. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of an osteocyte cell under different mechanical loading conditions was used to obtain a better understanding of osteocyte cell behavior under different physiological conditions. In the current study, both fluid and solid parts of osteocyte cell were considered in order to allow for more accurate results. Five different loading conditions have been applied to the osteocyte cell, and consequently the different interstitial fluid flow velocities and shear stresses have been investigated. Furthermore, using a mathematical model, the change in the stimulus function value with shear stress and NO enzyme was revealed. This work suggests that changes in osteocyte morphology and direction of loadings affect cell stimulation. It was found that cell is mostly stimulated and expanded in the direction experiencing the most shear stress. Finally, the amount of cell stimulation was shown quantitatively and there was strong dependency between stimulus function, shear stress, calcium, and NO concentration.

  7. Numerical simulation of osteocyte cell in response to directional mechanical loadings and mechanotransduction analysis: Considering lacunar-canalicular interstitial fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Amin; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh; Ghalichi, Farzan

    2016-09-01

    The osteocyte cell is a bone cell that also functions as a bone mechanosensor. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of an osteocyte cell under different mechanical loading conditions was used to obtain a better understanding of osteocyte cell behavior under different physiological conditions. In the current study, both fluid and solid parts of osteocyte cell were considered in order to allow for more accurate results. Five different loading conditions have been applied to the osteocyte cell, and consequently the different interstitial fluid flow velocities and shear stresses have been investigated. Furthermore, using a mathematical model, the change in the stimulus function value with shear stress and NO enzyme was revealed. This work suggests that changes in osteocyte morphology and direction of loadings affect cell stimulation. It was found that cell is mostly stimulated and expanded in the direction experiencing the most shear stress. Finally, the amount of cell stimulation was shown quantitatively and there was strong dependency between stimulus function, shear stress, calcium, and NO concentration. PMID:27393805

  8. [EFFECT OF VOLUNTARY BREATH-HOLDING AND COGNITIVE LOADS ON REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND BIOELECTRIC ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN].

    PubMed

    Moreva, T I; Pasekova, O B; Kriushev, E S; Dobrokvashina, E I; Moreva, O V; Builov, S P; Smirnov, O A; Bragin, L Kh; Voronkov, Iu I

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and bioelectric activity were studied in 10 normal volunteers in order to assess cerebrovascular reactivity during different types of functional testing. The transcranial Doppler was used to measure linear blood velocity (LBV) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during maximal voluntary breath-holding (apnea), controlled verbal association test and tactile memory test. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) registered the bioelectric activity of the brain cortex. Both investigations were performed continuously in the course of each test. Breath-holding induced a smooth symmetric increase of CMA blood velocity; LBV rose to maximum values in the majority of the volunteered subjects. Two subjects with small focal changes in the brain's white matter displayed an asymmetric blood flow reaction to apnea. Gain in LBV was materially less during the cognitive tests; the verbal test decreased LBV in one half of the subjects and increased LBV in the other. The tactile memory test increased LBV which was particularly high in the left CMA of all subjects. LBV dynamics during the cognitive tests was essentially different from what was observed in apnea. Blood flow variations in the course of equally the verbal and tactile tests had a regular undulatory character. Concurrent LBV and EEG monitoring made it possible to compare and contrast dynamics of the cerebral blood velocity and bioelectric activity directly during testing and thus to reveal peculiar reactions of the cerebral blood flow to cognitive and physiological testing.

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF SPLIT-FLOW VENTILATION AND RECIR CULATION AS FLOW-REDUCTION METHODS IN AN AIR FORCE PAINT SPRAY BOOTH - VOLUME I. MAIN REPORT, APPENDICES A-C

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and ...

  10. High-Frequency ac Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Mildice, James

    1987-01-01

    Loads managed automatically under cycle-by-cycle control. 440-V rms, 20-kHz ac power system developed. System flexible, versatile, and "transparent" to user equipment, while maintaining high efficiency and low weight. Electrical source, from dc to 2,200-Hz ac converted to 440-V rms, 20-kHz, single-phase ac. Power distributed through low-inductance cables. Output power either dc or variable ac. Energy transferred per cycle reduced by factor of 50. Number of parts reduced by factor of about 5 and power loss reduced by two-thirds. Factors result in increased reliability and reduced costs. Used in any power-distribution system requiring high efficiency, high reliability, low weight, and flexibility to handle variety of sources and loads.

  11. [Comparison of adhesion of different endothelial cells under shear stress load in the flow field in vitro].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Eryong; Xu, Weilin; Shi, Yingkang; Guo, Yingqiang

    2011-02-01

    This study was aimed to compare the differences of adhesion properties of endothelial cells (EC) from arteries (AEC), veins (VEC) and capillaries (MVEC) under shear stress condition, and to explore whether they can get the same adhesive ability as graft in similar shear stress conditions. With mended parallel plate flow apparatus and peristalsis pump providing fluid shear stress used, endothelial culture models were established in vitro with the same environmental factors as steady culture. To compare the adhesion among three kinds of endothelial cells under dynamic condition and static condition, the dynamic change of cytoskeletal actin filaments and the effects of different adhesive proteins coated on the adhesion of EC to the glass were studied. The cultured endothelial cells under flow conditions were extended and arranged along the direction of flow. The adhesive ability from high to low under static condition were AEC, MVEC and VEC (VEC compared with AEC or MVEC, P < 0.05), sequentially. The adhesion of endothelial cells from variety sources under dynamic culture condition was significantly increased than that of the static groups. The ratio of cell retention was not significantly different between AEC and MVEC. But VEC was significantly different (P < 0.05) compared with AEC or MVEC. The actin filaments (F-actin) were bundled together and arranged along the direction of flow after fluid culture. Dense peripheral band (DPB) gradually disappeared and distinct stress fibers were formed, which even interconnected to form a whole in the MVEC. The adhesion of AEC, VEC and MVEC under shear stress conditions are more significantly increased than those under the static culture conditions, and the MVEC can achieve the same adhesion as AEC.

  12. Determination of local values of gas and liquid mass flux in highly loaded two-phase flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burick, R. J.; Scheuerman, C. H.; Falk, A. Y.

    1974-01-01

    A measurement system using a deceleration probe was designed for determining the local values of gas and liquid mass flux in various gas/liquid droplet sprayfields. The system was used to characterize two-phase flowfields generated by gas/liquid rocket-motor injectors. Measurements were made at static pressures up to 500 psia and injected mass flow ratios up to 20. The measurement system can also be used at higher pressures and in gas/solid flowfields.

  13. H-P adaptive methods for finite element analysis of aerothermal loads in high-speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H. J.; Bass, J. M.; Tworzydlo, W.; Oden, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The commitment to develop the National Aerospace Plane and Maneuvering Reentry Vehicles has generated resurgent interest in the technology required to design structures for hypersonic flight. The principal objective of this research and development effort has been to formulate and implement a new class of computational methodologies for accurately predicting fine scale phenomena associated with this class of problems. The initial focus of this effort was to develop optimal h-refinement and p-enrichment adaptive finite element methods which utilize a-posteriori estimates of the local errors to drive the adaptive methodology. Over the past year this work has specifically focused on two issues which are related to overall performance of a flow solver. These issues include the formulation and implementation (in two dimensions) of an implicit/explicit flow solver compatible with the hp-adaptive methodology, and the design and implementation of computational algorithm for automatically selecting optimal directions in which to enrich the mesh. These concepts and algorithms have been implemented in a two-dimensional finite element code and used to solve three hypersonic flow benchmark problems (Holden Mach 14.1, Edney shock on shock interaction Mach 8.03, and the viscous backstep Mach 4.08).

  14. Constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major subbasins of the upper Red River of the North Basin, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sether, Bradley A.; Berkas, Wayne R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2004-01-01

    Data were collected at 11 water-quality sampling sites in the upper Red River of the North (Red River) Basin from May 1997 through September 1999 to describe the water-quality characteristics of the upper Red River and to estimate constituent loads and flow-weighted average concentrations for major tributaries of the Red River upstream from the bridge crossing the Red River at Perley, Minn. Samples collected from the sites were analyzed for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentration data indicated the median concentrations for most constituents and sampling sites during the study period were less than existing North Dakota and Minnesota standards or guidelines. However, more than 25 percent of the samples for the Red River at Perley, Minn., site had fecal coliform concentrations that were greater than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters, indicating an abundance of pathogens in the upper Red River Basin. Although total nitrite plus nitrate concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction, the median concentrations for all sites were less than the North Dakota suggested guideline of 1.0 milligram per liter. Total and dissolved phosphorus concentrations also generally increased in a downstream direction, but, for those constituents, the median concentrations for most sampling sites exceeded the North Dakota suggested guideline of 0.1 milligram per liter. For dissolved solids, nutrients, and suspended sediments, a relation between constituent concentration and streamflow was determined using the data collected during the study period. The relation was determined by a multiple regression model in which concentration was the dependent variable and streamflow was the primary explanatory variable. The regression model was used to compute unbiased estimates of annual loads for each constituent and for each of eight primary water-quality sampling sites and to compute the degree of uncertainty

  15. Tevatron AC dipole system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  16. AC-3 audio coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  17. UPS with input commutation between ac and dc sources of power

    SciTech Connect

    Severinsky, A.J.

    1993-08-31

    An uninterruptible power supply is described, said power supply comprising: AC input terminal means for receiving a first AC voltage from an AC power source; DC input terminal means for receiving a first DC voltage from a DC power source; AC output terminal means for connecting to a load; converter means for converting said first AC voltage to a second DC voltage across electrical charge storage means coupled to said converter means, said second DC voltage being larger than the maximum peak voltage of said first AC voltage and said first DC voltage; switching means coupled to said AC power source and said DC power source for selectively connecting said AC power source or said DC power source to said converter means; inverter means coupled to said electrical charge storage means for receiving said second DC voltage and inverting said second DC voltage to a second AC voltage, said second AC voltage being coupled to said AC output terminal means; and control means coupled to said switching means for controlling the operation of said switching means, said control means operating said switching means to connect said AC power source to said converter means only when said first AC voltage is within a predetermined range and operating to connect said DC power source to said converter means when said first AC voltage is outside of said range.

  18. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  19. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  20. AC Losses in the MICE Channel Magnets -- Is This a Curse or aBlessing?

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Wu, H.; Wang, L.; Kai, L.L.; Jia, L.X.; Yang, S.Q.

    2008-01-31

    This report discusses the AC losses in the MICE channelmagnets during magnet charging and discharging. This report talks aboutthe three types of AC losses in the MICE magnets; the hysteretic AC lossin the superconductor, the coupling AC loss in the superconductor and theeddy current AC loss in the magnet mandrel and support structure. AClosses increase the heat load at 4 K. The added heat load increases thetemperature of the second stage of the cooler. In addition, AC losscontributes to the temperature rise between the second stage cold headand the high field point of the magnet, which is usually close to themagnet hot spot. These are the curses of AC loss in the MICE magnet thatcan limit the rate at which the magnet can be charge or discharged. Ifone is willing to allow some of the helium that is around the magnet toboil away during a magnet charge or discharge, AC losses can become ablessing. The boil off helium from the AC losses can be used to cool theupper end of the HTS leads and the surrounding shield. The AC losses arepresented for all three types of MICE magnets. The AC loss temperaturedrops within the coupling magnet are presented as an example of how boththe curse and blessing of the AC losses can be combined.

  1. Determination of Yield and Flow Surfaces for Inconel 718 Under Axial-Torsional Loading at Temperatures Up to 649 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gil, Christopher M.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental program to determine flow surfaces has been established and implemented for solution annealed and aged IN718. The procedure involved subjecting tubular specimens to various ratios of axial-torsional stress at temperatures between 23 and 649 C and measuring strain with a biaxial extensometer. Each stress probe corresponds to a different direction in stress space, and unloading occurs when a 30 microstrain (1 micro eplison = 10(exp -6) mm/mm) offset is detected. This technique was used to map out yield loci in axial-torsional stress space. Flow surfaces were determined by post-processing the experimental data to determine the inelastic strain rate components. Surfaces of constant inelastic strain rate (SCISRS) and surfaces of constant inelastic power (SCIPS) were mapped out in the axial-shear stress plane. The von Mises yield criterion appeared to closely fit the initial loci for solutioned IN718 at 23 C. However, the initial loci for solutioned IN718 at 371 and 454 C, and all of the initial loci for aged IN718 were offset in the compression direction. Subsequent loci showed translation, distortion, and for the case of solutioned IN718, a slight cross effect. Aged IN718 showed significantly more hardening behavior than solutioned IN718.

  2. Manipulating Flames with AC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kyle

    2013-11-01

    Time-oscillating electric fields applied to plasmas present in flames create steady flows of gas capable of shaping, directing, enhancing, or even extinguishing flames. Interestingly, electric winds induced by AC electric fields can be stronger that those due to static fields of comparable magnitude. Furthermore, unlike static fields, the electric force due to AC fields is localized near the surface of the flame. Consequently, the AC response depends only on the local field at the surface of the flame - not on the position of the electrodes used to generate the field. These results suggest that oscillating electric fields can be used to manipulate and control combustion processes at a distance. To characterize and explain these effects, we investigate a simple experimental system comprising a laminar methane-air flame positioned between two parallel-plate electrodes. We quantify both the electric and hydrodynamic response of the flame as a function of frequency and magnitude of the applied field. A theoretical model shows how steady gas flows emerge from the time-averaged electrical force due to the field-induced motion of ions generated within the flame and by their disappearance by recombination. These results provide useful insights into the application of AC fields to direct combustion processes.

  3. Scaling up watershed model parameters: flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin, South Carolina, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variable in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD–H, and LOADEST. Because the focus of this investigation was on scaling up the models from McTier Creek, water-quality concentrations that were previously collected in the McTier Creek Basin were used in the water-quality load models.

  4. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  5. Blood flow-restricted strength training displays high functional and biological efficacy in women: a within-subject comparison with high-load strength training.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Stian; Hammarström, Daniel; Strand, Tor A; Zacharoff, Erika; Whist, Jon E; Rauk, Irene; Nygaard, Håvard; Vegge, Geir; Hanestadhaugen, Marita; Wernbom, Mathias; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Rønning, Roar; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2015-10-01

    Limited data exist on the efficacy of low-load blood flow-restricted strength training (BFR), as compared directly to heavy-load strength training (HST). Here, we show that 12 wk of twice-a-week unilateral BFR [30% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to exhaustion] and HST (6-10RM) of knee extensors provide similar increases in 1RM knee extension and cross-sectional area of distal parts of musculus quadriceps femoris in nine untrained women (age 22 ± 1 yr). The two protocols resulted in similar acute increases in serum levels of human growth hormone. On the cellular level, 12 wk of BFR and HST resulted in similar shifts in muscle fiber composition in musculus vastus lateralis, evident as increased MyHC2A proportions and decreased MyHC2X proportions. They also resulted in similar changes of the expression of 29 genes involved in skeletal muscle function, measured both in a rested state following 12 wk of training and subsequent to singular training sessions. Training had no effect on myonuclei proportions. Of particular interest, 1) gross adaptations to BFR and HST were greater in individuals with higher proportions of type 2 fibers, 2) both BFR and HST resulted in approximately four-fold increases in the expression of the novel exercise-responsive gene Syndecan-4, and 3) BFR provided lesser hypertrophy than HST in the proximal half of musculus quadriceps femoris and also in CSApeak, potentially being a consequence of pressure from the tourniquet utilized to achieve blood flow restriction. In conclusion, BFR and HST of knee extensors resulted in similar adaptations in functional, physiological, and cell biological parameters in untrained women.

  6. Blood flow-restricted strength training displays high functional and biological efficacy in women: a within-subject comparison with high-load strength training

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Daniel; Strand, Tor A.; Zacharoff, Erika; Whist, Jon E.; Rauk, Irene; Nygaard, Håvard; Vegge, Geir; Hanestadhaugen, Marita; Wernbom, Mathias; Cumming, Kristoffer T.; Rønning, Roar; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on the efficacy of low-load blood flow-restricted strength training (BFR), as compared directly to heavy-load strength training (HST). Here, we show that 12 wk of twice-a-week unilateral BFR [30% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to exhaustion] and HST (6-10RM) of knee extensors provide similar increases in 1RM knee extension and cross-sectional area of distal parts of musculus quadriceps femoris in nine untrained women (age 22 ± 1 yr). The two protocols resulted in similar acute increases in serum levels of human growth hormone. On the cellular level, 12 wk of BFR and HST resulted in similar shifts in muscle fiber composition in musculus vastus lateralis, evident as increased MyHC2A proportions and decreased MyHC2X proportions. They also resulted in similar changes of the expression of 29 genes involved in skeletal muscle function, measured both in a rested state following 12 wk of training and subsequent to singular training sessions. Training had no effect on myonuclei proportions. Of particular interest, 1) gross adaptations to BFR and HST were greater in individuals with higher proportions of type 2 fibers, 2) both BFR and HST resulted in approximately four-fold increases in the expression of the novel exercise-responsive gene Syndecan-4, and 3) BFR provided lesser hypertrophy than HST in the proximal half of musculus quadriceps femoris and also in CSApeak, potentially being a consequence of pressure from the tourniquet utilized to achieve blood flow restriction. In conclusion, BFR and HST of knee extensors resulted in similar adaptations in functional, physiological, and cell biological parameters in untrained women. PMID:26202071

  7. Near-IR squaraine dye–loaded gated periodic mesoporous organosilica for photo-oxidation of phenol in a continuous-flow device

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Parijat; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Anees, Palapuravan; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Kang, Yuejun; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    Periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) has been widely used for the fabrication of a variety of catalytically active materials. We report the preparation of novel photo-responsive PMO with azobenzene-gated pores. Upon activation, the azobenzene gate undergoes trans-cis isomerization, which allows an unsymmetrical near-infrared squaraine dye (Sq) to enter into the pores. The gate closure by cis-trans isomerization of the azobenzene unit leads to the safe loading of the monomeric dye inside the pores. The dye-loaded and azobenzene-gated PMO (Sq-azo@PMO) exhibits excellent generation of reactive oxygen species upon excitation at 664 nm, which can be effectively used for the oxidation of phenol into benzoquinone in aqueous solution. Furthermore, Sq-azo@PMO as the catalyst was placed inside a custom-built, continuous-flow device to carry out the photo-oxidation of phenol to benzoquinone in the presence of 664-nm light. By using the device, about 23% production of benzoquinone with 100% selectivity was achieved. The current research presents a prototype of transforming heterogeneous catalysts toward practical use. PMID:26601266

  8. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  9. The Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation and graphical 'load-line' analysis of ionic flow through outer hair cells.

    PubMed

    Patuzzi, R

    1998-11-01

    While the 'membrane potential' of a cell which has a homogeneous membrane and surrounding environment, and which is not pumping ions electrogenically (passing no net current through its membranes), can be estimated from the Goldman voltage equation, this equation is inappropriate for other cells. In the mammalian cochlea such problematic cells include the cells of stria vascularis and the sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti. Not only is the Goldman voltage equation inappropriate, but in asymmetric cells the concept of a single 'membrane potential' is misleading: a different transmembrane voltage is required to define the electrical state of each section of the cell's heterogeneous membrane. This paper presents a graphical 'load-line analysis' of currents through one such asymmetric cell, the outer hair cells of the organ of Corti. The approach is extremely useful in discussing the effects of various cochlear manipulations on the electrical potential within hair cells, even without a detailed knowledge of their membrane conductance. The paper discusses how modified Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equations can be used to describe stretch-activated channels, voltage-controlled channels, ligand-mediated channels, and how the combination of these channels and the extracellular ionic concentrations should affect the hair cell's resting intracellular potential and resting transcellular current, its receptor current and receptor potential, and the extracellular microphonic potential around these cells. Two other issues discussed are the role of voltage-controlled channels in genetically determining membrane potential, and the insensitivity of hair cells to changes of extracellular potassium concentration under some conditions.

  10. Stochastic-deterministic modeling of bed load transport in shallow water flow over erodible slope: Linear stability analysis and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohorquez, Patricio; Ancey, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    In this article we propose a stochastic bed load transport formulation within the framework of the frictional shallow-water equations in which the sediment transport rate results from the difference between the entrainment and deposition of particles. First we show that the Saint-Venant-Exner equations are linearly unstable in most cases for a uniform base flow down an inclined erodible bed for Shields numbers in excess of the threshold for incipient sediment motion allowing us to compute noise-induced pattern formation for Froude numbers below 2. The wavelength of the bed forms are selected naturally due to the absolute character of the bed instability and the existence of a maximum growth rate at a finite wavelength when the particle diffusivity coefficient and the water eddy viscosity are present as for Turing-like instability. A numerical method is subsequently developed to analyze the performance of the model and theoretical results through three examples: the simulation of the fluctuations of the particle concentration using a stochastic Langevin equation, the deterministic simulation of anti-dunes formation over an erodible slope in full sediment-mobility conditions, and the computation of noise-induced pattern formation in hybrid stochastic-deterministic flows down a periodic flume. The full non-linear numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the theoretical solutions. We conclude highlighting that the proposed depth-averaged formulation explains the developments of upstream migrating anti-dunes in straight flumes since the seminar experiments by Gilbert (1914).

