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Sample records for ac loss reduction

  1. Magnetization ac loss reduction in HTS CORC® cables made of striated coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojenčiak, M.; Kario, A.; Ringsdorf, B.; Nast, R.; van der Laan, D. C.; Scheiter, J.; Jung, A.; Runtsch, B.; Gömöry, F.; Goldacker, W.

    2015-10-01

    High temperature superconductors (HTSs), like for instance REBCO (RE = rare earth) coated conductors, are of high potential for building large superconducting magnets. Some magnets, such as accelerator magnets, require the use of superconducting cables to allow fast ramping, and low magnetization loss to mitigate field quality issues. One of the methods to lower ac loss is to divide the superconducting layer in the tape into filaments. In this paper, conductors with copper stabilization for practical applications are laser scribed into narrow filaments. Striated tapes are then wound into conductor on round core (CORC®) cables. The critical current and magnetization ac loss of single tapes were measured. We found that the stabilizing copper layer causes difficulties for laser scribing. The degradation of the critical current is more pronounced than in the case of non-stabilized tapes. The selection of the number of filaments is therefore a compromise between critical current degradation and reduction of ac loss. Based on the results obtained from single tape experiments, the optimum number of filaments in 4 mm wide tapes was chosen, and CORC® cables with 2, 3 and 4 layers of tapes with and without filaments were manufactured. Magnetization ac loss measurements at 77 K showed a reduction of ac loss in the cables with filaments. This reduction corresponds almost to the number of filaments. Measurement at different frequencies also showed that the coupling loss in CORC® cables with a short twist-pitch is relatively small in comparison to hysteretic loss.

  2. Ac loss reduction of multilayer superconducting power transmission cables by using narrow coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Li, Quan; Ito, Kaoru; Takeuchi, Katsutoku; Nakamura, Taketsune; Okuma, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    The ac loss characteristics of coated conductors are dominated by the magnetic field component normal to their superconductor layer. Multilayer cables as well as monolayer cables consisting of 4 mm-wide coated conductors (named 4 mm cables) and those consisting of 2 mm-wide coated conductors (named 2 mm cables) were designed, and numerical electromagnetic field analyses were performed in their cross sections to calculate their ac losses. Trapezoidal lateral critical current density Jc distributions with shoulders as well as uniform ones were assumed in coated conductors for the analyses. The former models the degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors. In the case of the monolayer, the calculated ac losses of the 2 mm cables were comparable to those of the 4 mm cables. In the cases of the multilayers, the calculated ac losses of the 2 mm cables were obviously less than those of the 4 mm cables. The degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors more seriously affects the ac loss characteristics of the 2 mm cables than those of the 4 mm cables. However, even if we consider the influence of the degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors, 2 mm-wide coated conductors are more profitable than 4 mm-wide coated conductors in multilayer cables from the viewpoint of ac loss reduction.

  3. AC loss reduction of TFA-MOD coated conductors in long length by laser scribing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, K.; Hirano, H.; Machi, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Izumi, T.

    TFA-MOD process is expected to be promising for future applications since it can produce high performance YBCO coated conductors with low cost. Applying YBCO coated conductors to the power electric devices such as transformer, cable, motors, reduction of AC loss for long wire is necessary. Multifilamentation, which is one of the effective approaches for AC loss reduction, has been developed by the scribing process. YBCO coated conductors produced by our standard TFA-MOD process delaminated into two parts by the laser scribing. The delamination was clarified to occur within the superconducting layer caused by the defects such as pores in the superconducting layer. In order to reduce the defects in the superconducting layer, we modify the heat treatment profile performed on the decomposed precursor films by applying the interim annealing(550-600°C) before crystallization heat treatment(740-770°C). The interim annealed samples had much less and smaller pores than the standard processed ones. The peel strength measured by transverse tensile test was as high as the PLD derived coated conductors which was successfully scribed into five filaments resulting in 1/5 AC loss. A 50m long YBCO coated conductor with the characteristics of 398A/cmwidth was obtained and cut into 5 mm width, followed by the laser scribing process into five filaments. The multifilamentation process was successfully performed without delamination throughout the wire. The hysteresis loss was down to 1/N (N: number of filaments), as we aimed. The IC properties of the filaments were 29±4A, indicating the wire was uniformly fabricated.

  4. Technique for reduction of mechanical losses in AC superconducting coils due to thermal expansion properties of various FRP bobbins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, N.; Tada, S.; Higuchi, T.; Furumura, Y.; Takao, T.; Yamanaka, A.

    2005-10-01

    We reported about reduction of mechanical losses in AC superconducting coils. The method is the use of FRP bobbins fabricated with special fibers. Since their FRPs have negative thermal expansion coefficient to the fiber direction, the FRP bobbins expand to the circumferential direction during cooling down. In case of the superconducting coils with such FRP bobbins, the winding tensions do not decrease during cooling down. Therefore, the mechanical losses are reduced by the suppression of wire's vibration. Their special FRPs are a Dyneema® fiber reinforced plastic (DFRP), a Dyneema and glass fiber reinforced plastic (DGFRP), and a Zylon® fiber reinforced plastic (ZFRP). These materials have negative thermal expansion coefficient to the fiber direction, however, the amplitudes of thermal expansion are various by the quantity or quality of the fiber. In this paper, the values of thermal expansion were actually measured, and it was discussed about the influence on the mechanical losses. At the experimental results, the mechanical loss was small, so that the thermal strain to the circumferential direction on the coil was large. Moreover, in case of the coils with sufficiently strong winding tensions at coil-operating temperature, the mechanical losses vanished.

  5. Superconductor coil geometry and ac losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, T. V., Jr.; Zapata, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical relation is presented which allows simple computation of volume-averaged winding fields from central fields for coils of small rectangular cross sections. This relation suggests that, in certain applications, ac-loss minimization can be accomplished by use of low winding densities, provided that hysteresis losses are independent of winding density. The ac-loss measurements on coils wound of twisted multifilamentary composite superconductors show no significant dependence on ac losses on winding density, thus permitting the use of winding density as an independent design parameter in loss minimization.

  6. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  7. AC loss measurements in HTS coil assemblies with hybrid coil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Long, Nicholas J.; Staines, Mike; Badcock, Rodney A.; Bumby, Chris W.; Buckley, Robert G.; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2016-09-01

    Both AC loss and wire cost in coil windings are critical factors for high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC machinery applications. We present AC loss measurement results in three HTS coil assemblies at 77 K and 65 K which have a hybrid coil structure comprising one central winding (CW) and two end windings (EWs) wound with ReBCO and BSCCO wires with different self-field I c values at 77 K. All AC loss results in the coil assemblies are hysteretic and the normalized AC losses in the coil assemblies at different temperatures can be scaled with the I c value of the coil assemblies. The normalised results show that AC loss in a coil assembly with BSCCO CW can be reduced by using EWs wound with high I c ReBCO wires, whilst further AC loss reduction can be achieved by replacing the BSCCO CW with ReBCO CW. The results imply that a flexible hybrid coil structure is possible which considers both AC loss and wire cost in coil assemblies.

  8. AC Loss Measurements on a 2G YBCO Coil

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, Christopher M; Duckworth, Robert C; Schwenterly, S W

    2011-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES) to continue development of HTS power transformers. For compatibility with the existing power grid, a commercially viable HTS transformer will have to operate at high voltages in the range of 138 kV and above, and will have to withstand 550-kV impulse voltages as well. Second-generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors will be required for an economically-competitive design. In order to adequately size the refrigeration system for these transformers, the ac loss of these HTS coils must be characterized. Electrical AC loss measurements were conducted on a prototype high voltage (HV) coil with co-wound stainless steel at 60 Hz in a liquid nitrogen bath using a lock-in amplifier technique. The prototype HV coil consisted of 26 continuous (without splice) single pancake coils concentrically centered on a stainless steel former. For ac loss measurement purposes, voltage tap pairs were soldered across each set of two single pancake coils so that a total of 13 separate voltage measurements could be made across the entire length of the coil. AC loss measurements were taken as a function of ac excitation current. Results show that the loss is primarily concentrated at the ends of the coil where the operating fraction of critical current is the highest and show a distinct difference in current scaling of the losses between low current and high current regimes.

  9. Measured losses in superconductor magnets for 60-Hertz ac operation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, I. L.; Kilgore, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of electrical losses in superconductor magnets. Preliminary 60-Hz ac loss data are presented for coils constructed of Nb3Sn ribbon, Nb-Ti cable, and multifilament Nb-Ti. Losses have been measured for different size coils up to approximately 20 cm in diameter. Of the conductor types tested, Nb3Sn ribbon has the lowest losses for ac operation. In Nb3Sn-ribbon coils of different sizes, the loss per unit length of conductor is shown to decrease with a decrease in the rate of change of current and to increase, in general, with increase in coil size. An important aspect of the study is the high degree of repeatability of the data.

  10. AC Loss Analysis on the Superconducting Coupling Magnet in MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Li; Green, Michael; Li, LanKai; Xu, FengYu; Liu, XiaoKun; Jia, LinXinag

    2008-07-08

    A pair of coupling solenoids is used in MICE experiment to generate magnetic field which keeps the muons within the iris of thin RF cavity windows. The coupling solenoids have a 1.5-meter inner diameter and will produce 7.4 T peak magnetic field. Three types of AC losses in coupling solenoid are discussed. The affect of AC losses on the temperature distribution within the cold mass during charging and rapid discharging process is analyzed also. The analysis result will be further confirmed by the experiment of the prototype solenoid for coupling solenoid, which will be designed, fabricated and tested at ICST.

  11. Flux-motion related ac losses in high Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. Y.

    1993-03-01

    The ac losses of high-temperature superconductors in the flux-depinned mixed-state have been treated using the classical magnetic diffusion equation in conjunction with various models of flux-motion. With the imaginary part representing the ac losses, the field- and frequency-dependent ac susceptibilities were investigated. The imaginary component was found to obey a scaling rule with a characteristic frequency, estimated to be about 10 exp 5-10 exp 9 Hz, that depended on the sample size and normal state resistivity. This frequency range agrees with earlier experimental results, which could not be accounted for previously based upon the notion of thermally activated hopping of vortices. The frequency scaling behaviors using flux-creep and flux-flow models are presented.

  12. Superconducting shielded core reactor with reduced AC losses

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Yung S.; Hull, John R.

    2006-04-04

    A superconducting shielded core reactor (SSCR) operates as a passive device for limiting excessive AC current in a circuit operating at a high power level under a fault condition such as shorting. The SSCR includes a ferromagnetic core which may be either closed or open (with an air gap) and extends into and through a superconducting tube or superconducting rings arranged in a stacked array. First and second series connected copper coils each disposed about a portion of the iron core are connected to the circuit to be protected and are respectively wound inside and outside of the superconducting tube or rings. A large impedance is inserted into the circuit by the core when the shielding capability of the superconducting arrangement is exceeded by the applied magnetic field generated by the two coils under a fault condition to limit the AC current in the circuit. The proposed SSCR also affords reduced AC loss compared to conventional SSCRs under continuous normal operation.

  13. AC magnetic field losses in BSCCO-2223 superconducting tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Lelovic, M.; Mench, S.; Deis, T.

    1997-09-01

    The AC magnetic losses at power frequencies (60 Hz) were investigated for mono- and multifilament Ag-sheathed (Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (BSCCO-2223) tapes with similar transport critical current (I{sub c}) values at 77 K. The multifilament sample exhibited higher losses than the monofilament under the same conditions. Loss peaks are discussed in terms of intergranular, intragranular and eddy current losses. Because of BSCCO`s anisotropy, field orientation has a large effect on the magnitude of these peaks, even at relatively small angles. Losses for fields applied parallel to the c-axis of the textured BSCCO grains are larger by more than one order of magnitude than those applied perpendicular.

  14. AC Losses in the MICE Channel Magnets -- Is This a Curse or aBlessing?

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Wu, H.; Wang, L.; Kai, L.L.; Jia, L.X.; Yang, S.Q.

    2008-01-31

    This report discusses the AC losses in the MICE channelmagnets during magnet charging and discharging. This report talks aboutthe three types of AC losses in the MICE magnets; the hysteretic AC lossin the superconductor, the coupling AC loss in the superconductor and theeddy current AC loss in the magnet mandrel and support structure. AClosses increase the heat load at 4 K. The added heat load increases thetemperature of the second stage of the cooler. In addition, AC losscontributes to the temperature rise between the second stage cold headand the high field point of the magnet, which is usually close to themagnet hot spot. These are the curses of AC loss in the MICE magnet thatcan limit the rate at which the magnet can be charge or discharged. Ifone is willing to allow some of the helium that is around the magnet toboil away during a magnet charge or discharge, AC losses can become ablessing. The boil off helium from the AC losses can be used to cool theupper end of the HTS leads and the surrounding shield. The AC losses arepresented for all three types of MICE magnets. The AC loss temperaturedrops within the coupling magnet are presented as an example of how boththe curse and blessing of the AC losses can be combined.

  15. Finite element analysis of current flowing patterns and AC loss in the multifilament strand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Wurui; Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2013-12-01

    Intrinsic current flow and field distribution scheme under the imposed low current injection and the applied weak field is meaningful to interpret Ic degradation and AC loss in a strand that performs as a normal composite conductor. A 2D finite element (FE) transport model is built in COMSOL to identify the various transverse resistance components and reveal the interrelation among them. Then the transverse resistivity components are taken as the basic electrical components in a 3D composite strand model. The 3D model follows the realistic trajectories of twisted filaments in strand composite and experimental material properties. To address the potential/current map in the stationary transport, the FE model is thoroughly analyzed for the short-sample and long-sample strand, imposed by two in-plane steady current injections and a potential boundary condition at one strand end with the other end grounded, respectively. The results show that the short-sample longitudinal current is uniform with little resistivity loss, and flows from the positive source and converges to the negative one in the cross section with different paths and current proportions between filaments and matrix. However, for the long-sample, there is a serious reduction in electric potential along the strand axis and the currents mostly concentrate on filaments. The time-varying problem is also implemented by computing AC loss induced by a relatively far-away alternating line current. It is discussed where appropriate that the effect of the twist pitch and contact resistivity on the pattern and magnitude of the current flow and AC loss.

  16. n value and Jc distribution dependence of AC transport current losses in HTS conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Jun; Sawai, Yusuke; Nakayama, Haruki; Tsukamoto, Osami; Miyagi, Daisuke

    2004-01-01

    Compared with LTS materials, HTS materials have some peculiarities affecting AC loss characteristics of the conductors. We measured the AC transport current losses in YBCO thin film coated conductors and a Bi2223/Ag sheathed tape. Comparing the measured data with analytical calculations, the dependence of the AC transport current losses on the n value and critical current density distributions are studied. It is shown that, considering the n values and Jc distributions, the peculiarities in the HTS materials can be taken into consideration and the transport current losses in HTS conductors can be calculated by the same analytical method used for LTS.

  17. Segmented superconducting tape having reduced AC losses and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Holesinger, Terry G.; Wang, Haiyan

    2009-09-22

    A superconducting tape having reduced AC losses. The tape has a high temperature superconductor layer that is segmented. Disruptive strips, formed in one of the tape substrate, a buffer layer, and the superconducting layer create parallel discontinuities in the superconducting layer that separate the current-carrying elements of the superconducting layer into strips or filament-like structures. Segmentation of the current-carrying elements has the effect of reducing AC current losses. Methods of making such a superconducting tape and reducing AC losses in such tapes are also disclosed.

  18. Roebel assembled coated conductor cables (RACC): Ac-Losses and current carrying potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, A.; Heller, R.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Schmidt, C.

    2008-02-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature in the range 50-77 K. Ac-field applications require cables with low ac-losses and hence twisting of the individual strands. We solved this problem using the Roebel technique. Short lengths of Roebel bar cables were prepared from industrial DyBCO and YBCO-CC. Meander shaped tapes of 4 or 5 mm width with twist pitches of 123 or 127 mm were cut from the 10 or 12 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven or twelve of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac-field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude as well as the coupling current decay time constant. We discuss the results in terms of available theories and compare measured time constants in transverse field with measured coupling losses. Finally the potential of this cable type for ac-use is discussed with respect to ac-losses and current carrying capability.

  19. Reduction of mare basalts by sulfur loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.

    1976-01-01

    Metallic Fe content and S abundance are inversely correlated in mare basalts. Either S volatilization from the melt results in reduction of Fe2+ to Fe0 or else high S content decreases Fe0 activity in the melt, thus explaining the correlation. All considerations favor the model that metallic iron in mare basalts is due to sulfur loss. The Apollo 11 and 17 mare basalt melts were probably saturated with S at the time of eruption; the Apollo 12 and 15 basalts were probably not saturated. Non-mare rocks show a positive correlation of S abundance with metallic Fe content; it is proposed that this is due to the addition of meteoritic material having a fairly constant Fe0/S ratio. If true, metallic Fe content or S abundance in non-mare rocks provides a measure of degree of meteoritic contamination. ?? 1976.

  20. Calculating AC Losses in High-temperature Superconducting Cables Comprising Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noji, Hideki; Kawano, Shouta; Akaki, Yoji; Hamada, Tsugio

    In this study, we present a new calculation model of AC loss in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable comprising coated conductors. AC loss is calculated by an electric circuit (EC) model. A previous EC model had three circuit elements: resistance as a function of the layer current, inductances related to the circumferential and axial fields. The new EC model has only inductances, and resistance is eliminated. In both models, AC loss of the coated conductor in each layer of an HTS cable is calculated on the basis of the Norris equation for a thin strip. The differences between measurement and calculations using the previous and new models are 12% and 14%, respectively, when transporting 1 kArms, which indicates that the new model is applicable for the calculation of AC loss in an HTS cable. These results indicate that layer current is dependent on inductances and not on resistance. The elimination of resistance simplifies AC loss calculation because it does not require repeated calculations for the convergence of the layer current. The calculation time was 1/20th of that of the previous model. In the new model, the Norris equation can be replaced with the calculation result obtained by the two-dimensional finite element method to obtain more accurate AC loss.

  1. Structural and AC loss study for pure and doped MgB{sub 2} superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Hansdah, J. S.; Sarun, P. M.

    2015-06-24

    Superconducting polycrystalline bulk MgB{sub 2} samples doped with n-C, n-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and n-Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by powder-in-sealed (PIST) method. XRD measurement shows the influence of dopants on phase and lattice parameters of samples. The ac susceptibility measurement reveals ac loss and activation energy of the samples. Nano-C doped sample shows less ac loss in all frequency (208 Hz – 999 Hz) among the doped samples; whereas n-Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped sample shows highest ac loss. The activation energy is high for rare earth (n-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and n-Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3}) doped samples as compare to n-C doped samples which reveals the enhancement in flux-pinning properties of these materials.

  2. Structural and AC loss study for pure and doped MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansdah, J. S.; Sarun, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting polycrystalline bulk MgB2 samples doped with n-C, n-Y2O3 and n-Ho2O3 were prepared by powder-in-sealed (PIST) method. XRD measurement shows the influence of dopants on phase and lattice parameters of samples. The ac susceptibility measurement reveals ac loss and activation energy of the samples. Nano-C doped sample shows less ac loss in all frequency (208 Hz - 999 Hz) among the doped samples; whereas n-Ho2O3 doped sample shows highest ac loss. The activation energy is high for rare earth (n-Y2O3 and n-Ho2O3) doped samples as compare to n-C doped samples which reveals the enhancement in flux-pinning properties of these materials.

  3. How filaments can reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Francesco; Kario, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Second-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes, known also as coated conductors, are very promising tapes for HTS applications, in virtue of their extremely high critical current density, in-field behavior, and mechanical strength. Yet, the extremely large (typically in the range 1000-10 000) width-to-thickness ratio of the superconducting material makes them prone to high power dissipation in the presence of time-varying magnetic fields perpendicular to their flat face—a condition frequently met in several applications. Since the dissipation is directly proportional to the square of the superconductor's width, an obvious way of reducing it is by striating the superconductor into narrow filaments (stripes): in that case, provided that the filaments are electromagnetically uncoupled, the losses are reduced by a factor equal to the number of filaments. In the past two decades, many researchers from groups around the world have tried to apply this idea to practical conductors using different techniques. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of such efforts, focusing on the different approaches to make filamentized conductors, on the effectiveness of the AC loss reduction, and on the applicability of those techniques to long lengths.

  4. How filaments can reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Francesco; Kario, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Second-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes, known also as coated conductors, are very promising tapes for HTS applications, in virtue of their extremely high critical current density, in-field behavior, and mechanical strength. Yet, the extremely large (typically in the range 1000–10 000) width-to-thickness ratio of the superconducting material makes them prone to high power dissipation in the presence of time-varying magnetic fields perpendicular to their flat face—a condition frequently met in several applications. Since the dissipation is directly proportional to the square of the superconductor's width, an obvious way of reducing it is by striating the superconductor into narrow filaments (stripes): in that case, provided that the filaments are electromagnetically uncoupled, the losses are reduced by a factor equal to the number of filaments. In the past two decades, many researchers from groups around the world have tried to apply this idea to practical conductors using different techniques. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of such efforts, focusing on the different approaches to make filamentized conductors, on the effectiveness of the AC loss reduction, and on the applicability of those techniques to long lengths.

  5. Low AC Loss YBCO Coated Conductor Geometry by Direct Inkjet Printing

    SciTech Connect

    Rupich, Martin, Dr.; Duckworth, Robert, Dr.

    2009-10-01

    The second generation (2G) high temperature superconductors (HTS) wire offers potential benefits for many electric power applications, including ones requiring filamentized conductors with low ac loss, such as transformers and fault current limiters. However, the use of 2G wire in these applications requires the development of both novel multi-filamentary conductor designs with lower ac losses and the development of advanced manufacturing technologies that enable the low-cost manufacturing of these filamentized architectures. This Phase I SBIR project focused on testing inkjet printing as a potential low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturing technique to fabricate potential low ac loss filamentized architectures directly on the 2G template strips.

  6. Transport ac losses of a second-generation HTS tape with a ferromagnetic substrate and conducting stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Du-Xing; Fang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    The current-voltage curve and transport ac loss of a second-generation HTS tape with a ferromagnetic NiW substrate and brass stabilizer are measured. It is found that the ac loss is up to two orders of magnitude larger than what is expected by the power-law E(J) determined by the current-voltage curve and increases with increasing frequency. Modeling results show that the overly large ac loss is contributed by the ac loss in the HTS strip enhanced by the NiW substrate and the magnetic hysteresis loss in the substrate, and the frequency-dependent loss occurs in the brass layer covering the substrate but not in the ferromagnetic substrate itself as assumed previously. The ac loss in the brass layer is associated with transport currents but not eddy currents, and it has some features similar to ordinary eddy-current loss with significant differences.

  7. Distribution of AC loss in a HTS magnet for SMES with different operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Jiao, F.; Song, M.; Cao, K.; Wang, D.; Wang, L.; Dong, H.

    2013-11-01

    The AC loss induced in superconducting tape may affect the performance of a superconducting device applied to power system, such as transformer, cable, motor and even Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The operating condition of SMES is changeable due to the need of compensation to the active or reactive power according to the demand of a power grid. In this paper, it is investigated that the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet on different operating conditions, which is based on finite element method (FEM) and measured properties of BSCCO/Ag tapes. This analytical method can be used to optimize the SMES magnet.

  8. Transport AC loss characteristics of a nine strand YBCO Roebel cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Badcock, R. A.; Long, N. J.; Staines, Mike; Thakur, K. P.; Lakshmi, L. S.; Wright, A.; Hamilton, K.; Sidorov, G. N.; Buckley, R. G.; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Caplin, A. D.

    2010-02-01

    Transport AC loss in a short length of 9/2 YBCO Roebel cable (nine 2 mm wide strands) is measured. The AC loss data are compared with those in a 5/2 YBCO Roebel cable (five 2 mm wide strands) as well as that in a single strand. All the strands composing the cables and the single strand are insulated and cut from the same stock material. The validity of the measurement method was reconfirmed by results at a range of frequencies. At a wide range of It/Ic, the normalized AC losses in the Roebel cable were around 6.2-6.7 times of those in the single strand. This is less than the nine times predicted for a tight bundle of nine conductors. The normalized transport AC losses in the 5/2 Roebel cable are much smaller than those in the 9/2 Roebel. This should be due to larger superposition of magnetic field in the 9/2 Roebel. The Ic of the 9/2 and 5/2 Roebel cables is determined by serial connection of the strands. This eliminates the effect where differing resistances in the current terminations cause uneven current sharing between strands when the strands are connected in parallel.

  9. AC-loss considerations of a pulse SMES for an accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyly, M.; Hiltunen, I.; Järvelä, J.; Korpela, A.; Lehti, L.; Stenvall, A.; Mikkonen, R.

    2010-06-01

    In particle accelerators quasi-DC superconducting magnets are used to keep particles in desired tracks. The needed rapid field variations of these high energy magnets require large energy bursts. If these bursts are taken from and fed back to the utility grid, its voltage is distorted and the quality of the electricity degrades. In addition, these bursts may decrease operation life time of generators and extra arrangements may be required by the electricity producers. Thus, an energy storage is an essential component for a cost-effective particle accelerator. Flywheels, capacitors and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) are possible options for these relatively large and high power energy storages. Here we concentrate on AC-loss of a pulse SMES aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of NbTi SMES in a particle accelerator. The designing of a SMES requires highly reliable AC-loss simulations. In this paper, calorimetric AC-loss measurements of a NbTi magnet have been carried out to consider conductor's suitability in a pulse SMES. In addition, the measured results are compared with AC-loss simulations.

  10. Numerical and theoretical evaluations of AC losses for single and infinite numbers of superconductor strips with direct and alternating transport currents in external AC magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, K.; Funaki, K.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.

    2010-11-01

    AC losses in a superconductor strip are numerically evaluated by means of a finite element method formulated with a current vector potential. The expressions of AC losses in an infinite slab that corresponds to a simple model of infinitely stacked strips are also derived theoretically. It is assumed that the voltage-current characteristics of the superconductors are represented by Bean’s critical state model. The typical operation pattern of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil with direct and alternating transport currents in an external AC magnetic field is taken into account as the electromagnetic environment for both the single strip and the infinite slab. By using the obtained results of AC losses, the influences of the transport currents on the total losses are discussed quantitatively.

  11. Ac losses for the self field of an ac transport current with a dc transport current offset in high {Tc} superconducting magnet coils for MagLev application

    SciTech Connect

    Koosh, V.F.

    1993-10-01

    Although much research has been conducted concerning the losses of high-{Tc} superconductors, very little has concentrated on the self-field losses in an actual magnet arrangement. The coils studied in this work were designed for use as actual magnets in an industrial application. Self field loss measurements were made upon tape-wound 2223 superconducting helix coils. The self-field losses were produced by an AC transport current with a DC transport current offset. Losses were taken for single, double and triple tape windings, giving essentially monofilament, dual, and three filament cases. The losses measured here were varied over a range of AC current values for several different DC values, and over a range of frequencies. The currents were all AC sinusoids with a DC offset. All measurements were made at T = 77K.

  12. Artificial neural networks for AC losses prediction in superconducting round filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, J.; Makong Hell, L.; Lorin, C.; Masson, P. J.

    2016-06-01

    An extensive and fast method to estimate superconducting AC losses within a superconducting round filament carrying an AC current and subjected to an elliptical magnetic field (both rotating and oscillating) is presented. Elliptical fields are present in rotating machine stators and being able to accurately predict AC losses in fully superconducting machines is paramount to generating realistic machine designs. The proposed method relies on an analytical scaling law (ASL) combined with two artificial neural network (ANN) estimators taking 9 input parameters representing the superconductor, external field and transport current characteristics. The ANNs are trained with data generated by finite element (FE) computations with a commercial software (FlexPDE) based on the widely accepted H-formulation. After completion, the model is validated through comparison with additional randomly chosen data points and compared for simple field configurations to other predictive models. The loss estimation discrepancy is about 3% on average compared to the FEA analysis. The main advantages of the model compared to FE simulations is the fast computation time (few milliseconds) which allows it to be used in iterated design processes of fully superconducting machines. In addition, the proposed model provides a higher level of fidelity than the scaling laws existing in literature usually only considering pure AC field.

  13. Single and three-phase AC losses in HTS superconducting power transmission line prototype cables

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; Coulter, J.Y.; Fleshler, S.

    1997-11-01

    AC losses in two, one-meter-long lengths of HTS prototype multi-strand conductors (PMC`s) are measured with a temperature-difference calorimeter. Both single-phase and three-phase losses are examined with ac currents up to 1,000 A rms. The calorimeter, designed specifically for these measurements, has a precision of 1 mW. PMC {number_sign}1 has two helically-wound, non-insulated layers of HTS tape (19 tapes per layer), each layer wrapped with opposite pitch. PMC {number_sign}2 is identical except for insulation between the layers. The measured ac losses show no significant effect of interlayer insulation and depend on about the third power of the current--a result in agreement with the Bean-Norris model adapted to the double-helix configuration. The three-phase losses are a factor of two higher than those exhibited by a single isolated conductor, indicating a significant interaction between phases.

  14. Transport and AC loss properties of the repaired multifilamentary REBCO superconducting tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, S.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K.; Kato, J.; Chikumoto, T.; Tanabe, K.; Nakao, K.; Izumi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y.; Saito, T.

    2010-11-01

    For near-future applications of REBa 2Cu 3O 7 (REBCO) coated conductors to electric power cables, transformers and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), the long taped wires with high performance in the transport properties have been designed and fabricated. Moreover, in order to drastically reduce AC losses in perpendicular field configuration, advanced multifilament YBCO coated conductors (MFYCCs) fabricated with technique of a laser scribing process have been also developed. In the present study, from engineering viewpoints to utilize such advanced conductors, we evaluated the transport and AC loss properties of short MFYCCs with a repaired part or a joint by a diffusion joint technique with the saddle-shaped pickup coil method.

  15. On the possibility of reduction of Ac{sup 3+} to Ac{sup 2+} in Aqueous-ethanolic solutions of bivalent samarium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Veleshko, I.E.; Kamenskaya, A.N.

    1995-07-01

    In view of contradictory data on the existence of Ac{sup 2+} in aqueous solutions, the possibility of actinium reduction was examined in aqueous-ethanolic solutions in which bivalent f-elements are more stable than in aqueous media. In the presence of bivalent samarium (E{sub Sm}{sup 0}3+/Sm 2+=-1.5 V) Ac(III) is not reduced to Ac(II). These results disagree with the previously published data on the radiopolarographic generation of Ac(II) in aqueous solutions.

  16. Dependence of the ac loss on the aspect ratio in a cable in conduit conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cau, F.; Bruzzone, P.

    2010-04-01

    The coupling current loss in rectangular superconducting cables is strictly dependent on their aspect ratio, which has an impact on the area linked by the field variation and consequently on the currents induced between strands. The relation between the ac loss and aspect ratio is studied with reference to the testing of three short cable in conduit conductor (CICC) samples at the SULTAN test facility. The first conductor is a 25 kA NbTi cable for the JT60-SA tokamak; the second is a 20 kA Nb3Sn cable for the HZB hybrid magnet. The last CICC is a 68 kA Nb3Sn cable with layout similar to that of the ITER toroidal field (TF) conductor (called the 'European toroidal field (EUTF) alternate'). All the samples are assembled with two conductor sections differing only in their orientation with respect to the external variable field. In the first and third samples, the cable of one leg is rotated by 90°, while in the HZB sample it is rotated by 45° with respect to the other leg. The ac loss is measured at the SULTAN test facility using a gas flow calorimetric method. A sample length of 39 cm is exposed to a sinusoidal field with an amplitude of ± 0.3 or ± 0.2 T (depending on the superconductor) and frequency variable in the range 0.1-0.8 Hz. A background field of 2 T perpendicular both to the sinusoidal field and to the sample axis is also applied. The ac loss is assessed by measuring the variation of the He enthalpy, assuming the metal enthalpy to be negligible. The loss curve for both legs is discussed in terms of the respective aspect ratios and the results, including data from former test campaigns, are compared with the aim of finding an analytical relation between the loss and the conductor dimensions.

  17. Inkjet printing of multifilamentary YBCO for low AC loss coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, S. C.; Joseph, D.; Mitchell-Williams, T. B.; Calleja, A.; Vlad, V. R.; Vilardell, M.; Ricart, S.; Granados, X.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Usoskin, A.; Falter, M.; Bäcker, M.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2014-05-01

    Considerable progress has been made with the development of REBCO coated conductors in recent years, and high performance conductors are available commercially. For many applications, however, the cost remains prohibitive, and AC losses discourage their selection for higher frequency applications. Chemical solution deposition (CSD) methods are attractive for low-cost, scalable preparation of buffer and superconductor layers, and in many respects inkjet printing is the method of choice, permitting non-contact deposition with minimal materials wastage and excellent control of coating thickness. Highly textured coatings of YBCO and Gd-doped CeO2 have previously been reported on buffered metal substrates. Inkjet printing also introduces the possibility of patterning - directly depositing two and three dimensional structures without subtractive processing - offering a low-cost route to coated conductors with reduced AC losses. In this contribution, the inkjet deposition of superconducting YBCO tracks is reported on industrially relevant buffered metal substrates both by direct printing and an inverse patterning approach. In the latter approach, ceria tracks were printed reported, which are a candidate both for resistive filament spacers and buffer layers. TFA-based precursor solutions have been printed on SS/ABAD-YSZ/CeO2 and Ni-W/LZO/CeO2 RABiTS substrates, and the resulting multifilamentary samples characterised by microscopy and scanning Hall probe measurements. The prospects for future inkjet-printed low AC loss coated conductors are discussed, including control of interfilamentary resistivity and bridging, transposed filamentary structures and stabilisation material.

  18. Ac-loss measurement of a DyBCO-Roebel assembled coated conductor cable (RACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuller, S.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Krempasky, L.; Schmidt, C.

    2007-10-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature around 50-77 K, which is a crucial precondition for economical cooling costs. We prepared a short length of a Roebel bar cable made of industrial DyBCO coated conductor (Theva Company, Germany). Meander shaped tapes of 4 mm width with a twist pitch of 122 mm were cut from 10 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude in transverse and parallel field orientations. In addition, the coupling current time constant of the sample was directly measured.

  19. Reductions in transformer losses achieved by staggering lamination layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albir, R. S.; Moses, A. J.

    1989-05-01

    The total loss of identical 3-phase, 3-limb, mitred and staggered cores assembled from 0.3 mm thick, conventional high permeability and laser scribed grain oriented silicon iron have been compared. The croes built from conventional material produced the best improvements when staggered and these were chosen to carry out further investigation to examine the effect of the stacking number and the T-joint design on the power loss of the cores. The power loss generally increased as the stagger length was increased, but an optimum stagger length range was determined at which the power loss was lowest. The percentage improvement in the power loss due to the introduction of the staggered technique is dependent upon the orientation of the material and the T-joint design. The best loss reduction compared to a mitred core of the same rating was around 5% using a core assembled from conventional material.

  20. AC loss in stacks of Bi-2223/Ag tapes modified with ferromagnetic covers at the edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, S.; Gömöry, F.; Gencer, Ali

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the magnetization loss of stacked Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a ferromagnetic cover on the edges. Such modification has been found recently to reduce the AC loss of a single tape; however, the behavior in a coil winding could be different. With experiments and numerical calculations we show that a ferromagnetic cover on the edges of a superconducting tape could reduce its magnetization loss also when the tapes are arranged in a stack. The effect is weaker for larger numbers of tapes but nevertheless remained significant in a stack of four tapes, which was the maximum number studied here. The effects observed experimentally are nicely explained by the results of numerical calculations.

  1. Numerical evaluation of AC loss properties in assembled superconductor strips exposed to perpendicular magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, K.; Funaki, K.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.

    2009-10-01

    AC losses in superconductor strips assembled face-to-face are numerically evaluated by means of a finite element method. The external magnetic field is applied perpendicular to their flat face. It is also assumed that the superconductor strips have the voltage-current characteristics represented by the critical state model with constant critical current density. The influences of the number of strips and the gap length between strips on the losses are quantitatively discussed as compared with the conventional theoretical expressions for some special cases in order to understand only the geometrical effects on the perpendicular-field losses in actual assembled conductors with the finite numbers of Y-based superconducting tapes.

  2. Stability mechanical considerations, and AC loss in HTSC monoliths, coils, and wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    1995-01-01

    For monolithic high-T(sub c) superconductors (HTSC's) calculations are presented of: (1) the initial flux jump field, H(sub fj), in melt-processed YBCO based on a field and temperature dependent J(sub c), and (2) the radial and circumferential stresses in solid and hollow cylinders containing trapped magnetic flux. For model multi filamentary (MF) HTSC/Ag strands calculations are presented of: (1) the limiting filament diameters for adiabatic and dynamic stability, and (2) the hysteretic and eddy current components of AC loss. Again for MF HTSC/Ag composite strands the need for filamentary subdivision and twisting is discussed.

  3. ESBWR response to an extended station blackout/loss of all AC power

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, A. J.; Marquino, W.

    2012-07-01

    U.S. federal regulations require light water cooled nuclear power plants to cope with Station Blackouts for a predetermined amount of time based on design factors for the plant. U.S. regulations define Station Blackout (SBO) as a loss of the offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency AC power system. According to U.S. regulations, typically the coping period for an SBO is 4 hours and can be as long as 16 hours for currently operating BWR plants. Being able to cope with an SBO and loss of all AC power is required by international regulators as well. The U.S. licensing basis for the ESBWR is a coping period of 72 hours for an SBO based on U.S. NRC requirements for passive safety plants. In the event of an extended SBO (viz., greater than 72 hours), the ESBWR response shows that the design is able to cope with the event for at least 7 days without AC electrical power or operator action. ESBWR is a Generation III+ reactor design with an array of passive safety systems. The ESBWR primary success path for mitigation of an SBO event is the Isolation Condenser System (ICS). The ICS is a passive, closed loop, safety system that initiates automatically on a loss of power. Upon Station Blackout or loss of all AC power, the ICS begins removing decay heat from the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) by (i) condensing the steam into water in heat exchangers located in pools of water above the containment, and (ii) transferring the decay heat to the atmosphere. The condensed water is then returned by gravity to cool the reactor again. The ICS alone is capable of maintaining the ESBWR in a safe shutdown condition after an SBO for an extended period. The fuel remains covered throughout the SBO event. The ICS is able to remove decay heat from the RPV for at least 7 days and maintains the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. The water level in the RPV remains well above the top of active fuel for the duration of the SBO event

  4. Calculating transport AC losses in stacks of high temperature superconductor coated conductors with magnetic substrates using FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, Mark D.; Flack, Tim J.; Campbell, Archie M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the electromagnetic properties of stacks of high temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors with a particular focus on calculating the total transport AC loss. The cross-section of superconducting cables and coils is often modeled as a two-dimensional stack of coated conductors, and these stacks can be used to estimate the AC loss of a practical device. This paper uses a symmetric two dimensional (2D) finite element model based on the H formulation, and a detailed investigation into the effects of a magnetic substrate on the transport AC loss of a stack is presented. The number of coated conductors in each stack is varied from 1 to 150, and three types of substrate are compared: non-magnetic weakly magnetic and strongly magnetic. The non-magnetic substrate model is comparable with results from existing models for the limiting cases of a single tape (Norris) and an infinite stack (Clem). The presence of a magnetic substrate increases the total AC loss of the stack, due to an increased localized magnetic flux density, and the stronger the magnetic material, the further the flux penetrates into the stack overall. The AC loss is calculated for certain tapes within the stack, and the differences and similarities between the losses throughout the stack are explained using the magnetic flux penetration and current density distributions in those tapes. The ferromagnetic loss of the substrate itself is found to be negligible in most cases, except for small magnitudes of current. Applying these findings to practical applications, where AC transport current is involved, superconducting coils should be wound where possible using coated conductors with a non-magnetic substrate to reduce the total AC loss in the coil.

  5. Quantifying food losses and the potential for reduction in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Claudio; Stoessel, Franziska; Baier, Urs; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    A key element in making our food systems more efficient is the reduction of food losses across the entire food value chain. Nevertheless, food losses are often neglected. This paper quantifies food losses in Switzerland at the various stages of the food value chain (agricultural production, postharvest handling and trade, processing, food service industry, retail, and households), identifies hotspots and analyses the reasons for losses. Twenty-two food categories are modelled separately in a mass and energy flow analysis, based on data from 31 companies within the food value chain, and from public institutions, associations, and from the literature. The energy balance shows that 48% of the total calories produced (edible crop yields at harvest time and animal products, including slaughter waste) is lost across the whole food value chain. Half of these losses would be avoidable given appropriate mitigation measures. Most avoidable food losses occur at the household, processing, and agricultural production stage of the food value chain. Households are responsible for almost half of the total avoidable losses (in terms of calorific content). PMID:23270687

  6. Quantifying food losses and the potential for reduction in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Claudio; Stoessel, Franziska; Baier, Urs; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    A key element in making our food systems more efficient is the reduction of food losses across the entire food value chain. Nevertheless, food losses are often neglected. This paper quantifies food losses in Switzerland at the various stages of the food value chain (agricultural production, postharvest handling and trade, processing, food service industry, retail, and households), identifies hotspots and analyses the reasons for losses. Twenty-two food categories are modelled separately in a mass and energy flow analysis, based on data from 31 companies within the food value chain, and from public institutions, associations, and from the literature. The energy balance shows that 48% of the total calories produced (edible crop yields at harvest time and animal products, including slaughter waste) is lost across the whole food value chain. Half of these losses would be avoidable given appropriate mitigation measures. Most avoidable food losses occur at the household, processing, and agricultural production stage of the food value chain. Households are responsible for almost half of the total avoidable losses (in terms of calorific content).

  7. Hysteretic ac loss in a coated superconductor subjected to oscillating magnetic fields: ferromagnetic effect and frequency dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guang-Tong

    2014-06-01

    Numerical simulations of the hysteretic ac loss in a coated superconductor with a more realistic version of the architecture were performed via the finite-element technique in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. The coated superconductor was electromagnetically modeled by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of a vector potential approach in conjunction with nonlinear descriptions of the superconducting layer and the ferromagnetic substrate therein by a power-law model and the Langevin equation, respectively. A diverse effect of the ferromagnetic substrate on the hysteretic ac loss, depending on the strength of the applied magnetic field, was displayed, and its underlying cause was identified. The dependence of the hysteretic ac loss on the applied frequency is found to be related to a critical amplitude of the applied magnetic field, and the eddy-current loss dissipated in the metal coatings becomes prominent as the frequency increases only at high applied magnetic fields.

  8. Transport ac loss of elliptical thin strips with a power-law E(J) relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chen-Xi; Chen, Du-Xing; Li, Shuo; Fang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    The transport ac loss Q of an elliptical thin strip of critical current I c with a power-law relation E\\propto {J}n is accurately computed as a function of current amplitude I m and frequency f. The resulting Q({I}m) is normalized to q({i}m) following the Norris critical-state formula, and converted to {q}*({i}m*) at a critical frequency f c based on a transport scaling law. Having a set of {q}*({i}m*) at several values of n as a base, a general expression of {q}*({i}m*,n) is obtained, which can be used to easily calculate q({i}m) for any practical purposes.

  9. Transport ac loss in a rectangular thin strip with power-law E (J) relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Du-Xing; Fan, Yu; Fang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Transport ac losses of a rectangular thin strip obeying relation E /Ec =(J /Jc) n with a fixed critical current Ic and n = 5, 10, 20, 30 , and 40 are accurately computed at a fixed frequency f as functions of the current amplitude Im . The results may be interpolated and scaled to those at any values of Ic, f , and 5 ⩽ n ⩽ 40 . Normalized in the same way as that in Norris' analytical formula derived from the critical-state model and converting f to a critical frequency fc , the modeling results may be better compared with the Norris formula and experimental data. A complete set of calculated modeling data are given with necessary formulas to be easily used by experimentalists in any particular case.