  11. Plastic flow and failure in HY100, HY130 and AF1410 alloy steels under high strain rate and impact loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, A. M.; Last, H. R.; Garrett, R. K., Jr.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results from impact experiments, constitutive/failure modeling, and metallurgical failure analyses for three steels: HY100, HY130, and AF1410. The main objectives of this effort are: (1) to obtain fundamental engineering data in terms of stress-strain curves up to failure at different temperatures and strain rates, (2) to evaluate the observed differences in the macroscopic behaviors through microscopic metallurgical studies, and (3) to describe the flow and failure behaviors using already available material strength and spall models. The high strain rate and impact experiments considered are the split Hopkinson bar (SHB) and the planar plate impact tests, respectively. In addition, the baseline data include quasi-static (QS) tests at low strain rates. The QS and SHB data provide stress-strain curves at different strain rates and temperatures. The experimental data illustrate the effects of two important loading parameters (strain rate and temperature) on the flow and failure behaviors of HY100, HY130, and AF1410 steels.

  12. Microfluidic pumping optimization in microgrooved channels with ac electrothermal actuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Manoochehri, Souran

    2010-01-01

    An optimization methodology is developed and applied to an ac electrothermal pump design with patterned microgrooved features. The microgrooved configuration can overcome the restrictions of the conventional planar configuration on pumping performance by diminishing fast backward flows and suppressing prolonged streamlines. At all frequency excitations (0.2-1000 MHz) and ion concentration conditions (5×10-3-0.1 M), the optimum microgrooved configuration generates much faster flow rate than planar configuration. This happens without additional increases in the maximum temperature values. The effects of elevated temperature on ac ET flow behavior is investigated and analyzed.

  13. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  14. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, P; Belzile, F; Page, T; Dean, C

    1997-05-01

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity.

  15. Recent applications of AC electrokinetics in biomolecular analysis on microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    AC electrokinetics is a generic term that refers to an induced motion of particles and fluids under nonuniform AC electric fields. The AC electric fields are formed by application of AC voltages to microelectrodes, which can be easily integrated into microfluidic devices by standard microfabrication techniques. Moreover, the magnitude of the motion is large enough to control the mass transfer on the devices. These advantages are attractive for biomolecular analysis on the microfluidic devices, in which the characteristics of small space and microfluidics have been mainly employed. In this review, I describe recent applications of AC electrokinetics in biomolecular analysis on microfluidic devices. The applications include fluid pumping and mixing by AC electrokinetic flow, and manipulation of biomolecules such as DNA and proteins by various AC electrokinetic techniques. Future prospects for highly functional biomolecular analysis on microfluidic devices with the aid of AC electrokinetics are also discussed.

  16. Long-term performance of vertical-flow and horizontal-flow constructed wetlands as affected by season, N load, and operating stage for treating nitrogen from domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Heon; Cho, Ju-Sik; Park, Jong-Hwan; Heo, Jong-Soo; Ok, Yong-Sik; Delaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the long-term nitrogen treatment efficiency in vertical-flow (VF)-horizontal-flow (HF) hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs), the nitrogen removal efficiency under different seasons, N loads, and three operating stages (representing age of the wetland) were evaluated over a 12-year period. The average total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies in the effluent during the operation period were in the following order: summer (75.2%) > spring (73.4%) ≒ autumn (72.6%) > winter (66.4%). The removal efficiencies of TN in summer, autumn, and spring were generally higher than those in winter. At different stages of operation (years), the average TN removal rates in the effluent were in the following order: middle stage (73.4%; years 2006-2009) > last stage (72.0%; years 2010-2013) > beginning stage (70.1%; years 2002-2005). In VF-HF CWs, the amount of average TN removal (mg N m(-2) day(-1)) over the 12-year period was in the order of summer (5.5) ≒ autumn (5.1) > spring (4.3) ≒ winter (4.2) for the VF bed and in the order of summer (3.5) ≒ spring (3.5) ≒ autumn (3.3) > winter (2.7) for the HF bed, showing that the amount of TN removal per unit area (m(2)) in summer was slightly greater than that in other seasons. The amount of TN removal in the VF bed was slightly greater than that in the HF bed. Using three-dimensional simulation graphs, the maximum TN removal rate was at inflow N loads below 2.7 g m(-2) day(-1) in the summer season, whereas the minimum TN removal rate was at inflow N loads below 1.4 g m(-2) day(-1) in the winter season. Consequently, the TN removal efficiency was very stable over the 12 years of operation in VF-HF hybrid CWs. Results demonstrate that the VF-HF hybrid CWs possess good buffer capacity for treating TN from domestic sewage for extended periods of time.

  17. Long-term performance of vertical-flow and horizontal-flow constructed wetlands as affected by season, N load, and operating stage for treating nitrogen from domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Heon; Cho, Ju-Sik; Park, Jong-Hwan; Heo, Jong-Soo; Ok, Yong-Sik; Delaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the long-term nitrogen treatment efficiency in vertical-flow (VF)-horizontal-flow (HF) hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs), the nitrogen removal efficiency under different seasons, N loads, and three operating stages (representing age of the wetland) were evaluated over a 12-year period. The average total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies in the effluent during the operation period were in the following order: summer (75.2%) > spring (73.4%) ≒ autumn (72.6%) > winter (66.4%). The removal efficiencies of TN in summer, autumn, and spring were generally higher than those in winter. At different stages of operation (years), the average TN removal rates in the effluent were in the following order: middle stage (73.4%; years 2006-2009) > last stage (72.0%; years 2010-2013) > beginning stage (70.1%; years 2002-2005). In VF-HF CWs, the amount of average TN removal (mg N m(-2) day(-1)) over the 12-year period was in the order of summer (5.5) ≒ autumn (5.1) > spring (4.3) ≒ winter (4.2) for the VF bed and in the order of summer (3.5) ≒ spring (3.5) ≒ autumn (3.3) > winter (2.7) for the HF bed, showing that the amount of TN removal per unit area (m(2)) in summer was slightly greater than that in other seasons. The amount of TN removal in the VF bed was slightly greater than that in the HF bed. Using three-dimensional simulation graphs, the maximum TN removal rate was at inflow N loads below 2.7 g m(-2) day(-1) in the summer season, whereas the minimum TN removal rate was at inflow N loads below 1.4 g m(-2) day(-1) in the winter season. Consequently, the TN removal efficiency was very stable over the 12 years of operation in VF-HF hybrid CWs. Results demonstrate that the VF-HF hybrid CWs possess good buffer capacity for treating TN from domestic sewage for extended periods of time. PMID:26298340

  18. AC Electroosmotic Pumping in Nanofluidic Funnels.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Andrew R; Haywood, Daniel G; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2016-06-21

    We report efficient pumping of fluids through nanofluidic funnels when a symmetric AC waveform is applied. The asymmetric geometry of the nanofluidic funnel induces not only ion current rectification but also electroosmotic flow rectification. In the base-to-tip direction, the funnel exhibits a lower ion conductance and a higher electroosmotic flow velocity, whereas, in the tip-to-base direction, the funnel has a higher ion conductance and a lower electroosmotic flow velocity. Consequently, symmetric AC waveforms easily pump fluid through the nanofunnels over a range of frequencies, e.g., 5 Hz to 5 kHz. In our experiments, the nanofunnels were milled into glass substrates with a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument, and the funnel design had a constant 5° taper with aspect ratios (funnel tip width to funnel depth) of 0.1 to 1.0. We tracked ion current rectification by current-voltage (I-V) response and electroosmotic flow rectification by transport of a zwitterionic fluorescent probe. Rectification of ion current and electroosmotic flow increased with increasing electric field applied to the nanofunnel. Our results support three-dimensional simulations of ion transport and electroosmotic transport through nanofunnels, which suggest the asymmetric electroosmotic transport stems from an induced pressure at the junction of the nanochannel and nanofunnel tip. PMID:27230495

  19. Efficacy of Blood Flow-Restricted Low-Load Resistance Training For Quadriceps Strengthening in Men at Risk of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maria D.; Mikesky, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Greater quadriceps strength has been associated with lower risk of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in older adults. However, factors that confer elevated risk of knee OA (eg, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and knee injury) also contribute to a reduced tolerance of resistance training programs at ≥60% 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Therefore, the current study assessed whether concurrent application of blood flow restriction (BFR) to low-load resistance training is an efficacious and tolerable means of improving quadriceps strength in men at risk of symptomatic knee OA. Methods: Men older than age 45, with a history of knee injury or elevated body mass index (BMI), were randomized to low-load resistance training (30% 1RM) either with or without concurrent BFR. Isotonic double-leg press strength and isokinetic knee extensor strength were assessed before and after 4 weeks of training 3 times/wk. Knee pain (Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) was assessed for tolerance. Results: Of the 42 men (mean age 56.1 ± 7.7 years) who were randomized, 41 completed the program. There were no significant intergroup differences in age, BMI, knee pathology, or muscle strength at baseline. Although leg press 1RM improved in both control and BFR groups, there were no significant intergroup differences in primary or secondary measures of muscle strength. The BFR was not associated with worsening of knee pain, but there was a significant improvement in knee pain in the control group. Conclusions: In comparison with training without BFR, addition of BFR to 30% 1RM resistance training for 4 weeks did not confer significantly greater increases in leg press or quadriceps strength in older men with risk factors for symptomatic knee OA. PMID:26328230

  20. Seasonal Response of Overland Flow and Sediment Loading to Climate and Land Use Land Cover Change in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovenga, P. A.; Wang, D.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hagen, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Located in Florida's panhandle, the Apalachicola River is the southernmost reach of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basin. Streamflow and sediment drains to Apalachicola Bay within the Northern Gulf of Mexico, resulting in a direct influence on the ecology of the region, in particular seagrass and oyster production. This study examines the seasonal response of overland flow and sediment loading in the Apalachicola River under projected climate change scenarios and land use land cover (LULC) change. A hydrologic model using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was developed for the Apalachicola region to simulate daily discharge and sediment load under present (circa 2000) and future conditions (circa 2100) to understand how parameters respond over a seasonal time frame to changes in climate only, LULC only, and coupled climate / LULC. These physically-based models incorporate digital elevation model (DEM), LULC, soil maps, climate data, and management controls. Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG) was used to create stochastic temperature and precipitation inputs from four Global Climate Models (GCM), each under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) carbon emission scenarios for A1B, A2, and B1. These scenarios represent potential future emissions resulting from a range driving forces, e.g. social, economic, environmental, and technologic. Projected 2100 LULC data provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Center was incorporated for each corresponding IPCC scenario. Results from this study can be used to further understand climate and LULC implications to the Apalachicola Bay and surrounding region as well as similar fluvial estuaries while providing tools to better guide management and mitigation practices.

  1. ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...

  2. Power factor control system for AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A power factor control system for use with ac induction motors was designed which samples lines voltage and current through the motor and decreases power input to the motor proportional to the detected phase displacement between current and voltage. This system provides, less power to the motor, as it is less loaded.

  3. Effects of increasing organic loading rate on performance and microbial community shift of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating diluted pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Wang, Yuguang; Li, Kai; Zhou, Hongbo

    2014-09-01

    The performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated in the treatment of diluted pharmaceutical fermentation wastewater for a continuous operation of 140 days. The dynamics and compositions of the microbial community were monitored using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2.7 kg COD/m(3) d to 7.2 COD/m(3) d led to an increase in the COD removal efficiency from 83% to 91%. The dominant bacteria shifted from Proteobacteria (23.8%), Chloroflexi (14.5%) and Firmicutes (4.0%) to Firmicutes (48.4%), Bacteroidetes (9.5%) and Proteobacteria (5.4%). For archeaon, the dominant groups changed from Thermoplasmata (24.4%), Thermoprotei (18.0%) and Methanobacteria (30.8%) to Thermoplasmata (70.4%) and Methanomicrobia (16.8%). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Thermoplasmata and Methanobacteria could outcompete other species and dominated in the reactor under higher OLR. The results indicated that, to some extent, microbial community shift could reflect the performance of the reactor and a significant community shift corresponded to a considerable process event.

  4. Organic loading rate and food-to-microorganism ratio shape prokaryotic diversity in a demo-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Araújo, Juliana C; Almeida, Paulo G S; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Sanz, José L; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the microbial community in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating domestic wastewater (DW) during two different periods of organic loading rate (OLR) and food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratio. 16S rDNA clone libraries were generated, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses were performed. Fluctuations in the OLR and F/M ratio affected the abundance and the composition of the UASB prokaryotic community, mainly at the species level, as well as the performance of the UASB reactor. The qPCR analysis suggested that there was a decrease in the bacterial cell number during the rainy season, when the OLR and F/M ratio were lower. However, the bacterial diversity was higher during this time, suggesting that the community degraded more diversified substrates. The diversity and the abundance of the archaeal community were higher when the F/M ratio was lower. Shifts in the methanogenic community composition might have influenced the route of methane production, with methane produced by acetotrophic methanogens (dry season), and by hydrogenotrophic, methylotrophic and acetotrophic methanogens (rainy season). This study revealed higher levels of bacterial diversity, metabolic specialization and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of the DW UASB reactor during the rainy season.

  5. Identification of /sup 233/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.Y.; Zhou, M.L.

    1983-09-01

    We report in this paper identification of the new isotope /sup 233/Ac. Uranium targets were irradiated with 28 GeV protons; after rapid retrieval of the target and separation of actinium from thorium, /sup 233/Ac was allowed to decay into the known /sup 233/Th daughter. Exhaustive chemical purification was employed to permit the identification of /sup 233/Th via its characteristic ..gamma.. radiations. The half-life derived for /sup 233/Ac from several experiments is 2.3 +- 0.3 min. The production cross section for /sup 233/Ac is 100 ..mu..b.

  6. AC and DC power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic assessment of AC and DC transmission systems; long distance transmission, cable transmission, system inter-connection, voltage support, reactive compensation, stabilisation of systems; parallel operation of DC links with AC systems; comparison between alternatives for particular schemes. Design and application equipment: design, testing and application of equipment for HVDC, series and shunt static compensated AC schemes, including associated controls. Installations: overall design of stations and conductor arrangements for HVDC, series and shunt static AC schemes including insulation co-ordination. System analysis and modelling.

  7. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  8. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  9. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  10. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    SciTech Connect

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  11. Resonant AC power system proof-of-concept test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wappes, Loran J.

    1986-01-01

    Proof-of-concept testing was performed on a 20-kHz, resonant power system breadboard from 1981 through 1985. The testing began with the evaluation of a single, 1.0-kW resonant inverter and progressed to the testing of breadboard systems with higher power levels and more capability. The final breadboard configuration tested was a 25.0-kW breadboard with six inverters providing power to three user-interface modules over a 50-meter, 20-kHz bus. The breadboard demonstrated the ability to synchronize multiple resonant inverters to power a common bus. Single-phase and three-phase 20-kHz power distribution was demonstrated. Simple conversion of 20-kHz to dc and variable-frequency ac was demonstrated as was bidirectional power flow between 20-kHz and dc. Steady state measurements of efficiency, power-factor tolerance, and conducted emissions and conducted susceptibility were made. In addition, transient responses were recorded for such conditions as start up, shut down, load changes. The results showed the 20-kHz resonant system to be a desirable technology for a spacecraft power management and distribution system with multiple users and a utility-type bus.

  12. Resonant AC power system proof-of-concept test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wappes, Loran J.

    1986-10-01

    Proof-of-concept testing was performed on a 20-kHz, resonant power system breadboard from 1981 through 1985. The testing began with the evaluation of a single, 1.0-kW resonant inverter and progressed to the testing of breadboard systems with higher power levels and more capability. The final breadboard configuration tested was a 25.0-kW breadboard with six inverters providing power to three user-interface modules over a 50-meter, 20-kHz bus. The breadboard demonstrated the ability to synchronize multiple resonant inverters to power a common bus. Single-phase and three-phase 20-kHz power distribution was demonstrated. Simple conversion of 20-kHz to dc and variable-frequency ac was demonstrated as was bidirectional power flow between 20-kHz and dc. Steady state measurements of efficiency, power-factor tolerance, and conducted emissions and conducted susceptibility were made. In addition, transient responses were recorded for such conditions as start up, shut down, load changes. The results showed the 20-kHz resonant system to be a desirable technology for a spacecraft power management and distribution system with multiple users and a utility-type bus.

  13. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer. 24 figs.

  14. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.

  15. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  16. AC plasma anemometer—characteristics and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Curtis; Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics and design of a high-bandwidth flow sensor that uses an AC glow discharge (plasma) as the sensing element is presented. The plasma forms in the air gap between two protruding low profile electrodes attached to a probe body. The output from the anemometer is an amplitude modulated version of the AC voltage input that contains information about the mean and fluctuating velocity components. The anemometer circuitry includes resistance and capacitance elements that simulate a dielectric-barrier to maintain a diffuse plasma, and a constant-current feedback control that maintains operation within the desired glow discharge regime over an extended range of air velocities. Mean velocity calibrations are demonstrated over a range from 0 to 140 m s-1. Over this velocity range, the mean output voltage varied linearly with air velocity, providing a constant static sensitivity. The effect of the electrode gap and input AC carrier frequency on the anemometer static sensitivity and dynamic response are investigated. Experiments are performed to compare measurements obtained with a plasma sensor operating at two AC carrier frequencies against that of a constant-temperature hot-wire. All three sensors were calibrated against the same known velocity reference. An uncertainty based on the standard deviation of the velocity calibration fit was applied to the mean and fluctuating velocity measurements of the three sensors. The motivation is not to replace hot-wires as a general measurement tool, but rather as an alternative to hot-wires in harsh environments or at high Mach numbers where they either have difficulty in surviving or lack the necessary frequency response.

  17. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  18. ACS CCD Stability Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogin, Norman

    2012-10-01

    A moderately crowded stellar field in the cluster 47 Tuc {6 arcmin West of the cluster core} is observed every four months with the WFC. The first visit exercises the full suite of broad and narrow band imaging filters and sub-array modes; following visits observe with only the six most popular Cycle 18 filters in full-frame mode. The positions and magnitudes of objects will be used to monitor local and large scale variations in the plate scale and the sensitivity of the detectors and to derive an independent measure of the detector CTE. One exposure in each sub-array mode with the WFC will allow us to verify that photometry obtained in full-frame and in sub-array modes are repeatable to better than 1%. This test is important for the ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration program, which uses sub-array exposures. This program may receive additional orbits to investigate ORIENT-dependent geometric distortion, which motivates the ORIENT and BETWEEN requirement on the first visit.

  19. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  20. Estimating turbine limit load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A method for estimating turbine limit-load pressure ratio from turbine map information is presented and demonstrated. It is based on a mean line analysis at the last-rotor exit. The required map information includes choke flow rate at all speeds as well as pressure ratio and efficiency at the onset of choke at design speed. One- and two-stage turbines are analyzed to compare the results with those from a more rigorous off-design flow analysis and to show the sensitivities of the computed limit-load pressure ratios to changes in the key assumptions.

  1. AC 95 - selected readings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Reports are presented on energy efficiency and conservation in residential buildings. Topics include housing and energy linkages; the people factor; low-income initiatives; green visions; utility programs; affordable comfort; housing as a system; and pressures and air flow in buildings.

  2. Power flow control using quadrature boosters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Sandeep N.

    A power system that can be controlled within security constraints would be an advantage to power planners and real-time operators. Controlling flows can lessen reliability issues such as thermal limit violations, power stability problems, and/or voltage stability conditions. Control of flows can also mitigate market issues by reducing congestion on some lines and rerouting power to less loaded lines or onto preferable paths. In the traditional control of power flows, phase shifters are often used. More advanced methods include using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Controllers. Some examples include Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors, Synchronous Series Static Compensators, and Unified Power Flow Controllers. Quadrature Boosters (QBs) have similar structures to phase-shifters, but allow for higher voltage magnitude during real power flow control. In comparison with other FACTS controllers QBs are not as complex and not as expensive. The present study proposes to use QBs to control power flows on a power system. With the inclusion of QBs, real power flows can be controlled to desired scheduled values. In this thesis, the linearized power flow equations used for power flow analysis were modified for the control problem. This included modifying the Jacobian matrix, the power error vector, and calculating the voltage injected by the quadrature booster for the scheduled real power flow. Two scenarios were examined using the proposed power flow control method. First, the power flow in a line in a 5-bus system was modified with a QB using the method developed in this thesis. Simulation was carried out using Matlab. Second, the method was applied to a 30-bus system and then to a 118-bus system using several QBs. In all the cases, the calculated values of the QB voltages led to desired power flows in the designated line.

  3. Towards an AC-MOT of CaF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, Loic; Chae, Eunmi; Ravi, Aakash; Augenbraun, Benjamin; Hemmerling, Boerge; Drayna, Garrett; Hutzler, Nicholas; Collopy, Alejandra; Wu, Yewei; Ding, Shiqian; Ye, Jun; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Doyle, John

    2016-05-01

    Ultra-cold diatomic molecules have rich prospects as candidates to study controlled ultra-cold chemistry, strongly correlated systems and precision measurements. They are also considered as possible qubits in quantum computing and simulation schemes. We report on progress towards loading CaF into a molecular magneto-optical trap (MOT). An AC-MOT will be used to actively remix magnetic dark states via both polarization and magnetic field switching. In order to load a molecular MOT, we have successfully laser slowed a CaF beam to near the expected capture velocity. We describe our AC-MOT apparatus, which is designed to co-trap CaF and Li. We outline our planned study of CaF-Li collisions to explore the feasibility of sympathetically cooling molecules to ultra-cold temperatures.

  4. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Zhang, Pinjia; Theisen, Peter J.

    2011-05-31

    A system and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor. The circuit includes at least one contactor and at least one switch to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor. The system also includes a controller connected to the circuit and configured to modify a switching time of the at least one switch to create a DC component in an output of the system corresponding to an input to the AC motor and determine a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the injected DC component of the voltage and current.

  5. Intra-aortic balloon pumping reduces the increased arterial load caused by acute cardiac depression, modifying central and peripheral load determinants in a time- and flow-related way.