  10. AC losses in a finite Z stack using an anisotropic homogeneous-medium approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, John R.; Claassen, J. H.; Mawatari, Yasunori

    2007-12-01

    A finite stack of thin superconducting tapes, all carrying a fixed current I, can be approximated by an anisotropic superconducting bar with critical current density Jc = Ic/2aD, where Ic is the critical current of each tape, 2a is the tape width, and D is the tape-to-tape periodicity. The current density J must obey the constraint \\int J\\, \\mathrm {d}x=I/D , where the tapes lie parallel to the x axis and are stacked along the z axis. We suppose that Jc is independent of field (Bean approximation) and look for a solution to the critical state for arbitrary height 2b of the stack. For c<|x|losses depend only weakly on how c is chosen. We argue that for small D/a the anisotropic homogeneous-medium approximation gives a reasonably accurate estimate of the ac losses in a finite Z stack. The results for a Z stack can be used to calculate the transport losses in a pancake coil wound with superconducting tape.

  11. Arctic spring ozone reduction associated with projected sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, C.; Sun, L.; Tomas, R. A.; Polvani, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of Arctic sea ice loss on the stratosphere is investigated using the Whole-Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), by prescribing the sea ice in the late 20th century and late 21st century, respectively. The localized Sea Surface Temperature (SST) change associated with sea ice melt is also included in the future run. Overall, the model simulates a negative annular-mode response in the winter and spring. In the stratosphere, polar vortex strengthens from February to April, peaking in March. Consistent with it, there is an anomalous cooling in the high-latitude stratosphere, and polar cap ozone reduction is up to 20 DU. Since the difference between these two runs lies only in the sea ice and localized SST in the Arctic, the stratospheric circulation and ozone changes can be attributed to the surface forcing. Eliassen-Palm analysis reveals that the upward propagation of planetary waves is suppressed in the spring as a consequence of sea ice loss. The reduction in propagation causes less wave dissipation and thus less zonal wind deceleration in the extratropical stratosphere.

  12. Loss of ACS7 confers abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ABA sensitivity and accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Zhen, Zhiqin; Peng, Jinying; Chang, Li; Gong, Qingqiu; Wang, Ning Ning

    2011-10-01

    The phytohormones ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) play essential roles in the abiotic stress adaptation of plants, with both cross-talk of ethylene signalling and ABA biosynthesis and signalling reported. Any reciprocal effects on each other's biosynthesis, however, remain elusive. ACC synthase (ACS) acts as the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. A pilot study on changes in ACS promoter activities in response to abiotic stresses revealed the unique involvement in abiotic stress responses of the only type 3 ACC synthase, ACS7, among all nine ACSs of Arabidopsis. Hence an acs7 mutant was characterized and its abiotic stress responses were analysed. The acs7 mutant germinated slightly faster than the wild type and subsequently maintained a higher growth rate at the vegetative growth stage. Ethylene emission of acs7 was merely one-third of that of the wild type. acs7 exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, osmotic, and heat stresses. Furthermore, acs7 seeds were hypersensitive to both ABA and glucose during germination. Transcript analyses revealed that acs7 had elevated transcript levels of the stress-responsive genes involved in the ABA-dependent pathway under salt stress. The ABA level was also higher in acs7 following salt treatment. Our data suggest that ACS7 acts as a negative regulator of ABA sensitivity and accumulation under stress and appears as a node in the cross-talk between ethylene and ABA.

  13. Frailty, Mycophenolate Reduction, and Graft Loss in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; Law, Andrew; Tan, Jingwen; Delp, Cassandra; King, Elizabeth A.; Orandi, Babak; Salter, Megan; Alachkar, Nada; Desai, Niraj; Grams, Morgan; Walston, Jeremy; Segev, Dorry L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) side effects often prompt dose reduction or discontinuation, and this MMF dose reduction (MDR) can lead to rejection and possibly graft loss. Unfortunately, little is known about what factors might cause or contribute to MDR. Frailty, a measure of physiologic reserve, is emerging as an important, novel domain of risk in kidney transplantation (KT) recipients. We hypothesized that frailty, an inflammatory phenotype, might be associated with MDR. Methods: We measured frailty (shrinking, weakness, exhaustion, low activity, and slowed walking speed), other patient and donor characteristics, longitudinal MMF doses, and graft loss in 525 KT recipients. Time-to-MDR was quantified using an adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. Results: By 2 years post-transplant, 54% of frail recipients and 45% of non-frail recipients experienced MDR; by 4 years, incidence was 67% and 51%. Frail recipients were 1.29-times (95%CI:1.01-1.66; P=0.04) more likely to experience MDR, as were deceased donor recipients (aHR=1.92, 95%CI:1.44-2.54, P<0.001) and older adults (age≥65 vs. <65; aHR=1.47, 95%CI:1.10-1.96, P=0.01). MDR was independently associated with a substantially increased risk of death-censored graft loss (aHR=5.24, 95%CI:1.97-13.98, P=0.001). Conclusion: A better understanding of risk factors for MMF intolerance might help in planning alternate strategies to maintain adequate immunosuppression and prolong allograft survival. PMID:25393156

  14. Angular Dependence of Transport AC Losses in Superconducting Wire with Position-Dependent Critical Current Density in a DC Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xing-liang; Xiong, Li-ting; Gao, Yuan-wen; Zhou, You-he

    2013-07-01

    Transport AC losses play a very important role in high temperature superconductors (HTSs), which usually carry AC transport current under applied magnetic field in typical application-like conditions. In this paper, we propose the analytical formula for transport AC losses in HTS wire by considering critical current density of both inhomogeneous and anisotropic field dependent. The angular dependence of critical current density is described by effective mass theory, and the HTS wire has inhomogeneous distribution cross-section of critical current density. We calculate the angular dependence of normalized AC losses under different DC applied magnetic fields. The numerical results of this formula agree well with the experiment data and are better than the results of Norris formula. This analytical formula can explain the deviation of experimental transport current losses from the Norris formula and apply to calculate transport AC losses in realistic practical condition.

  15. Numerical models for ac loss calculation in large-scale applications of HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéval, Loïc; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Grilli, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Numerical models are powerful tools to predict the electromagnetic behavior of superconductors. In recent years, a variety of models have been successfully developed to simulate high-temperature-superconducting (HTS) coated conductor tapes. While the models work well for the simulation of individual tapes or relatively small assemblies, their direct applicability to devices involving hundreds or thousands of tapes, e.g., coils used in electrical machines, is questionable. Indeed, the simulation time and memory requirement can quickly become prohibitive. In this paper, we develop and compare two different models for simulating realistic HTS devices composed of a large number of tapes: (1) the homogenized model simulates the coil using an equivalent anisotropic homogeneous bulk with specifically developed current constraints to account for the fact that each turn carries the same current; (2) the multi-scale model parallelizes and reduces the computational problem by simulating only several individual tapes at significant positions of the coil’s cross-section using appropriate boundary conditions to account for the field generated by the neighboring turns. Both methods are used to simulate a coil made of 2000 tapes, and compared against the widely used H-formulation finite-element model that includes all the tapes. Both approaches allow faster simulations of large number of HTS tapes by 1-3 orders of magnitudes, while maintaining good accuracy of the results. Both models can therefore be used to design and optimize large-scale HTS devices. This study provides key advancement with respect to previous versions of both models. The homogenized model is extended from simple stacks to large arrays of tapes. For the multi-scale model, the importance of the choice of the current distribution used to generate the background field is underlined; the error in ac loss estimation resulting from the most obvious choice of starting from a uniform current distribution is revealed.

  16. The magnetisation profiles and ac magnetisation losses in a single layer YBCO thin film caused by travelling magnetic field waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Coombs, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    This paper studies the magnetisation and ac magnetisation losses caused by a travelling magnetic wave on a single-layer YBCO thin film. This work provides thorough investigations on how the critical magnetic field gradient has been changed by the application of a travelling wave. Several conditions were studied such as zero-field cooling (ZFC), field cooling (FC) and a delta-shaped trapped field. It was found that the travelling wave tends to attenuate the existing critical magnetic field gradients in all these conditions. This interesting magnetic behaviour can be well predicted by the finite element (FEM) software with the E-J power law and Maxwell’s equations. The numerical simulations show that the existing critical current density has been compromised after applying the travelling wave. The magnetisation profile caused by the travelling wave is very different from the standing wave, while the magnetisation based on the standing wave can be interpreted by the Bean model and constant current density assumption. Based on the numerical method, which has reliability that has been solidly proven in the study, we have extended the study to the ac magnetisation losses. Comparisons were made between the travelling wave and the standing wave for this specific YBCO sample. It was found that by applying the magnetic wave of the same amplitude, the ac magnetisation loss caused by the travelling wave is about 1/3 of that caused by the standing wave. These results are helpful in understanding the general magnetism problems and ac magnetisation loss in the travelling magnetic wave conditions such as inside a high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machine, etc.

  17. Effects of Formvar coating and copper-nickel outer sheath on the ac losses of multi-strand subsize cables

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.

    1985-02-01

    Ac losses of two subcables, one with Formvar coating on the strands of the BNL 12-ml NbTi/Cu/CuNi conductor and another without the coating, were measured using the ANL Subcable Test Facility. The results indicate that couplings among the strands with and without the Formvar coating were quite weak. Weak coupling of the bare strands is due to the high resistance of the copper-nickel outer sheath. In the regime of B(dot) = 0 approx. 1.2 T/s and B = 0 approx. 4 T, the magnetic diffusion time constant was (3.8 - 5.7) x 10/sup -3/ s.

  18. Leakage current and commutation losses reduction in electric drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miliani, El Hadj

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, leakage current and inverter losses, produced by adjustable-speed AC drive systems become one of the main interested subject for researchers on Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology. The continuous advancements in solid state device engineering have considerably minimized the switching transients for power switches but the high dv/dt and high switching frequency have caused many adverse effects such as shaft voltage, bearing current, leakage current and electromagnetic interference (EMI). The major objective of this paper is to investigate and suppress of the adverse effects of a PWM inverter feeding AC motor in EV and HEV. A technique to simultaneously reduce the leakage current and the switching losses is presented in this paper. Based on a discontinuous space vector pulse width modulation (DSVPWM) and a modular switches gate resistance, inverter losses and leakage current are reduced. Algorithms are presented and implemented on a DSP controller and experimental results are presented.

  19. Reduction of convective losses in solar cavity receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Graham; Pye, John; Kaufer, Martin; Abbasi-Shavazi, Ehsan; Zhang, Jack; McIntosh, Adam; Lindley, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Two design innovations are reported that can help improve the thermal performance of a solar cavity receiver. These innovations utilise the natural variation of wall temperature inside the cavity and active management of airflow in the vicinity of the receiver. The results of computational fluid dynamics modelling and laboratory-scale experiments suggest that the convective loss from a receiver can be reduced substantially by either mechanism. A further benefit is that both radiative and overall thermal losses from the cavity may be reduced. Further work to assess the performance of such receiver designs under operational conditions is discussed.

  20. 38 CFR 21.422 - Reduction in subsistence allowance following the loss of a dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... allowance following the loss of a dependent. 21.422 Section 21.422 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... allowance following the loss of a dependent. (a) Notice of reduction required when a veteran loses a... subsistence allowance following the veteran's loss of a dependent unless: (i) VA has notified the veteran...

  1. 38 CFR 21.422 - Reduction in subsistence allowance following the loss of a dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... allowance following the loss of a dependent. 21.422 Section 21.422 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... allowance following the loss of a dependent. (a) Notice of reduction required when a veteran loses a... subsistence allowance following the veteran's loss of a dependent unless: (i) VA has notified the veteran...

  2. 38 CFR 21.422 - Reduction in subsistence allowance following the loss of a dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allowance following the loss of a dependent. 21.422 Section 21.422 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... allowance following the loss of a dependent. (a) Notice of reduction required when a veteran loses a... subsistence allowance following the veteran's loss of a dependent unless: (i) VA has notified the veteran...

  3. 38 CFR 21.422 - Reduction in subsistence allowance following the loss of a dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... allowance following the loss of a dependent. 21.422 Section 21.422 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... allowance following the loss of a dependent. (a) Notice of reduction required when a veteran loses a... subsistence allowance following the veteran's loss of a dependent unless: (i) VA has notified the veteran...

  4. AC loss of a model 5m 2G HTS power cable using wires with NiW substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotsky, V. S.; Shutov, K. A.; Nosov, A. A.; Polyakova, N. V.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zubko, V. V.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Carter, W. L.; Fleshler, S.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Snitchler, G.

    2010-06-01

    A model 5 m cable prototype was constructed using American Superconductor second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires - 344 superconductors, produced with the MOD/RABiTSTM process. The model cable consists of two helically counterwound layers of brass-laminated tapes. Twist pitches were calculated to provide uniform current distribution between the two cable layers. The NiW substrates of the tapes were oriented to face radially inward and radially outward for the inner and outer layers of the cable, respectively, to minimize the spacing between the HTS layers and any effects of the weak substrate magnetism. To verify the calculations and design principles, the model cable was instrumented with potential taps and sensors, including Rogowski coils and Hall probes, to measure the current distribution among layers, voltage - current characteristics and other parameters. AC losses in this cable model have been measured and analyzed by use of digital measurements of current and voltage. At low to intermediate currents, they are in the range of a few tenths of a watt per meter, consistent with the ferromagnetic loss of the substrate. Analysis of the individual contributions of the Ni-W substrate and the superconductor hysteresis loss is given.

  5. Light loss reduction of LCD polarized stereoscopic projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.

    2003-05-01

    The overwhelming majority of LCD projectors that are used for polarized stereoscopic projection have linear polarized output with two colors in one direction and the third color in an orthogonal direction (e.g. green is horizontal and red and blue are vertical). During standard conversion of two projectors light to orthogonal or circular clockwise and counter-clockwise polarization more than fifty percent of light energy is lost. This paper considers a method of polarized stereoscopic projection that gives less light loss. For this purpose the light of each LCD projector is converted to circular polarization by using quarter wave retarder plates. Orientation of its optical axes are chosen so that green light from the first projector and red and blue light from the second projector are circularly polarized in the clockwise direction. The remaining colors are circular polarized in the counter-clockwise polarization. Simultaneously color transformation of stereo pairs pictures is realized. Green component of first picture is mixed with red and blue component of second picture and vice versa. This method enables the observation of good quality stereoscopic images using glasses with circular polarizers. In the case of glasses with linear polarization, half wave plates for conversion of LCD projectors light are used.

  6. Reduction of Oxidative Melt Loss of Aluminum and Its Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Subodh K. Das; Shridas Ningileri

    2006-03-17

    This project led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of dross formation. The microstructural evolution in industrial dross samples was determined. Results suggested that dross that forms in layers with structure and composition determined by the local magnesium concentration alone. This finding is supported by fundamental studies of molten metal surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data revealed that only magnesium segregates to the molten aluminum alloy surface and reacts to form a growing oxide layer. X-ray diffraction techniques that were using to investigate an oxidizing molten aluminum alloy surface confirmed for the first time that magnesium oxide is the initial crystalline phase that forms during metal oxidation. The analytical techniques developed in this project are now available to investigate other molten metal surfaces. Based on the improved understanding of dross initiation, formation and growth, technology was developed to minimize melt loss. The concept is based on covering the molten metal surface with a reusable physical barrier. Tests in a laboratory-scale reverberatory furnace confirmed the results of bench-scale tests. The main highlights of the work done include: A clear understanding of the kinetics of dross formation and the effect of different alloying elements on dross formation was obtained. It was determined that the dross evolves in similar ways regardless of the aluminum alloy being melted and the results showed that amorphous aluminum nitride forms first, followed by amorphous magnesium oxide and crystalline magnesium oxide in all alloys that contain magnesium. Evaluation of the molten aluminum alloy surface during melting and holding indicated that magnesium oxide is the first crystalline phase to form during oxidation of a clean aluminum alloy surface. Based on dross evaluation and melt tests it became clear that the major contributing factor to aluminum alloy dross was in the alloys with Mg content. Mg was

  7. Resource Loss and Naturalistic Reduction of PTSD among Inner-City Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Kristen H.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Halting the process of psychosocial and material resource loss has been theorized as being associated with the reduction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examines how the limiting of resource loss is related to alleviation of PTSD symptoms among 102 inner-city women, who originally met diagnostic criteria for PTSD after…

  8. Surface and bulk-loss reduction research by low-energy hydrogen doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and bulk loss reduction by low energy hydrogen doping of silicon solar cells was examined. Hydrogen ions provided a suppression of space charge recombination currents. Implantation of hydrogen followed by the anneal cycle caused more redistribution of boron than the anneal which could complicate processing. It was demonstrated that passivation leads to space charge current reduction.

  9. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    SciTech Connect

    sumption, Mike; Majoros, Milan; Collings, E. W.; Van der Laan, D. C.

    2014-11-07

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software. Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic ) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.

  10. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    SciTech Connect

    Majoros, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Long, N. J.

    2015-04-08

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software. Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.

  11. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    DOE PAGES

    Majoros, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Long, N. J.

    2015-04-08

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software.more » Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.« less

  12. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    DOE PAGES

    sumption, Mike; Majoros, Milan; Collings, E. W.; Van der Laan, D. C.

    2014-11-07

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software.more » Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic ) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.« less

  13. Superconducting-magnetic heterostructures: a method of decreasing AC losses and improving critical current density in multifilamentary conductors.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, B A; Majoros, M

    2009-06-24

    Magnetic materials can help to improve the performance of practical superconductors on the macroscale/microscale as magnetic diverters and also on the nanoscale as effective pinning centres. It has been established by numerical modelling that magnetic shielding of the filaments reduces AC losses in self-field conditions due to decoupling of the filaments and, at the same time, it increases the critical current of the composite. This effect is especially beneficial for coated conductors, in which the anisotropic properties of the superconductor are amplified by the conductor architecture. However, ferromagnetic coatings are often chemically incompatible with YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) and (Pb,Bi)(2)Sr(2)Ca(2)Cu(3)O(9) conductors, and buffer layers have to be used. In contrast, in MgB(2) conductors an iron matrix may remain in direct contact with the superconducting core. The application of superconducting-magnetic heterostructures requires consideration of the thermal and electromagnetic stability of the superconducting materials used. On one hand, magnetic materials reduce the critical current gradient across the individual filaments but, on the other hand, they often reduce the thermal conductivity between the superconducting core and the cryogen, which may cause destruction of the conductor in the event of thermal instability. A possible nanoscale method of improving the critical current density of superconducting conductors is the introduction of sub-micron magnetic pinning centres. However, the volumetric density and chemical compatibility of magnetic inclusions has to be controlled to avoid suppression of the superconducting properties. PMID:21828430

  14. The reduction of surface plasmon losses in quasi-suspended graphene

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovkin, Alexander M.; Tao, Jin; Chao Yu, Xue; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Highly confined surface plasmons on graphene attract substantial interest as potential information carriers for highly integrated photonic data processing circuits. However, plasmon losses remain the main obstacle for implementation of such devices. In near-field microscopic experiments performed at the wavelength of 10 μm we show that a substantial reduction of plasmon damping can be achieved by placing a nanometric polymer nano-dots spacer between the graphene layer and the supporting silicon oxide slab making graphene quasi-suspended. We argue that reduction of plasmon losses is attributed to weaker coupling with substrate phonons in the quasi-suspended graphene. PMID:25943185

  15. Resonant gate driver with efficient gate energy recovery and switching loss reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I.-G.; Kwak, S.-S.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes a novel resonant gate driver for charging the gate capacitor of power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) that operate at a high switching frequency in power converters. The proposed resonant gate driver is designed with three small MOSFETs to build up the inductor current in addition to an inductor for temporary energy storage. The proposed resonant gate driver recovers the CV2 gate loss, which is the largest loss dissipated in the gate resistance in conventional gate drivers. In addition, the switching loss is reduced at the instants of turn on and turn off in the power MOSFETs of power converters by using the proposed gate driver. Mathematical analyses of the total loss appearing in the gate driver circuit and the switching loss reduction in the power switch of power converters are discussed. Finally, the proposed resonant gate driver is verified with experimental results at a switching frequency of 1 MHz.

  16. Spray drift and off-target loss reduction with a precision air-assisted sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray drift and off-target losses are inherent problems of conventional air-assisted sprayers. Their low efficiencies cause environmental pollutions resulting in public anxieties. A new drift reduction technology incorporating laser scanning capabilities with a variable-rate air-assisted sprayer w...

  17. Children's Performance in Complex Listening Conditions: Effects of Hearing Loss and Digital Noise Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of hearing loss (HL) on children's performance for an auditory task under demanding listening conditions and to determine the effect of digital noise reduction (DNR) on that performance. Method: Fifty children with normal hearing (NH) and 30 children with HL (8-12 years of age) categorized words in the presence of…

  18. 19 CFR 158.7 - Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by... § 158.7 Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage. Merchandise... condition as imported, with an allowance made in the value, weight, quantity, or measure to the extent...

  19. Nitrogen Loss Estimation Worksheet (NLEW): an agricultural nitrogen loading reduction tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Osmond, D L; Xu, L; Ranells, N N; Hodges, S C; Hansard, R; Pratt, S H

    2001-11-09

    The Neuse River Basin in North Carolina was regulated in 1998, requiring that all pollution sources (point and nonpoint) reduce nitrogen (N) loading into the Neuse Estuary by 30%. Point source N reductions have already been reduced by approximately 35%. The diffuse nature of nonpoint source pollution, and its spatial and temporal variability, makes it a more difficult problem to treat. Agriculture is believed to contribute over 50% of the total N load to the river. In order to reduce these N inputs, best management practices (BMPs) are necessary to control the delivery of N from agricultural activities to water resources and to prevent impacts to the physical and biological integrity of surface and ground water. To provide greater flexibility to the agricultural community beyond standard BMPs (nutrient management, riparian buffers, and water-control structures), an agricultural N accounting tool, called Nitrogen Loss Estimation Worksheet (NLEW), was developed to track N reductions due to BMP implementation. NLEW uses a modified N-balance equation that accounts for some N inputs as well as N reductions from nutrient management and other BMPs. It works at both the field- and county-level scales. The tool has been used by counties to determine different N reduction strategies to achieve the 30% targeted reduction.

  20. Differentiation of mammary tumors and reduction in metastasis upon Malat1 lncRNA loss.

    PubMed

    Arun, Gayatri; Diermeier, Sarah; Akerman, Martin; Chang, Kung-Chi; Wilkinson, J Erby; Hearn, Stephen; Kim, Youngsoo; MacLeod, A Robert; Krainer, Adrian R; Norton, Larry; Brogi, Edi; Egeblad, Mikala; Spector, David L

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses have identified thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Malat1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) is among the most abundant lncRNAs whose expression is altered in numerous cancers. Here we report that genetic loss or systemic knockdown of Malat1 using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in the MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus)-PyMT mouse mammary carcinoma model results in slower tumor growth accompanied by significant differentiation into cystic tumors and a reduction in metastasis. Furthermore, Malat1 loss results in a reduction of branching morphogenesis in MMTV-PyMT- and Her2/neu-amplified tumor organoids, increased cell adhesion, and loss of migration. At the molecular level, Malat1 knockdown results in alterations in gene expression and changes in splicing patterns of genes involved in differentiation and protumorigenic signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time a functional role of Malat1 in regulating critical processes in mammary cancer pathogenesis. Thus, Malat1 represents an exciting therapeutic target, and Malat1 ASOs represent a potential therapy for inhibiting breast cancer progression.

  1. Differentiation of mammary tumors and reduction in metastasis upon Malat1 lncRNA loss

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Gayatri; Diermeier, Sarah; Akerman, Martin; Chang, Kung-Chi; Wilkinson, J. Erby; Hearn, Stephen; Kim, Youngsoo; MacLeod, A. Robert; Krainer, Adrian R.; Norton, Larry; Brogi, Edi; Egeblad, Mikala; Spector, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses have identified thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Malat1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) is among the most abundant lncRNAs whose expression is altered in numerous cancers. Here we report that genetic loss or systemic knockdown of Malat1 using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in the MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus)-PyMT mouse mammary carcinoma model results in slower tumor growth accompanied by significant differentiation into cystic tumors and a reduction in metastasis. Furthermore, Malat1 loss results in a reduction of branching morphogenesis in MMTV-PyMT- and Her2/neu-amplified tumor organoids, increased cell adhesion, and loss of migration. At the molecular level, Malat1 knockdown results in alterations in gene expression and changes in splicing patterns of genes involved in differentiation and protumorigenic signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time a functional role of Malat1 in regulating critical processes in mammary cancer pathogenesis. Thus, Malat1 represents an exciting therapeutic target, and Malat1 ASOs represent a potential therapy for inhibiting breast cancer progression. PMID:26701265

  2. Differentiation of mammary tumors and reduction in metastasis upon Malat1 lncRNA loss.

    PubMed

    Arun, Gayatri; Diermeier, Sarah; Akerman, Martin; Chang, Kung-Chi; Wilkinson, J Erby; Hearn, Stephen; Kim, Youngsoo; MacLeod, A Robert; Krainer, Adrian R; Norton, Larry; Brogi, Edi; Egeblad, Mikala; Spector, David L

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses have identified thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Malat1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) is among the most abundant lncRNAs whose expression is altered in numerous cancers. Here we report that genetic loss or systemic knockdown of Malat1 using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in the MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus)-PyMT mouse mammary carcinoma model results in slower tumor growth accompanied by significant differentiation into cystic tumors and a reduction in metastasis. Furthermore, Malat1 loss results in a reduction of branching morphogenesis in MMTV-PyMT- and Her2/neu-amplified tumor organoids, increased cell adhesion, and loss of migration. At the molecular level, Malat1 knockdown results in alterations in gene expression and changes in splicing patterns of genes involved in differentiation and protumorigenic signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time a functional role of Malat1 in regulating critical processes in mammary cancer pathogenesis. Thus, Malat1 represents an exciting therapeutic target, and Malat1 ASOs represent a potential therapy for inhibiting breast cancer progression. PMID:26701265

  3. Reduction of reflection losses in ZnGeP2 using motheye antireflection surface relief structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, C.; Zaslavsky, A.; Sonek, G. J.; Goldstein, J.

    2002-04-01

    We report the reduction of surface reflection losses in zinc germanium phosphide (ZnGeP2, or ZGP) crystals by fabricating an antireflection (AR) structure in the substrate itself using subwavelength motheye surface patterns. The motheye AR patterning works by creating a region of gradually varying effective refractive index between air and the ternary nonlinear crystal. Motheye structures were created using interference lithography and reactive-ion etching in a SiCl4 plasma. The ZGP crystal with motheye patterning on the output surface reached a transmittance of ˜67% at a cutoff wavelength of 3.8 μm (close to the theoretical maximum of 73%), with negligible surface contamination from the motheye etching process. The motheye patterning technique could be applied to other nonlinear crystals where surface reflection losses are a concern.

  4. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  5. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  6. AC Loss Calculation of REBCO Cables by the Combination of Electric Circuit Model and 2D Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noji, H.

    This study investigates the losses in a two conducting-layer REBCO cable fabricated by researchers at Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd. The losses were calculated using a combination of my electric circuit (EC) model with a two-dimensional finite element method (2D FEM). The helical pitches of the tapes in each layer, P1 and P2, were adjusted to equalize the current in both cable layers, although the loss calculation assumed infinite helical pitches and the same current in each layer at first. The results showed that the losses depended on the relative tape-position angle between the layers (θ/θ'), because the vertical field between adjacent tapes in the same layer varied with θ/θ'. When simulating the real cable, the helical pitches were adjusted and the layer currents were calculated by the EC model. These currents were input to the 2D FEM to compute the losses. The losses changed along the cable length because the difference between P1 and P2 altered the θ/θ' along this direction. The average angle-dependent and position-dependent losses were equal and closely approximated the measured losses. As an example to reduce the loss in this cable, the angle and the helical pitches were fixed at θ/θ' = 0.5 and P1 = P2 = 100 mm (S-direction). The calculation with these conditions indicated that the loss is about one order of magnitude lower than the measurement.

  7. Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss and Blood Transfusion Reduction after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Young-Jun; Seon, Jong-Keun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Jin, Cheng; Prakash, Jatin; Park, Yong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) accompanies the risk of bleeding and need for transfusion. There are several methods to reduce postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion. One such method is using tranexamic acid during TKA. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion after TKA. Materials and Methods A total of 100 TKA patients were included in the study. The tranexamic acid group consisted of 50 patients who received an intravenous injection of tranexamic acid. The control included 50 patients who received a placebo injection. The amounts of drainage, postoperative hemoglobin, and transfusion were compared between the groups. Results The mean amount of drainage was lower in the tranexamic acid group (580.6±355.0 mL) than the control group (886.0±375.5 mL). There was a reduction in the transfusion rate in the tranexamic acid group (48%) compared with the control group (64%). The hemoglobin level was higher in the tranexamic acid group than in the control group at 24 hours postoperatively. The mean units of transfusion were smaller in the tranexamic acid group (0.76 units) than in the control group (1.28 units). Conclusions Our data suggest that intravenous injection of tranexamic acid decreases the total blood loss and transfusion after TKA. PMID:27595071

  8. Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss and Blood Transfusion Reduction after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Young-Jun; Seon, Jong-Keun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Jin, Cheng; Prakash, Jatin; Park, Yong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) accompanies the risk of bleeding and need for transfusion. There are several methods to reduce postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion. One such method is using tranexamic acid during TKA. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion after TKA. Materials and Methods A total of 100 TKA patients were included in the study. The tranexamic acid group consisted of 50 patients who received an intravenous injection of tranexamic acid. The control included 50 patients who received a placebo injection. The amounts of drainage, postoperative hemoglobin, and transfusion were compared between the groups. Results The mean amount of drainage was lower in the tranexamic acid group (580.6±355.0 mL) than the control group (886.0±375.5 mL). There was a reduction in the transfusion rate in the tranexamic acid group (48%) compared with the control group (64%). The hemoglobin level was higher in the tranexamic acid group than in the control group at 24 hours postoperatively. The mean units of transfusion were smaller in the tranexamic acid group (0.76 units) than in the control group (1.28 units). Conclusions Our data suggest that intravenous injection of tranexamic acid decreases the total blood loss and transfusion after TKA.

  9. Reduction of friction loss through the use of rolling big-end bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Naoki; Tsuzuku, Hiroyuki

    1995-12-31

    The authors compared motoring friction loss, output performance at WOT (wide open throttle) and specific fuel consumption of big-end bearings on engines having identical specifications between the case of using plain bearings and rolling bearings to investigate the effect of the lubricating oil supply rate on these parameters in an attempt to improve output through reduction of friction loss for big-end bearings of small, high-output motorcycle engines. Testing was performed using a 125 cc, 4-cycle, single cylinder engine at high engine speeds mainly above 10,000 rpm. As a result, it was found that rolling bearings have a lesser effect en lubricating oil supply and crank pin temperature than plain bearings, that friction loss, output performance and specific fuel consumption of plain bearings and rolling bearings are roughly equal in the case of equal lubricating oil supply rate, and that since it is possible to reduce lubricating oil supply rate without an accompanying increase in crank pin temperature in the case of rolling bearings, the benefits of improved output performance and specific fuel consumption resulting from reducing lubricating oil supply rate can be realized to a greater extent than in the case of plain bearings, and the extent of that improvement is roughly 3% for both output performance and specific fuel consumption.

  10. Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Those working in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services must cope with a range of stresses, including post traumatic stress and vicarious trauma. Pain and loss are just a part of the job. So is dealing with premature death as a result of HIV, hypertension, and even overdose. Faced with a range of challenges, some workers in the field even turn to self-medication. For some, it is about pleasure; for others it is about alleviating suffering. In recent years, several leaders in the AIDS and harm reduction fields have died ahead of their time. Some stopped taking their medications; others overdosed. Rather than weakness or pathology, French sociologist Emile Durkheim saw self-destructive behavior as a byproduct of social disorganization and isolation, as a way of contending with a breakdown of social bonds and alienation. There are any number of reasons why such behavior becomes part of work for those involved with battling the dueling epidemics of Hepatitis C, HIV, and related concerns. Forms of stress related to this work include secondary trauma, compassion fatigue, organizational conflict, burnout, complications of direct services, and lack of funding. Faced with day-to- day struggles over poverty, punitive welfare systems, drug use, the war on drugs, high risk behavior, structural violence, and illness, many in the field are left to wonder how to strive for wellness when taking on so much pain. For some, self-injury and self-medication are ways of responding. Building on ethnographic methods, this reflective analysis considers the stories of those who have suffered, as well as a few of the ways those in the field cope with harm and pain. The work considers the moral questions we face when we see our friends and colleagues suffer. It asks how we as practitioners strive to create a culture of wellness and support in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services. Through a brief review of losses and literature thereof, the essay

  11. Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Benjamin C

    2013-01-01

    Those working in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services must cope with a range of stresses, including post traumatic stress and vicarious trauma. Pain and loss are just a part of the job. So is dealing with premature death as a result of HIV, hypertension, and even overdose. Faced with a range of challenges, some workers in the field even turn to self-medication. For some, it is about pleasure; for others it is about alleviating suffering. In recent years, several leaders in the AIDS and harm reduction fields have died ahead of their time. Some stopped taking their medications; others overdosed. Rather than weakness or pathology, French sociologist Emile Durkheim saw self-destructive behavior as a byproduct of social disorganization and isolation, as a way of contending with a breakdown of social bonds and alienation. There are any number of reasons why such behavior becomes part of work for those involved with battling the dueling epidemics of Hepatitis C, HIV, and related concerns. Forms of stress related to this work include secondary trauma, compassion fatigue, organizational conflict, burnout, complications of direct services, and lack of funding. Faced with day-to- day struggles over poverty, punitive welfare systems, drug use, the war on drugs, high risk behavior, structural violence, and illness, many in the field are left to wonder how to strive for wellness when taking on so much pain. For some, self-injury and self-medication are ways of responding. Building on ethnographic methods, this reflective analysis considers the stories of those who have suffered, as well as a few of the ways those in the field cope with harm and pain. The work considers the moral questions we face when we see our friends and colleagues suffer. It asks how we as practitioners strive to create a culture of wellness and support in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services. Through a brief review of losses and literature thereof, the essay

  12. Between harm reduction, loss and wellness: on the occupational hazards of work.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Benjamin C

    2013-04-01

    Those working in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services must cope with a range of stresses, including post traumatic stress and vicarious trauma. Pain and loss are just a part of the job. So is dealing with premature death as a result of HIV, hypertension, and even overdose. Faced with a range of challenges, some workers in the field even turn to self-medication. For some, it is about pleasure; for others it is about alleviating suffering. In recent years, several leaders in the AIDS and harm reduction fields have died ahead of their time. Some stopped taking their medications; others overdosed. Rather than weakness or pathology, French sociologist Emile Durkheim saw self-destructive behavior as a byproduct of social disorganization and isolation, as a way of contending with a breakdown of social bonds and alienation. There are any number of reasons why such behavior becomes part of work for those involved with battling the dueling epidemics of Hepatitis C, HIV, and related concerns. Forms of stress related to this work include secondary trauma, compassion fatigue, organizational conflict, burnout, complications of direct services, and lack of funding. Faced with day-to- day struggles over poverty, punitive welfare systems, drug use, the war on drugs, high risk behavior, structural violence, and illness, many in the field are left to wonder how to strive for wellness when taking on so much pain. For some, self-injury and self-medication are ways of responding. Building on ethnographic methods, this reflective analysis considers the stories of those who have suffered, as well as a few of the ways those in the field cope with harm and pain. The work considers the moral questions we face when we see our friends and colleagues suffer. It asks how we as practitioners strive to create a culture of wellness and support in the fields of harm reduction, healthcare, and human services. Through a brief review of losses and literature thereof, the essay

  13. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, E. Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Sonato, P.

    2014-02-15

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  14. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, E.; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Veltri, P.

    2014-02-01

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  15. Global Patterns in Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction: A Latitudinal Gradient in Nitrogen Retention and Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, W. L.; Thompson, A. W.; Bradbury, D.; Chapin, F. S.; Ewel, J. J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition in humid environments has the potential to significantly increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions via nitrification and denitrification. This potential N loss may be significantly offset by N retention from dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In this study, we report on rates of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2O and ammonium along a latitudinal gradient from the tropics to the boreal forest. We conducted laboratory experiments with forest soils from Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, California, and Alaska to determine maximum potential rates of DNRA and N2O production. We also conducted field experiments in Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, and Alaska to estimate in situ rates. Maximum potential rates of DNRA ranged from 10 ug/g/d in fertilized poplar forests in Alaska to 0.3 ug/g/d in unfertilized polyculture plantations in Costa Rica. At all sites, rates of DNRA appeared to be nitrate limited. On average, temperate and boreal forests had greater potential rates of DNRA (5 +/- 1 ug/g/d) than tropical forests (3 +/- 1 ug/g/d). Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased rates of DNRA in Alaska. Rates of maximum potential N2O flux were generally lower than DNRA rates (0.16 to 4 ug/g/d). In field experiments, rates of DNRA were greatest in tropical rain forests in Puerto Rico, followed by wet forests in Costa Rica, and black spruce forests in Alaska. Although field DNRA rates were low in Alaska, they accounted for up to 13 % of gross mineralization and 24 % of gross nitrification. At all sites, rates of N2O flux via denitrification and nitrification were significantly lower than N retention via DNRA. Our results suggest that this previously unmeasured N cycling pathway effectively competes with processes resulting in N-trace gas loss from a range of forested ecosystems.

  16. Reduction of orthophosphates loss in agricultural soil by nano calcium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Szostak, Paul; Wei, Zongsu; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient loss from soil, especially phosphorous (P) from farmlands to natural water bodies via surface runoff or infiltration, have caused significant eutrophication problems. This is because dissolved orthophosphates are usually the limiting nutrient for algal blooms. Currently, available techniques to control eutrophication are surprisingly scarce. Calcium sulfate or gypsum is a common soil amendment and has a strong complexation to orthophosphates. The results showed that calcium sulfate reduced the amount of water extractable P (WEP) through soil incubation tests, suggesting less P loss from farmlands. A greater decrease in WEP occurred with a greater dosage of calcium sulfate. Compared to conventional coarse calcium sulfate, nano calcium sulfate further reduced WEP by providing a much greater specific surface area, higher solubility, better contact with the fertilizer and the soil particles, and superior dispersibility. The enhancement of the nano calcium sulfate for WEP reduction is more apparent for a pellet- than a powdered- fertilizer. At the dosage of Ca/P weight ratio of 2.8, the WEP decreased by 31±5% with the nano calcium sulfate compared to 20±5% decrease with the coarse calcium sulfate when the pellet fertilizer was used. Computation of the chemical equilibrium speciation shows that calcium hydroxyapatite has the lowest solubility. However, other mineral phases such as hydroxydicalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate might form preceding to calcium hydroxyapatite. Since calcium sulfate is the major product of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, this study demonstrates a potential beneficial reuse and reduction of the solid FGD waste.

  17. Reduction of orthophosphates loss in agricultural soil by nano calcium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Szostak, Paul; Wei, Zongsu; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient loss from soil, especially phosphorous (P) from farmlands to natural water bodies via surface runoff or infiltration, have caused significant eutrophication problems. This is because dissolved orthophosphates are usually the limiting nutrient for algal blooms. Currently, available techniques to control eutrophication are surprisingly scarce. Calcium sulfate or gypsum is a common soil amendment and has a strong complexation to orthophosphates. The results showed that calcium sulfate reduced the amount of water extractable P (WEP) through soil incubation tests, suggesting less P loss from farmlands. A greater decrease in WEP occurred with a greater dosage of calcium sulfate. Compared to conventional coarse calcium sulfate, nano calcium sulfate further reduced WEP by providing a much greater specific surface area, higher solubility, better contact with the fertilizer and the soil particles, and superior dispersibility. The enhancement of the nano calcium sulfate for WEP reduction is more apparent for a pellet- than a powdered- fertilizer. At the dosage of Ca/P weight ratio of 2.8, the WEP decreased by 31±5% with the nano calcium sulfate compared to 20±5% decrease with the coarse calcium sulfate when the pellet fertilizer was used. Computation of the chemical equilibrium speciation shows that calcium hydroxyapatite has the lowest solubility. However, other mineral phases such as hydroxydicalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate might form preceding to calcium hydroxyapatite. Since calcium sulfate is the major product of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, this study demonstrates a potential beneficial reuse and reduction of the solid FGD waste. PMID:26372940

  18. Solubilization of DNAPLs by mixed surfactant: reduction in partitioning losses of nonionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baowei; Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun

    2006-02-01

    Efforts to remediate the dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) by mobilizing them face with risks of driving the contaminants deeper into aquifer zones. This spurs research for modifying the approach for in situ remediation. In this paper, a novel solubilization of DNAPLs by mixed nonionic and anionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX100) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), was presented and compared with those by single ones. Given 1:40 phase ratio of DNAPL:water (v/v) and the total surfactant concentration from 0.2 to 10gl(-1), mixed TX100-SDBS at the total mass ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 exhibited significant solubilization for the DNAPLs, trichloroethene (TCE), chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB). The solubilization extent by mixed TX100-SDBS was much larger than by single TX100 and even larger than by single SDBS at the ratios of 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. TX100 partitioning into the organic phase dictated the solubilization extent. The TX100 losses into TCE, CB and 1,2-DCB phases were more than 99%, 97% and 97% when single TX100 was used. With SDBS alone, no SDBS partitioned into DNAPLs was observed and in mixed systems, SDBS decreased greatly the partition loss of TX100 into DNAPLs. The extent of TX100 partition decreased with increasing the amount of SDBS. The mechanism for reduction of TX100 partition was discussed. TX100 and SDBS formed mixed micelles in the solution phase. The inability of SDBS to partition into DNAPLs and the mutual affinity of SDBS and TX100 in the mixed micelle controlled the partitioning of TX100 into DNAPL phase. The work presented here demonstrates that mixed nonionic-anionic surfactants would be preferred over single surfactants for solubilization remediation of DNAPLs, which could avoid risks of driving the contaminants deeper into aquifers and decrease the surfactant loss and remediation cost.

  19. Age intrinsic loss of telomere protection via TRF1 reduction in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hohensinner, P J; Kaun, C; Buchberger, E; Ebenbauer, B; Demyanets, S; Huk, I; Eppel, W; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2016-02-01

    Aging is a major factor predisposing for multiple diseases. Telomeres at the ends of chromosomes protect the integrity of chromosomal DNA. A specialized six-protein complex termed shelterin protects the telomere from unwanted interaction with DNA damage pathways. The aim of our study was to evaluate the integrity of telomeres and the stability of telomere protection during aging in endothelial cells (EC). We describe that aging EC can be characterized by an increased cell size (40%, p=0.02) and increased expression of PAI 1 (4 fold, p=0.02), MCP1 (10 fold, p=0.001) and GMCSF (15 fold, p=0.004). Telomeric state in aging cells is defined by an increased telomere oxidation (27%, p=0.01), reduced telomere length (62%, p=0.02), and increased DNA damage foci formation (5% in young EC versus 16% in aged EC, p=0.003). This telomeric dysfunction is accompanied by a reduction in the shelterin component TRF1 (33% mRNA, p=0.001; 24% protein, p=0.007). Overexpression of TRF1 in aging EC reduced telomere-associated DNA damage foci to 5% (p=0.02) and reduced expression levels of MCP1 (18% reduction, p=0.008). Aged EC have increased telomere damage and an intrinsic loss of telomere protection. Reestablishing telomere integrity could therefore be a target for rejuvenating endothelial cell function.

  20. The impact of surgical resident participation in breast reduction surgery--outcome analysis from the 2005-2011 ACS-NSQIP datasets.

    PubMed

    Fischer, John P; Wes, Ari M; Kovach, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Breast reduction surgery is a common and effective surgical technique for treating symptomatic macromastia. There is limited data on the impact of resident involvement on outcomes. This study uses the ACS-NSQIP datasets to assess the impact of surgical resident participation in breast reduction surgery. This study reviewed the 2005-2011 ACS-NSQIP databases identifying primary encounters for reduction mammaplasty with CPT code "19318". It characterised surgical complications into three groups: any, major, and wound complications. Propensity scoring and matched analysis were used to account for non-randomised assignment. In total, 4328 patients underwent reduction mammoplasty during the study period. Resident participation was identified in 56.3% of cases. Logistic regression analysis determined the following factors independently associated with resident participation: class II obesity (OR = 0.73, p < 0.001), class III obesity (OR = 0.68, p < 0.001), dyspnea (OR = 1.59, p = 0.04), and ASA physical status of 3 (OR = 1.51, p < 0.001). A propensity score was assigned based on probability of resident involvement and matched cohorts were created and analyzed. A logistic regression analysis of the matched cohort data revealed that resident participation was independently associated with major surgical complications (OR = 2.18, p = 0.008). Prolonged operative (>2 SD) was associated with any (OR = 3.3, p = 0.039) and wound (OR = 10.2, p = 0.028) complications. A separate logistic regression analysis of the unmatched cohort using stratified PGY experience demonstrated that junior PGY was most highly associated with any (OR = 1.93, p = 0.013), major (OR = 2.4, p = 0.034), and wound (OR = 1.9, p = 0.04) complications. Resident participation was associated with added risk of surgical morbidity, and PGY experience was inversely related to risk of surgical complications in breast reduction surgery.

  1. Calorimetric measurements of the effect of nickel and stabrite coatings and resistive cores on AC loss in accelerator cables under fixed pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1997-06-01

    Calorimetric measurements of AC loss on long three- and four-layer stacks of Rutherford cable have been made with the applied field both normal to (face-on, FO, orientation) and parallel to the plane of the cable. Cables studied had bare-Cu, Ni-plated, and stabrite-coated strands; the latter were provided with metallic or insulating interlayers (cores) of, respectively, unalloyed Ti, stainless steel, and kapton ribbon. The cable packs were clamped in a fixture to a pressure of 75 MPa and heat treated for several hours at temperatures of 185 to 250{degrees}C. After cooling, the clamped cables were transferred to the calorimeter and measured without releasing the pressure. From the field-ramp-rate dependence of coupling loss the interlayer and intralayer interstrand contact resistances, R{sub {perpendicular}} and R{sub {parallel}} were deduced. The results were interpreted against a background of earlier {open_quotes}cure-release-repressurize{close_quotes} calorimetric measurements of cable loss as well as direct measurements of contact resistance. Depending on the curing temperature the bare-Cu cable exhibited the highest (T{sub cure} = 250{degrees}C) and the lowest (T{sub cure} = 185{degrees}C) FO losses. Nickel plating resulted in a cable that was much less sensitive to curing temperature. All the core-type cables (T{sub cure} = 185 and 200{degrees}C) exhibited FO loss that was mid-way between those of bare Cu (T{sub cure} = 185{degrees}C) and Ni-plated (T{sub cure} = 200{degrees}C) cables.

  2. Scaling law and general expression for transport ac loss of a rectangular thin strip with power-law E(J) relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Du-Xing; Li, Shuo; Fang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    Transport ac loss Q of a superconducting rectangular thin strip obeying a power-law relation E∝Jn as a function of current amplitude Im may be, following Norris, expressed by normalized quantities as q(im). A scaling law is deduced that if Icf, Ic and f being the critical current and frequency, is multiplied by a positive constant C, then im and qm are multiplied by C 1 /(n - 1)and C 2 /(n - 1) , respectively. Based on this scaling law and the well-known Norris formula, the general function of q(im, n, f) is obtained graphically or analytically for any practical purpose, after accurate numerical computations on a set of q(im) at several values of n and a fixed value of f.

  3. Matching layer for path loss reduction in ultra wideband implant communications.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Santiago, Raul; Khaleghi, Ali; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2014-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of various physiological signals is of utmost importance for the treatment of chronic conditions. Radio technology can enable real-time sensing and collection of physiological data to facilitate timely medication and early pre-hospital management of patients. This can be realized with the aid of implantable biomedical sensors with the capability to transmit wirelessly the collected information to an external unit for display and analysis. Currently, commercial wireless medical implantable sensors operate in frequencies below 1 GHz with narrowband signals. Recently, it has been demonstrated that ultra wideband (UWB) signals could be also used for the radio interface of these devices. However, establishing an implant communication link in the allocated UWB spectrum of 3.1-10.6 GHz is challenging. The attenuation of UWB signals propagating through biological tissues at these frequencies is high. Part of these path losses are caused by the impedance mismatch between the two propagation environments (i.e., air and biological tissues) that constitute an implant communication link. This mismatch results in inefficient power transmission of the radio waves. In this paper we propose the use of a layer of dielectric material that can be applied on the patient's skin. The permittivity value of this matching layer has to be chosen such that wave coupling is maximized. Through numerical simulations we determined the appropriate permittivity value of a matching layer for UWB implant communication links in the human thorax for 1-6 GHz. Path loss reduction of up to 10 dB can be obtained in this frequency band. These results can help improve the use of UWB signals for other in-body biomedical devices like the wireless capsule endoscope (WCE). PMID:25571604

  4. Reduction of skin effect losses in double-level-T-gate structure

    SciTech Connect

    Mikulics, M. Hardtdegen, H.; Arango, Y. C.; Adam, R.; Fox, A.; Grützmacher, D.; Gregušová, D.; Novák, J.; Stanček, S.; Kordoš, P.; Sofer, Z.; Juul, L.; Marso, M.

    2014-12-08

    We developed a T-gate technology based on selective wet etching yielding 200 nm wide T-gate structures used for fabrication of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT). Major advantages of our process are the use of only standard photolithographic process and the ability to generate T-gate stacks. A HEMT fabricated on AlGaN/GaN/sapphire with gate length L{sub g} = 200 nm and double-stacked T-gates exhibits 60 GHz cutoff frequency showing ten-fold improvement compared to 6 GHz for the same device with 2 μm gate length. HEMTs with a double-level-T-gate (DLTG) structure exhibit up to 35% improvement of f{sub max} value compared to a single T-gate device. This indicates a significant reduction of skin effect losses in DLTG structure compared to its standard T-gate counterpart. These results agree with the theoretical predictions.

  5. Reduction of Thermal Loss in HTS Windings by Using Magnetic Flux Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Koshiba, Y.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yanamoto, T.

    Efforts on the generation of intensified magnetic flux have been made for the optimized shape of HTS winding applications. This contributes to the high efficiency of the rotating machines using HTS windings. Heat generation from the HTS windings requires to be suppressed as much as possible, when those coils are under operation with either direct or alternative currents. Presently, the reduction of such thermal loss generated by the applied currents on the HTS coils is reported with a magnetic flux deflection system. The HTS coils are fixed together with flattened magnetic materials to realize a kind of redirection of the flux pathway. Eventually, the magnetic flux density perpendicular to the tape surface (equivalent to the a-b plane) of the HTS tape materials is reduced to the proximity of the HTS coil. To verify the new geometry of the surroundings of the HTS coils with magnetic materials, a comparative study of the DC coil voltage was done for different applied currents in prototype field-pole coils of a ship propulsion motor.

  6. Effects of laser irradiation on iron loss reduction for Fe-3%Si grain-oriented silicon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Imafuku, Muneyuki . E-mail: crystal@re.nsc.co.jp; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Koichi; Iwata, Keiji; Fujikura, Masahiro

    2005-02-01

    The effects of laser irradiation on iron loss reduction for Fe-3%Si grain-oriented silicon steel sheet were investigated. The local tensile residual stress states near the laser irradiated cavity lines were observed by using the new X-ray stress measurement method for a single crystal. Although the higher laser power induced the larger tensile residual stresses, the minimum iron loss was obtained at the medium tensile residual stress conditions of about 100-200 MPa. The increase of Vickers hardness was observed with increasing laser power, which was the mark of the plastic deformations induced by the laser irradiation. The tensile residual stress reduces eddy current loss and the plastic deformation increases hysteresis loss of the material. The total iron loss is determined by the balance of these two effects of laser irradiation.

  7. 19 CFR 158.7 - Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a natural force or by leakage. 158.7 Section 158.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... § 158.7 Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage. Merchandise... or diminished by a natural force, such as evaporation, or by leakage, shall be appraised in...

  8. 19 CFR 158.7 - Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a natural force or by leakage. 158.7 Section 158.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... § 158.7 Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage. Merchandise... or diminished by a natural force, such as evaporation, or by leakage, shall be appraised in...

  9. 19 CFR 158.7 - Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a natural force or by leakage. 158.7 Section 158.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... § 158.7 Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage. Merchandise... or diminished by a natural force, such as evaporation, or by leakage, shall be appraised in...

  10. 19 CFR 158.7 - Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a natural force or by leakage. 158.7 Section 158.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... § 158.7 Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage. Merchandise... or diminished by a natural force, such as evaporation, or by leakage, shall be appraised in...

  11. [Result of an antifibrinolytic treatment using tranexamic acid for the reduction of blood-loss during and after tonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Castelli, G; Vogt, E

    1977-06-01

    Blood loss during and after tonsillectomy was assessed in 80 patients, 40 of whom were treated with tranexamic acid. A statistically significant reduction of blood loss (28%) was observed in this group during operation. Later bleedings occurred only in 27.5% (control: 67.5%) and stopped after 2 h (mean of control: 5.6h). Bleedings in the tranexamic acid group were mild and scarcely required other hemostyptic treatment, while in the control group some patients had to be treated with etamsylate or fibrogen for a longer period to stop bleeding. Tranexamic acid appears to be an effective and well-tolerated agent for reduction of blood loss caused by local hyperfibrinolysis.

  12. Cost reduction and manufacture of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC module: Phase I Annual Report : 21 April 1998 -- 31 October 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, E.; Kern, G.

    2000-03-06

    This report summarizes the progress made by Ascension Technology in Phase 1 of the cost reduction and manufacturing improvements of the SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module. This work, conducted under NREL subcontract, is a two-phase effort consisting of investigations into improving inverter packaging, soft switching, circuit optimization, design for manufacturing, manufacturing processes, and pilot production manufacturing. The objective of this subcontract is to significantly reduce the cost of the SunSine{reg_sign} inverter, enhance its performance, and streamline and expand the manufacturing process. During Phase 1, the soft-switching topology was designed, then refined to meet stringent cost and performance goals. This design resulted in improved performance, smaller overall footprint, and reduced costs. The aluminum inverter housing was redesigned, and the decision was made to conformal coat the circuit boards, which was verified through the HAST (Highly Accelerated Stress Testing) method. Potential international markets were identified, and the inverter is designed to be easily modified to meet the requirements of other countries. Significant cost reduction and performance improvements have been achieved in Phase I, and accomplishments during Phase I include: (1) SunSine{reg_sign} AC Module costs have been reduced enough to be able to reduce the suggested list price; (2) successful implementation of soft-switching; (3) power circuit-board size reduced 53{percent}; (4) power circuit-board component count reduced 34{percent}; (5) total inverter parts count reduced 49{percent}; (6) anticipated inverter manufacturing cost reduced 57{percent} on a $/Wp rating; (7) transformer efficiency improved 1.4{percent}; and (8) inverter efficiency improved 4.7{percent} to 91.0{percent} at 275 Wac.

  13. CMP-Neu5Ac Hydroxylase Null Mice as a Model for Studying Metabolic Disorders Caused by the Evolutionary Loss of Neu5Gc in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Seo, Han Geuk; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the modification/turnover of gene products that are altered in humans due to evolutionary loss of Neu5Gc. CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase- (Cmah-) deficient mice show the infiltration of Kupffer cells within liver sinusoids, whereas body and liver weight develop normally. Pathway analysis by use of Illumina MouseRef-8 v2 Expression BeadChip provided evidence that a number of biological pathways, including the glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathways, as well as glycogen metabolism-related gene expression, were significantly upregulated in Cmah-null mice. The intracellular glucose supply in Cmah-null mice resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the advanced glycation end products accumulation that could further induce oxidative stress. Finally, low sirtuin-1 and sirtuin-3 gene expressions due to higher NADH/NAD in Cmah-null mice decreased Foxo-1 and MnSOD gene expression, suggesting that oxidative stress may result in mitochondrial dysfunction in Cmah-null mouse. The present study suggests that mice with CMAH deficiency can be taken as an important model for studying metabolic disorders in humans. PMID:26558285

  14. Effects of conservation practices on phosphorus loss reduction from an Indiana agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses from agricultural lands have caused serious eutrophication problems, particularly in Lake Erie. However, techniques that can effectively reduce total and soluble phosphorus losses from croplands and drainage channels can be difficult to implement and gauge. This modeling study was ...

  15. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  16. Exercise without weight loss is an effective strategy for obesity reduction in obese individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoJung; Kuk, Jennifer L; Davidson, Lance E; Hudson, Robert; Kilpatrick, Katherine; Graham, Terry E; Ross, Robert

    2005-09-01

    It is unclear whether chronic exercise without caloric restriction or weight loss is a useful strategy for obesity reduction in obese men with and without Type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the effects of exercise without weight loss on total and regional adiposity and skeletal muscle mass and composition in lean men and in obese men with and without T2D. Twenty-four men participated in 13 wk of supervised aerobic exercise, five times per week for 60 min at a moderate intensity (approximately 60% peak oxygen uptake). Total and regional body composition was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal muscle composition was determined using computed tomography. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a graded maximal treadmill test. Body weight did not change within any group in response to exercise (P > 0.1). Significant reductions in total, abdominal subcutaneous, and visceral fat were observed within each group (P < 0.01). The reduction in total and abdominal subcutaneous fat was not different (P > 0.1) between groups; however, the reduction in visceral fat was greater (P < 0.01) in the obese and T2D groups by comparison to the lean group. A significant (P < 0.01) increase in total skeletal muscle, high-density muscle area, and mean muscle attenuation was observed independent of group, and these changes were not different between groups (P > 0.1). Accordingly, whole body fat-to-muscle ratio was increased (P < 0.01) independent of groups. In conclusion, regular exercise without weight loss is associated with a substantial reduction in total and visceral fat and in skeletal muscle lipid in both obesity and T2D.

  17. Reduction of nitrate losses from filter and impactor samplers by means of concentration enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ming Chih; Sioutas, Constantinos; Kim, Seongheon; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S.

    Sampling errors (artifacts) have greatly affected the precision of the quantitative analysis of volatile species, such as particulate ammonium nitrate. This work presents the effect of the enrichment in concentration of particulate nitrate in reducing volatilization losses in impactors and Teflon filter samplers. During the performance characterization of an ambient fine particle concentrator developed by Sioutas et al. (1995a, Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 172-177, 1995b, Inhalation Toxicology, 7, 633-644, 1977, Journal of Aerosol Science 28, 1057-1071) losses of ambient ammonium nitrate from denuded and undenuded Teflon filter samplers as well as the microorifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) were evaluated in Los Angeles, CA, an area where ammonium nitrate constitutes a major component of ambient fine particulate matter. The field study data were compared to those predicted theoretically for a given set of gas and particulate nitrate concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. Both theoretical and experimental results indicated that the ratio of nitrate gas-to-particle concentration affects significantly the volatilization loss, with higher volatilization losses occurring at higher gas-to-particle concentration values. The concentration enrichment of particulate-phase nitrate resulted in reducing evaporation losses from the MOUDI from 20-50% to less than 10%. Losses of nitrate from denuded Teflon filters were reduced from 60-95% to less than 30%, and for undenuded Teflon filters from 30-80% to less than 5%. Our study concluded that nitrate losses from impactor, denuded and undenuded Teflon filter samplers could be virtually eliminated by placing the sampler downstream of a particle concentrator with a small cutpoint (i.e., 0.1 μm).

  18. Evidence of Nitrogen Loss from Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Coupled with Ferric Iron Reduction in an Intertidal Wetland.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling; Yin, Guoyu; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv; Li, Ye; Hu, Xiaoting

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with nitrite reduction is an important microbial pathway of nitrogen removal in intertidal wetlands. However, little is known about the role of anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with ferric iron reduction (termed Feammox) in intertidal nitrogen cycling. In this study, sediment slurry incubation experiments were combined with an isotope-tracing technique to examine the dynamics of Feammox and its association with tidal fluctuations in the intertidal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary. Feammox was detected in the intertidal wetland sediments, with potential rates of 0.24-0.36 mg N kg(-1) d(-1). The Feammox rates in the sediments were generally higher during spring tides than during neap tides. The tidal fluctuations affected the growth of iron-reducing bacteria and reduction of ferric iron, which mediated Feammox activity and the associated nitrogen loss from intertidal wetlands to the atmosphere. An estimated loss of 11.5-18 t N km(-2) year(-1) was linked to Feammox, accounting for approximately 3.1-4.9% of the total external inorganic nitrogen transported into the Yangtze Estuary wetland each year. Overall, the co-occurrence of ferric iron reduction and ammonium oxidation suggests that Feammox can act as an ammonium removal mechanism in intertidal wetlands.

  19. Evidence of Nitrogen Loss from Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Coupled with Ferric Iron Reduction in an Intertidal Wetland.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling; Yin, Guoyu; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv; Li, Ye; Hu, Xiaoting

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with nitrite reduction is an important microbial pathway of nitrogen removal in intertidal wetlands. However, little is known about the role of anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with ferric iron reduction (termed Feammox) in intertidal nitrogen cycling. In this study, sediment slurry incubation experiments were combined with an isotope-tracing technique to examine the dynamics of Feammox and its association with tidal fluctuations in the intertidal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary. Feammox was detected in the intertidal wetland sediments, with potential rates of 0.24-0.36 mg N kg(-1) d(-1). The Feammox rates in the sediments were generally higher during spring tides than during neap tides. The tidal fluctuations affected the growth of iron-reducing bacteria and reduction of ferric iron, which mediated Feammox activity and the associated nitrogen loss from intertidal wetlands to the atmosphere. An estimated loss of 11.5-18 t N km(-2) year(-1) was linked to Feammox, accounting for approximately 3.1-4.9% of the total external inorganic nitrogen transported into the Yangtze Estuary wetland each year. Overall, the co-occurrence of ferric iron reduction and ammonium oxidation suggests that Feammox can act as an ammonium removal mechanism in intertidal wetlands. PMID:26360245

  20. Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerthoffer, Arnaud; Guyot, Clément; Qiu, Wentao; Ndao, Abdoulaye; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Courjal, Nadège

    2014-12-01

    We propose optimized processes for the reproducible production of LiNbO3 ridge waveguides with propagation losses lower than 0.2 dB/cm. The performances are achieved for both Z-propagating and Y-propagating waveguides, TE and TM polarizations, in X-cut LiNbO3 congruent substrates, and could be easily extrapolated to Z-cut substrates. The fabrication procedure is composed of three steps: titanium deposition, optical grade dicing and diffusion at high temperatures, so that lithography or cleanroom facilities are not required. The reproducible smooth waveguides with low propagation losses result from the diffusion step, which is performed after the production of the ridges. We also show how the losses can be evaluated from the Fabry-Perot effect in the waveguides, without any assumption on the input and output reflection coefficients.

  1. Improvement of terahertz field effect transistor detectors by substrate thinning and radiation losses reduction.

    PubMed

    Coquillat, Dominique; Marczewski, Jacek; Kopyt, Pawel; Dyakonova, Nina; Giffard, Benoit; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-01-11

    Phenomena of the radiation coupling to the field effect transistors based terahertz (THz) detectors are studied. We show that in the case of planar metal antennas a significant portion of incoming radiation, instead of being coupled to the transistors, is coupled to an antenna substrate leading to responsivity losses and/or cross-talk effects in the field effect based THz detector arrays. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the responsivity versus substrate thickness are performed. They clearly show how to minimize the losses by the detector/ array substrate thinning. In conclusion simple quantitative rules of losses minimization by choosing a proper substrate thickness of field effect transistor THz detectors are presented for common materials (Si, GaAs, InP, GaN) used in semiconductor technologies. PMID:26832258

  2. Speed and Torque Control Strategies for Loss Reduction of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argent, Michael; McDonald, Alasdair; Leithead, Bill; Giles, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    This paper builds on the work into modelling the generator losses for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines from their intrinsic torque cycling to investigate the effects of aerodynamic inefficiencies caused by the varying rotational speed resulting from different torque control strategies to the cyclic torque. This is achieved by modelling the wake that builds up from the rotation of the VAWT rotor to investigate how the wake responds to a changing rotor speed and how this in turn affects the torque produced by the blades as well as the corresponding change in generator losses and any changes to the energy extracted by the wind turbine rotor.

  3. Reduction of rutin loss in buckwheat noodles and their physicochemical characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rutin in buckwheat flour is converted into quercetin by rutin-degrading enzymes when water is added. Thus, buckwheat was subjected to hydrothermal treatments for minimizing the rutin loss in buckwheat-based foods by water addition. When native buckwheat flour was mixed with water, the rutin conten...

  4. Controlled Design of Functional Nano-Coatings: Reduction of Loss Mechanisms in Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Landsmann, Steve; Surace, Yuri; Trottmann, Matthias; Dilger, Stefan; Weidenkaff, Anke; Pokrant, Simone

    2016-05-18

    Efficient water splitting with photoelectrodes requires highly performing and stable photoactive materials. Since there is no material known which fulfills all these requirements because of various loss mechanisms, we present a strategy for efficiency enhancement of photoanodes via deposition of functional coatings in the nanometer range. Origins of performance losses in particle-based oxynitride photoanodes were identified and specifically designed coatings were deposited to address each loss mechanism individually. Amorphous TiO2 located at interparticle boundaries enables high electron conductivity. A thin layer of amorphous Ta2O5 can be used as protection layer for photoanodes because of its hole conductivity and thermal and chemical stability. An amorphous layer of NiOx and Co(OH)2 reduces photocorrosion or increases water oxidation kinetics because they act as a hole-capture material or water oxidation catalyst, respectively. Crystalline CoOx nanoparticles increase photocurrent and reduce the onset potential due to enhanced charge separation. The combination of all coatings deposited by a scalable, mild, and reproducible step-by-step approach leads to high-performance oxynitride-based photoanodes providing a maximum photocurrent of 2.52 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE under AM1.5G illumination.

  5. Loss reduction of leaky surface acoustic wave by loading with high-velocity thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakio, Shoji; Hosaka, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    The propagation properties of a leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) on rotated Y-cut X-propagating lithium niobate (YX-LN) substrates loaded with an aluminum nitride (AlN) thin film with a higher phase velocity than that of the substrate were investigated theoretically and experimentally. From the theoretical calculation, it was found that the minimum attenuation can be obtained at a certain thickness of the AlN thin film for a cut angle ranging from 0 to 60° because the cut angle giving the minimum attenuation shifts toward a smaller cut angle as the film thickness is increased. The propagation properties of an LSAW on several rotated YX-LN substrates were measured by using an interdigital transducer (IDT) pair with a wavelength λ of 8 µm, and the predicted shifts of the minimum attenuation toward a smaller cut angle were demonstrated experimentally. For 0° and 10°YX-LN samples, the measured insertion loss and propagation loss were markedly reduced by loading with the AlN thin film. A larger electromechanical coupling factor (16.9%) than that at the cut angle giving zero attenuation without a film and a propagation loss less of 0.02 dB/λ were obtained simultaneously at a film thickness of 0.125 λ for the 10°YX-LN sample.

  6. Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.M.; Clark, L.; Armstrong, L.; D'Souza, J.

    1985-07-01

    Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients.

  7. Localized bleaching in Hawaii causes tissue loss and a reduction in the number of gametes in Porites compressa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudek, M.; Aeby, G. S.; Davy, S. K.

    2012-06-01

    Localized bleaching (a discrete white area on the coral) was observed in one of the main framework-building corals in Hawaii, Porites compressa. This study aimed to determine the degree of virulence of the lesion. We investigated the whole-colony effects by following disease progression through time and examining the effect of localized bleaching on coral fecundity. After two months, 35 of 42 (83.3%) individually tagged colonies affected by localized bleaching showed tissue loss and partial colony mortality. Histological slides of healthy P. compressa and samples from colonies showing signs of localized bleaching were compared showing that affected colonies had a significant reduction (almost 50%) in gamete development, egg numbers, and egg size in the affected tissue. The observed localized bleaching results in both partial colony mortality and a reduced number of gametes and was termed Porites Bleaching with Tissue Loss (PBTL).

  8. Propagation loss reduction of ZnMgTe/ZnTe waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei-Che; Kazami, Fukino; Wang, Jing; Nakasu, Taizo; Hattori, Shota; Kizu, Takeru; Hashimoto, Yuki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Asahi, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    A ZnMgTe/ZnTe electro-optic (EO) waveguide has great potential to be utilized for practical applications. A low-dislocation ZnMgTe/ZnTe waveguide can be fabricated when the cladding layer thickness is below 20-fold the calculated critical layer thickness (CCLT × 20). To improve optical confinement, a waveguide with a thicker cladding layer or a higher Mg% should be considered. However, the device performance might be affected because of crystal quality deterioration since the lattice mismatch between MgTe and ZnTe was around 4.1%. In this study, optical confinement and propagation loss were examined by changing the dimensions of the ZnMgTe/ZnTe waveguide structure. The propagation loss, EO characteristics, and crystal quality of the fabricated waveguides were mainly studied. A waveguide with a cladding layer thickness of around 1.5-fold the 1/e penetration depth of the evanescent wave (d p 1/e × 1.5, corresponding to CCLT × 100) showed better optical properties than other waveguides, although its interface defect density was reasonably high.

  9. Electron energy loss spectroscopy techniques for the study of microbial chromium(VI) reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daulton, Tyrone L.; Little, Brenda J.; Lowe, Kristine; Jones-Meehan, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques were used to determine oxidation state, at high spatial resolution, of chromium associated with the metal-reducing bacteria, Shewanella oneidensis, in anaerobic cultures containing Cr(VI)O4(2-). These techniques were applied to fixed cells examined in thin section by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as unfixed, hydrated bacteria examined by environmental cell (EC)-TEM. Two distinct populations of bacteria were observed by TEM: bacteria exhibiting low image contrast and bacteria exhibiting high contrast in their cell membrane (or boundary) structure which was often encrusted with high-contrast precipitates. Measurements by EELS demonstrated that cell boundaries became saturated with low concentrations of Cr and the precipitates encrusting bacterial cells contained a reduced form of Cr in oxidation state + 3 or lower.

  10. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  11. Reduction of reflection losses of PV-modules by structured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Scheydecker, A.; Goetzberger, A.; Wittwer, V. )

    1994-08-01

    Structuring the transparent cover of solar cell modules reduces reflection losses, particularly at large angles of incidence. Relevant aspects are good transmission efficiency independent of wavelength and a low sensitivity to pollution. The macroscopic, linearly grooved structure proposed in this article shows good performance only in combination with a textured cell because large angles are likely to occur inside the structured cover. A classification is made with the concept of annual averaged transmission efficiency for the climatic zone of Freiburg. Calculations and measurements for different combinations of smooth and structured covers and solar cells are presented. From the calculated 97.8% entering the structured glass cover, a measured 93.2% can be coupled into a pyramidal textured monocrystalline solar cell. This is an absolute improvement of 17% compared to a smooth, uncoated solar cell with a smooth glass cover. Outdoor measurements showed that a textured solar cell with a structured cover has between 5 and 10% higher values of short-circuit current than a textured cell with a smooth cover.

  12. Artificial neural-network based feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction in distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyong Kim; Yunseok Ko; Kyunghee Jung . Dept. of Distribution System)

    1993-07-01

    Neural networks have the capability to map the complex and extremely non-linear relationship between the load levels of zone and system topologies, which is required for feeder reconfiguration in distribution systems. This study is intended to propose the strategies to reconfigure the feeder, by using artificial neural networks with mapping ability. Artificial neural networks determine the appropriate system topology that reduces the power loss according to the variation of load pattern. The control strategy can be easily obtained from the system topology which is provided by artificial neural networks. Artificial neural networks are in groups. The first group estimates the proper load level from the load data of each zone, and the second determines the appropriate system topology from the input load level. In addition, several programs with the training set builder are developed for the design, the training and the accuracy test of artificial neural networks. The authors also evaluate the performance of neural networks designed here, on the test distribution system. Neural networks are implemented in FORTRAN language, and trained on the personal computer COMPAQ 386.

  13. Beam loss reduction by magnetic shielding using beam pipes and bellows of soft magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, J.; Ogiwara, N.; Hotchi, H.; Hayashi, N.; Kinsho, M.

    2014-11-01

    One of the main sources of beam loss in high power accelerators is unwanted stray magnetic fields from magnets near the beam line, which can distort the beam orbit. The most effective way to shield such magnetic fields is to perfectly surround the beam region without any gaps with a soft magnetic high permeability material. This leads to the manufacture of vacuum chambers (beam pipes and bellows) with soft magnetic materials. A Ni-Fe alloy (permalloy) was selected for the material of the pipe parts and outer bellows parts, while a ferritic stainless steel was selected for the flanges. An austenitic stainless steel, which is non-magnetic material, was used for the inner bellows for vacuum tightness. To achieve good magnetic shielding and vacuum performances, a heat treatment under high vacuum was applied during the manufacturing process of the vacuum chambers. Using this heat treatment, the ratio of the integrated magnetic flux density along the beam orbit between the inside and outside of the beam pipe and bellows became small enough to suppress beam orbit distortion. The outgassing rate of the materials with this heat treatment was reduced by one order magnitude compared to that without heat treatment. By installing the beam pipes and bellows of soft magnetic materials as part of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron beam line, the closed orbit distortion (COD) was reduced by more than 80%. In addition, a 95.5% beam survival ratio was achieved by this COD improvement.

  14. Weight loss for reduction of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy: Comparison with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Patil, M. R.; Mishra, A.; Jain, N.; Gutch, M.; Tewari, R.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of weight in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) individuals is emerging as a significant strategy in the reduction of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy along with control of hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The objective was to evaluate the reduction in 24-h proteinuria in T2DM patients with nephropathy by weight loss, with conventional therapy (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors) as the control arm. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted between June 2010 and May 2011. T2DM patients with confirmed nephropathy by 24-h urinary protein estimation with a body mass index (BMI) of >25 kg/m2 were studied. Patients who had nondiabetic nephropathy, uncontrolled hypertension (>125/75 mmHg) irrespective of antihypertensive drugs, excess weight due to edema or obesity due to other specific diseases, alcoholics, smokers, and patients who were on hemodialysis were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into three groups, namely, group A, patients on ACE inhibitor therapy; group B, patients on lifestyle modifications for weight loss; and group C, patients on an antiobesity drug (orlistat) and lifestyle modifications. At the end of 6 months, all the three groups were compared. Data were analyzed using software SPSS version 15.0. This study encompassed a total of 88 patients; 12 patients were dropped during the study period and 76 (group A: 22, group B: 23, and group C: 31) patients remained. The mean age of the patients was 58.36 ± 10.87 years (range: 30-70 years). At baseline, age, gender, mean BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and 24-h proteinuria did not vary significantly among the three groups. At 6 months, the mean BMI significantly decreased in group C (P < 0.001) compared to that in the other two groups. Among the parameters BMI and WHR, the proportional form of BMI correlated well with the degree of reduction in proteinuria (r = 0.397, P = 0.01). Reduction in weight using lifestyle modifications and

  15. Genome Sequence of Thermofilum pendens Reveals an Exceptional Loss of Biosynthetic Pathways without Genome Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Rodriquez, Jason; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Reich, Claudia; Ulrich, Luke; Elkins, James G; Mavromatis, K; Lykidis, A; Kim, Edwin; Thompson, Linda S; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Detter, J C; Zhulin, Igor B; Olsen, Gary; Whitman, W. B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2008-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Thermofilum pendens, a deep-branching member of class Thermoproteales of Crenarchaeota. T. pendens is a sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a solfatara in Iceland. It was known to utilize peptides as an energy source, but the genome reveals substantial ability to grow on carbohydrates. T. pendens is the first Crenarchaeote and only the second archaeon found to have transporters of the phosphotransferase system. T. pendens is known to require an extract of Thermoproteus tenax for growth, and the genome sequence reveals that biosynthetic pathways for purines, most amino acids, and most cofactors are absent. T. pendens has fewer biosynthetic enzymes than any other free-living organism. In addition to heterotrophy, T. pendens may gain energy from sulfur reduction with hydrogen and formate as electron donors. It may also be capable of sulfur-independent growth on formate with formate hydrogenlyase. Additional novel features are the presence of a monomethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase, the first time this enzyme has been found outside of Methanosarcinales, and a presenilin-related protein from a new subfamily. Predicted highly expressed proteins include ABC transporters for carbohydrates and peptides, and CRISPR-associated proteins, suggesting that defense against viruses is a high priority.

  16. Genome sequence of Thermofilum pendens reveals an exceptional loss of biosynthetic pathways without genome reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Anderson, Iain; Rodriguez, Jason; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Reich, Claudia; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kim, Edwin; Thompson, Linda S.; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Detter, Chris; Zhulin, Igor B.; Olsen, Gary J.; Whitman, William; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Thermofilum pendens, a deep-branching, hyperthermophilic member of the order Thermoproteales within the archaeal kingdom Crenarchaeota. T. pendens is a sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a solfatara in Iceland. It is an extracellular commensal, requiring an extract of Thermoproteus tenax for growth, and the genome sequence reveals that biosynthetic pathways for purines, most amino acids, and most cofactors are absent. In fact T. pendens has fewer biosynthetic enzymes than obligate intracellular parasites, although it does not display other features common among obligate parasites and thus does not appear to be in the process of becoming a parasite. It appears that T. pendens has adapted to life in an environment rich in nutrients. T. pendens was known to utilize peptides as an energy source, but the genome reveals substantial ability to grow on carbohydrates. T. pendens is the first crenarchaeote and only the second archaeon found to have a transporter of the phosphotransferase system. In addition to fermentation, T. pendens may gain energy from sulfur reduction with hydrogen and formate as electron donors. It may also be capable of sulfur-independent growth on formate with formate hydrogenlyase. Additional novel features are the presence of a monomethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase, the first time this enzyme has been found outside of Methanosarcinales, and a presenilin-related protein. Predicted highly expressed proteins do not include housekeeping genes, and instead include ABC transporters for carbohydrates and peptides, and CRISPR-associated proteins.

  17. Reduction of Dietary Acid Load as a Potential Countermeasure for Bone Loss Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Watts, S. M.; Sams, C. F.; Whitson, P. A.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    In several studies we tested the concepts that diet can alter acid-base balance and that reducing the dietary acid load has a positive effect on maintenance of bone. In study 1, (n = 11, 60-90 d bed rest), the renal acid load of the diet was estimated from its chemical composition, and was positively correlated with urinary markers of bone resorption (P less than 0.05); that is, the greater the acid load, the greater the excretion of bone resorption markers. In study 2, in males (n = 8, 30 d bed rest), an estimate of the ratio of nonvolatile acid precursors to base precursors in the diet was positively correlated (P less than 0.05) with markers of bone resorption. In study 3, for 28 d subjects received either a placebo (n = 6) or an essential amino acid supplement (n = 7) that included methionine, a known acid precursor. During bed rest (28 d), urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels in the supplemented group but not the control group (P less than 0.05), and in the supplemented group, urinary pH decreased (P less than 0.05). In study 4, less bone resorption occurred in space crew members who received potassium citrate (n = 6) during spaceflight of 4-6 months than in crew members who received placebo or were not in the study (n = 8) (P less than 0.05). Reducing acid load has the potential to mitigate increased bone resorption during spaceflight, and may serve as a bone loss countermeasure.

  18. Ghrelin, Sleep Reduction and Evening Preference: Relationships to CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP and Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Garaulet, Marta; Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen; Smith, Caren E.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Nicolás, Francisco; Ordovás, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK), an essential element of the positive regulatory arm in the human biological clock, is involved in metabolic regulation. The aim was to investigate the behavioral (sleep duration, eating patterns and chronobiological characteristics) and hormonal (plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations) factors which could explain the previously reported association between the CLOCK 3111T/C SNP and weight loss. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 1495 overweight/obese subjects (BMI: 25–40 kg/m2) of 20–65 y. who attended outpatient obesity clinics in Murcia, in southeastern Spain. We detected an association between the CLOCK 3111T/C SNP and weight loss, which was particularly evident after 12–14 weeks of treatment (P = 0.038). Specifically, carriers of the minor C allele were more resistant to weight loss than TT individuals (Mean±SEM) (8.71±0.59 kg vs 10.4±0.57 kg) C and TT respectively. In addition, our data show that minor C allele carriers had: 1. shorter sleep duration Mean ± SEM (7.0±0.05 vs 7.3±0.05) C and TT respectively (P = 0.039), 2. higher plasma ghrelin concentrations Mean ± SEM (pg/ml) (1108±49 vs 976±47)(P = 0.034); 3. delayed breakfast time; 4. evening preference and 5. less compliance with a Mediterranean Diet pattern, as compared with TT homozygotes. Conclusions/Significance Sleep reduction, changes in ghrelin values, alterations of eating behaviors and evening preference that characterized CLOCK 3111C carriers could be affecting weight loss. Our results support the hypothesis that the influence of the CLOCK gene may extend to a broad range of variables linked with human behaviors. PMID:21386998

  19. Studies of superspin glass state and AC-losses in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles obtained by high-energy ball-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phong, P. T.; Manh, D. H.; Nguyen, L. H.; Tung, D. K.; Phuc, N. X.; Lee, I.-J.

    2014-11-01

    Single-phase perovskite compound La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 was synthesized by a high-energy ball milling method. Nanoparticle nature of this manganite with the average particle diameter of 11 nm was revealed from structure and morphology characterizations. The results of ac magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the system can be described as an ensemble of interacting magnetic nanoparticles, which indicates that the dipole-dipole interactions are strong enough to create superspin glass state in the sample. Furthermore, the specific loss power which is exhausted on the irradiation of an ensemble of particles with a magnetic field has been calculated and measured experimentally.

  20. Lifestyle interventions for cardiovascular disease risk reduction: a systematic review of the effects of diet composition, food provision, and treatment modality on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Laitner, Melissa H; Perri, Michael G

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of (1) diet composition, (2) use of food provision, and (3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significantly improve long-term outcomes. Food provision appears to enhance adherence to reduction in energy intake and produce greater initial weight losses. The long-term benefits of food provision are less clear. Trials comparing alternative treatment modalities suggest that phone-based treatment produce short- and long-term weight reductions equivalent to face-to-face interventions. The use of Internet and mobile technologies are associated with smaller reductions in body weight than face-to-face interventions. Based on this review, clinical implications and future research directions are provided.

  1. Areas of fat loss in overweight young females following an 8-week period of energy intake reduction.

    PubMed

    Jones, P R; Edwards, D A

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the main areas of fat loss after an 8-week period of energy intake reduction, the distribution of body fat was assessed on 14 females (BMI 27.3+/-0.83 kgm(-2)) (mean +/- SEM), aged 18-22 years. Total body fat was determined by hydrostatic weighing and subcutaneous fat mass and distribution were assessed using ultrasound and waist-hip circumference ratios prior to, and following, an 8-week period during which subjects attempted to reduce their energy intake by about 4.2 MJ day(-1). Subjects lost an average of 2.99+/-0.34 kg (p < 0.001), with greater loss (p < 0.001) of internal fat (1.5+/-0.2 kg) than of subcutaneous fat (0.7+/-0.1). Subjects reduced their waist-hip ratio from 0.771+/-0.01 to 0.762+/-0.01 (p < 0.01), their waist circumference from 807+/-24 to 790+/-23 mm (p < 0.001) and their hip circumference from 1047+/-29 to 1037+/-29 mm (p < 0.001). Those with an android distribution of fat (n = 5) lost more weight than those with gynoid distribution (n = 9) (3.80+/-0.38 kg vs 2.54+/-0.14 kg, p < 0.05); they also showed a greater decrease in waist circumference (27+/-5 vs 14+/-4 mm, p < 0.05) and a greater loss from internal fat stores (2.1+/-0.3 kg vs 1.1+/-0.2 kg, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that individuals are prone to lose internal fat during a short period of reduced energy intake. As the visceral fat store is the largest internal fat depot in the body, this suggests that individuals are indeed losing fat that could predispose to upper body obesity.

  2. Noise-induced cochlear hypoxia is intensity dependent, correlates with hearing loss and precedes reduction of cochlear blood flow.

    PubMed

    Lamm, K; Arnold, W

    1996-01-01

    Anesthetized and artificially ventilated guinea pigs were exposed to broad-band noise of 95, 101, 106 or 115 dB SPL for 30 min and studied for 180 min after cessation of noise. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the perilymph, the cochlear blood flow (CoBF) and auditory-evoked potentials were continuously recorded. Arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, inspiratory and expiratory gas levels, arterial blood gas levels and acid-base status were kept stable to exclude influences of these parameters on cochlear parameters. Exposure to 95 dB SPL did not affect perilymphatic pO2 or CoBF. Cochlear microphonics (CMs) were reduced, but compound action potentials of the auditory nerve (CAPs) and auditory brainstem potentials (ABRs) increased after exposure to this low-level noise. Perilymphatic pO2 decreased during exposure to 101 dB SPL and then further decreased during the subsequent 60 min after cessation of the noise. CoBF did not change significantly during and 30 min after noise but then paralleled the decline of perilymphatic pO2. However, both parameters showed a clear indication of recovery in the second and third hours after noise. At 101 dB SPL, CMs were again reduced immediately, CAPs were unaltered and ABRs again increased. Exposure to 106 and to 115 dB SPL resulted in a decrease in both perilymphatic pO2 and CoBF; this decrease began during the exposure but became progressively worse after the noise. Hearing loss was observed immediately with exposure and showed no signs of further deterioration after cessation. The observed time courses of changes are important. They reveal that hearing loss and cochlear hypoxia precede reduction in CoBF due to noise exposure. The potential mechanisms underlying these effects are discussed.