    PubMed

    Bia, Daniel; Cabrera-Fischer, Edmundo I; Zócalo, Yanina; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2012-09-01

    The mechanisms that explain intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) effects are not completely understood, and attributing them only to pressure-associated changes in cardiac function would be an oversimplification. Since IABP modifies the aortic and systemic blood-flow pattern, flow-related effects could be expected. To characterize effects of acute heart failure (AHF) on the arterial biomechanics; IABP effects on the arterial biomechanics during AHF, and their potential time-dependence; the association between hemodynamics and biomechanical changes during AHF and IABP. Sheep (n = 6) aortic pressure, flow, and diameter were measured: (1) before (Basal) and (2) 1-3 (HF(1-3)) and 28-30 (HF(28-30)) min after starting halothane to induce AHF; and (3) at specific times (1-3, 14-15 and 28-30 min) during IABP assistance. Calculus: aortic characteristic impedance (Z(c)), beta stiffness (β), incremental (E(INC)) and pressure-strain elastic modulus (E(P)); total arterial compliance (C(G)), total systemic vascular resistance and wave propagation parameters. (1) AHF resulted in an acute increase in aortic and systemic stiffness (HF(28-30) % changes with respect to Basal conditions: β +217%, E (P) +143%, E(INC) +101%, Z(c) +52%, C(G) -13%), associated with the reduction in the aortic blood flow; (2) during AHF IABP resulted in acute beneficial changes aortic and systemic biomechanics (% changes in IABP(1-3) with respect HF(28-30): β -62%, E(P) -68%, E (INC) -66%, Z(c) -38%, C(G) 66%), and in wave propagation parameters, (3) IABP-related changes were time-dependent and associated with changes in aortic blood flow. Aortic and systemic biomechanical and impedance properties are detrimentally modified during AHF, being the changes rapidly reverted during IABP. IABP-related beneficial changes in arterial biomechanics were time-dependent and associated with IABP capability to increase blood flow.

  6. Flux-motion related ac losses in high Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. Y.

    1993-03-01

    The ac losses of high-temperature superconductors in the flux-depinned mixed-state have been treated using the classical magnetic diffusion equation in conjunction with various models of flux-motion. With the imaginary part representing the ac losses, the field- and frequency-dependent ac susceptibilities were investigated. The imaginary component was found to obey a scaling rule with a characteristic frequency, estimated to be about 10 exp 5-10 exp 9 Hz, that depended on the sample size and normal state resistivity. This frequency range agrees with earlier experimental results, which could not be accounted for previously based upon the notion of thermally activated hopping of vortices. The frequency scaling behaviors using flux-creep and flux-flow models are presented.

  7. Flow studies of highly loaded coal-water mixtures around bends and across horizontal sections. [Pressure loss with 90-degree bends and sweep bends

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    From the data taken in the flow loop, it appears that the coal-water mixtures (CWMs) prepared at PETC bracket the range of flow characteristics anticipated for commercial CWMs. Furthermore, the lower concentration slurries (55 wt % and 60 wt %) show nonhomogeneous behavior as a function of particle size and mixture velocity. Preliminary analysis of the pressure loss data around bends indicate 90-degree elbows are more efficient for the 60 wt % CWMS prepared with beneficiated coal, whereas the sweep bends yield lower pressure gradients for 65 wt % CWMs prepared with the same coal. The model developed for horizontal homogenous-nonhomogeneous laminar flow adequately predicts the pressure losses measured in the loop facility. The nonhomogeneous portion of the flow is restricted to a height of twenty percent of the pipe diameter. The accuracy of the model depends heavily on viscosity-shear-rate data measured in the rheology laboratory. The nonhomogenous flow pressure gradient is calculated via the Durand-Condolios equation. The homogeneous flow pressure gradient is calculated using the classical laminar flow equation. The model developed for sweep bends satisfactorily predicts the pressure losses measured. The revised model predicted the measured pressure losses with an index of determination of 0.95. The model consists of revising the pressure loss equation of Ito to include a parameter that is a function of the Reynolds number. 11 refs.

  8. Arcjet load characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to define the interface characteristics and constraints of 1 kW class arcjets run on simulated decomposition products of hydrazine and power processors. The impacts of power supply output current ripple on arcjet performance were assessed by variation of the ripple frequency from 100 Hz to 100 kHz with 10 percent peak-to-peak ripple amplitude at 1.2 kW. Ripple had no significant effects on thrust, specific impulse or efficiency. The impact of output ripple on thruster lifetime was not assessed. The static and dynamic impedances of the arcjet were quantified with two thrusters of nearly identical configuration. Superposition of an AC component on the DC arc current was used to characterize the dynamic impedance as a function of flow rate and DC current level. A mathematical model was formulated from these data. Both the static and dynamic impedance magnitude were found to be dependent on mass flow rate. The amplitude of the AC component was found to have little effect on the dynamic impedance. Reducing the DC level from 10 to 8 amps led to a large change in the magnitude of the dynamic impedance with no observable phase change. The impedance data compared favorably between the two thrusters.

  9. Critical review of the trailing edge condition in steady and unsteady flow. Blade flutter in compressors and fans: Numerical simulation of the aerodynamic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radwan, S. F.; Rockwell, D. O.; Johnson, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Existing interpretations of the trailing edge condition, addressing both theoretical and experimental works in steady, as well as unsteady flows are critically reviewed. The work of Kutta and Joukowski on the trailing edge condition in steady flow is reviewed. It is shown that for most practical airfoils and blades (as in the case of most turbomachine blades), this condition is violated due to rounded trailing edges and high frequency effects, the flow dynamics in the trailing edge region being dominated by viscous forces; therefore, any meaningful modelling must include viscous effects. The question of to what extent the trailing edge condition affects acoustic radiation from the edge is raised; it is found that violation of the trailing edge condition leads to significant sound diffraction at the tailing edge, which is related to the problem of noise generation. Finally, various trailing edge conditions in unsteady flow are discussed, with emphasis on high reduced frequencies.

  10. Test plan for performance testing of the Eaton AC-3 electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Heiselmann, H.W.

    1985-04-01

    An alternating current (ac) propulsion system for an electric vehicle has been developed and tested by the Eaton Corporation. The test bed vehicle is a modified 1981 Mercury Lynx. The test plan has been prepared specifically for the third modification to this test bed and identified as the Eaton AC-3. The scope of the EG and G testing at INEL to be done on the Eaton AC-3 will include coastdown and dynamometer tests but will not include environmental, on-road, or track testing. Coastdown testing will be performed in accordance with SAE J-1263 (SAE Recommended Practice for Road Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques).

  11. Production of Ac-225 from Th-229 for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, C; Molinet, R; Rasmussen, G; Morgenstern, A

    2005-10-01

    This work describes a method for the separation and purification of Ac-225 from a Th-229 source. The procedure is based on the combination of ion exchange and extraction chromatographic methods in nitric acid media and allows the preparation of carrier-free, clinical grade Ac-225 with an overall yield exceeding 95%. Quality control of the product is performed using radiometric (alpha, gamma spectrometry) and mass spectrometric methods. The Ac-225 product can be loaded on a radionuclide generator for the preparation of Bi-213 for preclinical and clinical studies of targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases.

  12. Production of Ac-225 from Th-229 for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, C; Molinet, R; Rasmussen, G; Morgenstern, A

    2005-10-01

    This work describes a method for the separation and purification of Ac-225 from a Th-229 source. The procedure is based on the combination of ion exchange and extraction chromatographic methods in nitric acid media and allows the preparation of carrier-free, clinical grade Ac-225 with an overall yield exceeding 95%. Quality control of the product is performed using radiometric (alpha, gamma spectrometry) and mass spectrometric methods. The Ac-225 product can be loaded on a radionuclide generator for the preparation of Bi-213 for preclinical and clinical studies of targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:16194090

  13. The ac53, ac78, ac101, and ac103 Genes Are Newly Discovered Core Genes in the Family Baculoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Miele, Solange Ana Belén; Iserte, Javier Alonso; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    The family Baculoviridae is a large group of insect viruses containing circular double-stranded DNA genomes of 80 to 180 kbp, which have broad biotechnological applications. A key feature to understand and manipulate them is the recognition of orthology. However, the differences in gene contents and evolutionary distances among the known members of this family make it difficult to assign sequence orthology. In this study, the genome sequences of 58 baculoviruses were analyzed, with the aim to detect previously undescribed core genes because of their remote homology. A routine based on Multi PSI-Blast/tBlastN and Multi HaMStR allowed us to detect 31 of 33 accepted core genes and 4 orthologous sequences in the Baculoviridae which were not described previously. Our results show that the ac53, ac78, ac101 (p40), and ac103 (p48) genes have orthologs in all genomes and should be considered core genes. Accordingly, there are 37 orthologous genes in the family Baculoviridae. PMID:22933288

  14. Semiconductor ac static power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrancik, J.

    1968-01-01

    Semiconductor ac static power switch has long life and high reliability, contains no moving parts, and operates satisfactorily in severe environments, including high vibration and shock conditions. Due to their resistance to shock and vibration, static switches are used where accidental switching caused by mechanical vibration or shock cannot be tolerated.

  15. Development of Millimeter-Wave Velocimetry and Acoustic Time-of-Flight Tomography for Measurements in Densely Loaded Gas-Solid Riser Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, James A.; Pfund, David M.; Sheen, David M.; Pappas, Richard A.; Morgen, Gerald P.

    2007-04-01

    The MFDRC was formed in 1998 to advance the state-of-the-art in simulating multiphase turbulent flows by developing advanced computational models for gas-solid flows that are experimentally validated over a wide range of industrially relevant conditions. The goal was to transfer the resulting validated models to interested US commercial CFD software vendors, who would then propagate the models as part of new code versions to their customers in the US chemical industry. Since the lack of detailed data sets at industrially relevant conditions is the major roadblock to developing and validating multiphase turbulence models, a significant component of the work involved flow measurements on an industrial-scale riser contributed by Westinghouse, which was subsequently installed at SNL. Model comparisons were performed against these datasets by LANL. A parallel Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) project within the consortium made similar comparisons between riser measurements and models at NETL. Measured flow quantities of interest included volume fraction, velocity, and velocity-fluctuation profiles for both gas and solid phases at various locations in the riser. Some additional techniques were required for these measurements beyond what was currently available. PNNL’s role on the project was to work with the SNL experimental team to develop and test two new measurement techniques, acoustic tomography and millimeter-wave velocimetry. Acoustic tomography is a promising technique for gas-solid flow measurements in risers and PNNL has substantial related experience in this area. PNNL is also active in developing millimeter wave imaging techniques, and this technology presents an additional approach to make desired measurements. PNNL supported the advanced diagnostics development part of this project by evaluating these techniques and then by adapting and developing the selected technology to bulk gas-solids flows and by implementing them for testing in the SNL riser

  16. Storm flow dynamics and loads of fecal bacteria associated with ponds in southern piedmont and coastal plain watersheds with animal agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storm events that increase hydrologic flow rates can disturb sediments and produce overland runoff in watersheds with animal agriculture, and, thus, can increase surface water concentrations of fecal bacteria and risk to public health. We tested the hypothesis that strategically placed ponds in wate...

  17. CONCENTRATIONS AND ESTIMATED LOADS OF NITROGEN CONTRIBUTED BY TWO ADJACENT WETLAND STREAMS WITH DIFFERENT FLOW-SOURCE TERMS IN WATKINSVILLE, GA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic, fixed nitrogen from agricultural settings often is introduced to first-order streams via surface runoff and shallow ground-water flow. Best management practices for limiting the flux of fixed N to surface waters often include buffers such as wetlands. However, the eff...

  18. CONCENTRATIONS AND ESTIMATED LOADS OF NITROGEN CONTRIBUTED BY TWO ADJACENT WETLAND STREAMS WITH DIFFERENT FLOW-SOURCE TERMS IN WATKINSVILLE, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic, fixed nitrogen from agricultural settings often is introduced to first-order streams via surface runoff and shallow ground-water flow. Best management practices for limiting the flux of fixed N to surface waters often include buffers such as wetlands. However, the eff...

  19. ACS Expands Role In High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes some of the services and programs of special interests to high school chemistry teachers that are being provided by ACS, and meant to make ACS membership more attractive to the teachers. (GA)

  20. Alteration of LV end-diastolic volume by controlling the power of the continuous-flow LVAD, so it is synchronized with cardiac beat: development of a native heart load control system (NHLCS).

    PubMed

    Umeki, Akihide; Nishimura, Takashi; Ando, Masahiko; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Kenji; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2012-06-01

    There are many reports comparing pulsatile and continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). But continuous-flow LVAD with the pulsatile driving technique had not been tried or discussed before our group's report. We have previously developed and introduced a power-control unit for a centrifugal LVAD (EVAHEART®; Sun Medical), which can change the speed of rotation so it is synchronized with the heart beat. By use of this unit we analyzed the end-diastolic volume (EDV) to determine whether it is possible to change the native heart load. We studied 5 goats with normal hearts and 5 goats with acute LV dysfunction because of micro-embolization of the coronary artery. We used 4 modes, "circuit-clamp", "continuous", "counter-pulse", and "co-pulse", with the bypass rate (BR) 100%. We raised the speed of rotation of the LVAD in the diastolic phase with the counter-pulse mode, and raised it in the systolic phase with the co-pulse mode. As a result, the EDV decreased in the counter-pulse mode and increased in the co-pulse mode, compared with the continuous mode (p < 0.05), in both the normal and acute-heart-failure models. This result means it may be possible to achieve favorable EDV and native heart load by controlling the rotation of continuous-flow LVAD, so it is synchronized with the cardiac beat. This novel driving system may be of great benefit to patients with end-stage heart failure, especially those with ischemic etiology.

  1. Use of fluorescence-activated flow cytometry to determine membrane lipid peroxidation during hypothermic liquid storage and freeze-thawing of viable boar sperm loaded with 4, 4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-undecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H D; Welch, G R

    2007-06-01

    Part of the reduction in boar sperm motility and fertility associated with hypothermic liquid storage and cryopreservation may be due to membrane lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation was monitored by the shift from red to green fluorescence emission of the lipophilic probe 4, 4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-undecanoic acid, C(11)BODIPY(581/591) (BODIPY), as measured by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry in live sperm (negative for propidium iodide). Experiments were conducted with Percoll-washed sperm to determine the specificity of BODIPY oxidation in the presence of different reactive oxygen species generators and metal chelators. Compared with no FeSO(4) and Na ascorbate, the combination of FeSO(4) and Na ascorbate (FeAc) increased (P < 0.01) the percentage of sperm containing oxidized BODIPY from 70% and increased (P < 0.05) BOD-IPY fluorescence intensity/cell by 5- to 10-fold after a 30-min incubation. Motility was depressed (P < 0.05) after exposure to FeAc, but viability was not affected. Of the reactive oxygen species generators tested, BODIPY oxidation was specific for FeAc, because menadione and H(2)O(2) had little or no effect. The oxidization of hydroethidine to ethidium was specific for menadione and H(2)O(2); FeAc had no effect. The presence of the metal chelators EDTA or deferoxamine mesylate at 3 and 9 muM inhibited FeAc-induced BODIPY oxidation and maintained motility. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of liquid storage at 17 degrees C for 1 and 5 d and the effect of freeze-thawing on basal and FeAc-induced BODIPY oxidation. Basal BODIPY oxidation (no FeAc) was low in liquid stored and thawed viable sperm (1.3 and 3.4%, respectively). Although the incidence of basal or spontaneous membrane lipid peroxidation was low during liquid storage and after freeze-thawing, viable boar sperm were susceptible to FeAc-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:17296775

  2. Development of AC-driven liquid electrode plasma for sensitive detection of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Khoai, Do; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Tamotsu; Trong Tue, Phan; Okino, Akitoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru

    2016-02-01

    A novel liquid electrode plasma (LEP) driven by AC, which is used as an excitation source for elemental analysis, has been developed for the first time. The conditions such as chip layout and flow rate were found to produce the plasma in the channel. The mechanism of AC LEP generation was determined. AC LEP could be sustained in the resin channel with no severe damage on the channel. The emission spectra of electrolyte, lead and cadmium solution were obtained and compared with those generated by DC LEP. AC LEP was developed for the quantitative determination of lead and cadmium with limits of detection of 75.0 µg/L (ppb) and 4.5 µg/L (ppb), respectively. The novel plasma source is promising for on-chip combination and integration because it could be maintained at low flow rates on a resin-based platform.

  3. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  4. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  5. Atmospheric-pressure hybrid plasma with combination of ac and microwave

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2006-12-18

    A hybrid plasma system with combination of ac and microwave at atmospheric pressure was developed. The hybrid plasma is initiated by ac capillary plasma, is stabilized by a flowing channel of working gas through common electrodes, and is expanded by the dissipation of microwave energy, revealing two distinguishable plasma columns of about 1 m in length and a transition point. The capillary in the hybrid plasma system is working as a common electrode for the microwave and ac plasmas. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to characterize and monitor the argon and nitrogen excited species produced in different plasma columns.

  6. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    a critical clinical condition of Polycompartment Syndrome. The monitoring of Abdominal Perfusion Pressure (APP) is more correct than the measurement of IAP because it reveals hydrodynamic alterations in the abdominal compartment. The APP (MAP-IAP) depends on arterial flow, venous outflow and capacity of the abdominal compartments response to increased internal volumes. The medical therapy used to decrease IAH and to contrast ACS is intestinal decompression with gastric and rectal tube; colonic endoscopic detention; correction of electrolytic abnormalities and prokinetic agents. Surgery, besides being decompressive and resolutive, must prevent a recurrence of ACS through the "tension-free closure" procedure.

  7. An overview of the ALMA Common Software (ACS) .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Caproni, A.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Harrington, S.; Zagar, K.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is an application framework designed to provide a common and homogeneous software architecture and infrastructure, spanning the end to end needs of an Astronomical observatory, from the Telescope Control system to high-level data flow management. ACS offers, at the lower level, several basic services needed for object-oriented distributed computing like transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. On top of this it provides an application architecture based on the Component/Container paradigm that fosters sharing and reusing of software components. Although developed for the ALMA project, ACS is now used by several other projects worldwide, among which the Italian Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). Besides, there is an active community that shares ideas, concepts and actual software components. Major drivers for this diffusion were the choice of adopting the LGPL public license and the adoption of CORBA, a free but reliable and widely used middleware software. In this paper we present an overview of the main features of ACS, emphasizing in particular the role of INAF-OAT in this project.

  8. Container-component model and XML in ALMA ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zagar, Klemen; Voelter, Markus

    2004-09-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. To meet the challenges of developing distributed software in distributed teams, ACS offers a container/component model that integrates the use of XML transfer objects. ACS containers are built on top of CORBA and are available for C++, Java, and Python, so that ALMA software can be written as components in any of these languages. The containers perform technical aspects of the software system, while components can focus on the implementation of functional requirements. Like Web services, components can use XML to exchange structured data by value. For Java components, the container seamlessly integrates the use of XML binding classes, which are Java classes that encapsulate access to XML data through type-safe methods. Binding classes are generated from XML schemas, allowing the Java compiler to enforce compliance of application code with the XML schemas. This presentation will explain the capabilities of the ACS container/component model, and how it relates to other middleware technologies that are popular in industry.

  9. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  10. Influence of AC and DC electrical stimulation on wound healing in pigs: a biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kambic, H E; Reyes, E; Manning, T; Waters, K C; Reger, S I

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation on the mechanical properties of healing skin, 20 Hanford mini-pigs weighing 10-15 kg with trochanteric pressure ulcers were subjected to electrical stimulation. Examination of the biomechanical properties of the skin and changes in wound area and volume was done on previously wounded and healing pigskin subject to AC or DC electrical stimulation. The behavior of normal pigskin was compared to (1) denervated controls, (2) denervated AC-stimulated skin, and (3) denervated DC-stimulated skin. A denervated limb trochanteric pressure sore model developed in house permitted the use of a 6.5-mm percutaneous cancellous screw for wound formation and a 3-cm-diameter spring compression indentor to create reproducible and uniformly controlled grade 3 or higher tissue ulcers in the monoplegic hind limbs. Denervation was accomplished by right unilateral extradural rhizotomies from L2 to S1 nerve roots. Electrodes were placed 1 cm distal and proximal to the wound periphery, and wounds were stimulated 2 h/day, 5 days/week for 30 days. Dumbbell-shaped skin specimens with a length to width ratio of 3:1 were uniaxially loaded in tension until failure at an extension rate of 150 mm/min. The stiffness values for skin samples oriented parallel to the current flow were reduced by nearly half the values obtained for normal controls. Statistical differences (P < .05) were found for stress, Young modulus, and stiffness when compared to normal skin. Samples oriented in the perpendicular direction were comparable to normal skin (P = NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Quantification of blood flow-dependent component in estimates of beta-amyloid load obtained using quasi-steady-state standardized uptake value ratio.

    PubMed

    Cselényi, Zsolt; Farde, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of beta-amyloid is used in basic research and in drug efficacy trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent of amyloid accumulation after clinical onset is not fully known. Importantly, regional PET data are typically quantified using the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR), which according to simulations is sensitive to changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). We aimed to better understand the potentials of longitudinal amyloid imaging by disentangling the influence of blood flow on SUVR using experimental data. [18F]AV-45 PET data from 101 subjects, ranging from cognitively normal to AD patients, in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were extracted. The relationship between global cortical distribution volume ratio, indicator of rCBF (R1), and SUVR was examined using multilinear regression. There was a significant effect of rCBF on SUVR. The effect increased by disease severity. Results suggest that changes in rCBF can produce apparent changes in SUVR in AD. Therefore, future longitudinal studies should measure amyloid changes in a way not sensitive to this effect, ideally using quantitative PET imaging. Furthermore, the results suggest no true accumulation beyond clinical onset and highlight the risks of longitudinal amyloid imaging in drug trials in AD.