  3. Genetic reduction of mitochondrial complex I function does not lead to loss of dopamine neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Wook; Choi, Won-Seok; Sorscher, Noah; Park, Hyung Joon; Tronche, François; Palmiter, Richard D; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity is hypothesized to be one of the major mechanisms responsible for dopaminergic neuron death in Parkinson's disease. However, loss of complex I activity by systemic deletion of the Ndufs4 gene, one of the subunits comprising complex I, does not cause dopaminergic neuron death in culture. Here, we generated mice with conditional Ndufs4 knockout in dopaminergic neurons (Ndufs4 conditional knockout mice [cKO]) to examine the effect of complex I inhibition on dopaminergic neuron function and survival during aging and on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in vivo. Ndufs4 cKO mice did not show enhanced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta or dopamine-dependent motor deficits over the 24-month life span. These mice were just as susceptible to MPTP as control mice. However, compared with control mice, Ndufs4 cKO mice exhibited an age-dependent reduction of dopamine in the striatum and increased α-synuclein phosphorylation in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. We also used an inducible Ndufs4 knockout mouse strain (Ndufs4 inducible knockout) in which Ndufs4 is conditionally deleted in all cells in adult to examine the effect of adult onset, complex I inhibition on MPTP sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons. The Ndufs4 inducible knockout mice exhibited similar sensitivity to MPTP as control littermates. These data suggest that mitochondrial complex I inhibition in dopaminergic neurons does contribute to dopamine loss and the development of α-synuclein pathology. However, it is not sufficient to cause cell-autonomous dopaminergic neuron death during the normal life span of mice. Furthermore, mitochondrial complex I inhibition does not underlie MPTP toxicity in vivo in either cell autonomous or nonautonomous manner. These results provide strong evidence that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity is not sufficient to cause dopaminergic neuron

  4. Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell

    2012-06-15

    The GreenRay Inc. program focused on simplifying solar electricity and making it affordable and accessible to the mainstream population. This was accomplished by integrating a solar module, micro-inverter, mounting and monitoring into a reliable, 'plug and play' AC system for residential rooftops, offering the following advantages: (1) Reduced Cost: Reduction in installation labor with fewer components, faster mounting, faster wiring. (2) Maximized Energy Production: Each AC Module operates at its maximum, reducing overall losses from shading, mismatch, or module downtime. (3) Increased Safety. Electrical and fire safety experts agree that AC Modules have significant benefits, with no energized wiring or live connections during installation, maintenance or emergency conditions. (4) Simplified PV for a Broader Group of Installers. Dramatic simplification of design and installation of a solar power system, enabling faster and more efficient delivery of the product into the market through well-established, mainstream channels. This makes solar more accessible to the public. (5) Broadened the Rooftop Market: AC Modules enable solar for many homes that have shading, split roofs, or obstructions. In addition, due to the smaller building block size of 200W vs. 1000W, homeowners with budget limitations can start small and add to their systems over time. Through this DOE program GreenRay developed the all-in-one AC Module system with an integrated PV Module and microinverter, custom residential mounting and performance monitoring. Development efforts took the product from its initial concept, through prototypes, to a commercial product sold and deployed in the residential market. This pilot deployment has demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the AC Module system in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the residential market. While more expensive than the traditional central inverter systems at the pilot scale, the economics of AC Modules become more and more

  5. Higher baseline irisin concentrations are associated with greater reductions in glycemia and insulinemia after weight loss in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Legarrea, P; de la Iglesia, R; Crujeiras, A B; Pardo, M; Casanueva, F F; Zulet, M A; Martinez, J A

    2014-01-01

    Irisin is assumed to be a relevant link between muscle and weight maintenance as well as to mediate exercise benefits on health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible associations between irisin levels and glucose homeostasis in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) following an energy-restricted treatment. Ninety-six adults with excessive body weight and MetS features underwent a hypocaloric dietary pattern for 8 weeks, within the RESMENA randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). After the intervention, dietary restriction significantly reduced body weight and evidenced a dietary-induced decrease in circulating levels of irisin in parallel with improvements on glucose homeostasis markers. Interestingly, participants with higher irisin values at baseline (above the median) showed a greater reduction on glucose (P=0.022) and insulin (P=0.021) concentrations as well as on the homeostasis model assessment index (P=0.008) and triglycerides (P=0.006) after the dietary intervention, compared with those presenting low-irisin baseline values (below the median). Interestingly, a positive correlation between irisin and carbohydrate intake was found at the end of the experimental period. In conclusion, irisin appears to be involved in glucose metabolism regulation after a dietary-induced weight loss. PMID:24567125

  6. Loss of oxidation-reduction specificity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated CuZnSOD mutants.

    PubMed

    Cafe, C; Testa, M P; Sheldon, P J; French, W P; Ellerby, L M; Bredesen, D E

    2000-10-01

    Both transgenic mouse and cell culture models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) support a gain-of-function effect for the mutations in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) associated with FALS, but the nature of the function gained remains incompletely characterized. We previously reported an enhanced peroxidase activity for FALS-associated CuZnSOD mutants. Because one of the targets of such activity is CuZnSOD itself, we examined peroxide-mediated inactivation of wild-type and mutant CuZnSODs, and found that the mutants are more readily inactivated. Inactivation of the mutants was associated with fragmentation, which did not occur in the wild-type enzyme under these conditions. Furthermore, the reduction of the FALS-associated mutants by ascorbate was enhanced markedly when compared to the wild-type enzyme. The visible spectra of the mutants showed a consistent blue shift of the peak at 680 nm in the wild-type enzyme, suggesting an alteration in copper-site geometry. These results extend previous studies demonstrating enhanced peroxidase activity in the mutants, and suggest that the toxic function that leads to motor neuron degeneration may result from a loss of specificity of the redox reactions catalyzed by CuZnSOD.

  7. Reduction of meckelin leads to general loss of cilia, ciliary microtubule misalignment and distorted cell surface organization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Meckelin (MKS3), a conserved protein linked to Meckel Syndrome, assists in the migration of centrioles to the cell surface for ciliogenesis. We explored for additional functions of MKS3p using RNA interference (RNAi) and expression of FLAG epitope tagged protein in the ciliated protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia. This cell has a highly organized cell surface with thousands of cilia and basal bodies that are grouped into one or two basal body units delineated by ridges. The highly systematized nature of the P. tetraurelia cell surface provides a research model of MKS and other ciliopathies where changes in ciliary structure, subcellular organization and overall arrangement of the cell surface can be easily observed. We used cells reduced in IFT88 for comparison, as the involvement of this gene’s product with cilia maintenance and growth is well understood. Results FLAG-MKS3p was found above the plane of the distal basal body in the transition zone. Approximately 95% of those basal bodies observed had staining for FLAG-MKS3. The RNAi phenotype for MKS3 depleted cells included global shortening and loss of cilia. Basal body structure appeared unaffected. On the dorsal surface, the basal bodies and their associated rootlets appeared rotated out of alignment from the normal anterior-posterior rows. Likewise, cortical units were abnormal in shape and out of alignment from normal rows. A GST pull down using the MKS3 coiled-coil domain suggests previously unidentified interacting partners. Conclusions Reduction of MKS3p shows that this protein affects development and maintenance of cilia over the entire cell surface. Reduction of MKS3p is most visible on the dorsal surface. The anterior basal body is attached to and moves along the striated rootlet of the posterior basal body in preparation for duplication. We propose that with reduced MKS3p, this attachment and guidance of the basal body is lost. The basal body veers off course, causing basal body rows to be

  8. Lifestyle Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review of the Effects of Diet Composition, Food Provision, and Treatment Modality on Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Laitner, Melissa H.; Perri, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of 1) diet composition, 2) use of food provision, and 3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significantly improve long-term outcomes. Food provision appears to enhance adherence to reduction in energy intake and produce greater initial weight losses. The long-term benefits of food provision are less clear. Trials comparing alternative treatment modalities suggest that phone-based treatment produce short- and long-term weight reductions equivalent to face-to-face interventions. The use of Internet and mobile technologies are associated with smaller reductions in body weight than face-to-face interventions. Based on this review, clinical implications and future research directions are provided. PMID:25092578

  9. Lifestyle interventions for cardiovascular disease risk reduction: a systematic review of the effects of diet composition, food provision, and treatment modality on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Laitner, Melissa H; Perri, Michael G

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of (1) diet composition, (2) use of food provision, and (3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significantly improve long-term outcomes. Food provision appears to enhance adherence to reduction in energy intake and produce greater initial weight losses. The long-term benefits of food provision are less clear. Trials comparing alternative treatment modalities suggest that phone-based treatment produce short- and long-term weight reductions equivalent to face-to-face interventions. The use of Internet and mobile technologies are associated with smaller reductions in body weight than face-to-face interventions. Based on this review, clinical implications and future research directions are provided. PMID:25092578

  10. FHIT loss confers cisplatin resistance in lung cancer via the AKT/NF-κB/Slug-mediated PUMA reduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, D-W; Lee, M-C; Hsu, N-Y; Wu, T-C; Wu, J-Y; Wang, Y-C; Cheng, Y-W; Chen, C-Y; Lee, H

    2015-05-01

    Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) loss by the two-hit mechanism of loss of heterozygosity and promoter hypermethylation commonly occurrs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and may confer cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of FHIT loss in cisplatin resistance and the response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients have not yet been reported. In the present study, inhibition concentration of 50% cell viability induced by cisplatin (IC50) and soft agar growth and invasion capability were increased and decreased in FHIT-knockdown and -overexpressing cells, respectively. Mechanistically, Slug transcription is upregulated by AKT/NF-κB activation due to FHIT loss and, in turn, Slug suppresses PUMA expression; this decrease of PUMA by FHIT loss is responsible for cisplatin resistance. In addition, cisplatin resistance due to FHIT loss can be conquered by AKT inhibitor-perifosine in xenograft tumors. Among NSCLC patients, low FHIT, high p-AKT, high Slug and low PUMA were correlated with shorter overall survival, relapse-free survival and poorer response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Therefore, the AKT inhibitor perifosine might potentially overcome the resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients with low-FHIT tumors, and consequently improve the outcome. PMID:24998847

  11. FHIT loss confers cisplatin resistance in lung cancer via the AKT/NF-κB/Slug-mediated PUMA reduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, D-W; Lee, M-C; Hsu, N-Y; Wu, T-C; Wu, J-Y; Wang, Y-C; Cheng, Y-W; Chen, C-Y; Lee, H

    2015-05-01

    Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) loss by the two-hit mechanism of loss of heterozygosity and promoter hypermethylation commonly occurrs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and may confer cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of FHIT loss in cisplatin resistance and the response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients have not yet been reported. In the present study, inhibition concentration of 50% cell viability induced by cisplatin (IC50) and soft agar growth and invasion capability were increased and decreased in FHIT-knockdown and -overexpressing cells, respectively. Mechanistically, Slug transcription is upregulated by AKT/NF-κB activation due to FHIT loss and, in turn, Slug suppresses PUMA expression; this decrease of PUMA by FHIT loss is responsible for cisplatin resistance. In addition, cisplatin resistance due to FHIT loss can be conquered by AKT inhibitor-perifosine in xenograft tumors. Among NSCLC patients, low FHIT, high p-AKT, high Slug and low PUMA were correlated with shorter overall survival, relapse-free survival and poorer response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Therefore, the AKT inhibitor perifosine might potentially overcome the resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients with low-FHIT tumors, and consequently improve the outcome.

  12. Reduction in noise-induced functional loss of the cochleae in mice with pre-existing cochlear dysfunction due to genetic interference of prestin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qunfeng; Wang, Bo; Coling, Donald; Zuo, Jian; Fang, Jie; Yang, Shiming; Vera, Krystal; Hu, Bo Hua

    2014-01-01

    Various cochlear pathologies, such as acoustic trauma, ototoxicity and age-related degeneration, cause hearing loss. These pre-existing hearing losses can alter cochlear responses to subsequent acoustic overstimulation. So far, the knowledge on the impacts of pre-existing hearing loss caused by genetic alteration of cochlear genes is limited. Prestin is the motor protein expressed exclusively in outer hair cells in the mammalian cochlea. This motor protein contributes to outer hair cell motility. At present, it is not clear how the interference of prestin function affects cochlear responses to acoustic overstimulation. To address this question, a genetic model of prestin dysfunction in mice was created by inserting an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-CreERT2-FRT-Neo-FRT cassette into the prestin locus after the stop codon. Homozygous mice exhibit a threshold elevation of auditory brainstem responses with large individual variation. These mice also display a threshold elevation and a shift of the input/output function of the distortion product otoacoustic emission, suggesting a reduction in outer hair cell function. The disruption of prestin function reduces the threshold shifts caused by exposure to a loud noise at 120 dB (sound pressure level) for 1 h. This reduction is positively correlated with the level of pre-noise cochlear dysfunction and is accompanied by a reduced change in Cdh1 expression, suggesting a reduction in molecular responses to the acoustic overstimulation. Together, these results suggest that prestin interference reduces cochlear stress responses to acoustic overstimulation.

  13. Global Crop Yield Reductions due to Surface Ozone Exposure: Crop Production Losses and Economic Damage in 2000 and 2030 under Two Future Scenarios of O3 Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avnery, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Field studies demonstrate that exposure to elevated concentrations of surface ozone (O3) may cause substantial reductions in the agricultural yields of many crops. As emissions of O3 precursors rise in many parts of the world over the next few decades, yield reductions from O3 exposure may increase the challenges of feeding a global population projected to grow from approximately 6 to 8 billion people between 2000 and 2030. This study estimates global yield reductions of three key staple crops (soybean, maize, and wheat) due to surface ozone exposure in 2000 and 2030 according to two trajectories of O3 pollution: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A2 and B1 storylines, which represent upper- and lower-boundary projections, respectively, of most O3 precursor emissions in 2030. Our results indicate that year 2000 O3-induced global yield reductions ranged, depending on the O3 exposure metric used, from 3.9-15% for wheat, 8.5-14% for soybean, and 2.2-5.5% for maize. Global crop production losses totaled 79-121 million metric tons, worth 11-18 billion annually (USD2000). In the 2030-A2 scenario we find global O3-induced yield loss of wheat to be 5.4-26% (a further reduction in yield of +1.5-10% from year 2000 values), 15-19% for soybean (reduction of +0.9-11%), and 4.4-8.7% for maize (reduction of +2.1-3.2%) depending on the metric used, with total global agricultural losses worth 17-35 billion USD2000 annually (an increase of +6-17 billion in losses from 2000). Under the 2030-B1 scenario, we project less severe but still substantial reductions in yields: 4.0-17% for wheat (a further decrease in yield of +0.1-1.8% from 2000), 9.5-15% for soybean (decrease of +0.7-1.0%), and 2.5-6.0% for maize (decrease of+ 0.3-0.5%), with total losses worth 12-21 billion annually (an increase of +$1-3 billion in losses from 2000). Because our analysis uses crop data from the year 2000, which likely underestimates agricultural

  14. Risk Factors for Loss to Follow-Up among People Who Inject Drugs in a Risk Reduction Program at Karachi, Pakistan. A Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Samo, Rab Nawaz; Agha, Ajmal; Shah, Sharaf Ali; Altaf, Arshad; Memon, Ashraf; Blevins, Meridith; Qian, Han-Zhu; Vermund, Sten H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Retention of male people who inject drugs (PWIDs) is a major challenge for harm reduction programs that include sterile needle/syringe exchange in resource-limited settings like Pakistan. We assessed the risk factors for loss to follow-up among male PWIDs enrolled in a risk reduction program in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among 636 HIV-uninfected male PWIDs enrolled during March-June 2009 in a harm reduction program for the estimation of incidence rate. At 24 months post-enrollment, clients who had dropped out of the program were defined as lost to follow-up and included as cases for case-cohort study. Results The median age of the participants was 29 years (interquartile range: 23–36). Active outreach accounted for 76% (483/636) of cohort recruits. Loss to follow-up at 24 months was 25.5% (162/636). In multivariable logistic regression, younger age (AOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92–0.99, p = 0.028), clients from other provinces than Sindh (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01–2.22, p = 0.046), having no formal education (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI: 2.35–4.90, p<0.001), a history of incarceration (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.14–2.46, p<0.008), and being homeless (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.00–2.19, p<0.049) were associated with loss to follow-up. Conclusions Our cohort retained 74.5% of male PWIDs in Karachi for 24 months. Its loss to follow up rate suggested substantial ongoing programmatic challenges. Programmatic enhancements are needed for the highest risk male PWIDs, i.e., younger men, men not from Sindh Province, men who are poorly educated, formerly incarcerated, and/or homeless. PMID:26840414

  15. Beneficial Effects of Adenylyl Cyclase Type 6 (AC6) Expression Persist Using a Catalytically Inactive AC6 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tong; Lai, Ngai Chin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Guo, Tracy; Tang, Rouying; Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X.; Hammond, H. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac-directed expression of AC6 has pronounced favorable effects on cardiac function possibly not linked with cAMP production. To determine rigorously whether cAMP generation is required for the beneficial effects of increased AC6 expression, we generated a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant (AC6mut) that has markedly diminished cAMP generating capacity by replacing aspartic acid with alanine at position 426 in the C1 domain (catalytic region) of AC6. Gene transfer of AC6 or AC6mut (adenovirus-mediated) in adult rat cardiac myocytes resulted in similar expression levels and intracellular distribution, but AC6mut expression was associated with marked reduction in cAMP production. Despite marked reduction in cAMP generation, AC6mut influenced intracellular signaling events similarly to that observed after expression of catalytically intact AC6. For example, both AC6 and AC6mut reduced phenylephrine-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis (p < 0.001), expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (p < 0.01), and phospholamban (p < 0.05). AC6mut expression, similar to its catalytically intact cohort, was associated with increased Ca2+ transients in cardiac myocytes after isoproterenol stimulation. Many of the biological effects of AC6 expression are replicated by a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant, indicating that the mechanisms for these effects do not require increased cAMP generation. PMID:21127130

  16. Winding Losses in High-Speed Machines using Form-Wound Windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wanjun

    Understanding the ac loss phenomena in form-wound windings is critical for achieving high efficiency in ac machines that employ this type of winding. Accurate calculation of these losses using finite element (FE) analysis typically requires a fine mesh size in the conductors and small time steps, requiring considerable computational resources to accomplish. This research program presents the development of a closed-form 2D analytical model that is capable of calculating the ac losses in form-wound windings with promising accuracy and short computation times. This model is valuable for carrying out rapid assessments of the ac losses in machines for a wide range of operating conditions, making it practical to evaluate large numbers of candidate designs. Significant attention is devoted to exploring alternative approaches for reducing these ac losses that are influenced by many winding design factors including the conductor locations and thicknesses, number of conductors per slot, and phase arrangement. In addition, experimental tests have been carried out using three identical stators with form-wound, "pseudo" Litz and true Litz windings, all configured with the same winding function. The availability of these stators makes it possible to experimentally segregate the winding losses, explore winding losses under different operating conditions, and, finally, build confidence in the proposed model. The results of this investigation highlight the advantages of form-wound windings for low-frequency operation while also clearly demonstrating the risks that they present for unacceptably high ac losses at elevated frequencies. This work also demonstrates that careful attention to the design details of form-wound windings can lead to promising reductions of the ac winding losses under demanding operating conditions associated with high-speed operation.

  17. A NEW GIS NITROGEN TRADING TOOL CONCEPT FOR CONSERVATION AND REDUCTION OF REACTIVE NITROGEN LOSSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen inputs to agricultural systems are important for their sustainability. However, when N inputs are unnecessarily high, the excess can contribute to greater agricultural N losses that impact air, surface water and groundwater quality. It is paramount to reduce off-site transport of N by using...

  18. Addition of aerobic exercise to a weight loss program increases BMD, with an associated reduction in inflammation in overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Natalie E; Nicklas, Barbara J; Ryan, Alice S

    2009-04-01

    Increased inflammation and weight loss are associated with a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). Aerobic exercise may minimize the loss of bone and weight loss may contribute to a decrease in cytokines. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise in combination with a weight loss program would decrease circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers, thus mediating changes in BMD. This was a nonrandomized controlled trial. Eighty-six overweight and obese postmenopausal women (50-70 years of age; BMI, 25-40 kg/m(2)) participated in a weight loss (WL; n = 40) or weight loss plus walking (WL + AEX; n = 46) program. Outcome measures included BMD and bone mineral content of the femoral neck and lumbar spine measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble receptors of IL-6, and TNF-alpha (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2; receptors in a subset of the population), VO(2) max, fat mass, and lean mass. Weight decreased in the WL (p < 0.001) and WL + AEX (p < 0.001) groups. VO(2) max increased (p < 0.001) after WL + AEX. There was a 2% increase in femoral neck BMD in the WL + AEX group (p = 0.001), which was significantly different from the WL group. The change in sTNFR1 was significantly associated with the change in femoral neck BMD (p < 0.05). The change in VO(2) max was an independent predictor of the change in femoral neck BMD. Our findings suggest that the addition of aerobic exercise is recommended to decrease inflammation and increase BMD during weight loss in overweight postmenopausal women.

  19. Weight loss leads to reductions in inflammatory biomarkers after a very-low-carbohydrate diet and a low-fat diet in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Matthew J; Volek, Jeff S

    2004-10-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that low-grade vascular inflammation plays a key role in all stages of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Weight loss has been shown to improve blood inflammatory markers; however, it is unknown if weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient composition differentially affect inflammatory responses. The primary purpose of the present study was to compare a very-low-carbohydrate diet and a low-fat weight-loss diet on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight men. In a randomized cross-over design, 15 overweight men (body fat, >25%; body mass index, 34 kg/m2) consumed two experimental weight-loss diets for two consecutive 6-week periods: a very-low-carbohydrate diet (<10% energy via carbohydrate) and a low-fat diet (<30% energy via fat). Both the low-fat and the very-low-carbohydrate diets resulted in significant decreases in absolute concentrations of hsTNF-alpha (high-sensitivity tumour necrosis factor-alpha), hsIL-6 (high-sensitivity interleukin-6), hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and sICAM-1 (soluble intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1). There was no significant change in absolute sP-selectin (soluble P-selectin) concentrations after either diet. Normalized inflammatory values represented as the delta change per 1 kg reduction in body mass showed a significant difference between the two diets only for sP-selectin (P<0.05). In summary, energy-restricted low-fat and very-low-carbohydrate diets both significantly decreased several biomarkers of inflammation. These data suggest that, in the short-term, weight loss is primarily the driving force underlying the reductions in most of the inflammatory biomarkers.

  20. Reduction of food theft and long-term maintenance of weight loss in a Prader-Willi adult.

    PubMed

    Page, T J; Stanley, A E; Richman, G S; Deal, R M; Iwata, B A

    1983-09-01

    Behavioral interventions have had limited success in managing the chronic hyperphagia and obesity that are of presumed organic etiology in Prader-Willi syndrome. Thus, frequent foraging for food and covert consumption continue to be health-threatening problems for many Prader-Willi individuals. This case study was designed to replicate methods for assessment and treatment of food theft. A token program based on differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior and response-cost eliminated theft in three hospital settings. Prior to discharge, the program was expanded to include contingencies on exercise behavior and weight loss, and staff from the subject's group home residence were trained to implement a modified program in the natural environment. Reduced food theft and continued weight loss were maintained in the group home and an apartment-living arrangement. A total of 81 lb (37 kg) was lost during a 2-yr period. PMID:6358272

  1. Estimation of losses in a 300 m filter cavity and quantum noise reduction in the KAGRA gravitational-wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capocasa, Eleonora; Barsuglia, Matteo; Degallaix, Jérôme; Pinard, Laurent; Straniero, Nicolas; Schnabel, Roman; Somiya, Kentaro; Aso, Yoichi; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    The sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detector KAGRA, presently under construction, will be limited by quantum noise in a large fraction of its spectrum. The most promising technique to increase the detector sensitivity is the injection of squeezed states of light, where the squeezing angle is dynamically rotated by a Fabry-Pérot filter cavity. One of the main issues in the filter cavity design and realization is the optical losses due to the mirror surface imperfections. In this work we present a study of the specifications for the mirrors to be used in a 300 m filter cavity for the KAGRA detector. A prototype of the cavity will be constructed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, inside the infrastructure of the former TAMA interferometer. We also discuss the potential improvement of the KAGRA sensitivity, based on a model of various realistic sources of losses and their influence on the squeezing amplitude.

  2. Reduction of food theft and long-term maintenance of weight loss in a Prader-Willi adult.

    PubMed

    Page, T J; Stanley, A E; Richman, G S; Deal, R M; Iwata, B A

    1983-09-01

    Behavioral interventions have had limited success in managing the chronic hyperphagia and obesity that are of presumed organic etiology in Prader-Willi syndrome. Thus, frequent foraging for food and covert consumption continue to be health-threatening problems for many Prader-Willi individuals. This case study was designed to replicate methods for assessment and treatment of food theft. A token program based on differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior and response-cost eliminated theft in three hospital settings. Prior to discharge, the program was expanded to include contingencies on exercise behavior and weight loss, and staff from the subject's group home residence were trained to implement a modified program in the natural environment. Reduced food theft and continued weight loss were maintained in the group home and an apartment-living arrangement. A total of 81 lb (37 kg) was lost during a 2-yr period.

  3. Reduction of power loss in a three-phase transformer core by using Y-45° type T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, A.

    1980-04-01

    In a scale model of three-phase transformer cores, a novel type of T-joint configuration, referred to as the Y-45° T-joint, has been investigated. The overall power loss in this core has been found to be 9% lower than that in a core with the common 45-90° T-joint at a core flux density of 1.5 T.

  4. Effect of the multifunctional cosmetic ingredient sphinganine on hair loss in males and females with diffuse hair reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Nicole; Mentel, Matthias; Köhler, Tim; Tuchscherer, Benjamin; Garbe, Birgit; Ülker, Jasmina; Tronnier, Hagen; Heinrich, Ulrike; Farwick, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are well known to promote keratinocyte differentiation and to induce ceramide production. In addition, they show anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of sphinganine on prolonging the hair anagen rate and improving the overall hair quality and scalp health. The inhibitory potential of sphinganine toward 5-α-reductase was studied using an in vitro assay. The stimulation of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2 by sphinganine was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Sphinganine bioavailability was studied ex vivo using a pig skin model. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sphinganine on hair loss and hair/scalp quality in vivo. In vitro results showed that sphinganine is a potent inhibitor of 5-α-reductase type I that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key factor of androgenetic male baldness. In vivo results demonstrated efficacy in reducing non-illness-related hair loss among males. In terms of expert rating, all hair quality and scalp parameters improved after application of sphinganine. Improved scalp health might be linked to the observed increase of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2. Thus, sphinganine is well suited as a topical alternative for the improvement of scalp health and hair quality and anti-hair loss application.

  5. Effect of the multifunctional cosmetic ingredient sphinganine on hair loss in males and females with diffuse hair reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Nicole; Mentel, Matthias; Köhler, Tim; Tuchscherer, Benjamin; Garbe, Birgit; Ülker, Jasmina; Tronnier, Hagen; Heinrich, Ulrike; Farwick, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are well known to promote keratinocyte differentiation and to induce ceramide production. In addition, they show anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of sphinganine on prolonging the hair anagen rate and improving the overall hair quality and scalp health. The inhibitory potential of sphinganine toward 5-α-reductase was studied using an in vitro assay. The stimulation of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2 by sphinganine was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Sphinganine bioavailability was studied ex vivo using a pig skin model. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sphinganine on hair loss and hair/scalp quality in vivo. In vitro results showed that sphinganine is a potent inhibitor of 5-α-reductase type I that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key factor of androgenetic male baldness. In vivo results demonstrated efficacy in reducing non-illness-related hair loss among males. In terms of expert rating, all hair quality and scalp parameters improved after application of sphinganine. Improved scalp health might be linked to the observed increase of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2. Thus, sphinganine is well suited as a topical alternative for the improvement of scalp health and hair quality and anti-hair loss application. PMID:27660477

  6. Effect of the multifunctional cosmetic ingredient sphinganine on hair loss in males and females with diffuse hair reduction.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Nicole; Mentel, Matthias; Köhler, Tim; Tuchscherer, Benjamin; Garbe, Birgit; Ülker, Jasmina; Tronnier, Hagen; Heinrich, Ulrike; Farwick, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are well known to promote keratinocyte differentiation and to induce ceramide production. In addition, they show anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of sphinganine on prolonging the hair anagen rate and improving the overall hair quality and scalp health. The inhibitory potential of sphinganine toward 5-α-reductase was studied using an in vitro assay. The stimulation of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2 by sphinganine was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Sphinganine bioavailability was studied ex vivo using a pig skin model. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sphinganine on hair loss and hair/scalp quality in vivo. In vitro results showed that sphinganine is a potent inhibitor of 5-α-reductase type I that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key factor of androgenetic male baldness. In vivo results demonstrated efficacy in reducing non-illness-related hair loss among males. In terms of expert rating, all hair quality and scalp parameters improved after application of sphinganine. Improved scalp health might be linked to the observed increase of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2. Thus, sphinganine is well suited as a topical alternative for the improvement of scalp health and hair quality and anti-hair loss application. PMID:27660477

  7. Effect of the multifunctional cosmetic ingredient sphinganine on hair loss in males and females with diffuse hair reduction.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Nicole; Mentel, Matthias; Köhler, Tim; Tuchscherer, Benjamin; Garbe, Birgit; Ülker, Jasmina; Tronnier, Hagen; Heinrich, Ulrike; Farwick, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are well known to promote keratinocyte differentiation and to induce ceramide production. In addition, they show anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of sphinganine on prolonging the hair anagen rate and improving the overall hair quality and scalp health. The inhibitory potential of sphinganine toward 5-α-reductase was studied using an in vitro assay. The stimulation of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2 by sphinganine was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Sphinganine bioavailability was studied ex vivo using a pig skin model. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sphinganine on hair loss and hair/scalp quality in vivo. In vitro results showed that sphinganine is a potent inhibitor of 5-α-reductase type I that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key factor of androgenetic male baldness. In vivo results demonstrated efficacy in reducing non-illness-related hair loss among males. In terms of expert rating, all hair quality and scalp parameters improved after application of sphinganine. Improved scalp health might be linked to the observed increase of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2. Thus, sphinganine is well suited as a topical alternative for the improvement of scalp health and hair quality and anti-hair loss application.

  8. Study on Fuel Cell Network System Considering Reduction in Fuel Cell Capacity Using Load Leveling and Heat Release Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    Reduction in fuel cell capacity linked to a fuel cell network system is considered. When the power demand of the whole network is small, some of the electric power generated by the fuel cell is supplied to a water electrolysis device, and hydrogen and oxygen gases are generated. Both gases are compressed with each compressor and they are stored in cylinders. When the electric demand of the whole network is large, both gases are supplied to the network, and fuel cells are operated by these hydrogen and oxygen gases. Furthermore, an optimization plan is made to minimize the quantity of heat release of the hot water piping that connects each building. Such an energy network is analyzed assuming connection of individual houses, a hospital, a hotel, a convenience store, an office building, and a factory. Consequently, compared with the conventional system, a reduction of 46% of fuel cell capacity is expected.

  9. Improvement of the zygote utilization and reduction of the seedling loss in the early stage of seedling production of Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Haiyi; Liu, Mengxia; Duan, Delin

    2016-05-01

    Artificial seedling production of Sargassum thunbergii is an effective way to relieve pressure on natural resources. In order to improve the utilization of zygotes and reduce the loss of seedlings, studies on the characteristic of the zygotes release, the development of rhizoids, the attachment of germlings, and the influence of jet washing were conducted. Results show that the percent of zygotes released was increased with time in the first 60 h. The capacity of germlings attached to the substratum was significantly increased, especially coincident with the time of the new rhizoids emerged and elongated. The detachment rate of germlings significantly decreased with the delay of starting time of jet washing or the reduction of jet washing velocity. However, the jet washing at any level applied in the experiment could cause considerable loss of germlings within the 20 days after the attachment. Our study provided some parameters to optimize the operation in the early stage of seedling production.

  10. Reduction of absorption loss in silica-on-silicon channel waveguides fabricated by low-temperature PECVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Jayanta K.; Wosinski, Lech; Fernando, Harendra

    1999-12-01

    This study is focused on the low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique used for fabrication of silica based optical waveguides on silicon, utilizing nitrous oxide as an oxidant for both silane and dopant. Fabricated channel waveguide shows total insertion loss of 1.2 dB at 1.55 micrometers , and no absorption peaks associated with N-H and Si-H bonds around 1.5 micrometers have been observed in the as deposited material. This fabrication technology adds flexibility to the monolithic integration of electronic and optical components. Using this technology, a n umber of different couplers based on multimode interference technique have been investigated.

  11. Investigation and reduction of sub-microgram peptide loss using molecular weight cut-off fractionation prior to mass spectrometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Robert; Wang, Jingxin; Wellner, Daniel; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the suitability of molecular weight cut-off membrane-based centrifugal filter devices (MWCO) for sub-microgram peptide enrichment passing through the membrane by introduction of methanol and a salt modifier. Using a neuropeptide standard, bradykinin, a reduction in sample loss of over two orders of magnitude is demonstrated with and without undigested protein present. Additionally, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic digestion was investigated and 27 tryptic peptides were identified using MALDI mass spectrometry whereas only two BSA tryptic peptides were identified after MWCO separation using H2O. The protocol presented here enhances recovery from MWCO separation for sub-μg peptide samples. PMID:23019164

  12. Synthesis of high intrinsic loss power aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted hydrothermal-reduction route

    SciTech Connect

    Behdadfar, Behshid; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Mozaffari, Morteza

    2012-03-15

    Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that certain concentrations of citric acid (CA) are required to obtain only magnetic iron oxides with mean particle sizes around 8 nm. CA acts as a modulator and reducing agent in iron oxide formation which controls nanoparticle size. The XRD, magnetic and heating measurements showed that the temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction can affect the magnetic properties of obtained ferrofluids. The synthesized ferrofluids were stable at pH 7. Their mean hydrodynamic size was around 80 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.158. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 9.4 nHm{sup 2}/kg. So this clean and cheap route is an efficient way to synthesize high ILP aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. - Graphical abstract: Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction method with citric acid as reductant which is an efficient way to synthesize aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid acted as reducing agent and surfactant in the route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a facile, low energy and environmental friendly route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were monodispersed and stable at pH of 7. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated intrinsic loss power of the synthesized ferrofluids was very high.

  13. Loss of CD24 in Mice Leads to Metabolic Dysfunctions and a Reduction in White Adipocyte Tissue.

    PubMed

    Fairbridge, Nicholas A; Southall, Thomas M; Ayre, D Craig; Komatsu, Yumiko; Raquet, Paula I; Brown, Robert J; Randell, Edward; Kovacs, Christopher S; Christian, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell surface receptor that is involved in regulating the survival or differentiation of several different cell types. CD24 has been used to identify pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT) in vivo. Moreover, we recently found that the dynamic upregulation of CD24 in vitro during early phases of adipogenesis is necessary for mature adipocyte development. To determine the role of CD24 in adipocyte development in vivo, we evaluated the development of the inguinal and interscapular subcutaneous WAT and the epididymal visceral WAT in mice with a homozygous deletion of CD24 (CD24KO). We observed a significant decrease in WAT mass of 40% to 74% in WAT mass from both visceral and subcutaneous depots in male mice, with no significant effect in female mice, compared to wild-type (WT) sex- and age-matched controls. We also found that CD24KO mice had increased fasting glucose and free fatty acids, decreased fasting insulin, and plasma leptin. No major differences were observed in the sensitivity to insulin or glucose, or in circulating triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol levels between WT and CD24KO mice. Challenging the CD24KO mice with either high sucrose (35%) or high fat (45%) diets that promote increased adiposity, increased WAT mass and fasting insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels, as well as reduced the sensitivity to insulin and glucose, to the levels of WT mice on the same diets. The CD24-mediated reduction in fat pad size was due to a reduction in adipocyte cell size in all depots with no significant reduction pre-adipocyte or adipocyte cell number. Thus, we have clearly demonstrated that the global absence of CD24 affects adipocyte cell size in vivo in a sex- and diet-dependent manner, as well as causing metabolic disturbances in glucose homeostasis and free fatty acid levels. PMID:26536476

  14. Loss of CD24 in Mice Leads to Metabolic Dysfunctions and a Reduction in White Adipocyte Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fairbridge, Nicholas A.; Southall, Thomas M.; Ayre, D. Craig; Komatsu, Yumiko; Raquet, Paula I.; Brown, Robert J.; Randell, Edward; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Christian, Sherri L.

    2015-01-01

    CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell surface receptor that is involved in regulating the survival or differentiation of several different cell types. CD24 has been used to identify pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT) in vivo. Moreover, we recently found that the dynamic upregulation of CD24 in vitro during early phases of adipogenesis is necessary for mature adipocyte development. To determine the role of CD24 in adipocyte development in vivo, we evaluated the development of the inguinal and interscapular subcutaneous WAT and the epididymal visceral WAT in mice with a homozygous deletion of CD24 (CD24KO). We observed a significant decrease in WAT mass of 40% to 74% in WAT mass from both visceral and subcutaneous depots in male mice, with no significant effect in female mice, compared to wild-type (WT) sex- and age-matched controls. We also found that CD24KO mice had increased fasting glucose and free fatty acids, decreased fasting insulin, and plasma leptin. No major differences were observed in the sensitivity to insulin or glucose, or in circulating triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol levels between WT and CD24KO mice. Challenging the CD24KO mice with either high sucrose (35%) or high fat (45%) diets that promote increased adiposity, increased WAT mass and fasting insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels, as well as reduced the sensitivity to insulin and glucose, to the levels of WT mice on the same diets. The CD24-mediated reduction in fat pad size was due to a reduction in adipocyte cell size in all depots with no significant reduction pre-adipocyte or adipocyte cell number. Thus, we have clearly demonstrated that the global absence of CD24 affects adipocyte cell size in vivo in a sex- and diet-dependent manner, as well as causing metabolic disturbances in glucose homeostasis and free fatty acid levels. PMID:26536476

  15. Aβ-dependent reduction of NCAM2-mediated synaptic adhesion contributes to synapse loss in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Liew, Heng Tai; Shepherd, Claire; Halliday, Glenda M.; Stevens, Claire H.; Ke, Yazi D.; Ittner, Lars M.; Sytnyk, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by synapse loss due to mechanisms that remain poorly understood. We show that the neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2) is enriched in synapses in the human hippocampus. This enrichment is abolished in the hippocampus of AD patients and in brains of mice overexpressing the human amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein carrying the pathogenic Swedish mutation. Aβ binds to NCAM2 at the cell surface of cultured hippocampal neurons and induces removal of NCAM2 from synapses. In AD hippocampus, cleavage of the membrane proximal external region of NCAM2 is increased and soluble extracellular fragments of NCAM2 (NCAM2-ED) accumulate. Knockdown of NCAM2 expression or incubation with NCAM2-ED induces disassembly of GluR1-containing glutamatergic synapses in cultured hippocampal neurons. Aβ-dependent disassembly of GluR1-containing synapses is inhibited in neurons overexpressing a cleavage-resistant mutant of NCAM2. Our data indicate that Aβ-dependent disruption of NCAM2 functions in AD hippocampus contributes to synapse loss. PMID:26611261

  16. Aβ-dependent reduction of NCAM2-mediated synaptic adhesion contributes to synapse loss in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Liew, Heng Tai; Shepherd, Claire; Halliday, Glenda M; Stevens, Claire H; Ke, Yazi D; Ittner, Lars M; Sytnyk, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by synapse loss due to mechanisms that remain poorly understood. We show that the neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2) is enriched in synapses in the human hippocampus. This enrichment is abolished in the hippocampus of AD patients and in brains of mice overexpressing the human amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein carrying the pathogenic Swedish mutation. Aβ binds to NCAM2 at the cell surface of cultured hippocampal neurons and induces removal of NCAM2 from synapses. In AD hippocampus, cleavage of the membrane proximal external region of NCAM2 is increased and soluble extracellular fragments of NCAM2 (NCAM2-ED) accumulate. Knockdown of NCAM2 expression or incubation with NCAM2-ED induces disassembly of GluR1-containing glutamatergic synapses in cultured hippocampal neurons. Aβ-dependent disassembly of GluR1-containing synapses is inhibited in neurons overexpressing a cleavage-resistant mutant of NCAM2. Our data indicate that Aβ-dependent disruption of NCAM2 functions in AD hippocampus contributes to synapse loss. PMID:26611261

  17. AC conductivity and dielectric behavior of CoAl xFe 2- xO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo El Ata, A. M.; Attia, S. M.; Meaz, T. M.

    2004-01-01

    AC conductivity and dielectric properties have been studied for a series of polycrystalline spinel ferrite with composition CoAl xFe 2- xO 4, as a function of frequency and temperature. The results of AC conductivity were discussed in terms of the quantum mechanical tunneling and small polaron tunneling models. The dispersion of the dielectric constant was discussed in the light of Koops model and hopping conduction mechanism. The dielectric loss tangent tan δ curves exhibits a dielectric relaxation peaks which are attributed to the coincidence of the hopping frequency of the charge carriers with that of the external fields. The AC conductivity, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss tangent were found to increase with increasing the temperature due to the increase of the hopping frequency, while they decrease with increasing Al ion content due to the reduction of iron ions available for the conduction process at the octahedral sites.

  18. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  19. Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuqing; Pello, Josselin; Mejia, Alonso Millan; Shen, Longfei; Smalbrugge, Barry; Geluk, Erik Jan; Smit, Meint; van der Tol, Jos

    2014-03-15

    In this Letter, we present a method to prepare a mixed electron-beam resist composed of a positive resist (ZEP520A) and C60 fullerene. The addition of C60 to the ZEP resist changes the material properties under electron beam exposure significantly. An improvement in the thermal resistance of the mixed material has been demonstrated by fabricating multimode interference couplers and coupling regions of microring resonators. The fabrication of distributed Bragg reflector structures has shown improvement in terms of pattern definition accuracy with respect to the same structures fabricated with normal ZEP resist. Straight InP membrane waveguides with different lengths have been fabricated using this mixed resist. A decrease of the propagation loss from 6.6 to 3.3  dB/cm has been demonstrated.

  20. A scoping study on the costs of indoor air quality illnesses:an insurance loss reduction perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allan; Vine, Edward L.

    1998-08-31

    The incidence of commercial buildings with poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and the frequency of litigation over the effects of poor IAQ is increasing. If so, these increases have ramifications for insurance carriers, which pay for many of the costs of health care and general commercial liability. However, little is known about the actual costs to insurance companies from poor IAQ in buildings. This paper reports on the results of a literature search of buildings-related, business and legal databases, and interviews with insurance and risk management representatives aimed at finding information on the direct costs to the insurance industry of poor building IAQ, as well as the costs of litigation. The literature search and discussions with insurance and risk management professionals reported in this paper turned up little specific information about the costs of IAQ-related problems to insurance companies. However, those discussions and certain articles in the insurance industry press indicate that there is a strong awareness and growing concern over the "silent crisis" of IAQ and its potential to cause large industry losses, and that a few companies are taking steps to address this issue. The source of these losses include both direct costs to insurers from paying health insurance and professional liability claims, as weIl as the cost of litigation. In spite of the lack of data on how IAQ-related health problems affect their business, the insurance industry has taken the anecdotal evidence about their reality seriously enough to alter their policies in ways that have lessened their exposure. We conclude by briefly discussing four activities that need to be addressed in the near future: (1) quantifying IAQ-related insurance costs by sector, (2) educating the insurance industry about the importance of IAQ issues, (3) examining IAQ impacts on the insurance industry in the residential sector, and (4) evaluating the relationship between IAQ improvements and their impact on

  1. Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures -- lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, H.; Thieken, A. H.; Petrow, Th.; Müller, M.; Merz, B.

    2005-01-01

    Building houses in inundation areas is always a risk, since absolute flood protection is impossible. Where settlements already exist, flood damage must be kept as small as possible. Suitable means are precautionary measures such as elevated building configuration or flood adapted use. However, data about the effects of such measures are rare, and consequently, the efficiency of different precautionary measures is unclear. To improve the knowledge about efficient precautionary measures, approximately 1200 private households, which were affected by the 2002 flood at the river Elbe and its tributaries, were interviewed about the flood damage of their buildings and contents as well as about their precautionary measures. The affected households had little flood experience, i.e. only 15% had experienced a flood before. 59% of the households stated that they did not know, that they live in a flood prone area. Thus, people were not well prepared, e.g. just 11% had used and furnished their house in a flood adapted way and only 6% had a flood adapted building structure. Building precautionary measures are mainly effective in areas with frequent small floods. But also during the extreme flood event in 2002 building measures reduced the flood loss. From the six different building precautionary measures under study, flood adapted use and adapted interior fitting were the most effective ones. They reduced the damage ratio for buildings by 46% and 53%, respectively. The damage ratio for contents was reduced by 48% due to flood adapted use and by 53% due to flood adapted interior fitting. The 2002 flood motivated a relatively large number of people to implement private precautionary measures, but still much more could be done. Hence, to further reduce flood losses, people's motivation to invest in precaution should be improved. More information campaigns and financial incentives should be issued to encourage precautionary measures.