  12. Cost-effective flow injection amperometric system with metal nanoparticle loaded carbon nanotube modified screen printed carbon electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Reanpang, Preeyaporn; Themsirimongkon, Suwaphid; Saipanya, Surin; Chailapakul, Orawon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    Various metal nanoparticles (NPs) decorated on carbon nanotube (CNT) was modified on the home-made screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) in order to enhances sensitivity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) determination. The simple casting method was used for the electrode modification. The monometallic and bimetallic NPs modified electrodes were investigated for their electrochemical properties for H2O2 reduction. The Pd-CNT/SPCE is appropriated to measure the H2O2 reduction at a potential of -0.3 V, then this modified electrode was incorporated with a home-made flow through cell and applied in a simple flow injection amperometry (FI-Amp). Some parameters influencing the resulted modified electrode and the FI-Amp system were studied. The proposed detection system was able to detect H2O2 in the range of 0.1-1.0 mM, with detection limit of 20 µM. Relative standard deviation for 100 replicated injections of 0.6 mM H2O2 was 2.3%. The reproducibility of 6 electrodes preparing in 3 different lots was 8.2%. It was demonstrated for determination of H2O2 in disinfectant, hair colorant and milk samples. Recoveries in the range of 90-109% were observed. The developed system provided high stability, good repeatability, high sample throughput and low reagent consumption.

  13. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  14. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  15. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  16. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, J.S.; Kankam, M.D.; Santiago, W.; Madi, F.J.

    1992-08-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  17. Changes in the structure and substructure of tungsten during irradiation by hydrogen plasma flows at the specific energy close to the heat loads on the ITER surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garkusha, I. E.; Malykhin, S. V.; Makhlai, V. A.; Pugachev, A. T.; Bazdyrieva, S. V.; Aksenov, N. N.

    2014-11-01

    The changes in the structure, the substructure, and the state of stress in the surface layers of tungsten targets and the cracking processes in them are studied in model experiments on irradiation by a hydrogen plasma in a quasi-stationary plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50, which adequately reproduces the energy density and the edge localized mode (ELM) time in ITER. The plasma heat load is up to 1 MJ m-2, the pulse duration is 0.25 ms, and the maximum number of irradiating pulses of 150. The development of residual macrostresses from compression to tension is analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and their relation to cracking is shown. Irradiation is found to increase the lattice parameter of tungsten in the undeformable section from a 0 ≈ 0.31642 ± 0.00001 (initial state) to 0.31645 ± 0.00001 nm. The changes in the coherent scattering region and microstrains are estimated. The role of point defects and their complexes in the irradiation-assisted processes is established. A qualitative model is proposed to explain these changes.

  18. Effect of organic loading rates and proton exchange membrane surface area on the performance of an up-flow cylindrical microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Jana, Partha S; Behera, Manaswini; Ghangrekar, M M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of organic loading rates (OLRs) and proton exchange membrane (PEM) surface area on the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was evaluated. Three MFCs (MFC-1, MFC-2 and MFC-3) having PEM surface area of 10 cm2, 20 cm2 and 40 cm2, respectively, were used in the study. The MFCs were operated at influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 500 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h, 17 h, 13 h and 6 h in experimental Run-1 to Run-4. MFC-3, with highest PEM surface area showed highest power generation throughout the study. The optimum performancewas obtained at HRT of 13 h. In Run-5 and Run-6, the influent COD was increased to 1000 mg L(-1) and 1500 mg L(-1), respectively, maintaining the HRT at 13 h. Maximum volumetric powers of 4.26 W m(-3), 9.41 W m(-3) and 17.24 W m(-3) were obtained in MFC-1, MFC-2 and MFC-3, respectively, in Run-5 under the OLR of 1.84 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). These power values are among the higher values reported in literature; MFCs with higher PEM surface area showed better electricity generation, which clearly demonstrates that proton mass transfer is the main constraint in the MFCs which limits the power output. Combined effect of influent COD and HRT was found on electricity generation.

  19. Nanoscale zero-valent iron/AC as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts in three-dimensional electrode system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xinmin; Jiang, Yonghai; Zhou, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, nanoscale zero-valent iron/activated carbon (NZVI/AC) was investigated as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in three-dimensional (3D) electrode system for methyl orange (MO) degradation. Some important operating parameters such as cathodic potential, pH, and O₂ flow rate were investigated, exhibiting good decolorization. The mineralization of MO was significantly improved by 20-35% compared to two-dimensional (2D) AC system at the optimum conditions. Although the TOC removal of AC was higher than NZVI/AC due to its good adsorption capacity initially, heterogeneous Fenton catalysis played a more and more important roles in the following test. After eight runs, NZVI/AC still exhibited excellent catalytic properties with low iron leaching. Further, a relatively comprehensive mechanism of NZVI/AC as particle electrodes in 3D system was proposed.

  20. System and method for monitoring and controlling stator winding temperature in a de-energized AC motor

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Luebke, Charles John; Habetler, Thomas G.; Zhang, Pinjia; Becker, Scott K.

    2011-12-27

    A system and method for measuring and controlling stator winding temperature in an AC motor while idling is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of a multi-phase AC motor. The circuit further includes a plurality of switching devices to control current flow and terminal voltages in the multi-phase AC motor and a controller connected to the circuit. The controller is configured to activate the plurality of switching devices to create a DC signal in an output of the motor control device corresponding to an input to the multi-phase AC motor, determine or estimate a stator winding resistance of the multi-phase AC motor based on the DC signal, and estimate a stator temperature from the stator winding resistance. Temperature can then be controlled and regulated by DC injection into the stator windings.

  1. Zigzag Connected Autotransformer-Based 24-pulse AC-DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-qiang, Chen; Hao, Qiu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a zigzag connected autotransformer-based 24-pulse AC-DC converter is designed, modeled and simulated to feed direct torque controlled induction motor drives. Winding arrangements and parameters of the autotransformer and interphase reactor are given. Moreover, the design procedure of the autotransformer is modified to make it suitable for retrofit applications. Simulation results indicate that the system is capable of eliminating up to 21st harmonics in the ac mains current. The effect of load variation and load character is also studied to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed 24-pulse converters. A set of power quality indices at ac mains and dc side are presented to compare the performance of 6-, 12- and 24-pulse converters.

  2. AC electrokinetic manipulation of selenium nanoparticles for potential nanosensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Seyed Reza; Bayati, Marzieh; Hosseinirad, Somayeh; Foroumadi, Alireza; Gilani, Kambiz; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Se nanoparticles were synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process. ► AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoresis electrode showed non-ohmic behavior. ► The device can potentially be used as a nanosensor. - Abstract: We report the AC electrokinetic behavior of selenium (Se) nanoparticles for electrical characterization and possible application as micro/nano devices. selenium Se nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process and investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Interdigitated castellated ITO and non-castellated platinum electrodes were employed for manipulation of suspended materials in the fluid. Using ITO electrodes at low frequency limits resulted in deposition of Se particles on electrode surface. When Se particles exposed to platinum electrodes in the 10 Hz–1 kHz range and V {sub p−p}> 8, AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. However, in 10 kHz–10 MHz range and V {sub p−p}> 5, dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. As the Se particle concentration increased, the trapped Se particles were aligned along the electric field line and bridged the electrode gap. The device was characterized and can potentially be useful in making micro/nano electronic devices.

  3. Small-Signal ac Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, James M.; Chen, Jess

    1987-01-01

    Program simulates power circuits and systems. Small Signal A.C. Analysis program (SSAC) valuable tool for design and analysis of electrical-power-system circuits. By combining "black box" power-system components operating in specified manner, user characterizes system modeled. Menu-driven program proved simple and cost effective in development and modification of arbitrary power-system configurations. Package includes sample data from Dynamic Explorer satellite family. Results compared favorable to calculations from such general circuit-analysis programs as SPICE. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  4. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Pad Abort Test Vehicle (PATV) II Attitude Control System (ACS) Integration and Pressurization Subsystem Dynamic Random Vibration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.

  5. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  6. Simulation of an ac electro-osmotic pump with step microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Rezazadeh, Soghra; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-05-01

    Pumps with step microelectrodes subjected to an ac voltage are known to have faster pumping rates than those with planar asymmetric microelectrodes. The driving force for pumping in these systems is ac electro-osmosis. This paper aims to understand the flow behaviors of pumps with step microelectrodes by using a realistic model applicable to high external voltages. This model takes the steric effect due to the finite sizes of ions into account and copes with the exponential sensitivity of the counterion concentration to voltage. The effects on the pumping flow rate of varying the pump parameters were investigated. The geometrical parameters were optimized, and the effects of varying the ac frequency and amplitude were examined. The electrical potential of the fluid and the electrical charge at the electrode surface were solved simultaneously, and the Stokes equation was used to describe the fluid flow.

  7. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  8. Development of ac corona discharge modes at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    El-Koramy, Reda Ahmed; Yehia, Ashraf; Omer, Mohamed

    2011-02-15

    Corona discharges in gases exist under several distinctive forms. In this paper, a survey study has been made of ac corona discharge modes generated in some different gases fed in a wire-duct reactor with a constant rate of flowing at atmospheric pressure. The properties of different corona modes are analyzed under some condition transitions from Trichel pulses to a steady glow. In the course of the presented experimental work, numerous apparent contradictions with earlier observations necessitated further study and are given to provide more information on the physical mechanisms of the ac corona discharges. Furthermore, we have gained insight into some new technologies and applications of the environmentally friendly corona and plasma discharges.

  9. Bouncing of a Droplet on Superhydrophobic Surface in AC Electrowetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Lee, Seung Jun; Hong, Jiwoo

    2009-11-01

    Oscillation of a droplet is induced in ac electrowetting by time-dependent electrical wetting tension. A droplet placed on a superhydrophobic surface bounces up like a rubber ball when an ac signal is applied. The bouncing pattern is highly frequency dependent. We investigated how the shape deformation and bouncing of a droplet are affected by applied frequency. The droplet motion is analyzed with the spectral method. The droplet is modeled as a simple linear oscillator, and the mass and spring constants are determined based on analytical results. We found that bouncing occurs periodically at a resonance frequency of the droplet. The motion of a sessile droplet released from a fixed shape is analyzed based on the phase field method. The numerical results show qualitative agreement with the experimental results for a bouncing droplet. Details on the flow field inside a bouncing droplet will be discussed based on numerical results.

  10. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (<$150) to provide a detailed current velocity profile of the coral-reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  11. Quantifying Water Flow within Aquatic Ecosystems Using Load Cell Sensors: A Profile of Currents Experienced by Coral Reef Organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (<$150) to provide a detailed current velocity profile of the coral-reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms−1 and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm−2 allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: Currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms−1, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms−1. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats. PMID:24421878

  12. Simulation analysis of three-phase current type AC-to-DC converter with high power factor

    SciTech Connect

    Okui, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Hajime

    1997-03-01

    A new three-phase current type AC-to-DC converter has been developed by the authors. This paper describes the principle of the circuit operation and the circuit configuration of the AC-to-DC converter controlled by PWM. Simulation analysis of each waveform, such as AC and DC voltages and currents, are calculated by Euler`s method. The simulated values of the total power factor agreed with the measured values within the difference of 5.8% on the condition of full load, 10kW. When the AC side voltage is unbalanced, it is found by simulation that the total harmonic distortion controlled by both feedforward control and AC side current feedback control (proportion gain, k{sub 4} = 1) is restrained at only 38% compared with only feedforward control (k{sub 4} = 0).

  13. RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller

    SciTech Connect

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.

  14. Surface force spectroscopic point load measurements and viscoelastic modelling of the micromechanical properties of air flow sensitive hairs of a spider (Cupiennius salei)

    PubMed Central

    McConney, Michael E.; Schaber, Clemens F.; Julian, Michael D.; Eberhardt, William C.; Humphrey, Joseph A.C.; Barth, Friedrich G.; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The micromechanical properties of spider air flow hair sensilla (trichobothria) were characterized with nanometre resolution using surface force spectroscopy (SFS) under conditions of different constant deflection angular velocities (rad s−1) for hairs 900–950 μm long prior to shortening for measurement purposes. In the range of angular velocities examined (4×10−4−2.6×10−1 rad s−1), the torque T (Nm) resisting hair motion and its time rate of change (Nm s−1) were found to vary with deflection velocity according to power functions. In this range of angular velocities, the motion of the hair is most accurately captured by a three-parameter solid model, which numerically describes the properties of the hair suspension. A fit of the three-parameter model (3p) to the experimental data yielded the two torsional restoring parameters, S 3p=2.91×10−11 Nm rad−1 and =2.77×10−11 Nm rad−1 and the damping parameter R 3p=1.46×10−12 Nm s rad−1. For angular velocities larger than 0.05 rad s−1, which are common under natural conditions, a more accurate angular momentum equation was found to be given by a two-parameter Kelvin solid model. For this case, the multiple regression fit yielded S 2p=4.89×10−11 Nm rad−1 and R 2p=2.83×10−14 Nm s rad−1 for the model parameters. While the two-parameter model has been used extensively in earlier work primarily at high hair angular velocities, to correctly capture the motion of the hair at both low and high angular velocities it is necessary to employ the three-parameter model. It is suggested that the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the hair suspension work to promote the phasic response behaviour of the sensilla. PMID:19091682

  15. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  16. Hybrid Programmable Logic Controller for Load Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Farooq, Hashim; Abbar, Sofia; Yousaf, Mushtaq; Hafeez, Kamran; Hanif, M.

    The purpose of this study is to design a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to command 8-relays to control and automate ac loads via PC parallel port. In this project, the PLC is connected to the Personal Computer called hybrid PLC and this PC controls all the field ac loads via parallel printer port. Eight signals of different sequences are sent on parallel port via computer keyboard, which activate the microcontroller as inputs. Microcontroller responds according to these inputs and its user programming, which then commands 8-relays to control (on/off) different electronic appliances. Microcontroller memory makes easier to store its programming permanently. This hybrid PLC is applicable for controlling and monitoring industrial processes particularly of small to medium scale manufacturing processes and may be used for home automation as well. Parallel port is accessed by a program written in C++ language and microcontroller is programmed in assembly language. Ac load of any kind, whether resistive or inductive can be controlled with the help of this project.

  17. Four-piston double-duct liquid metal MHD engine and AC generator

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    Operating principles, features and applications of the Liquid Metal (LM) engine are presented. This engine combines a free-piston internal combustion engine with an MHD AC power generator. Liquid metal (LM) oscillates back-and-forth in two separate channels, driven by free pistons coupled magnetically to pistons driven by internal combustion. One of the principal breakthroughs is the concept of using double ducts in a Hartmann configuration for MHD production of alternating current. The LM flows in opposing directions in the two adjacent Hartmann ducts, thus eliminating magnetic-induced instabilities, eliminating vibration, and providing an ideal setup for attaching an output transformer on one side provide to provide useful ranges of current and voltage. Because LM is used, the length of the piston stroke can be easily varied over a large range, thus making possible an engine that, changes size, according to variation in output load requirements. Increasing the stroke length results in increased compression ratio, which requires computer controlled modification of the fuel injection mixture. Higher fuel efficiencies will result, whether the engine is idling or operating at maximum power. Because of viscous dissipation losses in the LM, this engine will be more efficient for larger engines. Applications include any power generation where variable load is required, such as stationary electric generators for remote towns and cities, temporary military encampments, and mobile primary power generators for off-road and on-road automotive equipment, including caterpillars, cars, military vehicles, trucks, and trains. The advantages for automotive propulsion will be described in comparisons with current and developmental vehicles using internal combustion engines. Because the LM-engine generates electricity, an LM-engine vehicle is readily adaptable to hybrid concepts. An R&D program will be outlined for bringing the concept of the LM engine to commercial application.

  18. A single-phase embedded Z-source DC-AC inverter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Jin; Lim, Young-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    In the conventional DC-AC inverter consisting of two DC-DC converters with unipolar output capacitors, the output capacitor voltages of the DC-DC converters must be higher than the DC input voltage. To overcome this weakness, this paper proposes a single-phase DC-AC inverter consisting of two embedded Z-source converters with bipolar output capacitors. The proposed inverter is composed of two embedded Z-source converters with a common DC source and output AC load. Though the output capacitor voltages of the converters are relatively low compared to those of a conventional inverter, an equivalent level of AC output voltages can be obtained. Moreover, by controlling the output capacitor voltages asymmetrically, the AC output voltage of the proposed inverter can be higher than the DC input voltage. To verify the validity of the proposed inverter, experiments were performed with a DC source voltage of 38 V. By controlling the output capacitor voltages of the converters symmetrically or asymmetrically, the proposed inverter can produce sinusoidal AC output voltages. The experiments show that efficiencies of up to 95% and 97% can be achieved with the proposed inverter using symmetric and asymmetric control, respectively.

  19. A Single-Phase Embedded Z-Source DC-AC Inverter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Jin; Lim, Young-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    In the conventional DC-AC inverter consisting of two DC-DC converters with unipolar output capacitors, the output capacitor voltages of the DC-DC converters must be higher than the DC input voltage. To overcome this weakness, this paper proposes a single-phase DC-AC inverter consisting of two embedded Z-source converters with bipolar output capacitors. The proposed inverter is composed of two embedded Z-source converters with a common DC source and output AC load. Though the output capacitor voltages of the converters are relatively low compared to those of a conventional inverter, an equivalent level of AC output voltages can be obtained. Moreover, by controlling the output capacitor voltages asymmetrically, the AC output voltage of the proposed inverter can be higher than the DC input voltage. To verify the validity of the proposed inverter, experiments were performed with a DC source voltage of 38 V. By controlling the output capacitor voltages of the converters symmetrically or asymmetrically, the proposed inverter can produce sinusoidal AC output voltages. The experiments show that efficiencies of up to 95% and 97% can be achieved with the proposed inverter using symmetric and asymmetric control, respectively. PMID:25133241

  20. A single-phase embedded Z-source DC-AC inverter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Jin; Lim, Young-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    In the conventional DC-AC inverter consisting of two DC-DC converters with unipolar output capacitors, the output capacitor voltages of the DC-DC converters must be higher than the DC input voltage. To overcome this weakness, this paper proposes a single-phase DC-AC inverter consisting of two embedded Z-source converters with bipolar output capacitors. The proposed inverter is composed of two embedded Z-source converters with a common DC source and output AC load. Though the output capacitor voltages of the converters are relatively low compared to those of a conventional inverter, an equivalent level of AC output voltages can be obtained. Moreover, by controlling the output capacitor voltages asymmetrically, the AC output voltage of the proposed inverter can be higher than the DC input voltage. To verify the validity of the proposed inverter, experiments were performed with a DC source voltage of 38 V. By controlling the output capacitor voltages of the converters symmetrically or asymmetrically, the proposed inverter can produce sinusoidal AC output voltages. The experiments show that efficiencies of up to 95% and 97% can be achieved with the proposed inverter using symmetric and asymmetric control, respectively. PMID:25133241

  1. Biodegradable polymersomes with an ionizable membrane: facile preparation, superior protein loading, and endosomal pH-responsive protein release.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoke; Meng, Fenghua; Wang, Zhongjuan; Zhong, Yinan; Zheng, Meng; Liu, Haiyan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2012-09-01

    Novel biodegradable polymersomes containing an ionizable membrane were developed for efficient loading and rapid intracellular release of proteins. The polymersomes were prepared from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PEG-PTMC) block copolymer derivatives containing acrylate, carboxylic acid, and amine groups along PTMC block, which are denoted as PEG-PTMC(AC), PEG-PTMC(COOH), and PEG-PTMC(NH(2)), respectively. Notably, nano-sized polymersomes (95.1-111.6nm) were formed by directly dispersing these copolymers in phosphate buffer at room temperature. Both FITC-labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and cytochrome C (FITC-CC) were readily loaded into PEG-PTMC(COOH) and PEG-PTMC(NH(2)) polymersomes with remarkably high loading levels. Interestingly, in vitro release studies showed that PEG-PTMC(COOH) and PEG-PTMC(NH(2)) polymersomes had pH-responsive protein release behaviors in which significantly faster protein release was observed at endosomal pH than at physiological pH. MTT assays indicated that these polymersomes had low cytotoxicity. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) observations revealed that FITC-CC loaded polymersomes efficiently delivered proteins into MCF-7 cells following 24h incubation. Importantly, flow cytometry showed that CC-loaded polymersomes induced markedly enhanced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as compared to free CC. These novel membrane ionizable biodegradable polymersomes have appeared as highly promising nanocarriers for efficient intracellular protein delivery.

  2. Aqueous stress-corrosion cracking of high-toughness D6AC steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, W. P.; Adamson, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The crack growth behavior of D6AC steel as a function of stress intensity, stress and corrosion history, and test technique, under sustained load in filtered natural seawater, 3.3 per cent sodium chloride solution, and distilled water, was investigated. Reported investigations of D6AC were considered in terms of the present study with emphasis on thermal treatment, specimen configuration, fracture toughness, crack-growth rates, initiation period, and threshold. Both threshold and growth kinetics were found to be relatively insensitive to these test parameters. The apparent incubation period was dependent on technique, both detection sensitivity and precracking stress intensity level.

  3. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages.