  2. Is there a role for leptin in the reduction of depression symptoms during weight loss therapy in obese adolescent girls and boys?

    PubMed

    de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; Dal Molin Netto, Bárbara; Corgosinho, Flavia Campos; Sanches, Priscila L; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Finlayson, Graham; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have sought to clarify the association between adolescent obesity and psychological distress. Recently, a biological link between leptin resistance and depression has been proposed. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in leptin concentrations as a potential predictor of reduced depression symptoms in obese adolescents during long-term interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. Seventy-five obese adolescents (age: 16.28±2.37 years; BMI: 35.65±4.64 kg/m2) engaged in a long-term interdisciplinary therapy for weight loss. They were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year of treatment for body composition, serum analyses and depression symptomatology. After therapy, body mass BMI, fat mass (% and kg), waist circumference, visceral, subcutaneous and visceral/subcutaneous fat and depression symptoms decreased and lean mass (%) increased significantly. There was an improvement in inflammatory profiles with a significant reduction in leptin and increase in adiponectin. Regression analyses showed that decreased leptin predicted amelioration in depression symptoms independent of age, gender and changes in visceral fat, body mass, fat mass (%) and leptin/adiponectin ratio. These associations appear stronger in girls than boys. The attenuation of hyperleptinemia appears to play an important role in the association between weight loss and depression, particularly in obese girls. PMID:25629253

  3. Elevation of testosterone and reduction of transepidermal water loss by viewing a humorous film in elderly patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    The effect of viewing a humorous film on salivary testosterone levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values on the back of the neck in 36 elderly healthy people (36 male, mean 70 years) and 36 elderly patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) (36 male, mean age 70 years) were studied. Salivary testosterone levels were decreased while TEWL values were increased in elderly patients with AD compared to those in elderly healthy people. Viewing a humorous film (The Best Bits of Mr. Bean, Universal studios, 1996) slightly, but significantly (P<0.05), elevated salivary testosterone levels and reduced TEWL values in elderly healthy people, while viewing a control non-humorous film (weather information) failed to do so. Similarly, but more pronouncedly, viewing a humorous film markedly elevated salivary testosterone levels and reduced TEWL values in elderly patients with AD, while viewing a control non-humorous film failed to do so. These finding indicate that viewing a humorous film may be useful in the study of testosterone and TEWL, and treatment for dry skin in elderly people with or without AD.

  4. Evaluation of medical stone amendment for the reduction of nitrogen loss and bioavailability of heavy metals during pig manure composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Wang, Zhen; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Jiang, Yahui; Li, Ronghua; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Shen, Feng; Wang, Meijing; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of medical stone (MS) on nitrogen conservation and improving the compost quality during the pig manure (PM) composting. Five treatments were designed with different concentrations of MS0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% (on dry weight of pig manure basis) mixed with initial feed stock and then composted for 60days. The results showed that MS amendment obviously (p<0.05) promoted the organic waste degradation and prolonged the thermophilic phase as well as enhanced the immobilization of heavy metals Cu and Zn. With increasing the amount of MS, the NH3 loss and N2O emission were significantly reduced by 27.9-48.8% and by 46.6-85.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, the MS amendment could reduce the NO2(-)-N formation and increase the NO3(-)-N content. Finally our results suggested that 10%MS addition could significantly reduce the nitrogen conservation as well as improve the quality of compost. PMID:27589824

  5. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  6. Reductions in central venous pressure by lower body negative pressure or blood loss elicit similar hemodynamic responses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Blair D.; van Helmond, Noud; Curry, Timothy B.; van Buskirk, Camille M.; Convertino, Victor A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare hemodynamic and blood analyte responses to reduced central venous pressure (CVP) and pulse pressure (PP) elicited during graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to those observed during graded blood loss (BL) in conscious humans. We hypothesized that the stimulus-response relationships of CVP and PP to hemodynamic responses during LBNP would mimic those observed during BL. We assessed CVP, PP, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and other hemodynamic markers in 12 men during LBNP and BL. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of catecholamines, hematocrit, hemoglobin, arginine vasopressin, and blood gases. LBNP consisted of 5-min stages at 0, 15, 30, and 45 mmHg of suction. BL consisted of 5 min at baseline and following three stages of 333 ml of hemorrhage (1,000 ml total). Individual r2 values and linear regression slopes were calculated to determine whether the stimulus (CVP and PP)-hemodynamic response trajectories were similar between protocols. The CVP-MAP trajectory was the only CVP-response slope that was statistically different during LBNP compared with BL (0.93 ± 0.27 vs. 0.13 ± 0.26; P = 0.037). The PP-heart rate trajectory was the only PP-response slope that was statistically different during LBNP compared with BL (−1.85 ± 0.45 vs. −0.46 ± 0.27; P = 0.024). Norepinephrine, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were all lower at termination in the BL protocol compared with LBNP (P < 0.05). Consistent with our hypothesis, LBNP mimics the hemodynamic stimulus-response trajectories observed during BL across a significant range of CVP in humans. PMID:24876357

  7. Synthesis of high intrinsic loss power aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted hydrothermal-reduction route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behdadfar, Behshid; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Mozaffari, Morteza

    2012-03-01

    Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that certain concentrations of citric acid (CA) are required to obtain only magnetic iron oxides with mean particle sizes around 8 nm. CA acts as a modulator and reducing agent in iron oxide formation which controls nanoparticle size. The XRD, magnetic and heating measurements showed that the temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction can affect the magnetic properties of obtained ferrofluids. The synthesized ferrofluids were stable at pH 7. Their mean hydrodynamic size was around 80 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.158. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 9.4 nHm2/kg. So this clean and cheap route is an efficient way to synthesize high ILP aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia.

  8. Investigation of vacuum forming techniques for reduction of loss in mouthguard thickness: part 2—effects of sheet grooving and thermal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru; Mizuhashi, Fumi; Sato, Toshihide

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate vacuum forming techniques for reduction of loss in mouthguard thickness effects of sheet grooving and thermal shrinkage of extruded sheets on molded mouthguard thickness. Mouthguards were fabricated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets (4.0 mm thick) using a vacuum forming machine. Sheet form was a convexing v-shaped groove toward the back, 10-40 mm from the anterior end. The sheets were placed in the forming machine with the sheet extrusion direction either vertical or parallel to the model's centerline of right and left. Molding was performed by crimping the sheet using suction when the most descending portion of the sheet sagged downwards from the clamp, 15 mm below the basal surface. Postmolding thickness was determined using a measuring device. Measurement points were the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface). Differences in molded mouthguard thickness with the sheet orientation of extruded EVA sheets were analyzed by student's t-test. The sheet in parallel axis orientation with the model's centerline yielded higher thickness than vertical orientation at the labial surface and the buccal surface. The present results suggested that addition of a groove to the sheet in conjunction with placement of the sheet with its axis of orientation parallel the centerline of the working model can effectively reduce thickness loss in the molded mouthguard with the equipment and materials used in this study. PMID:25572017

  9. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  10. Loss of Genetic Diversity among Ocelots in the United States during the 20th Century Linked to Human Induced Population Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Janecka, Jan E.; Tewes, Michael E.; Laack, Linda; Caso, Arturo; Grassman, Lon I.; Honeycutt, Rodney L.

    2014-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20th century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations. PMID:24586737

  11. A Novel Electrical Insulating Material for 275 kV High-Voltage HTS Cable with Low Dielectric Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, N.; Nishimachi, S.; Maruyama, O.; Ohkuma, T.; Liu, J.; Yagi, M.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cables at high voltage operation, the electrical insulation technique in consideration of the dielectric loss reduction becomes crucial. In this paper, we focused on a Tyvek/polyethylene (PE) sheet, instead of the conventional polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). We obtained the dielectric characteristics (epsilonr, tanδ) and partial discharge inception strength (PDIE) of PPLP, Tyvek and Tyvek/PE. We pointed out that the dielectric loss of 275 kV HTS cable with Tyvek/PE insulation will be reduced to 21 % of that with PPLP, and the total electrical loss including the AC loss will be reduced to 41 %.

  12. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  13. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users' preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA) processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1) performance on a measure of reading span (RS) is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR) strength, (2) similar relations exist for two different, non-verbal measures of executive function, (3) pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and microphone directionality (DIR) also influence preferred NR strength, and (4) preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker) relations between worse performance on one non-verbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings. PMID

  14. A HTS scanning magnet and AC operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, K.; Nakagawa, J.; Fukuda, M.; Yorita, T.; Saito, T.; Sakemi, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Noda, K.

    2010-04-01

    A scanning magnet using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire was designed, built, and tested for its suitability as a beam scanner. After successful cooling tests, the magnet performance was studied using DC and AC currents. With DC current the magnet was successfully operated to generate designed field distributions and effective length. In AC mode, the magnet was operated at frequencies of 30-59 Hz and a temperature of 77 K as well as 10-20 Hz and 20 K. The power losses dissipated in the coils were measured and compared with the model calculations. The observed losses per cycle were independent of the frequency and the scaling law of the transport current was consistent with theoretical predictions for hysteretic losses in HTS wires.

  15. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  16. AC magnetohydrodynamic microfluidic switch

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoff, A V; Lee, A P

    2000-03-02

    A microfluidic switch has been demonstrated using an AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping mechanism in which the Lorentz force is used to pump an electrolytic solution. By integrating two AC MHD pumps into different arms of a Y-shaped fluidic circuit, flow can be switched between the two arms. This type of switch can be used to produce complex fluidic routing, which may have multiple applications in {micro}TAS.

  17. An ABC Transporter Mutation Is Correlated with Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Gahan, Linda J.; Pauchet, Yannick; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are commercially successful in reducing pest damage, yet knowledge of resistance mechanisms that threaten their sustainability is incomplete. Insect resistance to the pore-forming Cry1Ac toxin is correlated with the loss of high-affinity, irreversible binding to the mid-gut membrane, but the genetic factors responsible for this change have been elusive. Mutations in a 12-cadherin-domain protein confer some Cry1Ac resistance but do not block this toxin binding in in vitro assays. We sought to identify mutations in other genes that might be responsible for the loss of binding. We employed a map-based cloning approach using a series of backcrosses with 1,060 progeny to identify a resistance gene in the cotton pest Heliothis virescens that segregated independently from the cadherin mutation. We found an inactivating mutation of the ABC transporter ABCC2 that is genetically linked to Cry1Ac resistance and is correlated with loss of Cry1Ac binding to membrane vesicles. ABC proteins are integral membrane proteins with many functions, including export of toxic molecules from the cell, but have not been implicated in the mode of action of Bt toxins before. The reduction in toxin binding due to the inactivating mutation suggests that ABCC2 is involved in membrane integration of the toxin pore. Our findings suggest that ABC proteins may play a key role in the mode of action of Bt toxins and that ABC protein mutations can confer high levels of resistance that could threaten the continued utilization of Bt–expressing crops. However, such mutations may impose a physiological cost on resistant insects, by reducing export of other toxins such as plant secondary compounds from the cell. This weakness could be exploited to manage this mechanism of Bt resistance in the field. PMID:21187898

  18. Isolation of sequences flanking Ac insertion sites by Ac casting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Localizing Ac insertions is a fundamental task in studying Ac-induced mutation and chromosomal rearrangements involving Ac elements. Researchers may sometimes be faced with the situation in which the sequence flanking one side of an Ac/Ds element is known, but the other flank is unknown. Or, a researcher may have a small sequence surrounding the Ac/Ds insertion site and needs to obtain additional flanking genomic sequences. One way to rapidly clone unknown Ac/Ds flanking sequences is via a PCR-based method termed Ac casting. This approach utilizes the somatic transposition activity of Ac during plant development, and provides an efficient means for short-range genome walking. Here we describe the principle of Ac casting, and show how it can be applied to isolate Ac macrotransposon insertion sites.

  19. Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: Lighten Up randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Kate; Lewis, Amanda; Beach, Jane; Denley, John; Adab, Peymane; Deeks, Jonathan J; Aveyard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a range of weight management programmes in terms of weight loss. Design Eight arm randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care trust in Birmingham, England. Participants 740 obese or overweight men and women with a comorbid disorder identified from general practice records. Interventions Weight loss programmes of 12 weeks’ duration: Weight Watchers; Slimming World; Rosemary Conley; group based, dietetics led programme; general practice one to one counselling; pharmacy led one to one counselling; choice of any of the six programmes. The comparator group was provided with 12 vouchers enabling free entrance to a local leisure (fitness) centre. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was weight loss at programme end (12 weeks). Secondary outcomes were weight loss at one year, self reported physical activity, and percentage weight loss at programme end and one year. Results Follow-up data were available for 658 (88.9%) participants at programme end and 522 (70.5%) at one year. All programmes achieved significant weight loss from baseline to programme end (range 1.37 kg (general practice) to 4.43 kg (Weight Watchers)), and all except general practice and pharmacy provision resulted in significant weight loss at one year. At one year, only the Weight Watchers group had significantly greater weight loss than did the comparator group (2.5 (95% confidence interval 0.8 to 4.2) kg greater loss,). The commercial programmes achieved significantly greater weight loss than did the primary care programmes at programme end (mean difference 2.3 (1.3 to 3.4) kg). The primary care programmes were the most costly to provide. Participants allocated to the choice arm did not have better outcomes than those randomly allocated to a programme. Conclusions Commercially provided weight management services are more effective and cheaper than primary care based services led by specially trained staff, which are ineffective. Trial registration

  20. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    PubMed

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney.

  1. Tevatron AC dipole system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  2. AC-3 audio coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  3. RHIC AC DIPOLE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; METH,M.; PAI,C.; PARKER,B.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SANDERS,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2001-06-18

    Two ac dipoles with vertical and horizontal magnetic field have been proposed at RHIC for applications in linear and non-linear beam dynamics and spin manipulations. A magnetic field amplitude of 380 Gm is required to produce a coherent oscillation of 5 times the rms beam size at the top energy. We take the ac dipole frequency to be 1.0% of the revolution frequency away from the betatron frequency. To achieve the strong magnetic field with minimum power loss, an air-core magnet with two seven turn winding of low loss Litz wire resonating at 64 kHz is designed. The system is also designed to allow one to connect the two magnet winding in series to resonate at 37 kHz for the spin manipulation. Measurements of a half length prototype magnet are also presented.

  4. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  5. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  6. Great reduction of loss at high electric field in the polyvinylidene fluoride/aromatic polythiourea blend films along with an irreversible phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Long; Li, Weiping Zhu, Jiujun; Huo, Xiaoyun; Luo, Laihui; Zhu, Yuejin

    2015-02-02

    In this paper, the polarization response of dielectric blend based on the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and aromatic polythiourea (ArPTU) was investigated. It is found that the conduction loss at high field has been reduced 2–4 times along with an interesting irreversible transition under high electric field. The loss at 700 MV/m can be kept below 20%, which is better than most other polar dielectric polymers. It is proved that the transition is a phase change from glass phase to polar β phase at a critical field. And the highly polar thiourea groups of ArPTU can act as traps for the electrons, reduce conduction loss greatly and prevent dielectric breakdown by stabilizing the electron energy.

  7. Great reduction of loss at high electric field in the polyvinylidene fluoride/aromatic polythiourea blend films along with an irreversible phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Li, Weiping; Zhu, Jiujun; Huo, Xiaoyun; Luo, Laihui; Zhu, Yuejin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the polarization response of dielectric blend based on the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and aromatic polythiourea (ArPTU) was investigated. It is found that the conduction loss at high field has been reduced 2-4 times along with an interesting irreversible transition under high electric field. The loss at 700 MV/m can be kept below 20%, which is better than most other polar dielectric polymers. It is proved that the transition is a phase change from glass phase to polar β phase at a critical field. And the highly polar thiourea groups of ArPTU can act as traps for the electrons, reduce conduction loss greatly and prevent dielectric breakdown by stabilizing the electron energy.

  8. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  9. Relationship between light scattering and absorption due to cytochrome c oxidase reduction during loss of tissue viability in brains of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    We performed simultaneous measurement of light scattering and absorption due to reduction of cytochrome c oxidase as intrinsic optical signals that are related to morphological characteristics and energy metabolism, respectively, for rat brains after oxygen/glucose deprivation by saline infusion. To detect change in light scattering, we determined the wavelength that was the most insensitive to change in light absorption due to the reduction of cytochrome c oxidase on the basis of multiwavelength analysis of diffuse reflectance data set for each rat. Then the relationships between scattering signal and absorption signals related to the reductions of heme aa 3 (605 nm) and CuA (830 nm) in cytochrome c oxidase were examined. Measurements showed that after starting saline infusion, the reduction of heme aa 3 started first; thereafter triphasic, large scattering change occurred (200-300 s), during which the reduction of CuA started. Despite such complex behaviors of IOSs, almost linear correlations were seen between the scattering signal and the heme aa 3-related absorption signal, while a relatively large animal-to-animal variation was observed in the correlation between the scattering signal and CuA-related absorption signal. Transmission electron microscopic observation revealed that dendritic swelling and mitochondrial deformation occurred in the cortical surface tissue after the triphasic scattering change. These results suggest that mitochondrial energy failure accompanies morphological alteration in the brain tissue and results in change in light scattering; light scattering will become an important indicator of tissue viability in brain.

  10. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Directional Microphones and Digital Noise Reduction Hearing Aids in School-Age Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    McCreery, Ryan W.; Venediktov, Rebecca A.; Coleman, Jaumeiko J.; Leech, Hillary M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this evidence-based systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of digital noise reduction and directional microphones for outcome measures of audibility, speech recognition, speech and language, and self- or parent-report in pediatric hearing aid users. Method The authors searched 26 databases for experimental studies published after 1980 addressing one or more clinical questions and meeting all inclusion criteria. The authors evaluated studies for methodological quality and reported or calculated p values and effect sizes when possible. Results A systematic search of the literature resulted in the inclusion of 4 digital noise reduction and 7 directional microphone studies (in 9 journal articles) that addressed speech recognition, speech and language, and/or self-or parent-report outcomes. No digital noise reduction or directional microphone studies addressed audibility outcomes. Conclusions On the basis of a moderate level of evidence, digital noise reduction was not found to improve or degrade speech understanding. Additional research is needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding the impact of digital noise reduction on important speech, language, hearing, and satisfaction outcomes. Moderate evidence also indicates that directional microphones resulted in improved speech recognition in controlled optimal settings; however, additional research is needed to determine the effectiveness of directional microphones in actual everyday listening environments. PMID:22858614

  11. Can training non-physician clinicians/associate clinicians (NPCs/ACs) in emergency obstetric, neonatal care and clinical leadership make a difference to practice and help towards reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality in rural Tanzania? The ETATMBA project

    PubMed Central

    Ellard, David R; Shemdoe, Aloisia; Mazuguni, Festo; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Davies, David; Kihaile, Paul; Pemba, Senga; Bergström, Staffan; Nyamtema, Angelo; Mohamed, Hamed-Mahfoudh; O'Hare, Joseph Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives During late 2010, 36 trainees including 19 assistant medical officers (AMOs) 1 senior clinical officer (CO) and 16 nurse midwives/nurses were recruited from districts across rural Tanzania and invited to join the Enhancing Human Resources and Use of Appropriate Technologies for Maternal and Perinatal Survival in the sub-Saharan Africa (ETATMBA) training programme. The ETATMBA project was training associate clinicians (ACs) as advanced clinical leaders in emergency obstetric care. The trainees returned to health facilities across the country with the hope of being able to apply their new skills and knowledge. The main aim of this study was to explore the impact of the ETATMBA training on health outcomes including maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in their facilities. Secondly, to explore the challenges faced in working in these health facilities. Design The study is a pre-examination/postexamination of maternal and neonatal health indicators and a survey of health facilities in rural Tanzania. The facilities surveyed were those in which ETATMBA trainees were placed post-training. The maternal and neonatal indicators were collected for 2011 and 2013 and the survey of the facilities was in early 2014. Results 16 of 17 facilities were surveyed. Maternal deaths show a non-significant downward trend over the 2 years (282–232 cases/100 000 live births). There were no significant differences in maternal, neonatal and birth complication variables across the time-points. The survey of facilities revealed shortages in key areas and some are a serious concern. Conclusions This study represents a snapshot of rural health facilities providing maternal and neonatal care in Tanzania. Enhancing knowledge, practical skills, and clinical leadership of ACs may have a positive impact on health outcomes. However, any impact may be confounded by the significant challenges in delivering a service in terms of resources. Thus, training may be beneficial, but it

  12. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  13. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, P; Belzile, F; Page, T; Dean, C

    1997-05-01

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity.

  14. Reduction of helium loss from a superconducting accelerating cavity during initial cool-down and cryostat exchange by pre-cooling the re-condensing cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, B. E.; Minehara, E. J.; Hayashizaki, N.; Oshima, N.; Suzuki, R.

    2015-03-01

    A Zero-Boil-Off (ZBO) cryostat is designed to realize a compact, stand-alone cryogenic system for the AIST superconducting accelerator (SCA). Under normal operation there is no evaporative helium loss from the cryomodule and therefore operating costs associated with the supply of liquid helium can be eliminated. The only significant loss of helium from the module occurs during the initial cavity cool-down procedure or when the re-condensing cryostat is replaced. It takes about 3 h to cool down the cryostat head from room temperature (300 K) to 4 K. During this time around 100 L of liquid helium is lost due to evaporation. By pre-cooling the cryostat inside a low heat load vacuum tube before transfer to the cryomodule, this evaporative loss could be essentially eliminated, significantly reducing the volume of liquid helium required for the initial cryomodule cool-down. The pre-cooling system also provides an efficient method to test the cryostat prior to use.

  15. Photovoltaic array loss mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Loss mechanisms which come into play when solar cell modules are mounted in arrays are identified. Losses can occur either from a reduction in the array electrical performance or with nonoptimal extraction of power from the array. Electrical performance degradation is caused by electrical mismatch, transmission losses from cell surface soiling and steep angle of reflectance, and electrical losses from field wiring resistance and the voltage drop across blocking diodes. The second type of loss, concerned with the operating points of the array, can involve nonoptimal load impedance and limiting the operating envelope of the array to specific ranges of voltage and current. Each of the loss mechanisms are discussed and average energy losses expected from soiling, steep reflectance angles and circuit losses are calculated.

  16. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  17. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  18. High-Frequency ac Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Mildice, James

    1987-01-01

    Loads managed automatically under cycle-by-cycle control. 440-V rms, 20-kHz ac power system developed. System flexible, versatile, and "transparent" to user equipment, while maintaining high efficiency and low weight. Electrical source, from dc to 2,200-Hz ac converted to 440-V rms, 20-kHz, single-phase ac. Power distributed through low-inductance cables. Output power either dc or variable ac. Energy transferred per cycle reduced by factor of 50. Number of parts reduced by factor of about 5 and power loss reduced by two-thirds. Factors result in increased reliability and reduced costs. Used in any power-distribution system requiring high efficiency, high reliability, low weight, and flexibility to handle variety of sources and loads.

  19. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  20. Identification of /sup 233/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.Y.; Zhou, M.L.

    1983-09-01

    We report in this paper identification of the new isotope /sup 233/Ac. Uranium targets were irradiated with 28 GeV protons; after rapid retrieval of the target and separation of actinium from thorium, /sup 233/Ac was allowed to decay into the known /sup 233/Th daughter. Exhaustive chemical purification was employed to permit the identification of /sup 233/Th via its characteristic ..gamma.. radiations. The half-life derived for /sup 233/Ac from several experiments is 2.3 +- 0.3 min. The production cross section for /sup 233/Ac is 100 ..mu..b.

  1. AC and DC power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic assessment of AC and DC transmission systems; long distance transmission, cable transmission, system inter-connection, voltage support, reactive compensation, stabilisation of systems; parallel operation of DC links with AC systems; comparison between alternatives for particular schemes. Design and application equipment: design, testing and application of equipment for HVDC, series and shunt static compensated AC schemes, including associated controls. Installations: overall design of stations and conductor arrangements for HVDC, series and shunt static AC schemes including insulation co-ordination. System analysis and modelling.

  2. Impact of Genetic Reduction of NMNAT2 on Chemotherapy-Induced Losses in Cell Viability In Vitro and Peripheral Neuropathy In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Slivicki, Richard A; Ali, Yousuf O; Lu, Hui-Chen; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) are essential neuronal maintenance factors postulated to preserve neuronal function and protect against axonal degeneration in various neurodegenerative disease states. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to assess the impact of NMNAT2 reduction on cellular and physiological functions induced by treatment with a vinca alkaloid (vincristine) and a taxane-based (paclitaxel) chemotherapeutic agent. NMNAT2 null (NMNAT2-/-) mutant mice die at birth and cannot be used to probe functions of NMNAT2 in adult animals. Nonetheless, primary cortical cultures derived from NMNAT2-/- embryos showed reduced cell viability in response to either vincristine or paclitaxel treatment whereas those derived from NMNAT2 heterozygous (NMNAT2+/-) mice were preferentially sensitive to vincristine-induced degeneration. Adult NMNAT2+/- mice, which survive to adulthood, exhibited a 50% reduction of NMNAT2 protein levels in dorsal root ganglia relative to wildtype (WT) mice with no change in levels of other NMNAT isoforms (NMNAT1 or NMNAT3), NMNAT enzyme activity (i.e. NAD/NADH levels) or microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2) or neurofilament protein levels. We therefore compared the impact of NMNAT2 knockdown on the development and maintenance of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy induced by vincristine and paclitaxel treatment using NMNAT2+/- and WT mice. NMNAT2+/- did not differ from WT mice in either the development or maintenance of either mechanical or cold allodynia induced by either vincristine or paclitaxel treatment. Intradermal injection of capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers, produced equivalent hypersensitivity in NMNAT2+/- and WT mice receiving vehicle in lieu of paclitaxel. Capsaicin-evoked hypersensitivity was enhanced by prior paclitaxel treatment but did not differ in either NMNAT2+/- or WT mice. Thus, capsaicin failed to unmask differences in nociceptive behaviors in either paclitaxel

  3. Impact of Genetic Reduction of NMNAT2 on Chemotherapy-Induced Losses in Cell Viability In Vitro and Peripheral Neuropathy In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Slivicki, Richard A; Ali, Yousuf O; Lu, Hui-Chen; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) are essential neuronal maintenance factors postulated to preserve neuronal function and protect against axonal degeneration in various neurodegenerative disease states. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to assess the impact of NMNAT2 reduction on cellular and physiological functions induced by treatment with a vinca alkaloid (vincristine) and a taxane-based (paclitaxel) chemotherapeutic agent. NMNAT2 null (NMNAT2-/-) mutant mice die at birth and cannot be used to probe functions of NMNAT2 in adult animals. Nonetheless, primary cortical cultures derived from NMNAT2-/- embryos showed reduced cell viability in response to either vincristine or paclitaxel treatment whereas those derived from NMNAT2 heterozygous (NMNAT2+/-) mice were preferentially sensitive to vincristine-induced degeneration. Adult NMNAT2+/- mice, which survive to adulthood, exhibited a 50% reduction of NMNAT2 protein levels in dorsal root ganglia relative to wildtype (WT) mice with no change in levels of other NMNAT isoforms (NMNAT1 or NMNAT3), NMNAT enzyme activity (i.e. NAD/NADH levels) or microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2) or neurofilament protein levels. We therefore compared the impact of NMNAT2 knockdown on the development and maintenance of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy induced by vincristine and paclitaxel treatment using NMNAT2+/- and WT mice. NMNAT2+/- did not differ from WT mice in either the development or maintenance of either mechanical or cold allodynia induced by either vincristine or paclitaxel treatment. Intradermal injection of capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers, produced equivalent hypersensitivity in NMNAT2+/- and WT mice receiving vehicle in lieu of paclitaxel. Capsaicin-evoked hypersensitivity was enhanced by prior paclitaxel treatment but did not differ in either NMNAT2+/- or WT mice. Thus, capsaicin failed to unmask differences in nociceptive behaviors in either paclitaxel

  4. Impact of Genetic Reduction of NMNAT2 on Chemotherapy-Induced Losses in Cell Viability In Vitro and Peripheral Neuropathy In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Slivicki, Richard A.; Ali, Yousuf O.; Lu, Hui-Chen; Hohmann, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) are essential neuronal maintenance factors postulated to preserve neuronal function and protect against axonal degeneration in various neurodegenerative disease states. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to assess the impact of NMNAT2 reduction on cellular and physiological functions induced by treatment with a vinca alkaloid (vincristine) and a taxane-based (paclitaxel) chemotherapeutic agent. NMNAT2 null (NMNAT2-/-) mutant mice die at birth and cannot be used to probe functions of NMNAT2 in adult animals. Nonetheless, primary cortical cultures derived from NMNAT2-/- embryos showed reduced cell viability in response to either vincristine or paclitaxel treatment whereas those derived from NMNAT2 heterozygous (NMNAT2+/-) mice were preferentially sensitive to vincristine-induced degeneration. Adult NMNAT2+/- mice, which survive to adulthood, exhibited a 50% reduction of NMNAT2 protein levels in dorsal root ganglia relative to wildtype (WT) mice with no change in levels of other NMNAT isoforms (NMNAT1 or NMNAT3), NMNAT enzyme activity (i.e. NAD/NADH levels) or microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2) or neurofilament protein levels. We therefore compared the impact of NMNAT2 knockdown on the development and maintenance of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy induced by vincristine and paclitaxel treatment using NMNAT2+/- and WT mice. NMNAT2+/- did not differ from WT mice in either the development or maintenance of either mechanical or cold allodynia induced by either vincristine or paclitaxel treatment. Intradermal injection of capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers, produced equivalent hypersensitivity in NMNAT2+/- and WT mice receiving vehicle in lieu of paclitaxel. Capsaicin-evoked hypersensitivity was enhanced by prior paclitaxel treatment but did not differ in either NMNAT2+/- or WT mice. Thus, capsaicin failed to unmask differences in nociceptive behaviors in either paclitaxel

  5. Recent habitat fragmentation caused by major roads leads to reduction of gene flow and loss of genetic variability in ground beetles.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Irene; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2003-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is suspected to jeopardize the long-term survival of many species, few data are available on its impact on the genetic variability of invertebrates. We assess the genetic population structure of the flightless ground beetle Carabus violaceus L., 1758 in a Swiss forest, which is divided into several fragments by a highway and two main roads. Eight samples were collected from different forest fragments and analysed at six microsatellite loci. The largest genetic differentiation was observed between samples separated by roads and in particular by the highway. The number of roads between sites explained 44% of the variance in pairwise F(ST) estimates, whereas the age of the road and the geographical distance between locations were not significant factors. Furthermore, a comparison of allelic richness showed that the genetic variability in a small forest fragment isolated by the highway was significantly lower than in the rest of the study area. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that large roads are absolute barriers to gene flow in C. violaceus, which may lead to a loss of genetic variability in fragmented populations. PMID:12639322

  6. Electron Transfer Reduction of the Diazirine Ring in Gas-Phase Peptide Ions. On the Peculiar Loss of [NH4O] from Photoleucine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Aleš; Shaffer, Christopher J.; Pepin, Robert; Slováková, Kristina; Laszlo, Kenneth J.; Bush, Matthew F.; Tureček, František

    2015-03-01

    Electron transfer to gas-phase peptide ions with diazirine-containing amino acid residue photoleucine (L*) triggers diazirine ring reduction followed by cascades of residue-specific radical reactions. Upon electron transfer, substantial fractions of (GL*GGR +2H)+● cation-radicals undergo elimination of [NH4O] radicals and N2H2 molecules from the side chain. The side-chain dissociations are particularly prominent on collisional activation of long-lived (GL*GGR +2H)+● cation-radicals formed by electron transfer dissociation of noncovalent peptide-18-crown-6-ether ion complexes. The ion dissociation products were characterized by multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) and ion mobility measurements. The elimination of [NH4O] was elucidated with the help of 2H, 15 N, and 18O-labeled peptide ions and found to specifically involve the amide oxygen of the N-terminal residue. The structures, energies, and electronic states of the peptide radical species were elucidated by a combination of near-UV photodissociation experiments and electron structure calculations combining ab initio and density functional theory methods. Electron transfer reaching the ground electronic states of charge reduced (GL*GGR +2H)+● cation-radicals was found to reduce the diazirine ring. In contrast, backbone N - Cα bond dissociations that represent a 60%-75% majority of all dissociations because of electron transfer are predicted to occur from excited electronic states.

  7. BOLD signal effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in the alpha range: A concurrent tACS-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Vosskuhl, Johannes; Huster, René J; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2016-10-15

    Many studies have proven transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to manipulate brain activity. Until now it is not known, however, how these manipulations in brain activity are represented in brain metabolism or how spatially specific these changes are. Alpha-tACS has been shown to enhance the amplitude of the individual alpha frequency (IAF) and a negative correlation between alpha amplitude and occipital BOLD signal was reported in numerous EEG/fMRI experiments. Thus, alpha-tACS was chosen to test the effects of tACS on the BOLD signal. A reduction thereof was expected during alpha-tACS which shows the spatial extent of tACS effects beyond modeling studies. Three groups of subjects were measured in an MRI scanner, receiving tACS at either their IAF (N=11), 1Hz (control; N=12) or sham (i.e., no stimulation - a second control; N=11) while responding to a visual vigilance task. Stimulation was administered in an interleaved pattern of tACS-on runs and tACS-free baseline periods. The BOLD signal was analyzed in response to tACS-onset during resting state and in response to seldom target stimuli. Alpha-tACS at 1.0mA reduced the task-related BOLD response to visual targets in the occipital cortex as compared to tACS-free baseline periods. The deactivation was strongest in an area where the BOLD signal was shown to correlate negatively with alpha amplitude. A direct effect of tACS on resting state BOLD signal levels could not be shown. Our findings suggest that tACS-related changes in BOLD activity occur only as a modulation of an existing BOLD response.

  8. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer. 24 figs.

  9. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.

  10. Parallel reduction in expression, but no loss of functional constraint, in two opsin paralogs within cave populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is a premier candidate for studying the evolution of troglomorphic traits such as pigmentation loss, elongated appendages, and reduced eyes. In G. minus, multiple pairs of genetically related, physically proximate cave and surface populations exist which exhibit a high degree of intraspecific morphological divergence. The morphology, ecology, and genetic structure of these sister populations are well characterized, yet the genetic basis of their morphological divergence remains unknown. Results We used degenerate PCR primers designed to amplify opsin genes within the subphylum Crustacea and discovered two distinct opsin paralogs (average inter-paralog protein divergence ≈ 20%) in the genome of three independently derived pairs of G. minus cave and surface populations. Both opsin paralogs were found to be related to other crustacean middle wavelength sensitive opsins. Low levels of nucleotide sequence variation (< 1% within populations) were detected in both opsin genes, regardless of habitat, and dN/dS ratios did not indicate a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave populations with reduced or absent eyes. Maximum likelihood analyses using codon-based models also did not detect a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave lineages. We quantified expression level of both opsin genes and found that the expression of both paralogs was significantly reduced in all three cave populations relative to their sister surface populations. Conclusions The concordantly lowered expression level of both opsin genes in cave populations of G. minus compared to sister surface populations, combined with evidence for persistent purifying selection in the cave populations, is consistent with an unspecified pleiotropic function of opsin proteins. Our results indicate that phototransduction proteins such as opsins may have retained their function in cave

  11. CRP, but not TNF-α or IL-6, decreases after weight loss in patients with morbid obesity exposed to intensive weight reduction and balneological treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Rość, Danuta; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Boinska, Joanna; Szafkowski, Robert; Ponikowska, Irena; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Barbara; Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the degree of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with morbid obesity exposed to a three-week low-calorie diet and balneotherapy. Methods: The study included 33 patients (25 females and 8 males; mean age 46 years) with body mass index (BMI) values of >40 kg/m2. Evaluations of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, and fasting glucose were carried out before (baseline data) and three weeks after the treatment. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers (15 females and 5 males) with a mean age of 39 years and BMI values of ≤24.9 kg/m2. Results: In the blood of patients with morbid obesity we found significantly elevated levels of CRP, TNF-α, triglycerides, HOMA-IR and fasting glucose, but a decreased level of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, compared with the healthy individuals. The treatment resulted in about a 9.4% reduction in body weight from 122.5 to 111.0 kg and a significant decrease in the concentration of CRP, but no change in TNF-α or IL-6. HOMA-IR was significantly reduced. Conclusions: The decrease in CRP level without changes in TNF-α or IL-6 concentrations after the low-calorie diet and balneological treatment, suggests that an essential amount of adipose tissue must be removed before proper adipocyte function is restored. The decrease in HOMA-IR indicates an improvement in insulin sensitivity, which is beneficial in obese patients. PMID:25990058

  12. AKT1-mediated Lamin A/C degradation is required for nuclear degradation and normal epidermal terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Naeem, A S; Zhu, Y; Di, W L; Marmiroli, S; O'Shaughnessy, R F L

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear degradation is a key stage in keratinocyte terminal differentiation and the formation of the cornified envelope that comprises the majority of epidermal barrier function. Parakeratosis, the retention of nuclear material in the cornified layer of the epidermis, is a common histological observation in many skin diseases, notably in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Keratinocyte nuclear degradation is not well characterised, and it is unclear whether the retained nuclei contribute to the altered epidermal differentiation seen in eczema and psoriasis. Loss of AKT1 function strongly correlated with parakeratosis both in eczema samples and in organotypic culture models. Although levels of DNAses, including DNase1L2, were unchanged, proteomic analysis revealed an increase in Lamin A/C. AKT phosphorylates Lamin A/C, targeting it for degradation. Consistent with this, Lamin A/C degradation was inhibited and Lamin A/C was observed in the cornified layer of AKT1 knockdown organotypic cultures, surrounding retained nuclear material. Using AKT-phosphorylation-dead Lamin A constructs we show that the retention of nuclear material is sufficient to cause profound changes in epidermal terminal differentiation, specifically a reduction in Loricrin, Keratin 1, Keratin 10, and filaggrin expression. We show that preventing nuclear degradation upregulates BMP2 expression and SMAD1 signalling. Consistent with these data, we observe both parakeratosis and evidence of increased SMAD1 signalling in atopic dermatitis. We therefore present a model that, in the absence of AKT1-mediated Lamin A/C degradation, DNA degradation processes, such as those mediated by DNAse 1L2, are prevented, leading to parakeratosis and changes in epidermal differentiation.

  13. Superconductor films with improved flux pinning and reduced AC losses

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-04-05

    The present invention relates to a method for producing a defect-containing superconducting film, the method comprising (a) depositing a phase-separable layer epitaxially onto a biaxially-textured substrate, wherein the phase-separable layer includes at least two phase-separable components; (b) achieving nanoscale phase separation of the phase-separable layer such that a phase-separated layer including at least two phase-separated components is produced; and (c) depositing a superconducting film epitaxially onto said phase-separated components of the phase-separated layer such that nanoscale features of the phase-separated layer are propagated into the superconducting film.

  14. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY

    SciTech Connect

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Christensen, Charlotte; Gilbert, Karoline; Hodge, Paul; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Olsen, Knut; Freeman, Ken; Gallart, Carme; De Jong, Roelof S. E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu E-mail: stephanie@astro.washington.edu E-mail: fabio@astro.washington.edu E-mail: aseth@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-07-15

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D < 4 Mpc). The survey volume encompasses 69 galaxies in diverse environments, including close pairs, small and large groups, filaments, and truly isolated regions. The galaxies include a nearly complete range of morphological types spanning a factor of {approx}10{sup 4} in luminosity and star formation rate. The survey data consist of images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), supplemented with archival data and new Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging taken after the failure of ACS. Survey images include wide field tilings covering the full radial extent of each galaxy, and single deep pointings in uncrowded regions of the most massive galaxies in the volume. The new wide field imaging in ANGST reaches median 50% completenesses of m {sub F475W} = 28.0 mag, m {sub F606W} = 27.3 mag, and m {sub F814W} = 27.3 mag, several magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). The deep fields reach magnitudes sufficient to fully resolve the structure in the red clump. The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly accessible and contain over 34 million photometric measurements of >14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  15. Application of fuzzy logic in the speed control of AC servo system and an intelligent inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Fengfu Cheng; Shengnian Yeh . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a novel fuzzy logic controller for use in the fully digital speed control of ac servo systems. A new intelligent inverter is also proposed to reduce the switching loss and the current harmonics in induction motors. A 16-bit single-chip microprocessor is used to reduce the number of circuit components for cost reduction and reliability enhancement. In order to facilitate the instantaneous control of motor torque, indirect field orientation is adopted along with a current regulated pulse-width-modulation voltage-source inverter (CRPWM VSI). Computer simulation is first given to assess the feasibility of the system proposed. Circuit design and software development are then undertaken. Simulation results are verified experimentally.

  16. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  17. ACS CCD Stability Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogin, Norman

    2012-10-01

    A moderately crowded stellar field in the cluster 47 Tuc {6 arcmin West of the cluster core} is observed every four months with the WFC. The first visit exercises the full suite of broad and narrow band imaging filters and sub-array modes; following visits observe with only the six most popular Cycle 18 filters in full-frame mode. The positions and magnitudes of objects will be used to monitor local and large scale variations in the plate scale and the sensitivity of the detectors and to derive an independent measure of the detector CTE. One exposure in each sub-array mode with the WFC will allow us to verify that photometry obtained in full-frame and in sub-array modes are repeatable to better than 1%. This test is important for the ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration program, which uses sub-array exposures. This program may receive additional orbits to investigate ORIENT-dependent geometric distortion, which motivates the ORIENT and BETWEEN requirement on the first visit.

  18. Energy efficiency and renewable energy options for riskmanagement and insurance loss reduction: An inventory oftechnologies, research capabilities, and research facilities at theU. S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allan; Mills, Evan; Vine, Edward.

    1998-08-31

    The promotion of technologies and services for insurance loss reduction and loss prevention is as old as the fields of insurance and risk management. This report addresses a new category of risk management opportunity involving technologies and procedures that use energy more efficiently or supply renewable energy. While the economic benefits of these measures are of interest to energy consumers seeking to reduce their energy expenditures, we have found that they also offer a novel and largely untapped pathway for achieving traditional risk management objectives. Most of the technologies described in this report were supported by government- sponsored RD D programs over many years of effort. These technologies have many benefits, including insurance loss reduction and prevention. The insurance and risk management communities could take advantage of these technologies, either independently or in cost-sharing partnerships with existing R D programs. In this report, we present a compilation of energy-efficiency and renewable energy projects (e.g., energy-efficient halogen torchiere replacements) and techniques (e.g., infrared cameras to detect fire hazards) that are currently being investigated at the U.S. Department of Energy's national laboratories and which the insurance and risk management communities could encourage their customers to use to address their short-term and long-term needs. Once the loss-prevention benefits of these technologies and techniques (many of which are not yet available in the marketplace) are sufficiently demonstrated, insurers can promote their use through informational programs and perhaps financial incentives (e.g., risk-adjusted insurance premium schemes) through the insurance regulatory and rate-making processes. We identified 78 technologies and techniques being investigated by nine national laboratories which can help to reduce insurance losses and manage risks, especially those associated with power failures, fire and wind damage

  19. Energy efficiency and renewable energy options for riskmanagement and insurance loss reduction: An inventory oftechnologies, research capabilities, and research facilities at theU.S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allan; Mills, Evan; Vine, Edward

    1998-08-31

    The promotion of technologies and services for insurance loss reduction and loss prevention is as old as the fields of insurance and risk management. This report addresses a new category of risk management opportunity involving technologies and procedures that use energy more efficiently or supply renewable energy. While the economic benefits of these measures are of interest to energy consumers seeking to reduce their energy expenditures, we have found that they also offer a novel and largely untapped pathway for achieving traditional risk management objectives. Most of the technologies described in this report were supported by government- sponsored RD&D programs over many years of effort. These technologies have many benefits, including insurance loss reduction and prevention. The insurance and risk management communities could take advantage of these technologies, either independently or in cost-sharing partnerships with existing R&D programs. In this report, we present a compilation of energy-efficiency and renewable energy projects (e.g., energy-efficient halogen torchiere replacements) and techniques (e.g., infrared cameras to detect fire hazards) that are currently being investigated at the U.S. Department of Energy's national laboratories and which the insurance and risk management communities could encourage their customers to use to address their short-term and long-term needs. Once the loss-prevention benefits of these technologies and techniques (many of which are not yet available in the marketplace) are sufficiently demonstrated, insurers can promote their use through informational programs and perhaps financial incentives (e.g., risk-adjusted insurance premium schemes) through the insurance regulatory and rate-making processes. We identified 78 technologies and techniques being investigated by nine national laboratories which can help to reduce insurance losses and manage risks, especially those associated with power failures, fire and wind damage

  20. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  1. An H2A Histone Isotype, H2ac, Associates with Telomere and Maintains Telomere Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Tsai-Yu; Lin, I-Hsuan; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are capped at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and are composed of TTAGGG repeats bound to the shelterin complex. Here we report that a replication-dependent histone H2A isotype, H2ac, was associated with telomeres in human cells and co-immunoprecipitates with telomere repeat factor 2 (TRF2) and protection of telomeres protein 1 (POT1), whereas other histone H2A isotypes and mutations of H2ac did not bind to telomeres or these two proteins. The amino terminal basic domain of TRF2 was necessary for the association with H2ac and for the recruitment of H2ac to telomeres. Depletion of H2ac led to loss of telomeric repeat sequences, the appearance of dysfunctional telomeres, and chromosomal instability, including chromosomal breaks and anaphase bridges, as well as accumulation of telomere-associated DNA damage factors in H2ac depleted cells. Additionally, knockdown of H2ac elicits an ATM-dependent DNA damage response at telomeres and depletion of XPF protects telomeres against H2ac-deficiency-induced G-strand overhangs loss and DNA damage response, and prevents chromosomal instability. These findings suggest that the H2A isotype, H2ac, plays an essential role in maintaining telomere functional integrity. PMID:27228173

  2. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  3. Energy losses in mechanically modified bacterial magnetosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molcan, Matus; Gojzewski, Hubert; Skumiel, Andrzej; Dutz, Silvio; Kovac, Jozef; Kubovcikova, Martina; Kopcansky, Peter; Vekas, Ladislau; Timko, Milan

    2016-09-01

    Magnetosomes are isolated from the Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 bacteria. Two samples are compared: magnetosomes normally prepared of a ‘standard’ length and magnetosomes of a short length. Chains of magnetosomes are shortened by mechanical modification (cleavage) by means of sonication treatment. They represent a new geometry of magnetosomes that have not been investigated before. The effect of the sonication is analysed using transmission and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Scanning imaging reveals three types of shortening effect in a sample of shortened magnetosomes, namely, membrane collapse, membrane destruction, and magnetosome cleavage. Dynamic light scattering shows a reduction of hydrodynamic diameter in a sample of shortened magnetosomes. The magnetic properties of magnetosomes are analysed and compared in DC and AC magnetic fields based on the evaluation of quasi-static hysteresis loops (energy losses) and calorimetric hyperthermia measurements (specific absorption rate), respectively. A sample of shortened magnetosomes behaves magnetically in a different manner, showing that both the energy loss and the specific absorption rate are reduced, and thereby indicates a variation in the heating process. The magnetic properties of magnetosomes, together with the new and stable geometry, are balanced, which opens the way for a better adaptation of the magnetic field parameters for particular applications.

  4. AC and Phase Sensing of Nanowires for Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Marco; Rossi, Michele; Ashburn, Peter; Lombardini, Marta; Sangiorgi, Enrico; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-04-19

    Silicon nanowires are label-free sensors that allow real-time measurements. They are economical and pave the road for point-of-care applications but require complex readout and skilled personnel. We propose a new model and technique for sensing nanowire sensors using alternating currents (AC) to capture both magnitude and phase information from the sensor. This approach combines the advantages of complex impedance spectroscopy with the noise reduction performances of lock-in techniques. Experimental results show how modifications of the sensors with different surface chemistries lead to the same direct-current (DC) response but can be discerned using the AC approach.

  5. AC and Phase Sensing of Nanowires for Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Marco; Rossi, Michele; Ashburn, Peter; Lombardini, Marta; Sangiorgi, Enrico; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are label-free sensors that allow real-time measurements. They are economical and pave the road for point-of-care applications but require complex readout and skilled personnel. We propose a new model and technique for sensing nanowire sensors using alternating currents (AC) to capture both magnitude and phase information from the sensor. This approach combines the advantages of complex impedance spectroscopy with the noise reduction performances of lock-in techniques. Experimental results show how modifications of the sensors with different surface chemistries lead to the same direct-current (DC) response but can be discerned using the AC approach. PMID:27104577

  6. A type III ACC synthase, ACS7, is involved in root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ing-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene is an important plant hormone that regulates developmental processes in plants. The ethylene biosynthesis pathway is a highly regulated process at both the transcriptional and post-translational level. The transcriptional regulation of these ethylene biosynthesis genes is well known. However, post-translational modifications of the key ethylene biosynthesis enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) are little understood. In vitro kinase assays were conducted on the type III ACS, AtACS7, fusion protein and peptides to determine whether the AtACS7 protein can be phosphorylated by calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). AtACS7 was phosphorylated at Ser216, Thr296, and Ser299 by AtCDPK16 in vitro. To investigate further the function of the ACS7 gene in Arabidopsis, an acs7-1 loss-of-function mutant was isolated. The acs7-1 mutant exhibited less sensitivity to the inhibition of root gravitropism by treatment with the calcium chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA). Seedlings were treated with gradient concentrations of ACC. The results showed that a certain concentration of ethylene enhanced the gravity response. Moreover, the acs7-1 mutant was less sensitive to inhibition of the gravity response by treatment with the auxin polar transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, but exogenous ACC application recovered root gravitropism. Altogether, the results indicate that AtACS7 is involved in root gravitropism in a calcium-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. PMID:23943848

  7. Graphene-coated coupling coil for AC resistance reduction

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John M

    2014-03-04

    At least one graphene layer is formed to laterally surround a tube so that the basal plane of each graphene layer is tangential to the local surface of the tube on which the graphene layer is formed. An electrically conductive path is provided around the tube for providing high conductivity electrical path provided by the basal plane of each graphene layer. The high conductivity path can be employed for high frequency applications such as coupling coils for wireless power transmission to overcome skin depth effects and proximity effects prevalent in high frequency alternating current paths.

  8. Selective reduction.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Krivchenia, Eric L; Gelber, Shari E; Wapner, Ronald J

    2003-03-01

    Multifetal pregnancy reduction continues to be controversial. Attitudes about MFPR have not, in our experience, followed a simple "pro-choice/pro-life" dichotomy. As far back as the mid to late 1980s, opinions about the subject were varied. Even then, when much less was known about the subject, opinions did not always parallel the usual pro-choice/theological boundaries. We believe that the real debate over the next 5 to 10 years will not be whether or not MFPR should be performed with triplets or more. The fact is that MFPR does improve those outcomes. A serious debate will emerge over whether or not it is appropriate to offer MFPR routinely for twins, even natural ones, for whom the outcome is commonly considered "good enough." Our data suggest that reduction of twins to a singleton improves the outcome of the remaining fetus. No consensus on appropriateness of routine 2-1 reductions is ever likely to emerge. The ethical issues surrounding MFPR will always be controversial. Over the years, much has been written on the subject. Opinions will always vary from outraged condemnation to complete acceptance. No short paragraph could do justice to the subject other than to state that most proponents do not believe this is a frivolous procedure but do believe in the principle of proportionality ie, therapy to achieve the most good for the least harm). Over the past 15 years, MFPR has become a well-established and integral part of infertility therapy and attempts to deal with the sequelae of aggressive infertility management. In the mid 1980s, the risks and benefits of the procedure could only be guessed. We now have clear and precise data on the risks and benefits of the procedure and an understanding that the risks increase substantially with the starting and finishing number of fetuses in multifetal pregnancies. The collaborative loss rate numbers (ie, 4.5% for triplets, 8% for quadruplets. 11% for quintuplets, and 15% for sextuplets or more) seem reasonable to present

  9. The ac53, ac78, ac101, and ac103 Genes Are Newly Discovered Core Genes in the Family Baculoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Miele, Solange Ana Belén; Iserte, Javier Alonso; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    The family Baculoviridae is a large group of insect viruses containing circular double-stranded DNA genomes of 80 to 180 kbp, which have broad biotechnological applications. A key feature to understand and manipulate them is the recognition of orthology. However, the differences in gene contents and evolutionary distances among the known members of this family make it difficult to assign sequence orthology. In this study, the genome sequences of 58 baculoviruses were analyzed, with the aim to detect previously undescribed core genes because of their remote homology. A routine based on Multi PSI-Blast/tBlastN and Multi HaMStR allowed us to detect 31 of 33 accepted core genes and 4 orthologous sequences in the Baculoviridae which were not described previously. Our results show that the ac53, ac78, ac101 (p40), and ac103 (p48) genes have orthologs in all genomes and should be considered core genes. Accordingly, there are 37 orthologous genes in the family Baculoviridae. PMID:22933288

  10. Semiconductor ac static power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrancik, J.

    1968-01-01

    Semiconductor ac static power switch has long life and high reliability, contains no moving parts, and operates satisfactorily in severe environments, including high vibration and shock conditions. Due to their resistance to shock and vibration, static switches are used where accidental switching caused by mechanical vibration or shock cannot be tolerated.

  11. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstrate, Suzanne W.; van Bussel, Lambertus J. A.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Cator, Eric; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2) and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin) mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i) the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii) the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits. PMID:25278945

  12. Chronic unilateral vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Kerber, K A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic unilateral vestibular loss is a condition defined by the presence of reduced function of the peripheral vestibular system on one side, which has generally persisted for 3 or more months. The deficit is demonstrated by a reduction of the vestibular-ocular reflex either at the bedside or on laboratory testing. Though some patients with chronic vestibular loss have disabling symptoms, others are asymptomatic. Causes include a viral/postviral disorder, Menière's disease, structural lesions, ischemia, and trauma. Any other systemic or genetic disorder would be expected to involve both sides at some point. PMID:27638074

  13. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. ...

  14. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common baldness" usually means male-pattern baldness, or permanent-pattern baldness. It is also called androgenetic alopecia. ... will grow back normally. However, scarring can cause permanent hair loss. Hot oil hair treatments or chemicals ...

  15. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... results in the loss of, or damage to brain tissue or nerve cells, such as Parkinson disease , Huntington disease , or multiple sclerosis Low levels of important nutrients or vitamins, such as low vitamin B1 or B12

  16. ACS Expands Role In High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes some of the services and programs of special interests to high school chemistry teachers that are being provided by ACS, and meant to make ACS membership more attractive to the teachers. (GA)

  17. New levitation scheme with AC superconducting magnet for EDS MAGLEV system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.K.; Hahn, S.Y.; Cha, G.

    1996-09-01

    This paper proposes a new magnetic levitation scheme which is able to generate levitation force for all speeds including a standstill. Auxiliary wheels which are needed in EDS MAGLEV vehicle can be eliminated. This scheme uses AC superconducting magnets to generate levitation force. In this paper, magnetic fields, forces and power dissipations generated by AC magnets moving above a conducting slab are calculated analytically. Results of calculation show characteristics of EDS system with AC magnet, such as levitation force and loss, are superior to those of EDS system with DC magnets for all speeds.

  18. Flux-transfer losses in helically wound superconducting power cables

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, John R; Malozemoff, A P

    2013-06-25

    Minimization of ac losses is essential for economic operation of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) ac power cables. A favorable configuration for the phase conductor of such cables has two counter-wound layers of HTS tape-shaped wires lying next to each other and helically wound around a flexible cylindrical former. However, if magnetic materials such as magnetic substrates of the tapes lie between the two layers, or if the winding pitch angles are not opposite and essentially equal in magnitude to each other, current distributes unequally between the two layers. Then, if at some point in the ac cycle the current of either of the two layers exceeds its critical current, a large ac loss arises from the transfer of flux between the two layers. A detailed review of the formalism, and its application to the case of paramagnetic substrates including the calculation of this flux-transfer loss, is presented.

  19. Analysis of the Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Overlapping Gene Pair lef3 and ac68 Reveals that AC68 Is a Per Os Infectivity Factor and that LEF3 Is Critical, but Not Essential, for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yingchao; Fang, Minggang; Erlandson, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac68 is a core gene that overlaps lef3 which encodes the single-stranded DNA binding protein. A knockout (KO) virus lacking both lef3 and ac68 was generated (lef3-ac68 2×KO) to enable the functional study of ac68. To produce an ac68KO virus that did not impact lef3 expression, the lef3-ac68 2×KO virus was repaired with a DNA fragment containing lef3 and ac68, in which ac68 contained point mutations so that only LEF3 was expressed. Repair of lef3-ac68 2×KO with just ac68 generated an lef3KO virus. Analysis of the ac68KO virus showed that viral DNA replication and budded virus (BV) levels were unaffected compared to levels in the double-repair or wild-type (WT) control virus. Bioassay analyses of Trichoplusia ni larvae injected with BV directly into the hemolymph, bypassing the gut, showed no difference in mortality rates between the ac68KO and the WT viruses. However, in oral bioassays the ac68KO occlusion bodies failed to kill larvae. These results show that the core gene ac68 encodes a per os infectivity factor (pif6). The lef3KO virus was also analyzed, and virus replication was drastically reduced compared to WT virus, but very low levels of lef3KO virus DNA replication and BV production could be detected. In addition, in transfected cells P143 was transported to the nucleus in the absence of LEF3. This study therefore shows for the first time that even though the loss of LEF3 severely impairs virus replication, it is not absolutely essential for P143 nuclear import or viral replication. PMID:22278232

  20. Age-related changes in lamin A/C expression in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Afilalo, Jonathan; Sebag, Igal A; Chalifour, Lorraine E; Rivas, Daniel; Akter, Rahima; Sharma, Kamal; Duque, Gustavo

    2007-09-01

    Lamin A and C (A/C) are type V intermediate filaments that form the nuclear lamina. Lamin A/C mutations lead to reduced expression of lamin A/C and diverse phenotypes such as familial cardiomyopathies and accelerated aging syndromes. Normal aging is associated with reduced expression of lamin A/C in osteoblasts and dermal fibroblasts but has never been assessed in cardiomyocytes. Our objective was to compare the expression of lamin A/C in cardiomyocytes of old (24 mo) versus young (4 mo) C57Bl/6J mice using a well-validated mouse model of aging. Lamin B1 was used as a control. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses showed reduced expression of lamin A/C in cardiomyocyte nuclei of old mice (proportion of nuclei expressing lamin A/C, 9% vs. 62%, P < 0.001). Lamin A/C distribution was scattered peripherally and perinuclear in old mice, whereas it was homogeneous throughout the nuclei in young mice. Western blot analyses confirmed reduced expression of lamin A/C in nuclear extracts of old mice (ratio of lamin A/C to B1, 0.6 vs. 1.2, P < 0.01). Echocardiographic studies showed increased left ventricular wall thickness with preserved cavity size (concentric remodeling), increased left ventricular mass, and a slight reduction in fractional shortening in old mice. This is the first study to show that normal aging is associated with reduced expression and altered distribution of lamin A/C in nuclei of cardiomyocytes.

  1. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  2. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  3. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  4. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... 70. PHYSICAL OR EMOTIONAL STRESS Physical or emotional stress may cause one-half to three-quarters of scalp hair ... for weeks to months after the episode of stress. Hair shedding ... long-term (chronic). Causes of this type of hair loss are: High ...

  5. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychosocial impact of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively ... 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  6. Mechanism of enhanced nitrate reduction via micro-electrolysis at the powdered zero-valent iron/activated carbon interface.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinghuan; Song, Guangyu; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate reduction by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) powder always works well only at controlled pH lower than 4 due to the formation of iron (hydr)oxides on its surface. Fe(0) powder combined with activated carbon (AC), i.e., Fe(0)/AC micro-electrolysis system, was first introduced to enhance nitrate reduction in aqueous solution. Comparative study was carried out to investigate nitrate reduction by Fe(0)/AC system and Fe(0) under near-neutral conditions, showing that the Fe(0)/AC system successfully reduced nitrate even at initial pH 6 with the reduction efficiency of up to 73%, whereas for Fe(0) only ∼10%. The effect of Fe(0) to AC mass ratio on nitrate reduction efficiency was examined. Easier nitrate reduction was achieved with more contact between Fe(0) and AC as the result of decreasing Fe(0) to AC mass ratio. Ferrous ion and oxidation-reduction potential were measured to understand the mechanism of enhanced nitrate reduction by Fe(0)/AC micro-electrolysis. The results suggest that a relative potential difference drives much more electrons from Fe(0) to AC, thus generating adsorbed atomic hydrogen which makes it possible for nitrate to be reduced at near-neural pH. Fe(0)/AC micro-electrolysis thus presents a great potential for practical application in nitrate wastewater treatment without excessive pH adjustment. PMID:25217726

  7. Diagnostic of water trees using DC and AC voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, P.; Puerta, J.

    1996-12-31

    Electric tools for non-destructive water tree diagnostic in XLPE medium voltage cables, by means of DC and AC voltages are presented. The DC method is related to the determination of a non-linear dependence of the polarization current on the applied DC step voltage, in contrast to a linear dependence found in non-water tree-damaged cables. In both cases the current follows the Curie-von Schweidler empirical law, I(t) = I{sub 0}t{sup {minus}n}. The AC method is based on the measurement of the dispersion relation of both the loss factor and the capacitance in the low and very low frequency ranges by means of the Fourier Transform techniques. The devised measuring instrumentation is presented.

  8. AC impedance spectroscopy studies on solid-state sintered zinc aluminum oxide (ZnAl2O4) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2012-07-01

    In the present investigation Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZnAl2O4) is prepared by solid-state reaction technique. Dielectric constant (ɛ'), dielectric loss(tan δ), ac conductivity (σac) as a function of temperature are studied by varying frequencies from 100 Hz to 1MHz using an impedance analyzer. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss increases gradually with an increase of temperature, but it decreases with increase of frequency. The ac conductivity (σac) also increases with increases of frequency. The transition peaks for ZnAl2O4 are observed at 490°C, 510°C, 520°C for the frequencies 1 KHz, 10 KHz and 100 KHz. No transition peaks are found for the frequency 100 Hz and 1 MHz because of high conductive loss.

  9. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  10. Beam loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanGinneken, A.; Edwards, D.; Harrison, M.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents results from simulations of beam losses during the operation of a superconducting accelerator. The calculations use a combination of hadron/electromagnetic cascade plus elastic scattering codes with accelerator tracking routines. These calculations have been used in conjunction with the design of the Fermilab Tevatron. First accelerator geometry is described. The rest of the paper discusses a detailed attempt to simulate a fast extraction cycle, essentially in chronological order. Beginning with an unperturbed beam, the simulation generates proton phase-space distributions incident on the electrostatic septum. These interact either elastically or inelastically with the septum wires, and the products of these interactions are traced through the machine. Where these leave the accelerator, energy deposition levels in the magnets are calculated together with the projected response of the beam-loss monitors in this region. Finally, results of the calculation are compared with experimental data. (AIP)

  11. Disorders of Accommodative Convergation and Accommodation (AC/A) Relations at Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Serdarevic, Raif

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Accommodative Convergence/Accommodation (AC/A) ratio is constant at one and the same person in the course of life, i.e. the same ratio accommodative convergence monitor any change in accommodation measured in diopters. Such a perfect relationship is possible if there are no refractive anomalies in both eyes and oculomotor imbalance of eye muscles. Material and methods: We are examined 50 patients with close brain injury, and patients which had problems with near vision, accommodation and convergency were reducted, with loss motor fussion, and preserved stereoscopis vision, and showed us, that disturbances are clear motor and folowed with incapable of patient to hold of superposition view to watching object. Results: The difference in average proximity distance vision and reading time with no fatigue after 6 months a statistically significant, the value of t-test, t = 1873 for p <0.01, r = 0. 718. The value of convergent fusion 6 months after treatment in 30% of the patients was from 0 to16 Pd, S. D. = 18. 6, and χ2 = 7. 22. In 18% of the patients was from 0 to 10 Pd, S. D = 17. 61, and χ2 = 5. 41, at 20% of patients 0 to 22 Pd, SD = 14. 18, χ2 = 6. 84, in 16% of patients 0 to 4 Pd, SD = 16. 41, χ2 t-test = 5. 13 and the remaining 16% of patients the value of convergent fusion is about 1 PD, S. D = 15. 01, χ2 t = 5. 18. All patients showed significant improvement in near vision compared to the value of convergent fusion before treatment where χ2 t-test = 9.41, after 6 months of treatment, there is considerable significance p < 0 01, t–test 0. 914, correlation coefficient r = 0. 881. Conclusion: Disturbances of AC / A ratio should be evaluated only with regard to all symptoms and is only possible by proper rating interference in reading. PMID:26005257

  12. Small-Signal ac Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, James M.; Chen, Jess

    1987-01-01

    Program simulates power circuits and systems. Small Signal A.C. Analysis program (SSAC) valuable tool for design and analysis of electrical-power-system circuits. By combining "black box" power-system components operating in specified manner, user characterizes system modeled. Menu-driven program proved simple and cost effective in development and modification of arbitrary power-system configurations. Package includes sample data from Dynamic Explorer satellite family. Results compared favorable to calculations from such general circuit-analysis programs as SPICE. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. ac electroosmosis in rectangular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Michele; Accoto, Dino; Dario, Paolo

    2005-11-22

    Motivated by the growing interest in ac electroosmosis as a reliable no moving parts strategy to control fluid motion in microfluidic devices for biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip, we study transient and steady-state electrokinetic phenomena (electroosmosis and streaming currents) in infinitely extended rectangular charged microchannels. With the aid of Fourier series and Laplace transforms we provide a general formal solution of the problem, which is used to study the time-dependent response to sudden ac applied voltage differences in case of finite electric double layer. The Debye-Huckel approximation has been adopted to allow for an algebraic solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann problem in Fourier space. We obtain the expressions of flow velocity profiles, flow rates, streaming currents, as well as expressions of the complex hydraulic and electrokinetic conductances. We analyze in detail the dependence of the electrokinetic conductance on the extension of linear dimensions relative to the Debye length, with an eye on finite electric double layer effects. PMID:16351310

  14. Comments on "Global crop yield reductions due to surface ozone exposure: 1. Year 2000 crop production losses and economic damage" and "Global crop yield reductions due to surface ozone exposure: 2. Year 2030 potential crop production losses and economic damage under two scenarios of O3 pollution" by Shiri Avnery, Denise L. Mauzerall, Junfeng Liu, Lary W. Horowitz [Atmospheric Environment 45, 2284-2296 and 2297-2309.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawahda, Amin

    2013-06-01

    The Authors (Avnery et al., 2011a,b) estimated the relative yield losses of wheat crop in China in 2000 and 2030 to be 15%-20% and 25%-30%, respectively. And the relative yield losses of soybean crop in China in 2000 and 2030 to be 20%-25% and 30%-45%, respectively. These findings do not agree with the information that shows the relative yield losses of wheat crop should be greater than those of soybean crop in China. Additionally, do not agree with the findings of previous studies.

  15. RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller

    SciTech Connect

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.

  16. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  17. Electromechanical systems with transient high power response operating from a resonant ac link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1992-01-01

    The combination of an inherently robust asynchronous (induction) electrical machine with the rapid control of energy provided by a high frequency resonant ac link enables the efficient management of higher power levels with greater versatility. This could have a variety of applications from launch vehicles to all-electric automobiles. These types of systems utilize a machine which is operated by independent control of both the voltage and frequency. This is made possible by using an indirect field-oriented control method which allows instantaneous torque control all four operating quadrants. Incorporating the ac link allows the converter in these systems to switch at the zero crossing of every half cycle of the ac waveform. This zero loss switching of the link allows rapid energy variations to be achieved without the usual frequency proportional switching loss. Several field-oriented control systems were developed under contract to NASA.

  18. Structural, AC conductivity and dielectric properties of Sr-La hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Narang, S. B.; Singh, K.; Sharma, P.; Pandey, O. P.

    2006-03-01

    A series of M-type hexaferrite samples with composition Sr{1-x}La{x}Fe{12}O{19} (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.25) were prepared by standard ceramic technique. AC electrical conductivity measurements were carried out at different frequencies (20 Hz 1 MHz) and at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent were measured in the same range of frequencies. The experimental results indicate that AC electrical conductivity increases on increasing the frequency as well as the temperature, indicating magnetic semiconductor behavior of the samples. The increase in AC electrical conductivity with frequency and temperature has been explained on the basis of Koops Model whereas dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent has been explained with the Maxwell Wagner type interfacial polarization in agreement with the Koops phenomenological theory.

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of CpACS27A gene reveals its involvement in monoecy instability and other associated traits in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Barrera, Alejandro; Boualem, Adnane; Garrido, Dolores; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    A number of Cucurbita pepo genotypes showing instable monoecy or partial andromonoecy, i.e. an incomplete conversion of female into bisexual flowers, have been detected. Given that in melon and cucumber andromonoecy is the result of reduction of ethylene production in female floral buds, caused by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7 and CsACS2; we have cloned and characterized two related C. pepo genes, CpACS27A and CpACS27B. The molecular structure of CpACS27A and its specific expression in the carpels of female flowers during earlier stages of flower development suggests that this gene is the Cucurbita ortholog of CmACS7 and CsACS2. CpACS27B is likely to be a paralogous pseudogene since it has not been found to be expressed in any of the analyzed tissues. CpACS27A was sequenced in Bolognese (Bog) and Vegetable Spaghetti (Veg), two monoecious inbred lines whose F2 was segregating for partial andromonoecy. The Bog allele of CpACS27A carried a missense mutation that resulted in a substitution of the conserved serine residue in position 176 by an alanine. Segregation analysis indicated that this mutant variant is necessary but not sufficient to confer the andromonoecious phenotype in squash. In concordance with its involvement in stamen arrest, a reduction in CpACS27A expression has been found in bisexual flower buds at earlier stages of development. This reduction in CpACS27A expression was concomitant with a downregulation of other ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes during earlier and later stages of ovary development. The role of CpACS27A is discussed regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes in the control of andromonoecy-associated traits, such as the delayed maturation of corolla and stigma as well as the parthenocarpic development of the fruit.

  20. Project Completion Report on China's Room AC Reach Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang

    2005-03-10

    After much anticipation and hard work, China's reach standard for room air-conditioners was announced in September 2004, with the first tier going into effect on March 1, 2005 and the reach standard taking effect on January 1, 2009. This is a major milestone in the development of minimum energy efficiency standards in China: finally China has set a minimum standard that is meaningful and stringent. According to our preliminary analysis, the majority of room ACs products on the Chinese market in 2004 would not meet the 2009 reach standard requirement. In addition to setting the minimum requirement, China's new AC standard also include classification requirement for the newly established Energy Information Label, as well as the certification requirement for CECP's Energy Conservation Label. Highlights of the 2009 reach standard include: (1) The Chinese Reach Standard for Room AC in 2009 is tighter than American counterpart, and almost matches the efficiency of American Central Air-Conditioners; and (2) Summer peak demand reduction in 2020 due to the reach standard exceeds the capacity of the Three Gorges Project.

  1. Evaluation of 225Ac for vascular targeted radioimmunotherapy of lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Kennel, S J; Chappell, L L; Dadachova, K; Brechbiel, M W; Lankford, T K; Davis, I A; Stabin, M; Mirzadeh, S

    2000-06-01

    Several alpha particle emitting radioisotopes have been studied for use in radioimmunotherapy. Ac-225 has the potential advantages of a relatively long half life of 10 days, and a yield of 4 alpha emissions in its decay chain with a total energy release of approximately 28 MeV. A new, 12 coordination site chelating ligand, HEHA, has been chemically modified for coupling to targeting proteins without loss of chelating ability. HEHA was coupled with MAb 201B which binds to thrombomodulin and accumulates efficiently in murine lung. Ac-225 was bound to the HEHA-MAb 201B conjugate and injected into BALB/c mice bearing lung tumor colonies of EMT-6 mammary carcinoma. Biodistribution data at 1 and 4 h postinjection indicated that, as expected, 225Ac was delivered to lung efficiently (> 300% ID/g). The 225Ac was slowly released from the lung with an initial t1/2 = 49 h, and the released 225Ac accumulated in the liver. Injection of free HEHA was only partially successful in scavenging free 225Ac. In addition to the slow release of 225Ac from the chelate, data indicated that decay daughters of 225Ac were also released from the lung. Immediately after organ harvest, the level of 213Bi, the third alpha-decay daughter, was found to be deficient in the lungs and to be in excess in the kidney, relative to equilibrium values. Injected doses of 225Ac MAb 201B of 1.0 microCi, delivering a minimum calculated absorbed dose of about 6 Gy to the lungs, was effective in killing lung tumors, but also proved acutely radiotoxic. Animals treated with 1.0 microCi or more of the 225Ac radioconjugate died of a wasting syndrome within days with a dose dependent relationship. We conclude that the potential for 225Ac as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent is compromised not only by the slow release of 225Ac from the HEHA chelator, but most importantly by the radiotoxicity associated with decay daughter radioisotopes released from the target organ.

  2. A transgenic system for generation of transposon Ac/Ds-induced chromosome rearrangements in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuanhe; Han, Fangpu; Zhang, Jianbo; Birchler, James; Peterson, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The maize Activator (Ac)/Dissociation (Ds) transposable element system has been used in a variety of plants for insertional mutagenesis. Ac/Ds elements can also generate genome rearrangements via alternative transposition reactions which involve the termini of closely linked transposons. Here, we introduced a transgene containing reverse-oriented Ac/Ds termini together with an Ac transposase gene into rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare). Among the transgenic progeny, we identified and characterized 25 independent genome rearrangements at three different chromosomal loci. The rearrangements include chromosomal deletions and inversions and one translocation. Most of the deletions occurred within the T-DNA region, but two cases showed the loss of 72 kilobase pairs (kb) and 79 kb of rice genomic DNA flanking the transgene. In addition to deletions, we obtained chromosomal inversions ranging in size from less than 10 kb (within the transgene DNA) to over 1 million base pairs (Mb). For 11 inversions, we cloned and sequenced both inversion breakpoints; in all 11 cases, the inversion junctions contained the typical 8 base pairs (bp) Ac/Ds target site duplications, confirming their origin as transposition products. Together, our results indicate that alternative Ac/Ds transposition can be an efficient tool for functional genomics and chromosomal manipulation in rice.

  3. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (-0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (-0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (-0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure -5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  4. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A.; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (−0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (−0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (−0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure −5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  5. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  6. Reduction Algorithm

    2010-12-31

    Conventional methods used for modeling a transmission network have resulted in a high degree of error and instability. This methodology condenses the network for analysis purposes without a loss of precision.

  7. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP): Potential target molecule in research of heart, kidney and brain.

    PubMed

    Hrenak, Jaroslav; Paulis, Ludovit; Simko, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a ubiquitous molecule generated in all mammalian tissues from the N-terminal sequence of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) by the action of propyl oligopeptidase. Ac-SDKP is an alternative substrate for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). There are several indications that Ac-SDKP may be protective in the cardiovascular system. First, the level of Ac- SDKP in plasma and tissues is reduced in some cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. Second, an administration of Ac-SDKP to rodents attenuates inflammation, cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration resulting in a reduction of fibrosis in the heart, vessels and kidneys in conditions of their disorders. Third, the treatment with ACE-inhibitors is associated with a reduced degradation and hence increased levels of Ac-SDKP, while a simultaneous treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Ac- SDKP partly counteracts the benefit of ACE-inhibition. Since Ac-SDKP fails to reduce blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), its potential structural benefit is obviously mediated by direct action on tissue in preventing or reversing excessive fibrosis. The protection by ACE-inhibition seems to be partly mediated by increased availability of Ac-SDKP. Thus, it is to suppose that harvesting the knowledge on the role of Ac-SDKP in cardiovascular physiology and pathology could deepen our insight into the mechanisms of action of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) as well as agents interfering with this system. The exciting protective potential of Ac-SDKP suggests that this compound could be a focused drug target not only in animal experiments but also in the clinical cardio-pharmacologic research in the near future.

  8. Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis AC7 inhibit adhesion and biofilm formation of Candida albicans on silicone.

    PubMed

    Ceresa, Chiara; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Chiono, Valeria; Carmagnola, Irene; Allegrone, Gianna; Fracchia, Letizia

    2016-10-01

    Candida albicans is the major fungus that colonises medical implants, causing device-associated infections with high mortality. Antagonistic bacterial products with interesting biological properties, such as biosurfactants, have recently been considered for biofilm prevention. This study investigated the activity of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis AC7 (AC7 BS) against adhesion and biofilm formation of C. albicans on medical-grade silicone elastomeric disks (SEDs). Chemical analysis, stability, surface activities of AC7 BS crude extract and physicochemical characterisation of the coated silicone disk surfaces were also carried out. AC7 BS showed a good reduction of water surface tension, low critical micelle concentration, good emulsification activity, thermal resistance and pH stability. Co-incubation with 2 mg ml(-1) AC7 BS significantly reduced adhesion and biofilm formation of three C. albicans strains on SEDs in a range of 67-69 % and of 56-57 %, respectively. On pre-coated SEDs, fungal adhesion and biofilm formation were reduced by 57-62 % and 46-47 %, respectively. Additionally, AC7 BS did not inhibit viability of C. albicans strains in both planktonic and sessile form. Chemical analysis of the crude extract revealed the presence of two families of lipopeptides, principally surfactin and a lower percentage of fengycin. The evaluation of surface wettability indicated that AC7 BS coating of SEDs surface was successful although uneven. AC7 BS significantly prohibits the initial deposition of C. albicans and slows biofilm growth, suggesting a potential role of biosurfactant coatings for preventing fungal infection associated with silicone medical devices. PMID:27444239

  9. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  10. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  11. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  12. High School Teachers Win ACS Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Staff, Jce

    2009-07-01

    William E. Snyder is the 2009 winner of the ACS Division of Chemical Education Central Region Award for Excellence in High School Teaching; Sally Mitchell is the winner of the 2009 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

  13. Tevatron optics measurements using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to study beam optics of hadron synchrotrons. It can produce sustained large amplitude oscillations with virtually no emittance growth. A vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is recently implemented and a maximum oscillation amplitude of 2{sigma} (4{sigma}) at 980 GeV (150 GeV) is achieved [1]. When such large oscillations are measured with the BPM system of the Tevatron (20 {micro}m resolution), not only linear but even nonlinear optics can be directly measured. This paper shows how to measure {beta} function using an AC dipole and the result is compared to the other measurement. The paper also shows a test to detect optics changes when small changes are made in the Tevatron. Since an AC dipole is nondestructive, it allows frequent measurements of the optics which is necessary for such an test.

  14. The AC-120: The advanced commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, David; Griffin, Ernest; Mendoza, Saul; Nguyen, Son; Pickett, Tim; Noernberg, Clemm

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this design was to fulfill a need for a new airplane to replace the aging 100 to 150 passenger, 1500 nautical mile range aircraft such as the Douglas DC9 and Boeing 737-100 airplanes. After researching the future aircraft market, conducting extensive trade studies, and analysis on different configurations, the AC-120 Advanced Commercial Transport final design was achieved. The AC-120's main design features include the incorporation of a three lifting surface configuration which is powered by two turboprop engines. The AC-120 is an economically sensitive aircraft which meets the new FM Stage Three noise requirements, and has lower NO(x) emissions than current turbofan powered airplanes. The AC-120 also improves on its contemporaries in passenger comfort, manufacturing, and operating cost.

  15. Temperature dependence of critical current and transport current losses of 4 mm YBCO coated conductors manufactured using nonmagnetic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitkovic, J.; Hatwar, R.; Pamidi, S. V.; Fleshler, S.; Thieme, C.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the critical current and AC losses were measured on American Superconductor Corporation's (AMSC) second generation high temperature superconducting (2G HTS) wire produced by Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) and Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) process. Wires manufactured with two types of substrates were characterized. The magnetic substrate with composition Ni5a%W exhibits a magnetic signature and has non-negligible AC losses in AC power applications. A new nonmagnetic substrate with an alloy composition Ni9a%W has been developed by AMSC to address the AC losses in 2G HTS. The data presented show that the performance of the new conductor is identical to the conductor with magnetic substrate in terms of critical current density. The data on AC losses demonstrate the absence of ferromagnetic loss component in the new conductor and significantly reduced AC losses at low to moderate values of I/Ic. The reduced losses will translate into reduced capital costs and lower operating costs of superconducting electrical devices for AC applications.

  16. Incorporating residential AC load control into ancillary service markets: Measurement and settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Bode, Josh L.; Sullivan, Michael J.; Berghman, Dries; Eto, Joseph H.

    2013-05-01

    Many pre-existing air conditioner load control programs can provide valuable operational flexibility but have not been incorporated into electricity ancillary service markets or grid operations. Multiple demonstrations have shown that residential air conditioner (AC) response can deliver resources quickly and can provide contingency reserves. A key policy hurdle to be overcome before AC load control can be fully incorporated into markets is how to balance the accuracy, cost, and complexity of methods available for the settlement of load curtailment. Overcoming this hurdle requires a means for assessing the accuracy of shorter-term AC load control demand reduction estimation approaches in an unbiased manner. This paper applies such a method to compare the accuracy of approaches varying in cost and complexity ? including regression analysis, load matching and control group approaches ? using feeder data, household data and AC end-use data. We recommend a practical approach for settlement, relying on an annually updated set of tables, with pre-calculated reduction estimates. These tables allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on daily maximum temperature, geographic region and hour of day, simplifying settlement and providing a solution to the policy problem presented in this paper.

  17. Vision Loss, Sudden

    MedlinePlus

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  18. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMISSION ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission...''). Summary of Application: ACS Wireless, Inc. (``ACS Wireless'') seeks an order under section 3(b)(2) of the..., owning, holding or trading in securities. ACS Wireless is primarily engaged in providing...

  19. 21 CFR 888.1240 - AC-powered dynamometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered dynamometer. 888.1240 Section 888.1240...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 888.1240 AC-powered dynamometer. (a) Identification. An AC-powered dynamometer is an AC-powered device intended for medical purposes to...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered photostimulator. 886.1630 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1630 AC-powered photostimulator. (a) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1850 - AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. 886.1850... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1850 AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. (a) Identification. An AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope is an AC-powered device that is...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  7. Adaptive block-wise alphabet reduction scheme for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masmoudi, Atef; Zouari, Sonia; Ghribi, Abdelaziz

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new adaptive block-wise lossless image compression algorithm, which is based on the so-called alphabet reduction scheme combined with an adaptive arithmetic coding (AC). This new encoding algorithm is particularly efficient for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms. AC is a very efficient technique for lossless data compression and produces a rate that is close to the entropy; however, a compression performance loss occurs when encoding images or blocks with a limited number of active symbols by comparison with the number of symbols in the nominal alphabet, which consists in the amplification of the zero frequency problem. Generally, most methods add one to the frequency count of each symbol from the nominal alphabet, which leads to a statistical model distortion, and therefore reduces the efficiency of the AC. The aim of this work is to overcome this drawback by assigning to each image block the smallest possible set including all the existing symbols called active symbols. This is an alternative of using the nominal alphabet when applying the conventional arithmetic encoders. We show experimentally that the proposed method outperforms several lossless image compression encoders and standards including the conventional arithmetic encoders, JPEG2000, and JPEG-LS.

  8. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-12-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented.

  9. Association of Cry1Ac Toxin Resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with Increased Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in the Midgut Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J.; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J.; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  10. Association of Cry1Ac toxin resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with increased alkaline phosphatase levels in the midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Ferré, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  11. Production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Meriarty, H; Metcalfe, P; Knittel, T; Allen, B J

    2007-09-01

    The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. The production of Ac-225 has been achieved using bremsstrahlung photons from an 18 MV medical linear accelerator (linac) to bombard a Ra-226 target. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 64 microCi of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225. This result, while consistent with the theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use. A more powerful linac is required that runs at a higher current, longer pulse length and higher frequency for practical production. This process could also lead to the reduction of the nuclear waste product Ra-226.

  12. Production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Meriarty, H; Metcalfe, P; Knittel, T; Allen, B J

    2007-09-01

    The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. The production of Ac-225 has been achieved using bremsstrahlung photons from an 18 MV medical linear accelerator (linac) to bombard a Ra-226 target. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 64 microCi of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225. This result, while consistent with the theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use. A more powerful linac is required that runs at a higher current, longer pulse length and higher frequency for practical production. This process could also lead to the reduction of the nuclear waste product Ra-226. PMID:17532223

  13. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  14. Magnetization losses in superconducting YBCO conductor-on-round-core (CORC) cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majoros, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; van der Laan, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Described are the results of magnetization loss measurements made at 77 K on several YBCO conductor-on-round-core (CORC) cables in ac magnetic fields of up to 80 mT in amplitude and frequencies of 50 to 200 Hz, applied perpendicular to the cable axis. The cables contained up to 40 tapes that were wound in as many as 13 layers. Measurements on the cables with different configurations were made as functions of applied ac field amplitude and frequency to determine the effects of their layout on ac loss. In large scale devices such as e.g. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) magnets, the observed ac losses represent less than 0.1% of their stored energy.

  15. Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Marilyn; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that focus on waste reduction in the school and community. The ideas are divided into grade level categories. Sample activities include Techno-Trash, where children use tools to take apart broken appliances or car parts, then reassemble them or build new creations. Activities are suggested for areas including language arts and…

  16. Deletion of AcMNPV ac146 eliminates the production of budded virus.

    PubMed

    Dickison, Virginia L; Willis, Leslie G; Sokal, Nadia R; Theilmann, David A

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac146 is a highly conserved gene in the Alpha- and Betabaculovirus genera that has an unknown function. Northern blot analysis and transcript mapping showed that ac146 is transcribed at late times post infection as a 1.2 kb mRNA. To determine the role of ac146 in the baculovirus life cycle ac146 knock out viruses were constructed. Transfection and plaque assays showed that all the ac146 deletions produced a single cell phenotype indicating that no infectious budded virus (BV) was produced, however occlusion bodies were formed. The lack of BV production was confirmed by viral titration utilizing both qPCR and TCID₅₀. Analysis of BV and occlusion derived virus (ODV) revealed that AC146 is associated with both forms of the virus and is modified specifically in ODV. This study therefore demonstrates that AC146 is a late virion associated protein and is essential for the viral life cycle.

  17. Design and synthesis of 225Ac radioimmunopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Michael R; Ma, Dangshe; Simon, Jim; Frank, R Keith; Scheinberg, David A

    2002-12-01

    The alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides 213Bi, 211At, 224Ra are under investigation for the treatment of leukemias, gliomas, and ankylosing spondylitis, respectively. 213Bi and 211At were attached to monoclonal antibodies and used as targeted immunotherapeutic agents while unconjugated 224Ra chloride selectively seeks bone. 225Ac possesses favorable physical properties for radioimmunotherapy (10d half-life and 4 net alpha particles), but has a history of unfavorable radiolabeling chemistry and poor metal-chelate stability. We selected functionalized derivatives of DOTA as the most promising to pursue from out of a group of potential 225Ac chelate compounds. A two-step synthetic process employing either MeO-DOTA-NCS or 2B-DOTA-NCS as the chelating moiety was developed to attach 225Ac to monoclonal antibodies. This method was tested using several different IgG systems. The chelation reaction yield in the first step was 93+/-8% radiochemically pure (n=26). The second step yielded 225Ac-DOTA-IgG constructs that were 95+/-5% radiochemically pure (n=27) and the mean percent immunoreactivity ranged from 25% to 81%, depending on the antibody used. This process has yielded several potential novel targeted 225Ac-labeled immunotherapeutic agents that may now be evaluated in appropriate model systems and ultimately in humans.