    PubMed

    Højgaard Olesen, Laurits; Bazant, Martin Z; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    We study the response of a model microelectrochemical cell to a large ac voltage of frequency comparable to the inverse cell relaxation time. To bring out the basic physics, we consider the simplest possible model of a symmetric binary electrolyte confined between parallel-plate blocking electrodes, ignoring any transverse instability or fluid flow. We analyze the resulting one-dimensional problem by matched asymptotic expansions in the limit of thin double layers and extend previous work into the strongly nonlinear regime, which is characterized by two features--significant salt depletion in the electrolyte near the electrodes and, at very large voltage, the breakdown of the quasiequilibrium structure of the double layers. The former leads to the prediction of "ac capacitive desalination" since there is a time-averaged transfer of salt from the bulk to the double layers, via oscillating diffusion layers. The latter is associated with transient diffusion limitation, which drives the formation and collapse of space-charge layers, even in the absence of any net Faradaic current through the cell. We also predict that steric effects of finite ion sizes (going beyond dilute-solution theory) act to suppress the strongly nonlinear regime in the limit of concentrated electrolytes, ionic liquids, and molten salts. Beyond the model problem, our reduced equations for thin double layers, based on uniformly valid matched asymptotic expansions, provide a useful mathematical framework to describe additional nonlinear responses to large ac voltages, such as Faradaic reactions, electro-osmotic instabilities, and induced-charge electrokinetic phenomena.

  4. Pressure Loads Produced on a Flat-Plate Wing By Rocket Jets Exhausting in a Spanwise Direction Below the Wing and Perpendicular to a Free-Stream Flow of Mach Number 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falanga, Ralph A.; Janos, Joseph J.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation at a Reynolds number per foot of 14.4 x 10(exp 6) was made to determine the pressure loads produced on a flat-plate wing by rocket jets exhausting in a spanwise direction beneath the wing and perpendicular to a free-stream flow of Mach number 2.0. The ranges of the variables involved were (1) nozzle types - one sonic (jet Mach number of 1.00), two supersonic (jet Mach numbers of 1.74 and 3.04),. and one two-dimensional supersonic (jet Mach number of 1.71); (2) vertical nozzle positions beneath the wing of 4, 8 and 12 nozzle-throat diameters; and (3) ratios of rocket-chamber total pressure to free- stream static pressure from 0 to 130. The incremental normal force due to jet interference on the wing varied from one to two times the rocket thrust and generally decreased as the pressure ratio increased. The chordwise coordinate of the incremental-normal-force center of pressure remained upstream of the nozzle center line for the nozzle positions and pressure ratios of the investigation. The chordwise coordinate approached zero as the jet vertical distance beneath the wing increased. In the spanwise direction there was little change due to varying rocket-jet position and pressure ratio. Some boundary-layer flow separation on the wing was observed for the rocket jets close to the wing and at the higher pressure ratios. The magnitude of the chordwise and spanwise pressure distributions due to jet interference was greatest for rocket jets close to the wing and decreased as the jet was displaced farther from the wing. The design procedure for the rockets used is given in the appendix.

  5. Characterization of directly transformed weedy Brassica rapa and introgressed B. rapa with Bt cry1Ac and gfp genes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Halfhill, Matthew D; Good, Laura L; Raymer, Paul L; Neal Stewart, C

    2007-07-01

    Crop to weed transgene flow, which could result in more competitive weed populations, is an agricultural biosafety concern. Crop Brassica napus to weedy Brassica rapa hybridization has been extensively characterized to better understand the transgene flow and its consequences. In this study, weedy accessions of B. rapa were transformed with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry1Ac- and green fluorescence protein (gfp)-coding transgenes using Agrobacterium to assess ecological performance of the wild biotype relative to introgressed hybrids in which the transgenic parent was the crop. Regenerated transgenic B. rapa events were characterized by progeny analysis, Bt protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Southern blot analysis, and GFP expression assay. GFP expression level and Bt protein concentration were significantly different between independent transgenic B. rapa events. Similar reproductive productivity was observed in comparison between transgenic B. rapa events and B. rapa x B. napus introgressed hybrids in greenhouse and field experiments. In the greenhouse, Bt transgenic plants experienced significantly less herbivory damage from the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). No differences were found in the field experiment under ambient, low, herbivore pressure. Directly transformed transgenic B. rapa plants should be a helpful experimental control to better understand crop genetic load in introgressed transgenic weeds.

  6. Characterization of directly transformed weedy Brassica rapa and introgressed B. rapa with Bt cry1Ac and gfp genes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Halfhill, Matthew D; Good, Laura L; Raymer, Paul L; Neal Stewart, C

    2007-07-01

    Crop to weed transgene flow, which could result in more competitive weed populations, is an agricultural biosafety concern. Crop Brassica napus to weedy Brassica rapa hybridization has been extensively characterized to better understand the transgene flow and its consequences. In this study, weedy accessions of B. rapa were transformed with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry1Ac- and green fluorescence protein (gfp)-coding transgenes using Agrobacterium to assess ecological performance of the wild biotype relative to introgressed hybrids in which the transgenic parent was the crop. Regenerated transgenic B. rapa events were characterized by progeny analysis, Bt protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Southern blot analysis, and GFP expression assay. GFP expression level and Bt protein concentration were significantly different between independent transgenic B. rapa events. Similar reproductive productivity was observed in comparison between transgenic B. rapa events and B. rapa x B. napus introgressed hybrids in greenhouse and field experiments. In the greenhouse, Bt transgenic plants experienced significantly less herbivory damage from the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). No differences were found in the field experiment under ambient, low, herbivore pressure. Directly transformed transgenic B. rapa plants should be a helpful experimental control to better understand crop genetic load in introgressed transgenic weeds. PMID:17333014

  7. The effect of heat treatment and test parameters on the aqueous stress corrosion cracking of D6AC steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, W. P.; Adamson, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The crack growth behavior of D6AC steel as a function of stress intensity, stress and corrosion history and test technique, under sustained load in natural seawater, 3.3 percent NaCl solution, distilled water, and high humidity air was investigated. Reported investigations of D6AC were considered with emphasis on thermal treatment, specimen configuration, fracture toughness, crack-growth rates, initiation period, threshold, and the extension of corrosion fatigue data to sustained load conditions. Stress history effects were found to be most important in that they controlled incubation period, initial crack growth rates, and apparent threshold.

  8. Development and characterization of immuno-nanocarriers targeting the cancer stem cell marker AC133.

    PubMed

    Bourseau-Guilmain, E; Béjaud, J; Griveau, A; Lautram, N; Hindré, F; Weyland, M; Benoit, J P; Garcion, E

    2012-02-14

    In the context of targeted therapy, we addressed the possibility of developing a drug delivery nanocarrier capable to specifically reach cancer cells that express the most prominent marker associated with cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype, AC133. For this purpose, 100nm lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) were functionalized with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against AC133 according to two distinct methods: firstly, post-insertion within 100nm LNCs of a lipid poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized with reactive-sulfhydryl maleimide groups (DSPE-PEG(2000)-maleimide) followed by thiolated mAb coupling, and, secondly, creation of a thiolated lipo-immunoglobulin between DSPE-PEG(2000)-maleimide and AC133, then post-inserted within LNCs. Due to the reduced number of purification steps, lower amounts of DSPE-PEG(2000)-maleimide that were necessary as well as lower number of free maleimide functions present onto the surface of immuno-LNC, the second method was found to be more appropriate. Thus, 126nm AC133-LNC with a zeta potential of -22mV while keeping a narrow distribution were developed. Use of the IgG1κ isotype control-immunoglobulins produced similar control IgG1-LNCs. Micro-Bradford colorimetric assay indicated a fixation of about 40 immunoglobulins per LNC. Use of human Caco-2 cells that constitutively express AC133 (Caco-2-AC133(high)) allowed addressing the behavior of the newly functionalized immuno-LNCs. siRNA knockown strategy permitted to obtain Caco-2-AC133(low) for comparison. Immunofluorescence-combined flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the epitope-recognition function of AC133 antibody was preserved when present on immuno-LNCs. Although grafting of immunoglobulins onto the surface of LNCs repressed their internalization within Caco-2 cells as evaluated by flow cytometry, AC133-specific cellular binding was obtained with AC133-LNC as assessed by computer-assisted fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, interest of AC133-LNCs as niche carriers is

  9. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  10. Demodulation circuit for AC motor current spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Hendrix, Donald E.; Smith, Stephen F.

    1990-12-18

    A motor current analysis method for the remote, noninvasive inspection of electric motor-operated systems. Synchronous amplitude demodulation and phase demodulation circuits are used singly and in combination along with a frequency analyzer to produce improved spectral analysis of load-induced frequencies present in the electric current flowing in a motor-driven system.

  11. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  12. SSME-HAS dynamic load simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine propellant valve actuators (SSME) were designed to simulate the loads reflected into the SSME by the chamber coolant valve, the fuel preburner, and the oxidizer. The design, and functional description are included along with a list of the drawings. The load fixture control transform, friction torque, and flow calculations are reported.

  13. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

    1998-05-01

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations.

  14. Superconductor coil geometry and ac losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, T. V., Jr.; Zapata, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical relation is presented which allows simple computation of volume-averaged winding fields from central fields for coils of small rectangular cross sections. This relation suggests that, in certain applications, ac-loss minimization can be accomplished by use of low winding densities, provided that hysteresis losses are independent of winding density. The ac-loss measurements on coils wound of twisted multifilamentary composite superconductors show no significant dependence on ac losses on winding density, thus permitting the use of winding density as an independent design parameter in loss minimization.

  15. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  16. The effect of loading time on flexible pavement dynamic response: a finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hao; Solaimanian, Mansour; Kumar, Tanmay; Stoffels, Shelley

    2007-12-01

    Dynamic response of asphalt concrete (AC) pavements under moving load is a key component for accurate prediction of flexible pavement performance. The time and temperature dependency of AC materials calls for utilizing advanced material characterization and mechanistic theories, such as viscoelasticity and stress/strain analysis. In layered elastic analysis, as implemented in the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), the time dependency is accounted for by calculating the loading times at different AC layer depths. In this study, the time effect on pavement response was evaluated by means of the concept of “pseudo temperature.” With the pavement temperature measured from instrumented thermocouples, the time and temperature dependency of AC materials was integrated into one single factor, termed “effective temperature.” Via this effective temperature, pavement responses under a transient load were predicted through finite element analysis. In the finite element model, viscoelastic behavior of AC materials was characterized through relaxation moduli, while the layers with unbound granular material were assumed to be in an elastic mode. The analysis was conducted for two different AC mixtures in a simplified flexible pavement structure at two different seasons. Finite element analysis results reveal that the loading time has a more pronounced impact on pavement response in the summer for both asphalt types. The results indicate that for reasonable prediction of dynamic response in flexible pavements, the effect of the depth-dependent loading time on pavement temperature should be considered.

  17. High School Teachers Win ACS Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Staff, Jce

    2009-07-01

    William E. Snyder is the 2009 winner of the ACS Division of Chemical Education Central Region Award for Excellence in High School Teaching; Sally Mitchell is the winner of the 2009 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

  18. Tevatron optics measurements using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to study beam optics of hadron synchrotrons. It can produce sustained large amplitude oscillations with virtually no emittance growth. A vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is recently implemented and a maximum oscillation amplitude of 2{sigma} (4{sigma}) at 980 GeV (150 GeV) is achieved [1]. When such large oscillations are measured with the BPM system of the Tevatron (20 {micro}m resolution), not only linear but even nonlinear optics can be directly measured. This paper shows how to measure {beta} function using an AC dipole and the result is compared to the other measurement. The paper also shows a test to detect optics changes when small changes are made in the Tevatron. Since an AC dipole is nondestructive, it allows frequent measurements of the optics which is necessary for such an test.

  19. The AC-120: The advanced commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, David; Griffin, Ernest; Mendoza, Saul; Nguyen, Son; Pickett, Tim; Noernberg, Clemm

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this design was to fulfill a need for a new airplane to replace the aging 100 to 150 passenger, 1500 nautical mile range aircraft such as the Douglas DC9 and Boeing 737-100 airplanes. After researching the future aircraft market, conducting extensive trade studies, and analysis on different configurations, the AC-120 Advanced Commercial Transport final design was achieved. The AC-120's main design features include the incorporation of a three lifting surface configuration which is powered by two turboprop engines. The AC-120 is an economically sensitive aircraft which meets the new FM Stage Three noise requirements, and has lower NO(x) emissions than current turbofan powered airplanes. The AC-120 also improves on its contemporaries in passenger comfort, manufacturing, and operating cost.

  20. Study on mitigation of pulsed heat load for ITER cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Jiang, Y. C.; Tang, J. C.; Liu, L. Q.

    2015-03-01

    One of the key requirements for ITER cryogenic system is the mitigation of the pulsed heat load deposited in the magnet system due to magnetic field variation and pulsed DT neutron production. As one of the control strategies, bypass valves of Toroidal Field (TF) case helium loop would be adjusted to mitigate the pulsed heat load to the LHe plant. A quasi-3D time-dependent thermal-hydraulic analysis of the TF winding packs and TF case has been performed to study the behaviors of TF magnets during the reference plasma scenario with the pulses of 400 s burn and repetition time of 1800 s. The model is based on a 1D helium flow and quasi-3D solid heat conduction model. The whole TF magnet is simulated taking into account thermal conduction between winding pack and case which are cooled separately. The heat loads are given as input information, which include AC losses in the conductor, eddy current losses in the structure, thermal radiation, thermal conduction and nuclear heating. The simulation results indicate that the temperature variation of TF magnet stays within the allowable range when the smooth control strategy is active.

  1. Flow Past a Descending Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baginski, Frank

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we present our findings related to aerodynamic loading of partially inflated balloon shapes. This report will consider aerodynamic loading of partially inflated inextensible natural shape balloons and some relevant problems in potential flow. For the axisymmetric modeling, we modified our Balloon Design Shape Program (BDSP) to handle axisymmetric inextensible ascent shapes with aerodynamic loading. For a few simple examples of two dimensional potential flows, we used the Matlab PDE Toolbox. In addition, we propose a model for aerodynamic loading of strained energy minimizing balloon shapes with lobes. Numerical solutions are presented for partially inflated strained balloon shapes with lobes and no aerodynamic loading.

  2. A novel wireless power and data transmission AC to DC converter for an implantable device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jhao-Yan; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel AC to DC converter implemented by standard CMOS technology, applied for wireless power transmission. This circuit combines the functions of the rectifier and DC to DC converter, rather than using the rectifier to convert AC to DC and then supplying the required voltage with regulator as in the transitional method. This modification can reduce the power consumption and the area of the circuit. This circuit also transfers the loading condition back to the external circuit by the load shift keying(LSK), determining if the input power is not enough or excessive, which increases the efficiency of the total system. The AC to DC converter is fabricated with the TSMC 90nm CMOS process. The circuit area is 0.071mm(2). The circuit can produce a 1V DC voltage with maximum output current of 10mA from an AC input ranging from 1.5V to 2V, at 1MHz to 10MHz. PMID:24110077

  3. A novel wireless power and data transmission AC to DC converter for an implantable device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jhao-Yan; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel AC to DC converter implemented by standard CMOS technology, applied for wireless power transmission. This circuit combines the functions of the rectifier and DC to DC converter, rather than using the rectifier to convert AC to DC and then supplying the required voltage with regulator as in the transitional method. This modification can reduce the power consumption and the area of the circuit. This circuit also transfers the loading condition back to the external circuit by the load shift keying(LSK), determining if the input power is not enough or excessive, which increases the efficiency of the total system. The AC to DC converter is fabricated with the TSMC 90nm CMOS process. The circuit area is 0.071mm(2). The circuit can produce a 1V DC voltage with maximum output current of 10mA from an AC input ranging from 1.5V to 2V, at 1MHz to 10MHz.

  4. Efficient harvesting of wet blue-green microalgal biomass by two-aminoclay [AC]-mixture systems.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hye-Min; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kim, Eui Jin; Seo, Soonjoo; Kim, Bohwa; Lee, Go-Woon; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Jun Yeong; Huh, Yun Suk; Song, Hyun A; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-07-01

    Blue-green microalgal blooms have been caused concerns about environmental problems and human-health dangers. For removal of such cyanobacteria, many mechanical and chemical treatments have been trialled. Among various technologies, the flocculation-based harvesting (precipitation) method can be an alternative if the problem of the low yield of recovered biomass at low concentrations of cyanobacteria is solved. In the present study, it was utilized mixtures of magnesium aminoclay [MgAC] and cerium aminoclay [CeAC] with different particle sizes to harvest cyanobacteria feedstocks with ∼100% efficiency within 1h by ten-fold lower loading of ACs compared with single treatments of [MgAC] or [CeAC]. This success was owed to the compact networks of the different-sized-ACs mixture for efficient bridging between microalgal cells. In order to determine the usage potential of biomass harvested with AC, the mass was heat treated under the reduction condition. This system is expected to be profitably utilizable in adsorbents and catalysts. PMID:27023387

  5. ACS sampling system: design, implementation, and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Cirami, Roberto; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2004-09-01

    By means of ACS (ALMA Common Software) framework we designed and implemented a sampling system which allows sampling of every Characteristic Component Property with a specific, user-defined, sustained frequency limited only by the hardware. Collected data are sent to various clients (one or more Java plotting widgets, a dedicated GUI or a COTS application) using the ACS/CORBA Notification Channel. The data transport is optimized: samples are cached locally and sent in packets with a lower and user-defined frequency to keep network load under control. Simultaneous sampling of the Properties of different Components is also possible. Together with the design and implementation issues we present the performance of the sampling system evaluated on two different platforms: on a VME based system using VxWorks RTOS (currently adopted by ALMA) and on a PC/104+ embedded platform using Red Hat 9 Linux operating system. The PC/104+ solution offers, as an alternative, a low cost PC compatible hardware environment with free and open operating system.

  6. A driving scheme to reduce AC LED flicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jianchuan; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    Light flicker is a common but unwelcome phenomenon in conventional lighting applications. In solid-state lighting, driving or dimming methods also give rise to light flicker. AC LED products in today's marketplace suffer from flicker, which stems from the arrangement of the micro-LEDs and the driving method. Research has shown that light flicker can be a health hazard to humans. Several solutions have been proposed to reduce light flicker in solid-state lighting applications; however, most have drawbacks in terms of power and other performance. This paper proposes a circuit design to reduce light flicker from AC LEDs while maintaining a normal power factor and high power efficiency. The circuit is composed of one resistive branch and one capacitive branch, and each branch drives a load which is made up of high-voltage LEDs. Percent flicker, power factor, and power efficiency were selected as three metrics, and their benchmarks were set to evaluate the performance of this circuit. Phase shift between the two branches was selected as a factor that could determine the circuit performance. The variations of percent flicker, power factor, and power efficiency as a function of phase shift were identified by theoretical analysis and were verified by experiments. The experimental results show that an optimal solution can be achieved for this circuit design at proper phase shift, where the benchmarks of the three metrics are reached.

  7. ac current generation in chiral magnetic insulators and Skyrmion motion induced by the spin Seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D; Reichhardt, Charles; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-05-01

    We show that a temperature gradient induces an ac electric current in multiferroic insulators when the sample is embedded in a circuit. We also show that a thermal gradient can be used to move magnetic Skyrmions in insulating chiral magnets: the induced magnon flow from the hot to the cold region drives the Skyrmions in the opposite direction via a magnonic spin transfer torque. Both results are combined to compute the effect of Skyrmion motion on the ac current generation and demonstrate that Skyrmions in insulators are a promising route for spin caloritronics applications.

  8. ac current generation in chiral magnetic insulators and Skyrmion motion induced by the spin Seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D; Reichhardt, Charles; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-05-01

    We show that a temperature gradient induces an ac electric current in multiferroic insulators when the sample is embedded in a circuit. We also show that a thermal gradient can be used to move magnetic Skyrmions in insulating chiral magnets: the induced magnon flow from the hot to the cold region drives the Skyrmions in the opposite direction via a magnonic spin transfer torque. Both results are combined to compute the effect of Skyrmion motion on the ac current generation and demonstrate that Skyrmions in insulators are a promising route for spin caloritronics applications. PMID:24856718

  9. Input-current shaped ac to dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The problem of achieving near unity power factor while supplying power to a dc load from a single phase ac source of power is examined. Power processors for this application must perform three functions: input current shaping, energy storage, and output voltage regulation. The methods available for performing each of these three functions are reviewed. Input current shaping methods are either active or passive, with the active methods divided into buck-like and boost-like techniques. In addition to large reactances, energy storage methods include resonant filters, active filters, and active storage schemes. Fast voltage regulation can be achieved by post regulation or by supplementing the current shaping topology with an extra switch. Some indications of which methods are best suited for particular applications concludes the discussion.

  10. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMISSION ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission...''). Summary of Application: ACS Wireless, Inc. (``ACS Wireless'') seeks an order under section 3(b)(2) of the..., owning, holding or trading in securities. ACS Wireless is primarily engaged in providing...

  11. 21 CFR 888.1240 - AC-powered dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered dynamometer. 888.1240 Section 888.1240...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 888.1240 AC-powered dynamometer. (a) Identification. An AC-powered dynamometer is an AC-powered device intended for medical purposes to...

  12. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered photostimulator. 886.1630 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1630 AC-powered photostimulator. (a) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1850 - AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. 886.1850... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1850 AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. (a) Identification. An AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope is an AC-powered device that is...

  15. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  18. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  19. Equivalent circuit modeling of a piezo-patch energy harvester on a thin plate with AC-DC conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayik, B.; Aghakhani, A.; Basdogan, I.; Erturk, A.

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative to beam-like structures, piezoelectric patch-based energy harvesters attached to thin plates can be readily integrated to plate-like structures in automotive, marine, and aerospace applications, in order to directly exploit structural vibration modes of the host system without mass loading and volumetric occupancy of cantilever attachments. In this paper, a multi-mode equivalent circuit model of a piezo-patch energy harvester integrated to a thin plate is developed and coupled with a standard AC-DC conversion circuit. Equivalent circuit parameters are obtained in two different ways: (1) from the modal analysis solution of a distributed-parameter analytical model and (2) from the finite-element numerical model of the harvester by accounting for two-way coupling. After the analytical modeling effort, multi-mode equivalent circuit representation of the harvester is obtained via electronic circuit simulation software SPICE. Using the SPICE software, electromechanical response of the piezoelectric energy harvester connected to linear and nonlinear circuit elements are computed. Simulation results are validated for the standard AC-AC and AC-DC configurations. For the AC input-AC output problem, voltage frequency response functions are calculated for various resistive loads, and they show excellent agreement with modal analysis-based analytical closed-form solution and with the finite-element model. For the standard ideal AC input-DC output case, a full-wave rectifier and a smoothing capacitor are added to the harvester circuit for conversion of the AC voltage to a stable DC voltage, which is also validated against an existing solution by treating the single-mode plate dynamics as a single-degree-of-freedom system.

  20. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  1. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-12-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented.

  2. Helium flow and temperatures in a heated sample of a final ITER TF cable-in-conduit conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Robert; Lewandowska, Monika; Calvi, Marco; Bessette, Denis

    2010-06-01

    The quest for a detailed understanding of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of the helium flow in the dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) for the ITER toroidal-field coils led to a series of experiments in the SULTAN test facility on a dedicated sample made according to the final conductor design. With helium flowing through the conductor as expected during ITER operation, the sample was heated by eddy-current losses induced in the strands by an applied AC magnetic field as well as by foil heaters mounted on the outside of the conductor jacket. Temperature sensors mounted on the jacket surface, in the central channel and at different radii in the sub-cable region showed the longitudinal as well as radial temperature distribution at different mass flow rates and heat loads. Spot heaters in the bundle and the central channel created small heated helium regions, which were detected downstream by a series of temperature sensors. With a time-of-flight method the helium velocity could thus be determined independently of any flow model. The temperature and velocity distributions in bundle and central channel under different mass-flow and heat load conditions thus led to a detailed picture of the helium flow in the final ITER TF CICCs.

  3. Dynamic response of elastic layered medium to moving loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafir, Zia; Siddharthan, Raj

    A new method of analysis to study the response of horizontally layered elastic medium to moving surface pressure loads under plane strain conditions has been developed. Important factors such as the two dimensional nature of wave propagation, inertia, and damping effects of the medium are accounted for. The proposed method can handle single loads or multiple loads. In the case of fast moving loads, it has been found that the inertia and damping considerations are important. An increase of about 35 percent in the vertical displacement of the surface was noted when the speed of the load was increased from 20 m/s to 100 m/s. For truck loads with tandem axle configuration on flexible pavements, it has been found that the two important strains, E(t) (major principal) at the bottom of the asphalt concrete (AC) layer and E(p) (minor principal) at the top of the subgrade layer are cyclic and not unidirectional as often assumed.

  4. Variable frequency inverter for ac induction motors with torque, speed and braking control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A variable frequency inverter was designed for driving an ac induction motor which varies the frequency and voltage to the motor windings in response to varying torque requirements for the motor so that the applied voltage amplitude and frequency are of optimal value for any motor load and speed requirement. The slip frequency of the motor is caused to vary proportionally to the torque and feedback is provided so that the most efficient operating voltage is applied to the motor. Winding current surge is limited and a controlled negative slip causes motor braking and return of load energy to a dc power source.

  5. The impact of hybrid energy storage on power quality, when high power pulsed DC loads are operated on a microgrid testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Jay Paul

    As the Navy's demands for high power transient loads evolves, so too does the need for alternative energy sources to back-up the more traditional power generation. Such applications in need of support include electrical grid backup and directed energy weapon systems such as electromagnetic launchers, laser systems, and high power microwave generators, among others. Among the alternative generation sources receiving considerable attention are energy storage devices such as rechargeable electrochemical batteries and capacitors. In such applications as those mentioned above, these energy storage devices offer the ability to serve a dual role as both a power source to the various loads as well high power loads themselves to the continual generation when the high power transient loads are in periods of downtime. With the recent developments in electrochemical energy storage, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) seem like the obvious choice, but previous research has shown that the elevated rates of charging can be detrimental to both the cycle life and the operational life span of the device. In order to preserve the batteries, their charge rate must be limited. One proposed method to accomplish the dual role task mentioned above, while preserving the life of the batteries, is by combining high energy density LIBs with high power density electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) using controllable power electronics to adjust the flow of power to and from each device. Such a configuration is typically referred to as hybrid energy storage module (HESM). While shipboard generators start up, the combined high energy density and high power density of the HESM provides the capability to source critical loads for an extended period of time at the high rates they demand. Once the generator is operationally efficient, the HESM can act as a high energy reservoir to harvest the energy from the generator while the loads are in short periods of inactivity

  6. Experimental validation of advanced regulations for superconducting magnet cooling undergoing periodic heat loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Hoa, C.; Bonnay, P.

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting magnets used in tokamaks undergo periodic heat load caused by cycling plasma operations inducing AC losses, neutrons fluxes and eddy currents in magnet structures. In the cryogenic system of JT60-SA tokamak, the Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB) distributes helium from the refrigerator to the cryogenic users and in particular to the superconducting magnets. ACB comprises a saturated helium bath with immersed heat exchangers, extracting heat from independent cooling loops. The supercritical helium flow in each cooling loop is driven by a cold circulator. In order to safely operate the refrigerator during plasma pulses, the interface between the ACB and the refrigerator shall be as stable as possible, with well-balanced bath inlet and outlet mass flows during cycling operation. The solution presented in this paper relies on a combination of regulations to smooth pulsed heat loads and to keep a constant refrigeration power during all the cycle. Two smoothing strategies are presented, both regulating the outlet mass flow of the bath: the first one using the bath as a thermal buffer and the second one storing energy in the loop by varying the cold circulator speed. The bath outlet mass flow is also controlled by an immersed resistive heater which enables a constant evaporation rate in the bath when power coming from the loops is decreasing. The refrigeration power is controlled so that the compensating power remains within an acceptable margin. Experimental validation is achieved using the HELIOS facility. This facility running at CEA Grenoble since 2010 is a scaled down model of the ACB bath and Central Solenoid magnet cooling loop of the JT60-SA tokamak. Test results show performances and robustness of the regulations.

  7. Experimental validation of advanced regulations for superconducting magnet cooling undergoing periodic heat loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Hoa, C.; Bonnay, P.

    2014-01-29

    Superconducting magnets used in tokamaks undergo periodic heat load caused by cycling plasma operations inducing AC losses, neutrons fluxes and eddy currents in magnet structures. In the cryogenic system of JT60-SA tokamak, the Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB) distributes helium from the refrigerator to the cryogenic users and in particular to the superconducting magnets. ACB comprises a saturated helium bath with immersed heat exchangers, extracting heat from independent cooling loops. The supercritical helium flow in each cooling loop is driven by a cold circulator. In order to safely operate the refrigerator during plasma pulses, the interface between the ACB and the refrigerator shall be as stable as possible, with well-balanced bath inlet and outlet mass flows during cycling operation. The solution presented in this paper relies on a combination of regulations to smooth pulsed heat loads and to keep a constant refrigeration power during all the cycle. Two smoothing strategies are presented, both regulating the outlet mass flow of the bath: the first one using the bath as a thermal buffer and the second one storing energy in the loop by varying the cold circulator speed. The bath outlet mass flow is also controlled by an immersed resistive heater which enables a constant evaporation rate in the bath when power coming from the loops is decreasing. The refrigeration power is controlled so that the compensating power remains within an acceptable margin. Experimental validation is achieved using the HELIOS facility. This facility running at CEA Grenoble since 2010 is a scaled down model of the ACB bath and Central Solenoid magnet cooling loop of the JT60-SA tokamak. Test results show performances and robustness of the regulations.

  8. Deletion of AcMNPV ac146 eliminates the production of budded virus.

    PubMed

    Dickison, Virginia L; Willis, Leslie G; Sokal, Nadia R; Theilmann, David A

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac146 is a highly conserved gene in the Alpha- and Betabaculovirus genera that has an unknown function. Northern blot analysis and transcript mapping showed that ac146 is transcribed at late times post infection as a 1.2 kb mRNA. To determine the role of ac146 in the baculovirus life cycle ac146 knock out viruses were constructed. Transfection and plaque assays showed that all the ac146 deletions produced a single cell phenotype indicating that no infectious budded virus (BV) was produced, however occlusion bodies were formed. The lack of BV production was confirmed by viral titration utilizing both qPCR and TCID₅₀. Analysis of BV and occlusion derived virus (ODV) revealed that AC146 is associated with both forms of the virus and is modified specifically in ODV. This study therefore demonstrates that AC146 is a late virion associated protein and is essential for the viral life cycle.

  9. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    PubMed

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney.

  10. Design and synthesis of 225Ac radioimmunopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Michael R; Ma, Dangshe; Simon, Jim; Frank, R Keith; Scheinberg, David A

    2002-12-01

    The alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides 213Bi, 211At, 224Ra are under investigation for the treatment of leukemias, gliomas, and ankylosing spondylitis, respectively. 213Bi and 211At were attached to monoclonal antibodies and used as targeted immunotherapeutic agents while unconjugated 224Ra chloride selectively seeks bone. 225Ac possesses favorable physical properties for radioimmunotherapy (10d half-life and 4 net alpha particles), but has a history of unfavorable radiolabeling chemistry and poor metal-chelate stability. We selected functionalized derivatives of DOTA as the most promising to pursue from out of a group of potential 225Ac chelate compounds. A two-step synthetic process employing either MeO-DOTA-NCS or 2B-DOTA-NCS as the chelating moiety was developed to attach 225Ac to monoclonal antibodies. This method was tested using several different IgG systems. The chelation reaction yield in the first step was 93+/-8% radiochemically pure (n=26). The second step yielded 225Ac-DOTA-IgG constructs that were 95+/-5% radiochemically pure (n=27) and the mean percent immunoreactivity ranged from 25% to 81%, depending on the antibody used. This process has yielded several potential novel targeted 225Ac-labeled immunotherapeutic agents that may now be evaluated in appropriate model systems and ultimately in humans.

  11. Cosmic Shear - with ACS Pure Parallel Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan

    2002-07-01

    The ACS, with greater sensitivity and sky coverage, will extend our ability to measure the weak gravitational lensing of galaxy images caused by the large scale distribution of dark matter. We propose to use the ACS in pure parallel {non- proprietary} mode, following the guidelines of the ACS Default Pure Parallel Program. Using the HST Medium Deep Survey WFPC2 database we have measured cosmic shear at arc-min angular scales. The MDS image parameters, in particular the galaxy orientations and axis ratios, are such that any residual corrections due to errors in the PSF or jitter are much smaller than the measured signal. This situation is in stark contrast with ground-based observations. We have also developed a statistical analysis procedure to derive unbiased estimates of cosmic shear from a large number of fields, each of which has a very small number of galaxies. We have therefore set the stage for measurements with the ACS at fainter apparent magnitudes and smaller, 10 arc-second scales corresponding to larger cosmological distances. We will adapt existing MDS WFPC2 maximum likelihood galaxy image analysis algorithms to work with the ACS. The analysis would also yield an online database similar to that in archive.stsci.edu/mds/

  12. Lateral separation of colloids or cells by dielectrophoresis augmented by AC electroosmosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; White, Lee R; Tilton, Robert D

    2005-05-01

    Colloidal particles and biological cells are patterned and separated laterally adjacent to a micropatterned electrode array by applying AC electric fields that are principally oriented normally to the electrode array. This is demonstrated for yeast cells, red blood cells, and colloidal polystyrene particles of different sizes and zeta-potentials. The separation mechanism is observed experimentally to depend on the applied field frequency and voltage. At high frequencies, particles position themselves in a manner that is consistent with dielectrophoresis, while at low frequencies, the positioning is explained in terms of a strong coupling between gravity, the vertical component of the dielectrophoretic force, and the Stokes drag on particles induced by AC electroosmotic flow. Compared to high frequency dielectrophoretic separations, the low frequency separations are faster and require lower applied voltages. Furthermore, the AC electroosmosis coupling with dielectrophoresis may enable cell separations that are not feasible based on dielectrophoresis alone. PMID:15797412

  13. Transparent XML Binding using the ALMA Common Software (ACS) Container/Component Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, H.; Chiozzi, G.; Fugate, D.; Sekoranja, M.

    2004-07-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. The common architecture and infrastructure used for the whole ALMA software is presented at this conference in (Schwarz, Farris, & Sommer 2004). ACS offers a CORBA-based container/component model and supports the exchange and persistence of XML data. For the Java programming language, the container integrates transparently the use of type-safe Java binding classes to let applications conveniently work with XML transfer objects without having to parse or serialize them. This paper will show how the ACS container/component architecture serves to pass complex data structures, such as observation meta-data, between heterogeneous applications.

  14. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Højgaard Olesen, Laurits; Bazant, Martin Z.; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    We study the response of a model microelectrochemical cell to a large ac voltage of frequency comparable to the inverse cell relaxation time. To bring out the basic physics, we consider the simplest possible model of a symmetric binary electrolyte confined between parallel-plate blocking electrodes, ignoring any transverse instability or fluid flow. We analyze the resulting one-dimensional problem by matched asymptotic expansions in the limit of thin double layers and extend previous work into the strongly nonlinear regime, which is characterized by two features—significant salt depletion in the electrolyte near the electrodes and, at very large voltage, the breakdown of the quasiequilibrium structure of the double layers. The former leads to the prediction of “ac capacitive desalination” since there is a time-averaged transfer of salt from the bulk to the double layers, via oscillating diffusion layers. The latter is associated with transient diffusion limitation, which drives the formation and collapse of space-charge layers, even in the absence of any net Faradaic current through the cell. We also predict that steric effects of finite ion sizes (going beyond dilute-solution theory) act to suppress the strongly nonlinear regime in the limit of concentrated electrolytes, ionic liquids, and molten salts. Beyond the model problem, our reduced equations for thin double layers, based on uniformly valid matched asymptotic expansions, provide a useful mathematical framework to describe additional nonlinear responses to large ac voltages, such as Faradaic reactions, electro-osmotic instabilities, and induced-charge electrokinetic phenomena.

  15. Tamoxifen loaded folic acid armed PEGylated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Heidari Majd, Mostafa; Asgari, Davoud; Barar, Jaleh; Valizadeh, Hadi; Kafil, Vala; Abadpour, Alaleh; Moumivand, Efat; Mojarrad, Javid Shahbazi; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Coukos, George; Omidi, Yadollah

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely used as drug delivery nanosystems and contrast agent for imaging and detection. To engineer multifunctional nanomedicines for simultaneous imaging and therapy of cancer cells, in the current study, we synthesized tamoxifen (TMX) loaded folic acid (FA) armed MNPs to target the folate receptor (FR) positive cancer cells. To this end, Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized through thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was treated with excess bromoacetyl chloride (BrAc) and then with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) to synthesize bromoacetyl-terminal polyethylene glycol silane (APS-PEG-BrAc). The latter complex was treated with protected ethylene diamine to form a bifunctional PEG compound containing triethoxysilane at one end and amino group at the other end (APS-PEG-NH2). The Fe3O4-APS-PEG-NH2 NPs were prepared through self-assembly of APS-PEG-NH2 on MNPs, while the amino groups at the end of Fe3O4-APS-PEG-NH2 were conjugated with folic acid (FA), then loaded with TMX (Fe3O4-APS-PEG-FA-TMX). The average size of "Fe3O4-APS-PEG-FA-TMX" NPs was approximately 40 nm. The engineered MNPs were further characterized and examined in the human breast cancer MCF-7 cells that express FR. The TMX loaded MNPs (with loading efficiency of 49.1%) showed sustained liberation of TMX molecules (with 90% release in 72 h). Fluorescence microcopy and flow cytometry analyses revealed substantial interaction of Fe3O4-APS-PEG-FA-TMX NPs with the FR-positive MCF-7 cells. Cytotoxicity analysis resulted in significant growth inhibition in MCF-7 cells treated with Fe3O4-APS-PEG-FA-TMX NPs. Based on these findings, the TMX-loaded FA-armed PEGylated MNPs as a novel multifunctional nanomedicine/theranostic for concurrent targeting, imaging and therapy of the FR-positive cancer cells. PMID:23434700

  16. Induced Velocities Near a Lifting Rotor with Nonuniform Disk Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyson, Harry H; Katzoff, S

    1957-01-01

    A method is given for converting known uniformly loaded rotor induced velocities to correspond with arbitrary axisymmetric nonuniform disk load distributions. Numerical results for two specific distributions are given in chart form. Symmetry relations and relations between radial disk loading and wake velocities are developed. Experimental flow measurements are presented and compared with theory. Reasonable agreement is shown in the forward part of the flow when nonuniform loading is assumed, but far behind the rotor the flow is more like that of a wing.

  17. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  18. Atrial-caval shunting (ACS) after trauma.

    PubMed

    Kudsk, K A; Sheldon, G F; Lim, R C

    1982-02-01

    Since 1968 the atrial-caval shunt (ACS), along with inflow occlusion at the porta hepatis, has been used at San Francisco General Hospital in 18 trauma patients to control massive hemorrhage from the inferior vena cava, hepatic veins, or liver. Thirteen patients died from irreversible shock. Five patients survived their initial injuries; one of them died 45 days later from the complications of shock and sepsis. No patients survived who sustained blunt trauma and were admitted in cardiac arrest. Only one of ten patients with BP less than 70 mm Hg after resuscitation survived, whereas four of eight with BP greater than 70 mm Hg survived. ACS was used to control caval injuries in seven patients (one survivor), severe hepatic parenchymal fractures in four patients (two survivors), and combined hepatic and caval injuries in seven patients (two survivors). Survivors had an average of 5.75 associated injuries; nonsurvivors had 3.8. No complications of ACS occurred in the surviving patients.

  19. Kinetic studies of the stress corrosion cracking of D6AC steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noronha, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of load interactions on the crack growth velocity of D6AC steel under stress corrosion cracking conditions was determined. The environment was a 3.5 percent salt solution. The modified-wedge opening load specimens were fatigue precracked and subjected to a deadweight loading in creep machines. The effects of load shedding on incubation times and crack growth rates were measured using high-sensitivity compliance measurement techniques. Load shedding results in an incubation time, the length of which depends on the amount of load shed and the baseline stress intensity. The sequence of unloading the specimen also controls the subsequent incubation period. The incubation period is shorter when load shedding passes through zero load than when it does not if the specimen initially had the same baseline stress intensity. The crack growth rates following the incubation period are also different from the steady-state crack growth rate at the operating stress intensity. These data show that the susceptibility of this alloy system to stress corrosion cracking depends on the plane-strain fracture toughness and on the yield strength of the material.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Adenylyl Cyclase Type 6 (AC6) Expression Persist Using a Catalytically Inactive AC6 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tong; Lai, Ngai Chin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Guo, Tracy; Tang, Rouying; Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X.; Hammond, H. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac-directed expression of AC6 has pronounced favorable effects on cardiac function possibly not linked with cAMP production. To determine rigorously whether cAMP generation is required for the beneficial effects of increased AC6 expression, we generated a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant (AC6mut) that has markedly diminished cAMP generating capacity by replacing aspartic acid with alanine at position 426 in the C1 domain (catalytic region) of AC6. Gene transfer of AC6 or AC6mut (adenovirus-mediated) in adult rat cardiac myocytes resulted in similar expression levels and intracellular distribution, but AC6mut expression was associated with marked reduction in cAMP production. Despite marked reduction in cAMP generation, AC6mut influenced intracellular signaling events similarly to that observed after expression of catalytically intact AC6. For example, both AC6 and AC6mut reduced phenylephrine-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis (p < 0.001), expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (p < 0.01), and phospholamban (p < 0.05). AC6mut expression, similar to its catalytically intact cohort, was associated with increased Ca2+ transients in cardiac myocytes after isoproterenol stimulation. Many of the biological effects of AC6 expression are replicated by a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant, indicating that the mechanisms for these effects do not require increased cAMP generation. PMID:21127130

  1. Electroporation of cells using EM induction of ac fields by a magnetic stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Evans, J. A.; Robinson, M. P.; Smye, S. W.; O'Toole, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a method of effectively electroporating mammalian cell membranes with pulsed alternating-current (ac) electric fields at field strengths of 30-160 kV m-1. Although many in vivo electroporation protocols entail applying square wave or monotonically decreasing pulses via needles or electrode plates, relatively few have explored the use of pulsed ac fields. Following our previous study, which established the effectiveness of ac fields for electroporating cell membranes, a primary/secondary coil system was constructed to produce sufficiently strong electric fields by electromagnetic induction. The primary coil was formed from the applicator of an established transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system, while the secondary coil was a purpose-built device of a design which could eventually be implanted into tissue. The effects of field strength, pulse interval and cumulative exposure time were investigated using microscopy and flow cytometry. Results from experiments on concentrated cell suspensions showed an optimized electroporation efficiency of around 50%, demonstrating that electroporation can be practicably achieved by inducing such pulsed ac fields. This finding confirms the possibility of a wide range of in vivo applications based on magnetically coupled ac electroporation.