  18. Cosmic Shear - with ACS Pure Parallel Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan

    2002-07-01

    The ACS, with greater sensitivity and sky coverage, will extend our ability to measure the weak gravitational lensing of galaxy images caused by the large scale distribution of dark matter. We propose to use the ACS in pure parallel {non- proprietary} mode, following the guidelines of the ACS Default Pure Parallel Program. Using the HST Medium Deep Survey WFPC2 database we have measured cosmic shear at arc-min angular scales. The MDS image parameters, in particular the galaxy orientations and axis ratios, are such that any residual corrections due to errors in the PSF or jitter are much smaller than the measured signal. This situation is in stark contrast with ground-based observations. We have also developed a statistical analysis procedure to derive unbiased estimates of cosmic shear from a large number of fields, each of which has a very small number of galaxies. We have therefore set the stage for measurements with the ACS at fainter apparent magnitudes and smaller, 10 arc-second scales corresponding to larger cosmological distances. We will adapt existing MDS WFPC2 maximum likelihood galaxy image analysis algorithms to work with the ACS. The analysis would also yield an online database similar to that in archive.stsci.edu/mds/

  19. Electromechanical systems with transient high power response operating from a resonant AC link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1992-01-01

    The combination of an inherently robust asynchronous (induction) electrical machine with the rapid control of energy provided by a high frequency resonant AC link enables the efficient management of higher power levels with greater versatility. This could have a variety of applications from launch vehicles to all-electric automobiles. These types of systems utilize a machine which is operated by independent control of both the voltage and frequency. This is made possible by using an indirect field-oriented control method which allows instantaneous torque control in all four operating quadrants. Incorporating the AC link allows the converter in these systems to switch at the zero crossing of every half cycle of the AC waveform. This zero loss switching of the link allows rapid energy variations to be achieved without the usual frequency proportional switching loss. Several field-oriented control systems were developed by LeRC and General Dynamics Space Systems Division under contract to NASA. A description of a single motor, electromechanical actuation system is presented. Then, focus is on a conceptual design for an AC electric vehicle. This design incorporates an induction motor/generator together with a flywheel for peak energy storage. System operation and implications along with the associated circuitry are addressed. Such a system would greatly improve all-electric vehicle ranges over the Federal Urban Driving Cycle (FUD).

  20. Development of an Nb{sub 3}Sn AC coil with react and wind method

    SciTech Connect

    Kasahara, H.; Torii, S.; Akita, S.; Kubota, Y.; Yasohama, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Kumano, T.; Miyake, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor possesses a higher critical temperature than the NbTi strand. Therefore, it is now possible to make highly stable superconducting strands. The authors examined the manufacturing process of AC Nb{sub 3}Sn strands. The internal Sn diffusion process showed a higher critical current density than the conventional process. Nb{sub 3}Sn strands for AC use have a high Jc with low temperature reaction heat treatment, because they have fine filaments to decrease AC loss. They made a 400kVA class superconducting coil using the developed Nb{sub 3}Sn cable with the React and Wind method. The loss density of this coil was 25.7MW/m{sup 3} at the point just before the quench. In this case, the temperature of the cable increases about 3.39K. This means that the coil using Nb{sub 3}Sn cables has a very high stability in AC use.

  1. Large signal dielectric losses in electrostrictive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Harold C.

    2000-06-01

    The dielectric loss factor tan (delta) is a critical parameter in transducer design and performance prediction, as it is directly related to the electrical energy lost to Joule heating. A method for calculating the equivalent loss factor of 'quasi linear' materials from a measured major polarization vs. field loop by extending the standard definition of tan (delta) for a linear lossy capacitor to nonlinear materials is presented. To extract effective loss tangents for minor loops from the major loops, an area correction algorithm was implemented. This algorithm proves to be nearly exact for all bias and drive levels in the case of an ideal linear capacitor. In most cases, the effective tan (delta) calculated from a major loop agrees fairly well with that calculated from a directly measured minor loop. Finally, the behavior of the loss tangent as a function of the dc bias field, ac drive field, prestress level and temperature will be examined. It shall be shown that, in general, the effective loss factor of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate decreases with increasing temperature, consistent with its transition from a piezoelectric to an electrostrictive material, but increases with prestress. At a fixed temperature and prestress level, the loss factor increases as the bias or drive levels decrease. However, at certain bias levels, the loss tangent is practically the same, regardless of the drive level.

  2. Efficient harvesting of wet blue-green microalgal biomass by two-aminoclay [AC]-mixture systems.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hye-Min; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kim, Eui Jin; Seo, Soonjoo; Kim, Bohwa; Lee, Go-Woon; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Jun Yeong; Huh, Yun Suk; Song, Hyun A; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-07-01

    Blue-green microalgal blooms have been caused concerns about environmental problems and human-health dangers. For removal of such cyanobacteria, many mechanical and chemical treatments have been trialled. Among various technologies, the flocculation-based harvesting (precipitation) method can be an alternative if the problem of the low yield of recovered biomass at low concentrations of cyanobacteria is solved. In the present study, it was utilized mixtures of magnesium aminoclay [MgAC] and cerium aminoclay [CeAC] with different particle sizes to harvest cyanobacteria feedstocks with ∼100% efficiency within 1h by ten-fold lower loading of ACs compared with single treatments of [MgAC] or [CeAC]. This success was owed to the compact networks of the different-sized-ACs mixture for efficient bridging between microalgal cells. In order to determine the usage potential of biomass harvested with AC, the mass was heat treated under the reduction condition. This system is expected to be profitably utilizable in adsorbents and catalysts. PMID:27023387

  3. Perfecting the Photometric Calibration of the ACS CCD Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.

    2016-09-01

    Newly acquired data and improved data reduction algorithms mandate a fresh look at the absolute flux calibration of the charge-coupled device cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The goals are to achieve a 1% accuracy and to make this calibration more accessible to the HST guest investigator. Absolute fluxes from the CALSPEC1 database for three primary hot 30,000–60,000K WDs define the sensitivity calibrations for the Wide Field Channel (WFC) and High Resolution Channel (HRC) filters. The external uncertainty for the absolute flux is ˜1%, while the internal consistency of the sensitivities in the broadband ACS filters is ˜0.3% among the three primary WD flux standards. For stars as cool as K type, the agreement with the CALSPEC standards is within 1% at the WFC1-1K subarray position, which achieves the 1% precision goal for the first time. After making a small adjustment to the filter bandpass for F814W, the 1% precision goal is achieved over the full F814W WFC field of view for stars of K type and hotter. New encircled energies and absolute sensitivities replace the seminal results of Sirianni et al. that were published in 2005. After implementing the throughput updates, synthetic predictions of the WFC and HRC count rates for the average of the three primary WD standard stars agree with the observations to 0.1%.

  4. Perfecting the Photometric Calibration of the ACS CCD Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.

    2016-09-01

    Newly acquired data and improved data reduction algorithms mandate a fresh look at the absolute flux calibration of the charge-coupled device cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The goals are to achieve a 1% accuracy and to make this calibration more accessible to the HST guest investigator. Absolute fluxes from the CALSPEC1 database for three primary hot 30,000-60,000K WDs define the sensitivity calibrations for the Wide Field Channel (WFC) and High Resolution Channel (HRC) filters. The external uncertainty for the absolute flux is ˜1%, while the internal consistency of the sensitivities in the broadband ACS filters is ˜0.3% among the three primary WD flux standards. For stars as cool as K type, the agreement with the CALSPEC standards is within 1% at the WFC1-1K subarray position, which achieves the 1% precision goal for the first time. After making a small adjustment to the filter bandpass for F814W, the 1% precision goal is achieved over the full F814W WFC field of view for stars of K type and hotter. New encircled energies and absolute sensitivities replace the seminal results of Sirianni et al. that were published in 2005. After implementing the throughput updates, synthetic predictions of the WFC and HRC count rates for the average of the three primary WD standard stars agree with the observations to 0.1%.

  5. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  6. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  7. Atrial-caval shunting (ACS) after trauma.

    PubMed

    Kudsk, K A; Sheldon, G F; Lim, R C

    1982-02-01

    Since 1968 the atrial-caval shunt (ACS), along with inflow occlusion at the porta hepatis, has been used at San Francisco General Hospital in 18 trauma patients to control massive hemorrhage from the inferior vena cava, hepatic veins, or liver. Thirteen patients died from irreversible shock. Five patients survived their initial injuries; one of them died 45 days later from the complications of shock and sepsis. No patients survived who sustained blunt trauma and were admitted in cardiac arrest. Only one of ten patients with BP less than 70 mm Hg after resuscitation survived, whereas four of eight with BP greater than 70 mm Hg survived. ACS was used to control caval injuries in seven patients (one survivor), severe hepatic parenchymal fractures in four patients (two survivors), and combined hepatic and caval injuries in seven patients (two survivors). Survivors had an average of 5.75 associated injuries; nonsurvivors had 3.8. No complications of ACS occurred in the surviving patients.

  8. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  9. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  10. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called early pregnancy loss , miscarriage , or spontaneous abortion . How common is early pregnancy loss? Early pregnancy ... testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous Abortion: The medical term for early pregnancy loss. Trimester: ...

  11. Enhanced loading efficiency and retention of 225Ac in rigid liposomes for potential targeted therapy of micrometastases.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min-Yuan; Seideman, Jonathan; Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-06-01

    Targeted alpha-particle emitters are promising therapeutics for micrometastatic disease. Actinium-225 has a 10-day half-life and generates a total of four alpha-particles per parent decay rendering (225)Ac an attractive candidate for alpha-therapy. For cancer cells with low surface expression levels of molecular targets, targeting strategies of (225)Ac using radiolabeled carriers of low specific radioactivities (such as antibodies) may not deliver enough alpha-particle emitters at the targeted cancer cells to result in killing. We previously proposed and showed using passive (225)Ac entrapment that liposomes can stably retain encapsulated (225)Ac for long time periods, and that antibody-conjugated liposomes (immunoliposomes) with encapsulated (225)Ac can specifically target and become internalized by cancer cells. However, to enable therapeutic use of (225)Ac-containing liposomes, high activities of (225)Ac need to be stably encapsulated into liposomes. In this study, various conditions for active loading of (225)Ac in preformed liposomes (ionophore-type, encapsulated buffer solution, and loading time) were evaluated, and liposomes with up to 73 +/- 9% of the initial activity of (225)Ac (0.2-200 microCi) were developed. Retention of radioactive contents by liposomes was evaluated at 37 degrees C in phosphate buffer and in serum-supplemented media. The main fraction of released (225)Ac from liposomes occurs within the first two hours of incubation. Beyond this two hour point, the encapsulated radioactivity is released from liposomes slowly with an approximate half-life of the order of several days. In some cases, after 30 days, (225)Ac retention as high as 81 +/- 7% of the initially encapsulated radioactivity was achieved. The (225)Ac loading protocol was also applied to immunoliposome loading without significant loss of targeting efficacy. Liposomes with surface-conjugated antibodies that are loaded with (225)Ac overcome the limitations of low specific activity for

  12. Enhanced loading efficiency and retention of 225Ac in rigid liposomes for potential targeted therapy of micrometastases.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min-Yuan; Seideman, Jonathan; Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-06-01

    Targeted alpha-particle emitters are promising therapeutics for micrometastatic disease. Actinium-225 has a 10-day half-life and generates a total of four alpha-particles per parent decay rendering (225)Ac an attractive candidate for alpha-therapy. For cancer cells with low surface expression levels of molecular targets, targeting strategies of (225)Ac using radiolabeled carriers of low specific radioactivities (such as antibodies) may not deliver enough alpha-particle emitters at the targeted cancer cells to result in killing. We previously proposed and showed using passive (225)Ac entrapment that liposomes can stably retain encapsulated (225)Ac for long time periods, and that antibody-conjugated liposomes (immunoliposomes) with encapsulated (225)Ac can specifically target and become internalized by cancer cells. However, to enable therapeutic use of (225)Ac-containing liposomes, high activities of (225)Ac need to be stably encapsulated into liposomes. In this study, various conditions for active loading of (225)Ac in preformed liposomes (ionophore-type, encapsulated buffer solution, and loading time) were evaluated, and liposomes with up to 73 +/- 9% of the initial activity of (225)Ac (0.2-200 microCi) were developed. Retention of radioactive contents by liposomes was evaluated at 37 degrees C in phosphate buffer and in serum-supplemented media. The main fraction of released (225)Ac from liposomes occurs within the first two hours of incubation. Beyond this two hour point, the encapsulated radioactivity is released from liposomes slowly with an approximate half-life of the order of several days. In some cases, after 30 days, (225)Ac retention as high as 81 +/- 7% of the initially encapsulated radioactivity was achieved. The (225)Ac loading protocol was also applied to immunoliposome loading without significant loss of targeting efficacy. Liposomes with surface-conjugated antibodies that are loaded with (225)Ac overcome the limitations of low specific activity for

  13. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    progestogen. Antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, always accompanied by tricyclic contraceptives, are the best choice of antiandrogens to use in patients with FPHL. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists such as leuprolide acetate suppress pituitary and gonadal function through a reduction in luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Subsequently, ovarian steroid levels also will be reduced, especially in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. When polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, metformin must be considered as treatment. Hyperprolactinemic SAHA and alopecia of pituitary hyperandrogenism should be treated with bromocriptine or cabergoline. Postmenopausal alopecia, with previous high levels of androgens or with prostatic-specific antigen greater than 0.04 ng/mL, improves with finasteride or dutasteride. Although we do not know the reason, postmenopausal alopecia in normoandrogenic women also improves with finasteride or dutasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg per day. Dermatocosmetic concealment with a hairpiece, hair prosthesis as extensions, or partial hairpieces can be useful. Lastly, weight loss undoubtedly improves hair loss in hyperandrogenic women. PMID:19341939

  14. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    progestogen. Antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, always accompanied by tricyclic contraceptives, are the best choice of antiandrogens to use in patients with FPHL. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists such as leuprolide acetate suppress pituitary and gonadal function through a reduction in luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Subsequently, ovarian steroid levels also will be reduced, especially in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. When polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, metformin must be considered as treatment. Hyperprolactinemic SAHA and alopecia of pituitary hyperandrogenism should be treated with bromocriptine or cabergoline. Postmenopausal alopecia, with previous high levels of androgens or with prostatic-specific antigen greater than 0.04 ng/mL, improves with finasteride or dutasteride. Although we do not know the reason, postmenopausal alopecia in normoandrogenic women also improves with finasteride or dutasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg per day. Dermatocosmetic concealment with a hairpiece, hair prosthesis as extensions, or partial hairpieces can be useful. Lastly, weight loss undoubtedly improves hair loss in hyperandrogenic women.

  15. Transient AC voltage related phenomena for HVDC schemes connected to weak AC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pilotto, L.A.S.; Szechtman, M. ); Hammad, A.E. )

    1992-07-01

    In this paper a didactic explanation of voltage stability associated phenomena at HVDC terminals is presented. Conditions leading to ac voltage collapse problems are identified. A mechanism that excites control-induced voltage oscillations is shown. The voltage stability factor is used for obtaining the maximum power limits of ac/dc systems operating with different control strategies. Correlation to Pd {times} Id curves is given. Solutions for eliminating the risks of voltage collapse and for avoiding control-induced oscillations are discussed. The results are supported by detailed digital simulations of a weak ac/dc system using EMTP.

  16. Gastric MUC5AC and MUC6 are large oligomeric mucins that differ in size, glycosylation and tissue distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Nordman, Henrik; Davies, Julia R; Lindell, Gert; de Bolós, Carme; Real, Francisco; Carlstedt, Ingemar

    2002-01-01

    Gastric MUC5AC and MUC6 mucins were studied using polyclonal antibodies. Immunohistochemistry showed MUC5AC to originate from the surface epithelium, whereas MUC6 was produced by the glands. Mucins from the surface epithelium or glands of corpus and antrum were purified using CsCl/4M guanidinium chloride density-gradient centrifugation. MUC5AC appeared as two distinct populations at 1.4 and 1.3 g/ml, whereas MUC6, which was enriched in the gland tissue, appeared at 1.45 g/ml. Reactivity with antibodies against the Le(b) structure (where Le represents the Lewis antigen) followed the MUC5AC distribution, whereas antibodies against the Le(y) structure and reactivity with the GlcNAc-selective Solanum tuberosum lectin coincided with MUC6, suggesting that the two mucins are glycosylated differently. Rate-zonal centrifugation of whole mucins and reduced subunits showed that both gastric MUC5AC and MUC6 are oligomeric glycoproteins composed of disulphide-bond linked subunits and that oligomeric MUC5AC was apparently smaller than MUC6. A heterogeneous population of 'low-density' MUC5AC mucins, which were smaller than the 'high-density' ones both before and after reduction, reacted with an antibody against a variable number tandem repeat sequence within MUC5AC, suggesting that they represent precursor forms of this mucin. Following ion-exchange HPLC, both MUC5AC and MUC6 appeared as several distinct populations, probably corresponding to 'glycoforms' of the mucins, the most highly charged of which were found in the gland tissue. PMID:11988092

  17. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  18. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx.

  19. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  20. AC impedance modelling study on porous electrodes of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using an agglomerate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Hakenjos, Alex; Schumacher, Jürgen O.

    A one-dimensional model of the PEM fuel cell cathode is developed to analyse ac impedance spectra and polarisation curves. The porous gas diffusion electrode is assumed to consist of a network of dispersed catalyst (Pt/C) forming spherically shaped agglomerated zones that are filled with electrolyte. The coupled differential equation system describes: ternary gas diffusion in the backing (O2 , N2 , water vapour), Fickian diffusion and Tafel kinetics for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) inside the agglomerates, proton migration with ohmic losses and double-layer charging in the electrode. Measurements are made of a temperature-controlled fuel cell with a geometric area of 1.4 cm × 1.4 cm. Lateral homogeneity is ensured by using a high stoichiometry of λmin . The model predicts the behaviour of measured polarisation curves and impedance spectra. It is found that a better humidification of the electrode leads to a higher volumetric double-layer capacity. The catalyst layer resistance shows the same behaviour depending on the humidification as the membrane resistance. Model parameters, e.g. Tafel slope, ionic resistance and agglomerate radius are varied. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters is conducted.

  1. A dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, M.; Starkloff, M.; Peiselt, K.; Anders, S.; Knipper, R.; Lee, J.; Behr, R.; Palafox, L.; Böck, A. C.; Schaidhammer, L.; Fleischmann, P. M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes a dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter system operated up to kilohertz frequencies and 7 V rms. A 10 V programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) array was installed on a pulse tube cooler (PTC) driven with a 4 kW air-cooled compressor. The operating margins at 70 GHz frequencies were investigated in detail and found to exceed 1 mA Shapiro step width. A key factor for the successful chip operation was the low on-chip power consumption of 65 mW in total. A thermal interface between PJVS chip and PTC cold stage was used to avoid a significant chip overheating. By installing the cryocooled PJVS array into an AC quantum voltmeter setup, several calibration measurements of dc standards and calibrator ac voltages up to 2 kHz frequencies were carried out to demonstrate the full functionality. The results are discussed and compared to systems with standard liquid helium cooling. For dc voltages, a direct comparison measurement between the dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter and a liquid-helium based 10 V PJVS shows an agreement better than 1 part in 1010.

  2. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  3. Manipulating Flames with AC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kyle

    2013-11-01

    Time-oscillating electric fields applied to plasmas present in flames create steady flows of gas capable of shaping, directing, enhancing, or even extinguishing flames. Interestingly, electric winds induced by AC electric fields can be stronger that those due to static fields of comparable magnitude. Furthermore, unlike static fields, the electric force due to AC fields is localized near the surface of the flame. Consequently, the AC response depends only on the local field at the surface of the flame - not on the position of the electrodes used to generate the field. These results suggest that oscillating electric fields can be used to manipulate and control combustion processes at a distance. To characterize and explain these effects, we investigate a simple experimental system comprising a laminar methane-air flame positioned between two parallel-plate electrodes. We quantify both the electric and hydrodynamic response of the flame as a function of frequency and magnitude of the applied field. A theoretical model shows how steady gas flows emerge from the time-averaged electrical force due to the field-induced motion of ions generated within the flame and by their disappearance by recombination. These results provide useful insights into the application of AC fields to direct combustion processes.

  4. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, O.L.

    1996-07-15

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal.

  5. A. C. losses in the SSC high energy booster dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, R.; Kovachev, V.; Snitchler, G.; Orrell, D.

    1991-06-01

    The baseline design for the SSC High Energy Booster (HEB) has dipole bending magnets with a 50 mm aperture. An analysis of the cryogenic heat load due to A.C. losses generated in the HEB ramp cycle are reported for this magnet. Included in this analysis are losses from superconductor hysteresis, yoke hysteresis, strand eddy currents, and cable eddy currents. The A.C. loss impact of 2.5 {mu}m vs. 6 {mu}m filament conductor is presented. A 60 mm aperture design is also investigated. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Behavior of Ac during Gd{sub 2}Cl{sub 3} condensed cluster formation

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Rumer, I.A.

    1994-11-01

    The behavior of tracer {sup 228}Ac during Gd{sub 2}Cl{sub 3} condensed cluster formation is studied. The cluster is prepared by electrochemical reduction of GdCl{sub 3}. Actinium does not cocrystallize with the Gd{sub 2}Cl{sub 3} cluster. Its behavior is similar to that of La under analogous conditions. A number of hypotheses requiring further refinement is proposed to explain the results.

  7. Granular Responses of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ Using ac Magnetic Susceptibility Measurement under ac and dc Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namuco, S. B.; Lao, M. L.; Sarmago, R. V.

    Granularity of bulk materials has a great impact on the characterization of superconductors as well as its path towards room temperature applications. Bulk GdBCO that has crystal formation and Tc close to YBCO were fabricated using the conventional solid state route method. AC magnetic susceptibility measurement is done on the sample to observe the granular responses brought about by small magnetic field values that is superimposed with DC magnetic field. Results show that compared to YBCO, GdBCO show more sensitive behaviour with the addition of DC magnetic field. It is shown in the results that abrupt response in the AC loss peaks observed in χ" is more prominent in GdBCO even at lower applied magnetic fields.

  8. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  9. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  10. 48 CFR Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Appendixes A-C to Chapter 7...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus which allows measurement of retinal or visual function by perceptual or electrical methods (e.g.,...

  12. Development of 100kVA AC superconducting coil using NbTi cables with a CuSi alloy matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kasahara, H.; Akita, S.; Torii, S.; Sugimoto, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Tachikawa, K.

    1996-07-01

    For implementation of AC superconducting equipment, it is imperative to develop low loss cables having highly stable characteristics. Here, newly developed NbTi superconducting cables using a CuSi alloy matrix are of low loss and are very promising as cables for practical application. However, since the CuSi alloy is a new material as a matrix for NbTi superconducting cables, many unknown factors as regards to optimum conditions for the manufacture of long cables, as well as superconducting characteristics are involved. For this new superconducting cable, a long strand (km class) was manufactured as a step for practical application, and a primary twisted cable was fabricated. Using this cable, a coil of the 100kVA class was fabricated for trial, and its performance characteristic with transport current was evaluated. This coil had no training phenomenon and had high stabilities. Furthermore, it permitted full AC current transmission of up to DCIc. Upon analysis of the coil loss, the hysteresis loss was smaller than coupling loss, and there was little increase of loss due to the current flow to the coil. consequently, by using CuSi alloy matrix superconducting cables, it was possible to provide an AC coil of low loss and high stability, and the present cable was found to be promising as a new AC superconducting cable in the future.

  13. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  14. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  15. Individual Shrink Wrapping of Zucchini Fruit Improves Postharvest Chilling Tolerance Associated with a Reduction in Ethylene Production and Oxidative Stress Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Megías, Zoraida; Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; García, Alicia; Rebolloso-Fuentes, María Del Mar; Garrido, Dolores; Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Jamilena, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of individual shrink wrapping (ISW) on the postharvest performance of refrigerated fruit from two zucchini cultivars that differ in their sensitivity to cold storage: Sinatra (more sensitive) and Natura (more tolerant). The fruit was individually shrink wrapped before storing at 4°C for 0, 7 and 14 days. Quality parameters, ethylene and CO2 productions, ethylene gene expression, and oxidative stress metabolites were assessed in shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit after conditioning the fruit for 6 hours at 20°C. ISW decreased significantly the postharvest deterioration of chilled zucchini in both cultivars. Weight loss was reduced to less than 1%, pitting symptoms were completely absent in ISW fruit at 7 days, and were less than 25% those of control fruits at 14 days of cold storage, and firmness loss was significantly reduced in the cultivar Sinatra. These enhancements in quality of ISW fruit were associated with a significant reduction in cold-induced ethylene production, in the respiration rate, and in the level of oxidative stress metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide and malonyldialdehyde (MDA). A detailed expression analysis of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signaling genes demonstrated a downregulation of CpACS1 and CpACO1 genes in response to ISW, two genes that are upregulated by cold storage. However, the expression patterns of six other ethylene biosynthesis genes (CpACS2 to CpACS7) and five ethylene signal transduction pathway genes (CpCTR1, CpETR1, CpERS1, CpEIN3.1 and CpEN3.2), suggest that they do not play a major role in response to cold storage and ISW packaging. In conclusion, ISW zucchini packaging resulted in improved tolerance to chilling concomitantly with a reduction in oxidative stress, respiration rate and ethylene production, as well as in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes, but not of those involved in ethylene perception and sensitivity.

  16. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an...

  17. Methods for Addressing Missing Data with Applications from ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandriet, Alexandra; Holme, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ACS Examinations Institute (ACS-EI) national norming process, student performance data sets are collected from professors at colleges and universities from around the United States. Because the data sets are collected on a volunteer basis, the ACS-EI often receives data sets with only students' total scores and without the students'…

  18. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  19. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  2. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  3. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  4. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  5. AC Conductivity and Dielectric Relaxation Behavior of Sb2S3 Bulk Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Rahman, K. F.; Darwish, A. A. A.; Qashou, Saleem I.; Hanafy, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Sb2S3 bulk material was used for next-generation anode for lithium-ion batteries. Alternative current (AC) conductivity, dielectric properties and electric modulus of Sb2S3 have been investigated. The measurements were carried out in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 5 MHz and temperature range from 293 K to 453 K. The direct current (DC) conductivity, σ DC, shows an activated behavior and the calculated activation energy is 0.50 eV. The AC conductivity, σ AC, was found to increase with the increase of temperature and frequency. The conduction mechanism of σ AC was controlled by the correlated barrier hopping model. The behavior of the dielectric constant, ɛ', and dielectric loss index, ɛ'', reveal that the polarization process of Sb2S3 is dipolar in nature. The behavior of both ɛ' and ɛ'' reveals that bulk Sb2S3 has no ferroelectric or piezoelectric phase transition. The dielectric modulus, M, gives a simple method for evaluating the activation energy of the dielectric relaxation. The calculated activation energy from M is 0.045 eV.

  6. Loss measurement and analysis for the prototype generator with HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Peng; Qu, Timing; Yu, Xiaoyu; Li, Longnian; Gu, Chen; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping; Chen, Duxing; Han, Zhenghe

    2013-11-01

    A prototype HTS synchronous generator with a permanent magnet rotor and HTS armature windings was developed. The rated armature frequency is 10 Hz. The cryogenic Dewar is tightly surrounded outside the iron core. Both HTS coils and the iron core were cooled by using conduction cooling method. During the process of no-load running, the no-load loss power data were obtained through the torque measurement. The temperature evolution characteristics of the stator was measured by PT-100 temperature sensors. These results show that the no-load loss power at around 77 K are much larger than that at room temperature. The possible reason for the no-load loss increment is discussed. The ac loss power of one individual HTS coil used in this generator was also tested. Compared with the iron loss power, the ac loss power is rather small and could be neglected.

  7. AC plasma anemometer—characteristics and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Curtis; Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics and design of a high-bandwidth flow sensor that uses an AC glow discharge (plasma) as the sensing element is presented. The plasma forms in the air gap between two protruding low profile electrodes attached to a probe body. The output from the anemometer is an amplitude modulated version of the AC voltage input that contains information about the mean and fluctuating velocity components. The anemometer circuitry includes resistance and capacitance elements that simulate a dielectric-barrier to maintain a diffuse plasma, and a constant-current feedback control that maintains operation within the desired glow discharge regime over an extended range of air velocities. Mean velocity calibrations are demonstrated over a range from 0 to 140 m s-1. Over this velocity range, the mean output voltage varied linearly with air velocity, providing a constant static sensitivity. The effect of the electrode gap and input AC carrier frequency on the anemometer static sensitivity and dynamic response are investigated. Experiments are performed to compare measurements obtained with a plasma sensor operating at two AC carrier frequencies against that of a constant-temperature hot-wire. All three sensors were calibrated against the same known velocity reference. An uncertainty based on the standard deviation of the velocity calibration fit was applied to the mean and fluctuating velocity measurements of the three sensors. The motivation is not to replace hot-wires as a general measurement tool, but rather as an alternative to hot-wires in harsh environments or at high Mach numbers where they either have difficulty in surviving or lack the necessary frequency response.

  8. Graphs for Isotopes of 89-Ac (Actinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 89-Ac (Actinium, atomic number Z = 89).

  9. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal. PMID:20208642

  10. Highlights of the Dallas ACS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeman, Thomas R.; Freilich, Mark; Kelter, Paul B.

    1998-06-01

    Without a doubt, a primary feature of the 1998 Spring National Meeting in Dallas was the High School Program, which was organized by George Hague, and the impact that the Texas teachers had on other participants. Over 150 teachers registered for the meeting and participated in the program. Their organizational skills were used to reinstitute the High School/College Interface Luncheon. (The High School/College Interface Luncheon will also be held at the Fall ACS Meeting in Boston.)

  11. Loss or major reduction of umami taste sensation in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Jun J.; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw

    2012-08-01

    Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by L-amino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5'-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste).

  12. Loss or major reduction of umami taste sensation in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw

    2012-08-01

    Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by L-amino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5'-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste). PMID:22777285

  13. 78 FR 49318 - Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-167A

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Systems (78 FR 34935-34958) (Docket No.: FAA-2013-0485; Notice No. 1209). AC 90-106A, Enhanced Flight... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... Federal Aviation Administration Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-...

  14. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident.

  15. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. PMID:2938482

  16. Noise-induced hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. 19 references.

  17. Post-Flash Calibration Darks for the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel (ACS/WFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, S.; Anderson, J.; Golimowski, D.

    2015-06-01

    We present a summary and analysis of the changes made to the ACS/WFC dark reference files. As of January 15, 2015 the ACS team has begun to produce post- flashed dark reference files for the Wide Field Channel (WFC). This change was made to combat the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) losses caused by radiation damage that the two WFC CCDs have suffered since being put into orbit by artificially increasing the background in the dark images. This has resulted in several changes to the reference file pipeline, and an improved calibration dark.

  18. LnPO4 nanoparticles doped with Ac-225 and sequestered daughters for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Mark F; Robertson, David; Pevsner, Paul H; Wall, Jonathan S; Mirzadeh, Saed; Kennel, Stephen J

    2014-02-01

    For targeted alpha therapy (TAT) with 225Ac, daughter radioisotopes from the parent emissions should be controlled. Here, we report on a second-generation layered nanoparticle (NP) with improved daughter retention that can mediate TAT of lung tumor colonies. NPs of La3+, Gd3+, and 225Ac3+ ions were coated with additional layers of GdPO4 and then coated with gold via citrate reduction of NaAuCl4. MAb 201b, targeting thrombomodulin in lung endothelium, was added to a polyethylene glycol (dPEG)-COOH linker. The NPs:mAb ratio was quantified by labeling the mAb with 125I. NPs showed 30% injected dose/organ antibody-mediated uptake in the lung, which increased to 47% in mice pretreated with clodronate liposomes to reduce phagocytosis. Retention of daughter 213Bi in lung tissue was more than 70% at one hour and about 90% at 24 hours postinjection. Treatment of mice with lung-targeted 225Ac NP reduced EMT-6 lung colonies relative to cold antibody competition for targeting or phosphate-buffered saline injected controls. We conclude that LnPO4 NPs represent a viable solution to deliver the 225Ac as an in vivo α generator. The NPs successfully retain a large percentage of the daughter products without compromising the tumoricidal properties of the α-radiation.

  19. Individual differences and specificity of prefrontal gamma frequency-tACS on fluid intelligence capabilities.

    PubMed

    Santarnecchi, E; Muller, T; Rossi, S; Sarkar, A; Polizzotto, N R; Rossi, A; Cohen Kadosh, R

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is an effective, frequency-specific modulator of endogenous brain oscillations, with the potential to alter cognitive performance. Here, we show that reduction in response latencies to solve complex logic problem indexing fluid intelligence is obtained through 40 Hz-tACS (gamma band) applied to the prefrontal cortex. This improvement in human performance depends on individual ability, with slower performers at baseline receiving greater benefits. The effect could have not being explained by regression to the mean, and showed task and frequency specificity: it was not observed for trials not involving logical reasoning, as well as with the application of low frequency 5 Hz-tACS (theta band) or non-periodic high frequency random noise stimulation (101-640 Hz). Moreover, performance in a spatial working memory task was not affected by brain stimulation, excluding possible effects on fluid intelligence enhancement through an increase in memory performance. We suggest that such high-level cognitive functions are dissociable by frequency-specific neuromodulatory effects, possibly related to entrainment of specific brain rhythms. We conclude that individual differences in cognitive abilities, due to acquired or developmental origins, could be reduced during frequency-specific tACS, a finding that should be taken into account for future individual cognitive rehabilitation studies. PMID:26707084

  20. Parameters characterization and optimization of activated carbon (AC) cathodes for microbial fuel cell application.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Babanova, Sofia; Atanassov, Plamen; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Grattieri, Matteo; Cristiani, Pierangela; Trasatti, Stefano; Li, Baikun; Schuler, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is employed as a cost-effective catalyst for cathodic oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFC). The fabrication protocols of AC-based cathodes are conducted at different applied pressures (175-3500 psi) and treatment temperatures (25-343°C). The effects of those parameters along with changes in the surface morphology and chemistry on the cathode performances are comprehensively examined. The cathodes are tested in a three-electrode setup and explored in single chamber membraneless MFCs (SCMFCs). The results show that the best performance of the AC-based cathode is achieved when a pressure of 1400 psi is applied followed by heat treatment of 150-200°C for 1h. The influence of the applied pressure and the temperature of the heat treatment on the electrodes and SCMFCs is demonstrated as the result of the variation in the transfer resistance, the surface morphology and surface chemistry of the AC-based cathodes tested.

  1. LnPO4 nanoparticles doped with Ac-225 and sequestered daughters for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Mark F; Robertson, David; Pevsner, Paul H; Wall, Jonathan S; Mirzadeh, Saed; Kennel, Stephen J

    2014-02-01

    For targeted alpha therapy (TAT) with 225Ac, daughter radioisotopes from the parent emissions should be controlled. Here, we report on a second-generation layered nanoparticle (NP) with improved daughter retention that can mediate TAT of lung tumor colonies. NPs of La3+, Gd3+, and 225Ac3+ ions were coated with additional layers of GdPO4 and then coated with gold via citrate reduction of NaAuCl4. MAb 201b, targeting thrombomodulin in lung endothelium, was added to a polyethylene glycol (dPEG)-COOH linker. The NPs:mAb ratio was quantified by labeling the mAb with 125I. NPs showed 30% injected dose/organ antibody-mediated uptake in the lung, which increased to 47% in mice pretreated with clodronate liposomes to reduce phagocytosis. Retention of daughter 213Bi in lung tissue was more than 70% at one hour and about 90% at 24 hours postinjection. Treatment of mice with lung-targeted 225Ac NP reduced EMT-6 lung colonies relative to cold antibody competition for targeting or phosphate-buffered saline injected controls. We conclude that LnPO4 NPs represent a viable solution to deliver the 225Ac as an in vivo α generator. The NPs successfully retain a large percentage of the daughter products without compromising the tumoricidal properties of the α-radiation. PMID:24102173

  2. Parameters characterization and optimization of activated carbon (AC) cathodes for microbial fuel cell application.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Babanova, Sofia; Atanassov, Plamen; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Grattieri, Matteo; Cristiani, Pierangela; Trasatti, Stefano; Li, Baikun; Schuler, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is employed as a cost-effective catalyst for cathodic oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFC). The fabrication protocols of AC-based cathodes are conducted at different applied pressures (175-3500 psi) and treatment temperatures (25-343°C). The effects of those parameters along with changes in the surface morphology and chemistry on the cathode performances are comprehensively examined. The cathodes are tested in a three-electrode setup and explored in single chamber membraneless MFCs (SCMFCs). The results show that the best performance of the AC-based cathode is achieved when a pressure of 1400 psi is applied followed by heat treatment of 150-200°C for 1h. The influence of the applied pressure and the temperature of the heat treatment on the electrodes and SCMFCs is demonstrated as the result of the variation in the transfer resistance, the surface morphology and surface chemistry of the AC-based cathodes tested. PMID:24787317

  3. Individual differences and specificity of prefrontal gamma frequency-tACS on fluid intelligence capabilities.

    PubMed

    Santarnecchi, E; Muller, T; Rossi, S; Sarkar, A; Polizzotto, N R; Rossi, A; Cohen Kadosh, R

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is an effective, frequency-specific modulator of endogenous brain oscillations, with the potential to alter cognitive performance. Here, we show that reduction in response latencies to solve complex logic problem indexing fluid intelligence is obtained through 40 Hz-tACS (gamma band) applied to the prefrontal cortex. This improvement in human performance depends on individual ability, with slower performers at baseline receiving greater benefits. The effect could have not being explained by regression to the mean, and showed task and frequency specificity: it was not observed for trials not involving logical reasoning, as well as with the application of low frequency 5 Hz-tACS (theta band) or non-periodic high frequency random noise stimulation (101-640 Hz). Moreover, performance in a spatial working memory task was not affected by brain stimulation, excluding possible effects on fluid intelligence enhancement through an increase in memory performance. We suggest that such high-level cognitive functions are dissociable by frequency-specific neuromodulatory effects, possibly related to entrainment of specific brain rhythms. We conclude that individual differences in cognitive abilities, due to acquired or developmental origins, could be reduced during frequency-specific tACS, a finding that should be taken into account for future individual cognitive rehabilitation studies.

  4. Level structure and reflection asymmetric shape in sup 223 Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P. )

    1990-07-20

    Mass separated sources of {sup 227}Pa (separated as PaF{sub 4}{sup +} ions) were used to study the level structure of {sup 223}Ac following alpha decay. The levels in {sup 223}Ac are interpreted as K = 5/2{sup {plus minus}} parity doublet bands which occur naturally in reflection asymmetric models and the multiphonon octupole model. The anomalous structure of the K = 3/2{sup {minus}} band is explained in terms of Coriolis coupling. The low lying parity doublet bands in {sup 223}Ac, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 227}Ac are compared and contrasted.

  5. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  6. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  7. Loss and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwer, Ken

    2002-01-01

    The author recounts his experiences of the loss of the QuickTOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) spacecraft, for which he was project manager. He draws from the launch failure lessons on leadership, coping with loss and maintaining morale.

  8. Genes and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  9. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  10. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  11. Effect of nanosilica on optical, electric modulus and AC conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol/polyaniline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Somyia; Abel-Baset, Tarob; Elfadl, Azza Abou; Hassen, Arafa

    2015-05-01

    Nanosilica (NS) was synthesized by a sol-gel method and mixed with 0.98 polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/0.02 polyaniline (PANI) in different amounts to produce nanocomposite films. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) revealed the average particle size of the NS to be ca. 15 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the NS was well-dispersed on the surface of the PVA/PNAI films. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the samples showed a significant change in the intensity of the characteristic peak of the functional groups in the composite films with the amount of NS added. The absorbance and refractive index (n) of the composites were studied in the UV-vis range, and the optical energy band gap, Eg, and different optical parameters were calculated. The dielectric loss modulus, M″ and ac conductivity, σac, of the samples were studied within 300-425 K and 0.1 kHz-5 MHz, respectively. Two relaxation peaks were observed in the frequency dependence of the dielectric loss modulus, M″. The behavior of σac(f) for the composite films indicated that the conduction mechanism was correlated barrier hopping (CBH). The results of this work are discussed and compared with those of previous studies of similar composites.

  12. Development of a hardware-based AC microgrid for AC stability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Robert R.

    As more power electronic-based devices enable the development of high-bandwidth AC microgrids, the topic of microgrid power distribution stability has become of increased interest. Recently, researchers have proposed a relatively straightforward method to assess the stability of AC systems based upon the time-constants of sources, the net bus capacitance, and the rate limits of sources. In this research, a focus has been to develop a hardware test system to evaluate AC system stability. As a first step, a time domain model of a two converter microgrid was established in which a three phase inverter acts as a power source and an active rectifier serves as an adjustable constant power AC load. The constant power load can be utilized to create rapid power flow transients to the generating system. As a second step, the inverter and active rectifier were designed using a Smart Power Module IGBT for switching and an embedded microcontroller as a processor for algorithm implementation. The inverter and active rectifier were designed to operate simultaneously using a synchronization signal to ensure each respective local controller operates in a common reference frame. Finally, the physical system was created and initial testing performed to validate the hardware functionality as a variable amplitude and variable frequency AC system.

  13. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients.

  14. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  15. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients. PMID:26319342

  16. Molecular biology of maize Ac/Ds elements: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lazarow, Katina; Doll, My-Linh; Kunze, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Maize Activator (Ac) is one of the prototype transposable elements of the hAT transposon superfamily, members of which were identified in plants, fungi, and animals. The autonomous Ac and nonautonomous Dissociation (Ds) elements are mobilized by the single transposase protein encoded by Ac. To date Ac/Ds transposons were shown to be functional in approximately 20 plant species and have become the most widely used transposable elements for gene tagging and functional genomics approaches in plants. In this chapter we review the biology, regulation, and transposition mechanism of Ac/Ds elements in maize and heterologous plants. We discuss the parameters that are known to influence the functionality and transposition efficiency of Ac/Ds transposons and need to be considered when designing Ac transposase expression constructs and Ds elements for application in heterologous plant species.

  17. Transition after Traumatic Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuban, Caelan

    2011-01-01

    Children experience grief when they suffer the loss of a close relationship. When that loss also traumatizes children, they experience additional emotional reactions. It is important that adults educate themselves and others who deal with children about typical, healthy grief reactions. Following a non-violent loss, the initial reactions of…

  18. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  19. Hearing loss in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.

  20. Globalization to amplify economic climate losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, C.; Wenz, L.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Economic welfare under enhanced anthropogenic carbon emissions and associated future warming poses a major challenge for a society with an evolving globally connected economy. Unabated climate change will impact economic output for example through heat-stress-related reductions in productivity. Since meteorologically-induced production reductions can propagate along supply chains, structural changes in the economic network may influence climate-related losses. The role of the economic network evolution for climate impacts has been neither quantified nor qualitatively understood. Here we show that since the beginning of the 21st century the structural change of the global supply network has been such that an increase of spillover losses due to unanticipated climatic events has to be expected. We quantify primary, secondary and higher-order losses from reduced labor productivity under past and present economic and climatic conditions and find that indirect losses are significant and increase with rising temperatures. The connectivity of the economic network has increased in such a way as to foster the propagation of production loss. This supply chain connectivity robustly exhibits the characteristic distribution of self-organized criticality which has been shifted towards higher values since 2001. Losses due to this structural evolution dominated over the effect of comparably weak climatic changes during this decade. Our finding suggests that the current form of globalization may amplify losses due to climatic extremes and thus necessitate structural adaptation that requires more foresight than presently prevalent.