  2. Nuclear Lamin A/C Deficiency Induces Defects in Cell Mechanics, Polarization, and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jerry S. H.; Hale, Christopher M.; Panorchan, Porntula; Khatau, Shyam B.; George, Jerry P.; Tseng, Yiider; Stewart, Colin L.; Hodzic, Didier; Wirtz, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Lamin A/C is a major constituent of the nuclear lamina, a thin filamentous protein layer that lies beneath the nuclear envelope. Here we show that lamin A/C deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Lmna−/− MEFs) diminishes the ability of these cells to polarize at the edge of a wound and significantly reduces cell migration speed into the wound. Moreover, lamin A/C deficiency induces significant separation of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) from the nuclear envelope. Investigations using ballistic intracellular nanorheology reveal that lamin A/C deficiency also dramatically affects the micromechanical properties of the cytoplasm. Both the elasticity (stretchiness) and the viscosity (propensity of a material to flow) of the cytoplasm in Lmna−/− MEFs are significantly reduced. Disassembly of either the actin filament or microtubule networks in Lmna+/+ MEFs results in decrease of cytoplasmic elasticity and viscosity down to levels found in Lmna−/− MEFs. Together these results show that both the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton-based processes, including cell motility, coupled MTOC and nucleus dynamics, and cell polarization, depend critically on the integrity of the nuclear lamina, which suggest the existence of a functional mechanical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton. These results also suggest that cell polarization during cell migration requires tight mechanical coupling between MTOC and nucleus, which is mediated by lamin A/C. PMID:17631533

  3. Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yihong; Cao, Zhenning; Bao, Ning; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Geng, Tao; Lin, Hao; Lu, Chang

    2012-06-28

    Conventional electroporation has been conducted by employing short direct current (dc) pulses for delivery of macromolecules such as DNA into cells. The use of alternating current (ac) field for electroporation has mostly been explored in the frequency range of 10kHz-1MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10Hz-10kHz), the transmembrane potential does not vary with the frequency. In this report, we utilized a flow-through electroporation technique that employed continuous 10Hz-10kHz ac field (based on either sine waves or square waves) for electroporation of cells with defined duration and intensity. Our results reveal that electropermeabilization becomes weaker with increased frequency in this range. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100-1000Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency is determined by combined effects from electrophoretic movement of DNA in the ac field, dependence of the DNA/membrane interaction on the ac frequency, and variation of transfection under different electropermeabilization intensities. The fact that ac electroporation in this frequency range yields high efficiency for transfection (up to ~71% for Chinese hamster ovary cells) and permeabilization suggests its potential for gene delivery.

  4. THE EFFECT OF WATER (VAPOR-PHASE) AND CARBON ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY REMOVAL IN A FLOW REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of studying the effect of vapor-phase moisture on elemental mercury (Hgo) removal by activated carbon (AC) in a flow reactor. tests involved injecting AC into both a dry and a 4% moisture nitrogen (N2) /Hgo gas stream. A bituminous-coal-based AC (Calgon WP...

  5. Cry1Ac Transgenic Sugarcane Does Not Affect the Diversity of Microbial Communities and Has No Significant Effect on Enzyme Activities in Rhizosphere Soil within One Crop Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dinggang; Xu, Liping; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Luo, Jun; You, Qian; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes. PMID:27014291

  6. Wash load and bed-material load transport in the Yellow River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    It has been the conventional assumption that wash load is supply limited and is only indirectly related to the hydraulics of a river. Hydraulic engineers also assumed that bed-material load concentration is independent of wash load concentration. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the Yellow River sediment transport data to determine whether the above assumptions are true and whether wash load concentration can be computed from the original unit stream power formula and the modified unit stream power formula for sediment-laden flows. A systematic and thorough analysis of 1,160 sets of data collected from 9 gauging stations along the Middle and Lower Yellow River confirmed that the method suggested by the conjunctive use of the two formulas can be used to compute wash load, bed-material load, and total load in the Yellow River with accuracy. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ?? ASCE.

  7. Non-Antithrombotic Medical Options in ACS: Old Agents and New Lines on the Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Soukoulis, Victor; Boden, William E.; Smith, Sidney C.; O'Gara, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) constitute a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction to ST-segment myocardial infarction. Myocardial ischemia in this context occurs as a result of an abrupt decrease in coronary blood flow and resultant imbalance in the myocardial oxygen supply-demand relationship. Coronary blood flow is further compromised by other mechanisms that increase coronary vascular resistance or reduce coronary driving pressure. The goals of treatment are to decrease myocardial oxygen demand, increase coronary blood flow and oxygen supply, and limit myocardial injury. Treatments are generally divided into “disease-modifying” agents or interventions that improve hard clinical outcomes and other strategies that can reduce ischemia. In addition to traditional drugs such as beta-blockers and inhibitors of the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system, newer agents have expanded the number of molecular pathways targeted for treatment of ACS. Ranolazine, trimetazidine, nicorandil, and ivabradine are medications that have been shown to reduce myocardial ischemia through diverse mechanisms and have been tested in limited fashion in patients with ACS. Attenuating the no-reflow phenomenon and reducing the injury compounded by acute reperfusion after a period of coronary occlusion are active areas of research. Additionally, interventions aimed at ischemic pre- and post-conditioning may be useful means by which to limit myocardial infarct size. Trials are also underway to examine altered metabolic and oxygen-related pathways in ACS. This review will discuss traditional and newer anti-ischemic therapies for patients with ACS, exclusive of revascularization, anti-thrombotic agents, and the use of high-intensity statins. PMID:24902977

  8. Micro pumping methods based on AC electrokinetics and Electrorheologically actuated PDMS valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Gaurav; Squires, Todd; Meinhart, Carl

    2006-11-01

    We have developed 2 different micropumping methods for transporting ionic fluids through microchannels. The first method is based on Induced Charge Electroosmosis (ICEO) and AC flow field-effect. We used an AC electric field to produce a symmetric ICEO flow on a planar electrode, called `gate'. In order to break the symmetry of ICEO, we applied an additional AC voltage to the gate electrode. Such modulation of the gate potential is called field effect and produces a unidirectional pumping over the gate surface. We used micro PIV to measure pumping velocities for a range of ionic concentration, AC frequency and gate voltage. We have also conducted numerical simulations to understand the deteriorating effect of lateral conduction of surface charge on the pumping velocities. The second method is based on vibration of a flexible PDMS diaphragm actuated by an electrorheological (ER) fluid. ER fluid is a colloidal suspension exhibiting a reversible liquid-to-solid transition under an electric field. This liquid-to-solid transition can yield very high shear stress and can be used to open and close a PDMS valve. Three such valves were fabricated and actuated in a peristaltic fashion in order to achieve positive displacement pumping of fluids.

  9. Development of AC and DC Power Supply Direct Interface Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Koji; Itoh, Jun-Ichi

    This paper proposes a novel control method for a direct interface converter for management of the energy flow in either an AC or DC supply. The proposed converter is constructed based on an indirect matrix converter. Therefore a proposed control strategy is based on an indirect control method with a triangular carrier wave. The basic operation of the proposed control method is confirmed by experimental results. In addition, this paper also proposes a commutation error compensation method of an output voltage error and an input current error for an indirect matrix converter. In the proposed method, the output voltage and input current error by the commutation can be compensated at the same time, because the PWM pulse of each switch is directly compensated. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results. Those results prove that the proposed compensation method can decrease total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input and output current.

  10. Transient AC voltage related phenomena for HVDC schemes connected to weak AC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pilotto, L.A.S.; Szechtman, M. ); Hammad, A.E. )

    1992-07-01

    In this paper a didactic explanation of voltage stability associated phenomena at HVDC terminals is presented. Conditions leading to ac voltage collapse problems are identified. A mechanism that excites control-induced voltage oscillations is shown. The voltage stability factor is used for obtaining the maximum power limits of ac/dc systems operating with different control strategies. Correlation to Pd {times} Id curves is given. Solutions for eliminating the risks of voltage collapse and for avoiding control-induced oscillations are discussed. The results are supported by detailed digital simulations of a weak ac/dc system using EMTP.

  11. Antitumor efficacy and tolerability of systemically administered gallium acetylacetonate-loaded gelucire-stabilized nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wehrung, Daniel; Bi, Lipeng; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2013-06-01

    The widespread clinical success with most gallium compounds in cancer therapy is markedly hampered by lack of tumor specific accumulation, poor tumor permeability and undesirable toxicity to healthy tissues. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time antitumor mechanism of a new gallium compound (gallium acetylacetonate; GaAcAc) while assessing effectiveness of gelucire-stabilized nanoparticles (NPs) for potential application in gallium-based lung cancer therapy. NPs loaded with GaAcAc (Ga-NPs) were prepared using mixtures of cetyl alcohol with Gelucire 44/14 (Ga-NP-1) or Gelucire 53/13 (Ga-NP-2) as matrix materials. Of special note from this work is the direct evidence of involvement of microtubule disruption in antitumor effects of GaAcAc on human lung adenocarcinoma (A549). In-vivo tolerability studies were based on plasma ALT, creatinine levels and histopathological examination of tissues. The superior in-vivo antitumor efficacy of Ga-NPs over GaAcAc was depicted in marked reduction of tumor weight and tumor volume as well as histological assessment of excised tumors. Compared to free GaAcAc, Ga-NPs showed a 3-fold increase in tumor-to-blood gallium concentrations with minimized overall exposure to healthy tissues. Overall, enhancement of antitumor effects of GaAcAc by gelucire-stabilized NPs coupled with reduced exposure of healthy tissues to gallium would likely ensure desired therapeutic outcomes and safety of gallium-based cancer treatment.

  12. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  13. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx.

  14. A dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, M.; Starkloff, M.; Peiselt, K.; Anders, S.; Knipper, R.; Lee, J.; Behr, R.; Palafox, L.; Böck, A. C.; Schaidhammer, L.; Fleischmann, P. M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes a dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter system operated up to kilohertz frequencies and 7 V rms. A 10 V programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) array was installed on a pulse tube cooler (PTC) driven with a 4 kW air-cooled compressor. The operating margins at 70 GHz frequencies were investigated in detail and found to exceed 1 mA Shapiro step width. A key factor for the successful chip operation was the low on-chip power consumption of 65 mW in total. A thermal interface between PJVS chip and PTC cold stage was used to avoid a significant chip overheating. By installing the cryocooled PJVS array into an AC quantum voltmeter setup, several calibration measurements of dc standards and calibrator ac voltages up to 2 kHz frequencies were carried out to demonstrate the full functionality. The results are discussed and compared to systems with standard liquid helium cooling. For dc voltages, a direct comparison measurement between the dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter and a liquid-helium based 10 V PJVS shows an agreement better than 1 part in 1010.

  15. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, O.L.

    1996-07-15

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal.

  16. AC Resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to primary power frequency

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Harold

    1982-01-01

    An AC resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a PFN, is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase AC power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  17. Ac resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to preimary power requency

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-12-07

    An ac resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a pulse forming network (PFN), is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase ac power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  18. Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.

  19. Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.

  20. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  1. Very low noise AC/DC power supply systems for large detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Baù, A.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Passerini, A.; Pessina, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present the first part of the power supply system for the CUORE and LUCIFER arrays of bolometric detectors. For CUORE, it consists of AC/DC commercial power supplies (0-60 V output) followed by custom DC/DC modules (48 V input, ±5 V to ±13.5 V outputs). Each module has 3 floating and independently configurable output voltages. In LUCIFER, the AC/DC + DC/DC stages are combined into a commercial medium-power AC/DC source. At the outputs of both setups, we introduced filters with the aim of lowering the noise and to protect the following stages from high voltage spikes that can be generated by the energy stored in the cables after the release of accidental short circuits. Output noise is very low, as required: in the 100 MHz bandwidth the RMS level is about 37 μVRMS (CUORE setup) and 90 μVRMS (LUCIFER setup) at a load of 7 A, with a negligible dependence on the load current. Even more importantly, high frequency switching disturbances are almost completely suppressed. The efficiency of both systems is above 85%. Both systems are completely programmable and monitored via CAN bus (optically coupled).

  2. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  3. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus which allows measurement of retinal or visual function by perceptual or electrical methods (e.g.,...

  5. Acetate ions enhance load and stability of doxorubicin onto PEGylated nanodiamond for selective tumor intracellular controlled release and therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Tian, Lu; Zhao, Wenjing; Li, Yingqi; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-09-12

    A successful drug delivery device for cancer chemotherapy should ideally be able to load drugs highly, bring the drug preferentially into tumor cells and reduce its distribution in normal tissue to enhance therapeutic efficacy. To this purpose, a novel protocol for DOX-loaded PEGylated nanodiamond (ND-PEG-DOX/NaAc, NPDA) was fabricated using sodium acetate medium. The NPDA nanoparticles exhibited a maximum loading efficiency (99 wt%) with ultra-low drug leakage (7 wt%). Examination by confocal microscope and flow cytometer showed that the NPDA uptake by cells was time-dependent, with a slow and sustained drug release from the lysosomes at a low pH. Also, when CHO (a normal cell) and MCF-7 (a cancer cell) were treated with NPDA, the results demonstrated that NPDA preferentially accumulated much more in tumor cells than in normal cells, which implied that NPDA has the ability to selectively kill tumor cells. In addition, NPDA can inhibit the migration and proliferation of tumor cells and change the cell cycle compared to the free drug. Outcomes from this work suggest that NPDA would be a promising drug delivery platform and the preparation of such a drug delivery system will also have implications in improving the biomedical applications of smart nanodiamond carriers. PMID:27502159

  6. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7 kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  7. Cascade aeroacoustics including steady loading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Fleeter, Sanford

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the effects of airfoil and cascade geometry, steady aerodynamic loading, and the characteristics of the unsteady flow field on the discrete frequency noise generation of a blade row in an incompressible flow. The unsteady lift which generates the noise is predicted with a complex first-order cascade convected gust analysis. This model was then applied to the Gostelow airfoil cascade and variations, demonstrating that steady loading, cascade solidity, and the gust direction are significant. Also, even at zero incidence, the classical flat plate cascade predictions are unacceptable.

  8. LOADED WAVE GUIDES FOR LINEAR ACCELERATORS

    DOEpatents

    Walkinshaw, W.; Mullett, L.B.

    1959-12-01

    A periodically loaded waveguide having substantially coaxially arranged elements which provide an axial field for the acceleration of electrons is described. Radiofrequency energy will flow in the space between the inner wall of an outer guide and the peripheries of equally spaced irises or washes arranged coaxially with each other and with the outer guide, where the loading due to the geometry of the irises is such as to reduce the phase velocity of the r-f energy flowing in the guide from a value greater than that of light to the velocity of light or less.

  9. Heat Load Estimator for Smoothing Pulsed Heat Loads on Supercritical Helium Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, C.; Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Michel, F.

    Superconducting magnets for fusion are subjected to large variations of heat loads due to cycling operation of tokamaks. The cryogenic system shall operate smoothly to extract the pulsed heat loads by circulating supercritical helium into the coils and structures. However the value of the total heat loads and its temporal variation are not known before the plasma scenario starts. A real-time heat load estimator is of interest for the process control of the cryogenic system in order to anticipate the arrival of pulsed heat loads to the refrigerator and finally to optimize the operation of the cryogenic system. The large variation of the thermal loads affects the physical parameters of the supercritical helium loop (pressure, temperature, mass flow) so those signals can be used for calculating instantaneously the loads deposited into the loop. The methodology and algorithm are addressed in the article for estimating the heat load deposition before it reaches the refrigerator. The CEA patented process control has been implemented in a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and has been successfully validated on the HELIOS test facility at CEA Grenoble. This heat load estimator is complementary to pulsed load smoothing strategies providing an estimation of the optimized refrigeration power. It can also effectively improve the process control during the transient between different operating modes by adjusting the refrigeration power to the need. This way, the heat load estimator participates to the safe operation of the cryogenic system.

  10. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an...

  11. Methods for Addressing Missing Data with Applications from ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandriet, Alexandra; Holme, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ACS Examinations Institute (ACS-EI) national norming process, student performance data sets are collected from professors at colleges and universities from around the United States. Because the data sets are collected on a volunteer basis, the ACS-EI often receives data sets with only students' total scores and without the students'…

  12. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  15. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  16. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  17. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  18. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  19. ChAcNLS, a Novel Modification to Antibody-Conjugates Permitting Target Cell-Specific Endosomal Escape, Localization to the Nucleus, and Enhanced Total Intracellular Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Simon; Rondeau, Andreanne; Martel, Olivier; Bonin, Marc-Andre; van Lier, Johan E; Leyton, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-01

    The design of antibody-conjugates (ACs) for delivering molecules for targeted applications in humans has sufficiently progressed to demonstrate clinical efficacy in certain malignancies and reduced systemic toxicity that occurs with standard nontargeted therapies. One area that can advance clinical success for ACs will be to increase their intracellular accumulation. However, entrapment and degradation in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway, on which ACs are reliant for the depositing of their molecular payload inside target cells, leads to reduced intracellular accumulation. Innovative approaches that can manipulate this pathway may provide a strategy for increasing accumulation. We hypothesized that escape from entrapment inside the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and redirected trafficking to the nucleus could be an effective approach to increase intracellular AC accumulation in target cells. Cholic acid (ChAc) was coupled to the peptide CGYGPKKKRKVGG containing the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from SV-40 large T-antigen, which is termed ChAcNLS. ChAcNLS was conjugated to the mAb 7G3 (7G3-ChAcNLS), which has nanomolar affinity for the cell-surface leukemic antigen interleukin-3 receptor-α (IL-3Rα). Our aim was to determine whether 7G3-ChAcNLS increased intracellular accumulation while retaining nanomolar affinity and IL-3Rα-positive cell selectivity. Competition ELISA and cell treatment assays were performed. Cell fractionation, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western blot techniques were used to determine the level of antibody accumulation inside cells and in corresponding nuclei. In addition, the radioisotope copper-64 ((64)Cu) was also utilized as a surrogate molecular cargo to evaluate nuclear and intracellular accumulation by radioactivity counting. 7G3-ChAcNLS effectively escaped endosome entrapment and degradation resulting in a unique intracellular distribution pattern. mAb modification with ChAcNLS maintained 7G3 nM affinity and produced high

  20. A Kalman filtering based control scheme for the improvement of dynamic performance of an AC/DC power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecen, Recayi

    In this dissertation, two major accomplishments are achieved. First, the feasibility of a proposed Wyoming to California HVDC system having the ratings of 1000 MW, ±500 kV, 2 kA, 860 miles and 12-pulse bipolar lines is shown for exporting Wyoming's electrical power resources to the heavy loaded western states. The second and the main objective of this dissertation is the development of a Kalman filtering (KF) based control scheme applied to an ac/dc power system. It is shown that the use KF algorithm to estimate some of the system states and utilizing them in a proportional Integral (PI) controller which has a better performance for this specific control scheme have resulted in a better dynamic performance of the proposed system. A set of case studies has shown that the system dynamic performance is improved for most of the contingencies. Ac and dc noisy voltage and current measurements received from the simulated ac/dc power system are sent to the KF estimation algorithm. The noise-separated best estimates of measurable states are computed and sent to a PI controller-based current and firing angle control subsections in order to provide a set of optimum thyristor firing angles for both converter stations during and after contingencies until the normal operation is reached. To evaluate the dynamic performance of the system with the KF algorithm, the model is simulated by a well-known digital simulation package, Electromagnetic Transients DC Program (PSCAD/EMTDC) of Manitoba HVDC Research Center. To apply the KF algorithm, a general, linearized, state-space model of the proposed ac/dc system, appropriate for analyzing both the KF and the electromagnetics transients, is derived first. The derived model enables the representation of an ac power system with two ac sources and one HVDC line with a parallel ac line connecting the two systems. It is shown that system eigenvalues of the discretized system model for a normal operating point are inside the unit circle that

  1. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  2. Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such systems representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are presented. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system uses an ac induction motor controlled by transistorized pulse width modulated inverter which drives through a two speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

  3. A HTS scanning magnet and AC operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, K.; Nakagawa, J.; Fukuda, M.; Yorita, T.; Saito, T.; Sakemi, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Noda, K.

    2010-04-01

    A scanning magnet using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire was designed, built, and tested for its suitability as a beam scanner. After successful cooling tests, the magnet performance was studied using DC and AC currents. With DC current the magnet was successfully operated to generate designed field distributions and effective length. In AC mode, the magnet was operated at frequencies of 30-59 Hz and a temperature of 77 K as well as 10-20 Hz and 20 K. The power losses dissipated in the coils were measured and compared with the model calculations. The observed losses per cycle were independent of the frequency and the scaling law of the transport current was consistent with theoretical predictions for hysteretic losses in HTS wires.

  4. RHIC AC DIPOLE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; METH,M.; PAI,C.; PARKER,B.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SANDERS,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2001-06-18

    Two ac dipoles with vertical and horizontal magnetic field have been proposed at RHIC for applications in linear and non-linear beam dynamics and spin manipulations. A magnetic field amplitude of 380 Gm is required to produce a coherent oscillation of 5 times the rms beam size at the top energy. We take the ac dipole frequency to be 1.0% of the revolution frequency away from the betatron frequency. To achieve the strong magnetic field with minimum power loss, an air-core magnet with two seven turn winding of low loss Litz wire resonating at 64 kHz is designed. The system is also designed to allow one to connect the two magnet winding in series to resonate at 37 kHz for the spin manipulation. Measurements of a half length prototype magnet are also presented.

  5. Load forecasting by ANN

    SciTech Connect

    Highley, D.D.; Hilmes, T.J. )

    1993-07-01

    This article discusses the use and training of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for load forecasting. The topics of the article include a brief overview of neural networks, interest in ANNs, training of neural networks, a case study in load forecasting, and the potential for using an artificial neural network to perform short-term load forecasting.

  6. Discharge circuits and loads

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-10-15

    This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

  7. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY

    SciTech Connect

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Christensen, Charlotte; Gilbert, Karoline; Hodge, Paul; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Olsen, Knut; Freeman, Ken; Gallart, Carme; De Jong, Roelof S. E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu E-mail: stephanie@astro.washington.edu E-mail: fabio@astro.washington.edu E-mail: aseth@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-07-15

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D < 4 Mpc). The survey volume encompasses 69 galaxies in diverse environments, including close pairs, small and large groups, filaments, and truly isolated regions. The galaxies include a nearly complete range of morphological types spanning a factor of {approx}10{sup 4} in luminosity and star formation rate. The survey data consist of images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), supplemented with archival data and new Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging taken after the failure of ACS. Survey images include wide field tilings covering the full radial extent of each galaxy, and single deep pointings in uncrowded regions of the most massive galaxies in the volume. The new wide field imaging in ANGST reaches median 50% completenesses of m {sub F475W} = 28.0 mag, m {sub F606W} = 27.3 mag, and m {sub F814W} = 27.3 mag, several magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). The deep fields reach magnitudes sufficient to fully resolve the structure in the red clump. The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly accessible and contain over 34 million photometric measurements of >14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  8. Graphs for Isotopes of 89-Ac (Actinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 89-Ac (Actinium, atomic number Z = 89).

  9. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal. PMID:20208642

  10. Highlights of the Dallas ACS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeman, Thomas R.; Freilich, Mark; Kelter, Paul B.

    1998-06-01

    Without a doubt, a primary feature of the 1998 Spring National Meeting in Dallas was the High School Program, which was organized by George Hague, and the impact that the Texas teachers had on other participants. Over 150 teachers registered for the meeting and participated in the program. Their organizational skills were used to reinstitute the High School/College Interface Luncheon. (The High School/College Interface Luncheon will also be held at the Fall ACS Meeting in Boston.)

  11. 78 FR 49318 - Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-167A

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Systems (78 FR 34935-34958) (Docket No.: FAA-2013-0485; Notice No. 1209). AC 90-106A, Enhanced Flight... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... Federal Aviation Administration Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-...

  12. Decreased inducibility of TNF expression in lipid-loaded macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ares, Mikko PS; Stollenwerk, Maria; Olsson, Anneli; Kallin, Bengt; Jovinge, Stefan; Nilsson, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Background Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In macrophages incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL) for 2 days, mRNA expression of TNF in cells stimulated with TNF decreased by 75%. In cell cultures stimulated over night with IL-1β, lipid loading decreased secretion of TNF into culture medium by 48%. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in macrophages makes them less responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Decreased basal activity and inducibility of transcription factor AP-1 was observed in lipid-loaded cells, suggesting a mechanism for the suppression of cytokine expression. NF-κB binding activity and inducibility were only marginally affected by ac-LDL. LDL and ac-LDL did not activate PPARγ. In contrast, oxidized LDL stimulated AP-1 and PPARγ but inhibited NF-κB, indicating that the effects of lipid loading with ac-LDL were not due to oxidation of lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipid, mainly cholesterol, results in down-regulation of TNF expression in macrophages. Since monocytes are known to be activated by cell adhesion, these results suggest that foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques may contribute less potently to an inflammatory reaction than newly arrived monocytes/macrophages. PMID:12366867

  13. Level structure and reflection asymmetric shape in sup 223 Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P. )

    1990-07-20

    Mass separated sources of {sup 227}Pa (separated as PaF{sub 4}{sup +} ions) were used to study the level structure of {sup 223}Ac following alpha decay. The levels in {sup 223}Ac are interpreted as K = 5/2{sup {plus minus}} parity doublet bands which occur naturally in reflection asymmetric models and the multiphonon octupole model. The anomalous structure of the K = 3/2{sup {minus}} band is explained in terms of Coriolis coupling. The low lying parity doublet bands in {sup 223}Ac, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 227}Ac are compared and contrasted.

  14. Molecular biology of maize Ac/Ds elements: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lazarow, Katina; Doll, My-Linh; Kunze, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Maize Activator (Ac) is one of the prototype transposable elements of the hAT transposon superfamily, members of which were identified in plants, fungi, and animals. The autonomous Ac and nonautonomous Dissociation (Ds) elements are mobilized by the single transposase protein encoded by Ac. To date Ac/Ds transposons were shown to be functional in approximately 20 plant species and have become the most widely used transposable elements for gene tagging and functional genomics approaches in plants. In this chapter we review the biology, regulation, and transposition mechanism of Ac/Ds elements in maize and heterologous plants. We discuss the parameters that are known to influence the functionality and transposition efficiency of Ac/Ds transposons and need to be considered when designing Ac transposase expression constructs and Ds elements for application in heterologous plant species.

  15. Diagnostics of AC excited Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet with He for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masaru; Takeda, Keigo; Kumakura, Takumi; Ishikawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Nakai, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) are frequently used for biomedical applications. Reactive species generated by the APPJ play important roles for treatments of biomedical samples. Therefore, high density APPJ sources are required to realize the high performance. Our group has developed AC excited Ar APPJ with electron density as high as 1015 cm-3, and realized the selective killing of cancer cells and the inactivate spores of Penicillium digitatum. Recently, a new spot-size AC excited APPJ with He gas have been developed. In this study, the He APPJ was characterized by using spectroscopy. The plasma was discharged at a He flow rate of 5 slm and a discharge voltage of AC 9 kV. Gas temperature and electron density of the APPJ were measured by optical emission spectroscopy. From theoretical fitting of 2nd positive system of N2 emission (380.4 nm) and Stark broadening of Balmer β line of H atom (486.1 nm), the gas temperature and the electron density was estimated to be 299 K and 3.4. × 1015 cm-3. The AC excited He APPJ has a potential to realize high density with room temperature and become a very powerful tool for biomedical applications.

  16. A review of research in rotor loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1988-01-01

    The research accomplished in the area of rotor loads over the last 13 to 14 years is reviewed. The start of the period examined is defined by the 1973 AGARD Milan conference and the 1974 hypothetical rotor comparison. The major emphasis of the review is research performed by the U.S. Army and NASA at their laboratories and/or by the industry under government contract. For the purpose of this review, two main topics are addressed: rotor loads prediction and means of rotor loads reduction. A limited discussion of research in gust loads and maneuver loads is included. In the area of rotor loads predictions, the major problem areas are reviewed including dynamic stall, wake induced flows, blade tip effects, fuselage induced effects, blade structural modeling, hub impedance, and solution methods. It is concluded that the capability to predict rotor loads has not significantly improved in this time frame. Future progress will require more extensive correlation of measurements and predictions to better understand the causes of the problems, and a recognition that differences between theory and measurement have multiple sources, yet must be treated as a whole. There is a need for high-quality data to support future research in rotor loads, but the resulting data base must not be seen as an end in itself. It will be useful only if it is integrated into firm long-range plans for the use of the data.

  17. Load Model Data Tool

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less

  18. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  19. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow. PMID:17806883

  20. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  1. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

    1973-01-01

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  2. An automatic AC/DC thermal voltage converter and AC voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1985-10-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frquency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  3. Automatic ac/dc thermal voltage converter and ac voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1984-11-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frequency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  4. ESTIMATING URBAN WET WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads emanating from wet-weather flow discharge in urban watersheds. Equations are presented for: annual volume of litter and floatables; the quantity of sand from highway runoff; the quantity of dust-and-dirt accumulation ...

  5. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A.

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc{sup 109KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc{sup 109KO} results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc{sup 109KO}-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID{sub 50} showed that vAc{sup 109KO} produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc{sup 109KO} BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  6. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious.

    PubMed

    Fang, Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc(109KO)). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc(109KO) results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc(109KO)-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID(50) showed that vAc(109KO) produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc(109KO) BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  7. Continuous flow nanoparticle concentration using alternating current-electroosmotic flow.

    PubMed

    Hoettges, Kai F; McDonnell, Martin B; Hughes, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    Achieving real-time detection of environmental pathogens such as viruses and bacterial spores requires detectors with both rapid action and a suitable detection threshold. However, most biosensors have detection limits of an order of magnitude or more above the potential infection threshold, limiting their usefulness. This can be improved through the use of automated sample preparation techniques such as preconcentration. In this paper, we describe the use of AC electroosmosis to concentrate nanoparticles from a continuous flow. Electrodes at an optimized angle across a flow cell, and energized by a 1 kHz signal, were used to push nanoparticles to one side of a flow cell, and to extract the resulting stream with a high particle concentration from that side of the flow cell. A simple model of the behavior of particles in the flow cell has been developed, which shows good agreement with experimental results. The method indicates potential for higher concentration factors through cascading devices. PMID:24166772

  8. Plasma flow switch experiment on Procyon

    SciTech Connect

    Benage, J.F. Jr.; Bowers, R.; Peterson, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents the results obtained from a series of plasma flow switch experiments done on the Procyon explosive pulse power generator. These experiments involved switching into a fixed inductance dummy load and also into a dynamic implosion load. The results indicated that the switch did fairly well at switching current into the load, but the results for the implosion are more ambiguous. The results are compared to calculations and the implications for future plasma flow switch work are discussed.

  9. Plasma flow switch experiment on Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, J. F., Jr.; Bowers, R.; Peterson, D.

    This report presents the results obtained from a series of plasma flow switch experiments done on the Procyon explosive pulse power generator. These experiments involved switching into a fixed inductance dummy load and also into a dynamic implosion load. The results indicated that the switch did fairly well at switching current into the load, but the results for the implosion are more ambiguous. The results are compared to calculations and the implications for future plasma flow switch work are discussed.

  10. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.

  11. A.C. Susceptometry Utilizing GMR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Daniel; Shivaram, Bellave

    2001-11-01

    Superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) magnetometers remain as the most sensitive instruments to measure magnetic properties. However, the ready availability and rapid improvements in the sensitivity of magnetic field sensors based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect combined with their low cost and ability to operate at room temperature opens up opportunities to exploit these new devices where the utmost sensitivity of SQUID based detection is not needed. In this article we present one such application of GMR sensors and demonstrate how they can enhance the signals obtained in a simple a.c. magnetic susceptibility apparatus.

  12. Overview of aerothermodynamic loads definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Aerothermodynamic Loads Definition Study is to develop methods of accurately predicting the operating environment in advanced Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) propulsion systems, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) powerhead. Development of time averaged and time dependent three dimensional viscous computer codes as well as experimental verification and engine diagnostic testing are considered to be essential in achieving that objective. Time-averaged, nonsteady, and transient operating loads must all be well defined in order to accurately predict powerhead life. Described here is work in unsteady heat flow analysis, improved modeling of preburner flow, turbulence modeling for turbomachinery, computation of three dimensional flow with heat transfer, and unsteady viscous multi-blade row turbine analysis.

  13. Determination of high mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa loaded with the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) using flow cytometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A flow cytometric method was developed to identify viable, energized sperm cells with high mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (''m), > 80-100 mV using the mitochondrial probe 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and the impermeant nuclear ...

  14. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  15. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  16. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  17. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  18. AC impedance analysis of polypyrrole thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The AC impedance spectra of thin polypyrrole films were obtained at open circuit potentials from -0.4 to 0.4 V vs SCE. Two limiting cases are discussed for which simplified equivalent circuits are applicable. At very positive potentials, the predominantly nonfaradaic AC impedance of polypyrrole is very similar to that observed previously for finite porous metallic films. Modeling of the data with the appropriate equivalent circuit permits effective pore diameter and pore number densities of the oxidized film to be estimated. At potentials from -0.4 to -0.3 V, the polypyrrole film is essentially nonelectronically conductive and diffusion of polymer oxidized sites with their associated counterions can be assumed to be linear from the film/substrate electrode interface. The equivalent circuit for the polypyrrole film at these potentials is that previously described for metal oxide, lithium intercalation thin films. Using this model, counterion diffusion coefficients are determined for both semi-infinite and finite diffusion domains. In addition, the limiting low frequency resistance and capacitance of the polypyrrole thin fims was determined and compared to that obtained previously for thicker films of the polymer. The origin of the observed potential dependence of these low frequency circuit components is discussed.

  19. Micromechanical response of articular cartilage to tensile load measured using nonlinear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bell, J S; Christmas, J; Mansfield, J C; Everson, R M; Winlove, C P

    2014-06-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is a highly anisotropic biomaterial, and its complex mechanical properties have been a topic of intense investigation for over 60 years. Recent advances in the field of nonlinear optics allow the individual constituents of AC to be imaged in living tissue without the need for exogenous contrast agents. Combining mechanical testing with nonlinear microscopy provides a wealth of information about microscopic responses to load. This work investigates the inhomogeneous distribution of strain in loaded AC by tracking the movement and morphological changes of individual chondrocytes using point pattern matching and Bayesian modeling. This information can be used to inform models of mechanotransduction and pathogenesis, and is readily extendable to various other connective tissues.

  20. Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Xie, YuLong; Leung, Lai R.; Correia, James; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Paget, Maria L.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Jin, Chunlian; Correia, James; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wong, Pak C.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract—This paper presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

  2. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  3. Combined Load Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    A test fixture has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center that has the capability of applying compression load and shear load simultaneously to a test specimen. The test specimen size is 24-inches by 28-inches. This report describes the test specimen design, test specimen preparation, fixture assembly in the test machine, and a test operation plan.

  4. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  5. Load Induced Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  6. Determination of high mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa loaded with the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) by using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H David; Welch, Glenn R

    2008-01-01

    A flow cytometric method was developed to identify viable, energized sperm cells with high mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)), >80-100 mV using the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and the impermeant nuclear stain propidium iodine (PI). This flow cytometric method is described in detail here. When in contact with membranes possessing a high Deltapsi(m), JC-1 forms aggregates (J(agg)) that are fluorescent at 590 nm in response to 488 nm excitation. We found that the reactive oxygen species generator, menadione reduced sperm motility and reduced Deltapsi(m) in a dose responsive fashion that was closely correlated with the loss of motility. PMID:19082941

  7. AC corrosion -- A new challenge to pipeline integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e. less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels when cathodic protection was applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in the initiation of several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, normal levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion to acceptable levels and that AC mitigation is often required to prevent serious corrosion. Several other AC corrosion sites were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. A graph, relating AC voltage to holiday size at the minimum AC current density for corrosion, is presented to assist the pipeline operator in determining whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion activity.

  8. AC corrosion -- a new threat to pipeline integrity?

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e., less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels with cathodic protection applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, standard levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion and AC mitigation is required to prevent further corrosion. Several other corrosion anomalies were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. The authors have investigated several corrosion occurrences on pipelines in Ontario during the last 2--3 years which appear to be caused by AC corrosion. This presentation traces the literature record on AC electrolysis from the past to the present and discusses the key parameters which determine the likelihood of corrosion attack. Several case histories of suspected AC corrosion will be discussed and guidelines on how to assess whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion will be offered.

  9. Fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Hiroyo; Okano, Hironaga; Wada, Kenji; Inoue, Satoru

    2014-02-01

    Anodization techniques by alternating current (ac) are introduced in this review. By using ac anodization, laminated alumina films are fabricated. Different types of alumina films consisting of 50-200 nm layers were obtained by varying both the ac power supply and the electrolyte. The total film thickness increased with an increase in the total charge transferred. The thickness of the individual layers increased with the ac voltage; however, the anodization time had little effect on the film thickness. The laminated alumina films resembled the nacre structure of shells, and the different morphologies exhibited by bivalves and spiral shells could be replicated by controlling the rate of increase of the applied potentials.

  10. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    DOEpatents

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  11. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  12. Electrohydrodynamic Flows in Electrochemical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saville, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have established a new class of assembly processes with colloidal suspensions. Particles are driven together to form large crystalline structures in both dc and ac fields. The current work centers on this new class of flows in ac fields. In the research carried out under the current award, it was established that: (i) Small colloidal particles crystallize near an electrode due to electrohydrodynamic flows induced by an sinusoidally varying applied potential. (ii) These flows originate due to disturbances in the electrode polarization layer arising from the presence of the particles. Inasmuch as the charge and the field strength both scale on the applied field, the flows are proportional to the square of the applied voltage. (iii) Suspensions of two different sorts of particles can be crystallized and will form well-ordered binary crystals. (iv) At high frequencies the EHD flows die out. Thus, with a homogeneous system the particles become widely spaced due to dipolar repulsion. With a binary suspension, however, the particles may become attractive due to dipolar attraction arising from differences in electrokinetic dipoles. Consequently binary crystals form at both high and low frequencies.

  13. AC Electrokinetic Cell Separation on a Microfluidic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Zachary; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2009-03-01

    Rapid cell separation and collection is demonstrated through the integration of electrokinetic pumps, dielectrophoretic (DEP) traps and field driven valves into a well designed microfluidic channel loop. We present the ground-up design and analysis of this fully functional microfluidic device for the rapid separation and collection of live and dead yeast cells and malaria red blood cells (RBCs) at low concentrations. DEP cell sorting and concentration schemes are based on the exploitation of cell specific DEP crossover frequencies (cof's). A rigorous DEP study of yeast and RBCs is presented and used to determine optimal conditions for cell separation. By utilizing a glutaraldehyde crosslinking cell fixation reaction that is sensitive to cell membrane protein concentration, we demonstrate the ability to further amplify these differences between healthy and unhealthy cells as well as stabilize their DEP cof's. Pumping is achieved with a new type of electrokinetic flow, AC electrothermal electro-osmosis (ETEO) and is shown to scale inversely with the field induced debye length and drive fluid velocities in excess of 6 mm/sec. The well characterized electrokinetic phenomena are integrated into a microchannel loop with a specifically designed electrode field penetration length for low concentration cell separation and concentration.

  14. Particle Agglomeration in Bipolar Barb Agglomerator Under AC Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; Ma, Xiuqin; Sun, Youshan; Wang, Meiyan; Zhang, Changping; Lou, Yueya

    2015-04-01

    The development of an efficient technology for removing fine particles in flue gas is essential as the haze is becoming more and more serious. To improve agglomeration effectiveness of fine particles, a dual zone electric agglomeration device consisting of a charging chamber and an agglomeration chamber with bipolar barb electrodes was developed. The bipolar barb electric agglomerator with a polar distance of 200 mm demonstrates good agglomeration effectiveness for particles with a size less than 8.0 μm under applied AC electric field. An optimal condition for achieving better agglomeration effectiveness was found to be as follows: flue gas flow velocity of 3.00 m/s, particle concentration of 2.00 g/m3, output voltage of 35 kV and length of the barb of 16 mm. In addition, 4.0-6.0 μm particles have the best effectiveness with the variation of particle volume occupancy of -3.2. supported by the Key Technology R&D Program of Hebei, China (No. 13211207D)

  15. Rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer utilizing AC electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yeh, Cheng-Peng; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel simple micromixer based on stable water suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles (i.e. ferrofluids). The micromixer chip is built using standard microfabrication and simple soft lithography, and the design can be incorporated as a subsystem into any chemical microreactor or a miniaturized biological sensor. An electromagnet driven by an AC power source is used to induce transient interactive flows between a ferrofluid and Rhodamine B. The alternative magnetic field causes the ferrofluid to expand significantly and uniformly toward Rhodamine B, associated with a great number of extremely fine fingering structures on the interface in the upstream and downstream regions of the microchannel. These pronounced fingering patterns, which have not been observed by other active mixing methods utilizing only magnetic force, increase the mixing interfacial length dramatically. Along with the dominant diffusion effects occurring around the circumferential regions of the fine finger structures, the mixing efficiency increases significantly. The miscible fingering instabilities are observed and applied in the microfluidics for the first time. This work is carried with a view to developing functionalized ferrofluids that can be used as sensitive pathogen detectors and the present experimental results demonstrate that the proposed micromixer has excellent mixing capabilities. The mixing efficiency can be as high as 95% within 2.0 s and a distance of 3.0 mm from the inlet of the mixing channel, when the applied peak magnetic field is higher than 29.2 Oe and frequency ranges from 45 to 300 Hz. PMID:19921677

  16. Evidence on the Molecular Basis of the Ac/ac Adaptive Cyanogenesis Polymorphism in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Small, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    White clover is polymorphic for cyanogenesis, with both cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants occurring in nature. This chemical defense polymorphism is one of the longest-studied and best-documented examples of an adaptive polymorphism in plants. It is controlled by two independently segregating genes: Ac/ac controls the presence/absence of cyanogenic glucosides; and Li/li controls the presence/absence of their hydrolyzing enzyme, linamarase. Whereas Li is well characterized at the molecular level, Ac has remained unidentified. Here we report evidence that Ac corresponds to a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 of the CYP79D protein subfamily (CYP79D15), and we describe the apparent molecular basis of the Ac/ac polymorphism. CYP79D orthologs catalyze the first step in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in other cyanogenic plant species. In white clover, Southern hybridizations indicate that CYP79D15 occurs as a single-copy gene in cyanogenic plants but is absent from the genomes of ac plants. Gene-expression analyses by RT–PCR corroborate this finding. This apparent molecular basis of the Ac/ac polymorphism parallels our previous findings for the Li/li polymorphism, which also arises through the presence/absence of a single-copy gene. The nature of these polymorphisms may reflect white clover's evolutionary origin as an allotetraploid derived from cyanogenic and acyanogenic diploid progenitors. PMID:18458107

  17. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  18. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  19. Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

  20. Fuzzy efficiency optimization of AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant; Sousa, Gilberto; Turner, Wayne; Spiegel, Ron; Chappell, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the early states of work to implement a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the efficiency of AC induction motor/adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems running at less than optimal speed and torque conditions. In this paper, the process by which the membership functions of the controller were tuned is discussed and a controller which operates on frequency as well as voltage is proposed. The membership functions for this dual-variable controller are sketched. Additional topics include an approach for fuzzy logic to motor current control which can be used with vector-controlled drives. Incorporation of a fuzzy controller as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) microchip is planned.