  1. Computation of self-field hysteresis losses in conductors with helicoidal structure using a 2D finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, A.; Siahrang, M.; Grilli, F.; Sirois, F.

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that twisting current-carrying conductors helps to reduce their coupling losses. However, the impact of twisting on self-field hysteresis losses has not been as extensively investigated as that on the reduction of coupling losses. This is mostly because the reduction of coupling losses has been an important issue to tackle in the past, and it is not possible to consider twisting within the classical two-dimensional (2D) approaches for the computation of self-field hysteresis losses. Recently, numerical codes considering the effect of twisting in continuous symmetries have appeared. For general three-dimensional (3D) simulations, one issue is that no robust, widely accepted and easy to obtain model for expressing the relationship between the current density and the electric field is available. On the other hand, we can consider that in these helicoidal structures currents flow only along the helicoidal trajectories. This approach allows one to use the scalar power-law for superconductor resistivity and makes the eddy current approach to a solution of a hysteresis loss problem feasible. In this paper we use the finite element method to solve the eddy current model in helicoidal structures in 2D domains utilizing the helicoidal symmetry. The developed tool uses the full 3D geometry but allows discretization which takes advantage of the helicoidal symmetry to reduce the computational domain to a 2D one. We utilize in this tool the non-linear power law for modelling the resistivity in the superconducting regions and study how the self-field losses are influenced by the twisting of a 10-filament wire. Additionally, in the case of high aspect ratio tapes, we compare the results computed with the new tool and a one-dimensional program based on the integral equation method and developed for simulating single layer power cables made of ReBCO coated conductors. Finally, we discuss modelling issues and present open questions related to helicoidal structures

  2. An automatic AC/DC thermal voltage converter and AC voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1985-10-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frquency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  3. Automatic ac/dc thermal voltage converter and ac voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1984-11-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frequency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  4. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A.

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc{sup 109KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc{sup 109KO} results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc{sup 109KO}-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID{sub 50} showed that vAc{sup 109KO} produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc{sup 109KO} BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  5. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious.

    PubMed

    Fang, Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc(109KO)). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc(109KO) results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc(109KO)-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID(50) showed that vAc(109KO) produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc(109KO) BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  6. Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits

    DOEpatents

    Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.

    2005-01-04

    A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.

  7. Heat generation ability in AC magnetic field of MgAlxFe2-xO4 ferrite powder prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Ito, Yoshiki; Sangaa, Deleg; Tsogbadrakh, Namsrai; Aono, Hiromichi; Naohara, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Al substituted MgAlXFe2-XO4 that have high heat generation ability in the AC magnetic field was obtained by Sol-Gel method. The heat generation ability was improved by Al3+ substitution, the highest heat generation property (ΔT = 127.2°C) was confirmed for X = 0.25 sample. This high heat generation ability was depended on hysteresis loss value, the hysteresis loss for X = 0.25 samples were significantly increased in the AC magnetic field.

  8. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  9. Weight Loss and Diet in Wrestling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Most weight loss among wrestlers is accomplished by a combination of fasting, induced sweating, and reduced fluid intake resulting in dehydration in the final days prior to competition. The effects of acute thermal dehydration on cardiovascular dynamics are related to a reduction in plasma volume. (JN)

  10. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  11. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of Zn 2+-TiO 2/AC composite photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xincheng; Jiang, Jianchun; Sun, Kang; Cui, Dandan

    2011-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) supported Zn 2+-TiO 2 photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, nitrogen absorption, diffuse reflectance UV/VIS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Using toluene as a pollution target, the photocatalytic activity of photocatalyst was evaluated. The results showed that prepared photocatalyst was obviously helpful for the removal of toluene in air. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene by Zn 2+-TiO 2/AC reached 100% for 40 min and remained 75% after 160 min, while degradation by TiO 2 was only 30%. It indicated that the photocatalytic activity of prepared photocatalyst was enhanced. It is due to Zn 2+-doping increased the oxidation and reduction of hole-electron pairs, which was the important factor in heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  12. The correction of linear lattice gradient errors using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,G.; Bai, M.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    Precise measurement of optics from coherent betatron oscillations driven by ac dipoles have been demonstrated at RHIC and the Tevatron. For RHIC, the observed rms beta-beat is about 10%. Reduction of beta-beating is an essential component of performance optimization at high energy colliders. A scheme of optics correction was developed and tested in the RHIC 2008 run, using ac dipole optics for measurement and a few adjustable trim quadruples for correction. In this scheme, we first calculate the phase response matrix from the. measured phase advance, and then apply singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm to the phase response matrix to find correction quadruple strengths. We present both simulation and some preliminary experimental results of this correction.

  13. A.C. Susceptometry Utilizing GMR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Daniel; Shivaram, Bellave

    2001-11-01

    Superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) magnetometers remain as the most sensitive instruments to measure magnetic properties. However, the ready availability and rapid improvements in the sensitivity of magnetic field sensors based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect combined with their low cost and ability to operate at room temperature opens up opportunities to exploit these new devices where the utmost sensitivity of SQUID based detection is not needed. In this article we present one such application of GMR sensors and demonstrate how they can enhance the signals obtained in a simple a.c. magnetic susceptibility apparatus.

  14. Reductive glutamine metabolism by IDH1 mediates lipogenesis under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Metallo, Christian M.; Gameiro, Paulo A.; Bell, Eric L.; Mattaini, Katherine R.; Yang, Juanjuan; Hiller, Karsten; Jewell, Christopher M.; Johnson, Zachary R.; Irvine, Darrell J.; Guarente, Leonard; Kelleher, Joanne K.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Iliopoulos, Othon; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) is the central biosynthetic precursor for fatty acid synthesis and protein acetylation. In the conventional view of mammalian cell metabolism, AcCoA is primarily generated from glucose-derived pyruvate through the citrate shuttle and adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase (ACL) in the cytosol1-3. However, proliferating cells that exhibit aerobic glycolysis and those exposed to hypoxia convert glucose to lactate at near stoichiometric levels, directing glucose carbon away from the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and fatty acid synthesis4. Although glutamine is consumed at levels exceeding that required for nitrogen biosynthesis5, the regulation and utilization of glutamine metabolism in hypoxic cells is not well understood. Here we show that human cells employ reductive metabolism of alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) to synthesize AcCoA for lipid synthesis. This isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) dependent pathway is active in most cell lines under normal culture conditions, but cells grown under hypoxia rely almost exclusively on the reductive carboxylation of glutamine-derived αKG for de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, renal cell lines deficient in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein preferentially utilize reductive glutamine metabolism for lipid biosynthesis even at normal oxygen levels. These results identify a critical role for oxygen in regulating carbon utilization in order to produce AcCoA and support lipid synthesis in mammalian cells. PMID:22101433

  15. Crossmodal plasticity in sensory loss.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Johannes; Collignon, Olivier; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we describe crossmodal plasticity following sensory loss in three parts, with each section focusing on one sensory system. We summarize a wide range of studies showing that sensory loss may lead, depending of the affected sensory system, to functional changes in other, primarily not affected senses, which range from heightened to lowered abilities. In the first part, the effects of blindness on mainly audition and touch are described. The latest findings on brain reorganization in blindness are reported, with a particular emphasis on imaging studies illustrating how nonvisual inputs recruit the visually deafferented occipital cortex. The second part covers crossmodal processing in deafness, with a special focus on the effects of deafness on visual processing. In the last portion of this review, we present the effects that the loss of a chemical sense have on the sensitivity of the other chemical senses, that is, smell, taste, and trigeminal chemosensation. We outline how the convergence of the chemical senses to the same central processing areas may lead to the observed reduction in sensitivity of the primarily not affected senses. Altogether, the studies reviewed herein illustrate the fascinating plasticity of the brain when coping with sensory deprivation. PMID:21741555

  16. Functional Visual Loss

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Beau B; Newman, Nancy J

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Neurologists frequently evaluate patients complaining of vision loss, especially when the patient has been examined by an ophthalmologist who has found no ocular disease. A significant proportion of patients presenting to the neurologist with visual complaints will have non-organic or functional visual loss. While there are examination techniques which can aid in the detection and diagnosis of functional visual loss, the frequency with which functional visual loss occurs concomitantly with organic disease warrants substantial caution on the part of the clinician. Furthermore, purely functional visual loss is never a diagnosis of exclusion, and must be supported by positive findings on examination that demonstrate normal visual function. The relationship of true psychological disease and functional visual loss is unclear and most patients respond well to simple reassurance. PMID:20638000

  17. APN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac but not Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jizhen; Zhang, Min; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Guo, Yuyuan; Ni, Xinzhi; Li, Xianchun

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are phylogenetically divided into eight clusters, designated as APN1–8. Although APN1 has been implicated as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in several species, its potential role in the mode of action of Cry2Ab has not been functionally determined so far. To test whether APN1 also acts as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa zea and even for Cry2Ab in this species, we conducted a gain of function analysis by heterologously expressing H. zea APN1 (HzAPN1) in the midgut and fat body cell lines of H. zea and the ovarian cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and a loss of function analysis by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing of the endogenous APN1 in the three cell lines using the HzAPN1 double strand RNA (dsRNA). Heterologous expression of HzAPN1 significantly increased the susceptibility of the three cell lines to Cry1Ac, but had no effects on their susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Knocking down of the endogenous APN1 made the three cell lines resistant to Cry1Ac, but didn’t change cell lines susceptibility to Cry2Ab. The findings from this study demonstrate that HzAPN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but not Cry2Ab. PMID:26755166

  18. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  19. Low Cost Fabrication of 2G Wires for AC Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kodenkandath, T.; List, F.A., III

    2005-09-15

    Ink-jet printing has been demonstrated as an adaptable technology for printing YBCO filaments using a Metal Organic (MO) YBCO precursor. The technology was demonstrated using AMSC's proprietary metal organic TFA-based YBCO precursor and a commercial piezoelectric print-head on RABiTS templates. Filaments with a width of 100 um and spacing of 200 um were successfully printed, decomposed and processed to YBCO. Critical currents of {approx} 200 A/cm-w were achieved in a series of filaments with a 2 mm width. The single nozzle laboratory printer used in the Phase 1 program is capable of printing {approx} 100 um wide single filaments at a rate of 8-10 cm/sec. The electrical stabilization of filaments with a Ag ink was also evaluated using ink-jet printing. The overall objective of the Phase 1 Project was the evaluation and demonstration of inkjet-printing for depositing YBCO filaments on textured templates (RABiTS, IBAD, ISD, etc. substrates) with properties appropriate for low loss ac conductors. Goals of the Phase 1 program included development of an appropriate precursor ink, demonstration of the printing process, processing and characterization of printed YBCO filaments and evaluation of the process for further development.

  20. AC Electroosmotic Pumping in Nanofluidic Funnels.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Andrew R; Haywood, Daniel G; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2016-06-21

    We report efficient pumping of fluids through nanofluidic funnels when a symmetric AC waveform is applied. The asymmetric geometry of the nanofluidic funnel induces not only ion current rectification but also electroosmotic flow rectification. In the base-to-tip direction, the funnel exhibits a lower ion conductance and a higher electroosmotic flow velocity, whereas, in the tip-to-base direction, the funnel has a higher ion conductance and a lower electroosmotic flow velocity. Consequently, symmetric AC waveforms easily pump fluid through the nanofunnels over a range of frequencies, e.g., 5 Hz to 5 kHz. In our experiments, the nanofunnels were milled into glass substrates with a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument, and the funnel design had a constant 5° taper with aspect ratios (funnel tip width to funnel depth) of 0.1 to 1.0. We tracked ion current rectification by current-voltage (I-V) response and electroosmotic flow rectification by transport of a zwitterionic fluorescent probe. Rectification of ion current and electroosmotic flow increased with increasing electric field applied to the nanofunnel. Our results support three-dimensional simulations of ion transport and electroosmotic transport through nanofunnels, which suggest the asymmetric electroosmotic transport stems from an induced pressure at the junction of the nanochannel and nanofunnel tip. PMID:27230495

  1. AC impedance analysis of polypyrrole thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The AC impedance spectra of thin polypyrrole films were obtained at open circuit potentials from -0.4 to 0.4 V vs SCE. Two limiting cases are discussed for which simplified equivalent circuits are applicable. At very positive potentials, the predominantly nonfaradaic AC impedance of polypyrrole is very similar to that observed previously for finite porous metallic films. Modeling of the data with the appropriate equivalent circuit permits effective pore diameter and pore number densities of the oxidized film to be estimated. At potentials from -0.4 to -0.3 V, the polypyrrole film is essentially nonelectronically conductive and diffusion of polymer oxidized sites with their associated counterions can be assumed to be linear from the film/substrate electrode interface. The equivalent circuit for the polypyrrole film at these potentials is that previously described for metal oxide, lithium intercalation thin films. Using this model, counterion diffusion coefficients are determined for both semi-infinite and finite diffusion domains. In addition, the limiting low frequency resistance and capacitance of the polypyrrole thin fims was determined and compared to that obtained previously for thicker films of the polymer. The origin of the observed potential dependence of these low frequency circuit components is discussed.

  2. dc and ac magnetic properties of thin-walled Nb cylinders with and without a row of antidots.

    PubMed

    Tsindlekht, M I; Genkin, V M; Felner, I; Zeides, F; Katz, N; Gazi, Š; Chromik, Š; Dobrovolskiy, O V; Sachser, R; Huth, M

    2016-06-01

    dc and ac magnetic properties of two thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross-section are reported. Magnetization curves and the ac response were studied on as-prepared and patterned samples in magnetic fields parallel to the cylinder axis. A row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was made in the film along the cylinder axis. Avalanche-like jumps of the magnetization are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above H c1, but in fields lower than H c1 in the vortex-free region. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than H c1. At temperatures above [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared samples, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference planar Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures. The ac response was measured in constant and swept dc magnetic field modes. Experiment shows that ac losses at low magnetic fields in a swept field mode are smaller for the patterned sample. For both samples the shapes of the field dependences of losses and the amplitude of the third harmonic are the same in constant and swept field near H c3. This similarity does not exist at low fields in a swept mode.

  3. dc and ac magnetic properties of thin-walled Nb cylinders with and without a row of antidots.

    PubMed

    Tsindlekht, M I; Genkin, V M; Felner, I; Zeides, F; Katz, N; Gazi, Š; Chromik, Š; Dobrovolskiy, O V; Sachser, R; Huth, M

    2016-06-01

    dc and ac magnetic properties of two thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross-section are reported. Magnetization curves and the ac response were studied on as-prepared and patterned samples in magnetic fields parallel to the cylinder axis. A row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was made in the film along the cylinder axis. Avalanche-like jumps of the magnetization are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above H c1, but in fields lower than H c1 in the vortex-free region. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than H c1. At temperatures above [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared samples, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference planar Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures. The ac response was measured in constant and swept dc magnetic field modes. Experiment shows that ac losses at low magnetic fields in a swept field mode are smaller for the patterned sample. For both samples the shapes of the field dependences of losses and the amplitude of the third harmonic are the same in constant and swept field near H c3. This similarity does not exist at low fields in a swept mode. PMID:27143621

  4. Plasmonics: Loss and gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulton, Rupert F.

    2012-04-01

    Providing sufficient gain to overcome loss remains a fundamental challenge for light amplification in miniaturized plasmonic devices. Ongoing research gives hope for a cautious but optimistic outlook.

  5. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by fungal treatment and reduction of hazard quotients.

    PubMed

    Lucas, D; Barceló, D; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S

    2016-11-15

    The elimination of 81 pharmaceuticals (PhACs) by means of a biological treatment based on the fungus Trametes versicolor was evaluated in this work. PhAC removal studied in different types of wastewaters (urban, reverse osmosis concentrate, hospital, and veterinary hospital wastewaters) were reviewed and compared with conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. In addition, hazard indexes were calculated based on the exposure levels and ecotoxicity for each compound and used for the evaluation of the contaminants removal. PhAC elimination achieved with the fungal treatment (mean value 76%) was similar or slightly worse than the elimination achieved in the CAS treatment (85%). However, the fungal reactor was superior in removing more hazardous compounds (antibiotics and psychiatric drugs) than the conventional activated sludge in terms of environmental risk reduction (93% and 53% of reduction respectively). Fungal treatment can thus be considered as a good alternative to conventional treatment technologies for the elimination of PhACs from wastewaters. PMID:27436780

  6. AC corrosion -- A new challenge to pipeline integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e. less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels when cathodic protection was applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in the initiation of several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, normal levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion to acceptable levels and that AC mitigation is often required to prevent serious corrosion. Several other AC corrosion sites were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. A graph, relating AC voltage to holiday size at the minimum AC current density for corrosion, is presented to assist the pipeline operator in determining whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion activity.

  7. AC corrosion -- a new threat to pipeline integrity?

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e., less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels with cathodic protection applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, standard levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion and AC mitigation is required to prevent further corrosion. Several other corrosion anomalies were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. The authors have investigated several corrosion occurrences on pipelines in Ontario during the last 2--3 years which appear to be caused by AC corrosion. This presentation traces the literature record on AC electrolysis from the past to the present and discusses the key parameters which determine the likelihood of corrosion attack. Several case histories of suspected AC corrosion will be discussed and guidelines on how to assess whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion will be offered.

  8. Fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Hiroyo; Okano, Hironaga; Wada, Kenji; Inoue, Satoru

    2014-02-01

    Anodization techniques by alternating current (ac) are introduced in this review. By using ac anodization, laminated alumina films are fabricated. Different types of alumina films consisting of 50-200 nm layers were obtained by varying both the ac power supply and the electrolyte. The total film thickness increased with an increase in the total charge transferred. The thickness of the individual layers increased with the ac voltage; however, the anodization time had little effect on the film thickness. The laminated alumina films resembled the nacre structure of shells, and the different morphologies exhibited by bivalves and spiral shells could be replicated by controlling the rate of increase of the applied potentials.

  9. Weight loss and weight loss maintenance in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Walcott-McQuigg, Jacqueline A.; Chen, Shu-Pi; Davis, Kara; Stevenson, Ernestine; Choi, Aeree; Wangsrikhun, Suparat

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance in 23 African American women participating in a 32-week lifestyle enhancement awareness program (LEAP), 16 weekly sessions on weight loss and 16 weekly sessions on weight loss maintenance. A pre-test, post-test one group design was used. Measures included dietary readiness to lose weight, bioelectrical impedance analysis, lipid levels, blood pressure, waist/hip ratio, weight, height, and activity level. Women who completed the weight loss phase of the program showed a reduction in weight; body mass index; percentage body fat; and waist/hip ratio; and an increase in physical activity and dietary readiness to control over-eating. Weight loss was significantly correlated with attendance and dietary readiness to decrease emotional eating. Women who continued on to complete the weight loss maintenance classes maintained a significant loss in body mass index, and increased their high-density lipoproteins and dietary readiness to monitor hunger and eating cues. African-American women who sustain weight loss and weight loss maintenance regimens reduce their risks for developing chronic diseases. PMID:12152924

  10. Nonsyndromic hereditary hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Alford, Raye L

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of hereditary hearing loss is extraordinarily complex. More than 400 genetic syndromes are associated with hearing loss and more than 140 genetic loci associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss have been mapped, with more than 60 genes identified to date. Hereditary hearing loss can be inherited as an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked or mitochondrial (maternally inherited) condition. The overlapping audiologic phenotypes associated with many genes and the variability and/or reduced, sometimes age-related, penetrance of some phenotypic features of syndromic hearing loss can complicate the distinction between various genetic causes of nonsyndromic hearing loss and between nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss, especially in childhood. Testing for individual genes associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss, beyond GJB2 which encodes Connexin 26, can become expensive and, without specific phenotypic features to guide selection of genes for testing (such as enlarged vestibular aqueducts, low frequency hearing loss or auditory neuropathy), it is not likely to yield an etiology. Advances in DNA sequencing and the rapid decline in the cost of sequencing presage the availability of testing that can identify the etiology in the majority of cases of genetic hearing loss. However, until comprehensive genetic testing of hearing loss is clinically available and cost-effective, thorough phenotypic and audiologic evaluation and careful documentation of risk factors, infectious exposures and patient and family medical history will continue to be important to efforts directed toward etiologic diagnosis. The complexities associated with interpretation of genetic test results, genetic counseling and genetic risk assessment make consultation with medical geneticists important for many patients.

  11. Energy losses in switches

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-07-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF{sub 6} polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V{sub peak}I{sub peak}){sup 1.1846}. When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset.

  12. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Fan Liu, Sau; Allen, B J

    2006-09-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation on a small scale by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) to produce Ra-225, which subsequently decays to Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'targeted alpha therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 with a linac using an accurate theoretical model in which the bremsstrahlung photon spectrum at 18 MV linac electron energy is convoluted with the corresponding photonuclear cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained and is compared with a computer simulation. This study shows that at 18 MV, the photonuclear reaction on Ra-226 can produce low activities of Ac-225 with a linac. However, a high power linac with high current, pulse length and frequency is needed to produce practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  13. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Fan Liu, Sau; Allen, B J

    2006-09-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation on a small scale by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) to produce Ra-225, which subsequently decays to Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'targeted alpha therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 with a linac using an accurate theoretical model in which the bremsstrahlung photon spectrum at 18 MV linac electron energy is convoluted with the corresponding photonuclear cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained and is compared with a computer simulation. This study shows that at 18 MV, the photonuclear reaction on Ra-226 can produce low activities of Ac-225 with a linac. However, a high power linac with high current, pulse length and frequency is needed to produce practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226. PMID:16806950

  14. Understanding Grief & Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Judith

    1995-01-01

    Although death is the one certainty in life, death or the grieving process is rarely discussed. Grief includes physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological reactions to loss, and is not limited to feelings about death. Grief can be the response to loss of home or country, separation or displacement, and changes resulting from new life stages.…

  15. Hearing loss and music

    MedlinePlus

    Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music ... talking is 40 dB to 60 dB. A rock concert is between 110 dB and 120 ... when listening to music depends on: How loud the music is How ...

  16. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  17. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  18. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  19. CEBAF beam loss accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Ursic, R.; Mahoney, K.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a beam loss accounting system for the CEBAF electron accelerator. This system samples the beam curent throughout the beam path and measures the beam current accurately. Personnel Safety and Machine Protection systems use this system to turn off the beam when hazardous beam losses occur.

  20. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  1. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  2. Structural improvement of compounds with analgesic activity: AC-MPF4, a compound with mixed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity via opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Trevisan, Gabriela; Rotta, Mariane; Machado, Pablo; Martins, Marcos A P; Ferreira, Juliano

    2015-02-01

    Successful pain control is a world health problem, which indicates an ever-growing need in the discovery of new molecules with improved analgesic activity and reduced side effects. The aim of this study was to describe the synthesis and biological activity of AC-MPF4, a new acetyl- and pyrazole-containing molecule derivate from MPF4. Firstly, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-edematogenic effect of AC-MPF4 in the carrageenan test. AC-MPF4 presented similar analgesic properties to MPF4 (opioid drug) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) (maximal effect of 85.4±10.9%, 62.0±11.0% and 95.0±10.4% of allodynia reduction, respectively). Regarding anti-edematogenic properties, AC-MPF4 presented similar results to ASA, while MPF4 presented no effect (maximal effect of 42.2±8.3% and 46.1±5.1% in paw thickness reduction, respectively). Remarkably, Naloxone fully prevented the analgesic effect of MPF4 and partially prevented the analgesic effect of AC-MPF4. However, neither ASA nor the anti-edematogenic activity was affected by Naloxone. The gastrointestinal motility and gastric mucosa integrity, which are parameters affected by opioid and NSAID drugs, respectively, were also evaluated. Neither of these parameters showed alterations induced by AC-MPF4, whereas ASA induced gastric ulceration (10 fold higher), and MPF4 decreased gastrointestinal motility (62.0±7.7%). Together, these data indicate that AC-MPF4 presents good analgesic and anti-edematogenic effects with no detectable side effects. AC-MPF4 may be considered a good prototype for the development of new analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs.

  3. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Engineering; IIT

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes [1]. Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley [2]. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation [3]. The resulting system of differential

  4. Evidence on the Molecular Basis of the Ac/ac Adaptive Cyanogenesis Polymorphism in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Small, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    White clover is polymorphic for cyanogenesis, with both cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants occurring in nature. This chemical defense polymorphism is one of the longest-studied and best-documented examples of an adaptive polymorphism in plants. It is controlled by two independently segregating genes: Ac/ac controls the presence/absence of cyanogenic glucosides; and Li/li controls the presence/absence of their hydrolyzing enzyme, linamarase. Whereas Li is well characterized at the molecular level, Ac has remained unidentified. Here we report evidence that Ac corresponds to a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 of the CYP79D protein subfamily (CYP79D15), and we describe the apparent molecular basis of the Ac/ac polymorphism. CYP79D orthologs catalyze the first step in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in other cyanogenic plant species. In white clover, Southern hybridizations indicate that CYP79D15 occurs as a single-copy gene in cyanogenic plants but is absent from the genomes of ac plants. Gene-expression analyses by RT–PCR corroborate this finding. This apparent molecular basis of the Ac/ac polymorphism parallels our previous findings for the Li/li polymorphism, which also arises through the presence/absence of a single-copy gene. The nature of these polymorphisms may reflect white clover's evolutionary origin as an allotetraploid derived from cyanogenic and acyanogenic diploid progenitors. PMID:18458107

  5. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  6. Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

  7. Fuzzy efficiency optimization of AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant; Sousa, Gilberto; Turner, Wayne; Spiegel, Ron; Chappell, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the early states of work to implement a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the efficiency of AC induction motor/adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems running at less than optimal speed and torque conditions. In this paper, the process by which the membership functions of the controller were tuned is discussed and a controller which operates on frequency as well as voltage is proposed. The membership functions for this dual-variable controller are sketched. Additional topics include an approach for fuzzy logic to motor current control which can be used with vector-controlled drives. Incorporation of a fuzzy controller as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) microchip is planned.

  8. High Temperature Microwave Dielectric Properties of JSC-1AC Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Shawn M.; Merritt, Brandon J.; Griffin, Brittany F.; Hintze, Paul E.; Shulman, Holly S.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave heating has many potential lunar applications including sintering regolith for lunar surface stabilization and heating regolith for various oxygen production reactors. The microwave properties of lunar simulants must be understood so this technology can be applied to lunar operations. Dielectric properties at microwave frequencies for a common lunar simulant, JSC-1AC, were measured up to 1100 C, which is approximately the melting point. The experimentally determined dielectric properties included real and imaginary permittivity (epsilon', epsilon"), loss tangent (tan delta), and half-power depth, the di stance at which a material absorbs 50% of incident microwave energy. Measurements at 2.45 GHz revealed tan delta of JSC-1A increases from 0.02 at 25 C to 0.31 at 110 C. The corresponding half-power depth decreases from a peak of 286 mm at 110 C, to 13 mm at 1100 C. These data indicate that JSC-1AC becomes more absorbing, and thus a better microwave heater as temperature increases. A half-power depth maximum at 100-200 C presents a barrier to direct microwave heating at low temperatures. Microwave heating experiments confirm the sluggish heating effect of weak absorption below 200 C, and increasingly strong absorption above 200 C, leading to rapid heating and melting of JSC-1AC.

  9. Topical fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A; Heber, D

    1995-11-01

    The fat on women's thighs is more difficult to mobilize due to increased alpha-2 adrenergic receptor activity induced by estrogen. Lipolysis can be initiated through adipocyte receptor stimulation (beta adrenergic) or inhibition (adenosine or alpha-2 adrenergic) or by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since many women desire regional thigh fat loss, a series of clinical trials were initiated using one thigh as a double-blinded control. Trial #1: Five overweight women had injections of isoproterenol at intervals around the thigh three times a week for 4 weeks with diet and walking. Trial #2: Five overweight woman had ointment containing forskolin, yohimbine and aminophylline applied to the thigh five times a week for 4 weeks after hypertonic warm soaks with a diet and walking. Trial #3: Eighteen overweight women were divided into three groups of six and trial #2 was repeated with each agent alone vs. placebo using forskolin, yohimbine or aminophylline in separate ointments. Trial #4: Thirty overweight women had 10% aminophylline ointment applied to the thigh five times a week for 6 weeks with diet and walking. Chemistry panel, theophylline level and patch testing were performed. Trial #5: Twelve women had trial #4 repeated with 2% aminophylline cream without a diet or walking. Trial #6: Trial #5 was repeated with 0.5% aminophylline cream. All trials except yohimbine ointment gave significantly more girth loss from the treated thigh (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Chemistry panel showed no toxicity. Theophylline was undetectable and patch testing was negative. We conclude that topical fat reduction for women's thighs can be achieved without diet or exercise. PMID:8697059

  10. Loss of 115 kV Power

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.

    2001-08-22

    This report discusses the postulated loss of 115 kV power. Continuous electrical power to Savannah River Plant reactors is necessary to maintain water flow for heat removal and essential monitoring and control. Should power supplied to the plant 115 kV system from offsite be lost, on-site generation is sufficient to maintain all reactors in a safe shutdown mode for an indefinite period. Should on-site generators for the 115 kV grid also be lost, diesel-electric generators within each reactor building are also sufficient to maintain safe shutdown for a finite period. In all cases DC power for necessary monitoring and control would be available from battery systems with AC converter backup.

  11. Organizational Support Systems as Buffers to Job Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholssberg, Nancy K.; Leibowitz, Zandy

    1980-01-01

    Men whose jobs were eliminated due to reductions in the labor force were surveyed. A conceptual model of transition to the specific event of job loss was described. The most effective buffer against trauma of job loss was a formal support system introduced by the organization. (Author/BEF)

  12. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Christina B; Theilmann, David A

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO)). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  13. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Theilmann, David A.

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  14. Preliminary Geologic Mapping of the Ac-S-3 Hemisphere of Ceres from NASA's Dawn Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Scully, J. E. C.; Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.; Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Schenk, P. M.; Marchi, S.; O'Brien, D. P.; Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schafer, M.; Platz, T.; Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Preusker, F.; Stephan, K.

    2015-10-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft [1] was captured into orbit by the dwarf planet (1) Ceres on March 6, 2015. During the Approach phase capture was preceded and followed by a series of optical navigation and rotation characterization observations by Dawn's Framing Camera (FC) [2], which provided the first images of Ceres' surface. As was done at Vesta [3], the Dawn Science Team will conduct a geological mapping campaign at Ceres during the Nominal Mission, including iterative mapping using data obtained during each orbital phase. In this presentation we will describe the approach of the Ceres Mapping Campaign and discuss the preliminary geological mapping of the Ac-S-3 (180- 360˚E) hemisphere of Ceres.

  15. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  16. Effect of Au nano-particle aggregation on the deactivation of the AuCl3/AC catalyst for acetylene hydrochlorination

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Bin; Wang, Qinqin; Yu, Feng; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of the valence state and distribution of the AuCl3/AC catalyst during the acetylene hydrochlorination deactivation process is described and discussed. Temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis indicate that the active Au3+ reduction to metallic Au0 is one reason for the deactivation of AuCl3/AC catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy characterization demonstrated that the particle size of Au nano-particles increases with increasing reaction time. The results indicated that metallic Au0 exhibits considerable catalytic activity and that Au nano-particle aggregation may be another reason for the AuCl3/AC catalytic activity in acetylene hydrochlorination. PMID:25994222

  17. Comprehensive review of high power factor ac-dc boost converters for PFC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Castro Pereira, Dênis; Da Silva, Márcio Renato; Mateus Silva, Elder; Lessa Tofoli, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    High power factor rectifiers have been consolidated as an effective solution to improve power quality indices in terms of input power factor correction, reduction in the total harmonic distortion of the input current and also regulated dc voltages. Within this context, this subject has motivated the introduction of numerous converter topologies based on classic dc-dc structures associated with novel control techniques, thus leading to the manufacturing of dedicated integrated circuits that allow high input power factor by adding a front-end stage to switch-mode converters. In particular, boost converters in continuous current mode (CCM) are widely employed since they allow obtaining minimised electromagnetic interference levels. This work is concerned with a literature review involving relevant ac-dc single-phase boost-based topologies with high input power factor. The evolution of aspects regarding the conventional boost converter is shown in terms of improved characteristics inherent to other ac-dc boost converters. Additionally, the work intends to be a fast and concise reference to single-phase ac-dc boost converters operating in CCM for engineers, researchers and experts in the field of power electronics by properly analysing and comparing the aforementioned rectifiers.

  18. The ac and dc performance of polymeric insulating materials under accelerated aging in a fog chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gorur, R.S. ); Cherney, E.A. ); Hackam, R. )

    1988-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the dc performance of polymeric insulating materials in a fog chamber. The materials evaluated in fog produced from low (250 ..mu..S/cm) and high (1000 ..mu..S/cm) conductivity water include cylindrical rod samples of high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber containing various amounts of either alumina trihydrate (ATH) or silica fillers, or both. Comparison is made of material performance obtained with ac which was reported in an earlier study. In both low and high conductivity fog, the time to failure with ac and +dc was very similar, but a reduction by a factor of about four was observed in the time to failure with -dc. For both ac and dc, silicone rubber performed better than EPDM samples in low conductivity fog, while the order of performance was reversed in high conductivity fog. A theoretical model to determine the effect of dry band discharges on material is presented. Good agreement of the predicted behavior of materials with the experimental findings is shown.

  19. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Stew, B T; Fishpool, S J C; Williams, H

    2012-02-01

    Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss is a medical emergency that continues to be poorly understood despite being recognized in the literature since 1944 (De Kleyn, 1944). A commonly used criterion to qualify for this diagnosis is a sensorineural hearing loss over three contiguous pure-tone frequencies of 30 dB or more that develops within 72 hours. The vast majority of cases are unilateral and the estimated annual incidence is 20 per 100 000 persons (Nosrati-Zarenoe et al, 2007). A cause for the hearing loss is only identified in up to 10% of cases but 50% of patients will improve spontaneously (Penido et al, 2009).

  20. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Stew, B T; Fishpool, S J C; Williams, H

    2012-02-01

    Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss is a medical emergency that continues to be poorly understood despite being recognized in the literature since 1944 (De Kleyn, 1944). A commonly used criterion to qualify for this diagnosis is a sensorineural hearing loss over three contiguous pure-tone frequencies of 30 dB or more that develops within 72 hours. The vast majority of cases are unilateral and the estimated annual incidence is 20 per 100 000 persons (Nosrati-Zarenoe et al, 2007). A cause for the hearing loss is only identified in up to 10% of cases but 50% of patients will improve spontaneously (Penido et al, 2009). PMID:22504750

  1. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current(AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For…

  2. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  3. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  4. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  5. 24 CFR Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false A Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendixes A-C to Subtitle A...

  6. 40 CFR Appendixes A-C to Part 403 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true A Appendixes A-C to Part 403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION Appendixes A-C to Part 403...

  7. 40 CFR Appendixes A-C to Part 403 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true A Appendixes A-C to Part 403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION Appendixes A-C to Part 403...

  8. Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Hovarongkura, A. David; Henry, Jr., Joseph D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

  9. Undergraduate Chemistry Education: Report of an ACS Presidential Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polik, William F.

    2006-01-01

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Presidential Symposium, Envisioning Undergraduate Chemistry Education in 2015 was organized by the ACS Committee on Professional Training (CPT), in response to the challenge to envision the chemistry enterprise in 2015. The need for more diverse role models at all levels is emphasized, including high school…

  10. Measurement of coupling resonance driving terms with the AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.

    2010-10-01

    Resonance driving terms for linear coupled betatron motion in a synchrotron ring can be determined from corresponding spectral lines of an excited coherent beam motion. An AC dipole is one of instruments to excite such a motion. When a coherent motion is excited with an AC dipole, measured Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron phase advance have apparent modulations, as if there is an additional quadrupole field at the location of the AC dipole. Hence, measurements of these parameters using the AC dipole require a proper interpretation of observed quantities. The situation is similar in measurements of resonance driving terms using the AC dipole. In this note, we derive an expression of coupled betatron motion excited with two AC dipoles in presence of skew quadrupole fields, discuss an impact of this quadrupole like effect of the AC dipole on a measurement of coupling resonance driving terms, and present an analytical method to determine the coupling resonance driving terms from quantities observed using the AC dipole.

  11. 24 CFR Appendices A-C to Subtitle A - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A Appendices A-C to Subtitle A Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development Appendices A-C to Subtitle A...

  12. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  13. Equivalent circuit models for ac impedance data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    A least-squares fitting routine has been developed for the analysis of ac impedance data. It has been determined that the checking of the derived equations for a particular circuit with a commercially available electronics circuit program is essential. As a result of the investigation described, three equivalent circuit models were selected for use in the analysis of ac impedance data.

  14. Crop loss assessment for California: modeling losses with different ozone standard scenarios.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, D M; Thompson, C R; Poe, M P

    1988-01-01

    Crop yield losses were estimated for ambient O3 concentrations and for a series of potential O3 air quality standards for California, including the current statewide 1-h oxidant (O3) standard of 0.10 ppm (196 microg m(-3)), 12-h growing season averages, and other models. A model for statewide losses was developed using hourly O3 data for all sites in the State, county crop productivity data, and available O3 concentration-yield loss equations to determine potential yield losses for each crop in each county in California for 1984. Losses were based on comparison to an estimated background filtered air concentration of 0.025 or 0.027 ppm, for 12 or 7 h, respectively. Potential losses due to ambient air in 1984 were estimated at 19% to 25% for dry beans, cotton, grapes, lemons, onions, and oranges. Losses of 5% to 9% were estimated for alfalfa and sweet corn. Losses of 4% or less were estimated for barley, field corn, lettuce, grain sorghum, rice, corn silage, spinach, strawberries, sugar beets, fresh tomatoes, processing tomatoes, and wheat. Implementation of either a modified rollback to meet the current 1 h California O3 standard (0.10 ppm) or a three-month, 12-h growing season average of 0.045 ppm was necessary to produce large reductions in potential crop losses. PMID:15092558

  15. ECONOMIC LOSSES AND FATALITIES DUE TO LANDSLIDES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Fleming, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Annual losses in the United States, Japan, Italy, and India have been estimated at 1 billion or more each. During the period 1971-74, nearly 600 people per year were killed by landslides worldwide; about 90 percent of these deaths occurred in the Circum-Pacific region. From 1967-82, 150 people per year died in Japan as a result of slope failures. In the United States, the number of landslide-related fatalities per year exceeds 25. Japan leads other nations in development of comprehensive programs to reduce economic losses and fatalities due to landslides. The United States recently has proposed a national landslide hazard reduction program.

  16. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-08-26

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium.

  17. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  18. Sustainable AC/AC hybrid electrochemical capacitors in aqueous electrolyte approaching the performance of organic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Qamar; Babuchowska, Paulina; Frąckowiak, Elżbieta; Béguin, François

    2016-09-01

    A high energy hybrid AC/AC electrochemical capacitor has been realized in aqueous Li2SO4+KI electrolyte mixture. Owing to the redox processes associated with the 2I-/I2 system, the positive electrode operates in narrow potential range and displays high capacity. During prolonged potentiostatic floating at 1.6 V, the hybrid cell demonstrates remarkably stable capacitance and resistance. Analyses by temperature programmed desorption after floating at 1.6 V proved that oxidation of the positive AC electrode is prevented by the use of Li2SO4+KI, which enables the maximum potential of this electrode to be shifted below the water oxidation potential. When charged at 0.2 A g-1 up to U = 1.6 V, the hybrid cell displays a high capacitance of 75 F g-1 (300 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) compared to 47 F g-1 (188 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) for a symmetric cell in Li2SO4. At 0.2 A g-1 up to 1.6 V, the hybrid capacitor in Li2SO4+KI displays an energy density of 26 Wh kg-1 which approaches the energy density of 30.9 Wh kg-1 measured when the same carbon is implemented in a capacitor using TEABF4/ACN electrolyte and charged up to 2.5 V.

  19. Antisera-mediated in vivo reduction of Cry 1Ac toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A functional assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin receptors in the midgut of lepidopteran insects will facilitate understanding of the toxin mode of action and provide effective strategies to counter the development of resistance. In this study, we produced anti-aminopeptidase (APN) and ...

  20. Protein Crystal Engineering of YpAC-IV Using a Strategy of Excess Charge Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.; Smith, N; Kim, S; Robinson, H; Reddy, P

    2009-01-01

    The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis has been engineered by site-specific mutagenesis to facilitate crystallization at neutral pH. The wild-type enzyme crystallized only below pH 5, consistent with the observation of a carboxyl-carboxylate H bond in a crystal contact in the refined structure 2FJT. On the basis of that unliganded structure at 1.9 A resolution, two different approaches were tested with the goal of producing a higher-pH crystal needed for inhibitor complexation and mechanistic studies. In one approach, Asp 19, which forms the growth-limiting dicarboxyl contact in wild-type triclinic crystals, was modified to Ala and Asn in hopes of relieving the acid-dependence of that crystal form. In the other approach, wild-type residues Met 18, Glu 25, and Asp 55 were (individually) changed to lysine to reduce the protein's excess negative charge in hopes of enabling growth of new, higher-pH forms. These three sites were selected based on their high solvent exposure and lack of intraprotein interactions. The D19A and D19N mutants had reduced solubility and did not crystallize. The other three mutants all crystallized, producing several new forms at neutral pH. One of these forms, with the D55K mutant, enabled a product complex at 0.16 nm resolution, structure 3GHX. This structure shows why the new crystal form required the mutation in order to grow at neutral pH. This approach could be useful in other cases where excess negative charge inhibits the crystallization of low-pI proteins.

  1. Protein Crystal Engineering of YpAC-IV using the Strategy of Excess Charge Reduction.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D Travis; Smith, N Natasha; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Robinson, Howard; Reddy, Prasad T

    2009-08-01

    The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis has been engineered by site-specific mutagenesis to facilitate crystallization at neutral pH. The wild-type enzyme crystallized only below pH 5, consistent with the observation of a carboxyl-carboxylate H bond in a crystal contact in the refined structure 2FJT. Based on that unliganded structure at 1.9 A resolution, two different approaches were tested with the goal of producing a higher-pH crystal needed for inhibitor complexation and mechanistic studies. In one approach, Asp 19, which forms the growth-limiting dicarboxyl contact in wild-type triclinic crystals, was modified to Ala and Asn in hopes of relieving the acid-dependence of that crystal form. In the other approach, wild-type residues Met 18, Glu 25, and Asp 55 were (individually) changed to lysine to reduce the protein's excess negative charge in hopes of enabling growth of new, higher-pH forms. These 3 sites were selected based on their high solvent exposure and lack of intraprotein interactions. The D19A and D19N mutants had reduced solubility and did not crystallize. The other 3 mutants all crystallized, producing several new forms at neutral pH. One of these forms, with the D55K mutant, enabled a product complex at 1.6 A resolution, structure 3GHX. This structure shows why the new crystal form required the mutation in order to grow at neutral pH. This approach could be useful in other cases where excess negative charge inhibits the crystallization of low-pI proteins. PMID:20160955

  2. Cytotoxicity of 213Bi- and 225Ac-immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, F M; Bos, E; Doornmalen, A V; Geerlings, M W; Apostolidis, C; Molinet, R

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes in vitro cytotoxicity experiments with 213Bi- and 225Ac-immunoconjugates on the human epidermoid tumour cell line A431 using a blood group A-reactive murine IgG (2D11) as the specific antibody and MOPC 21 as the control antibody. With both radionuclides, specific cell-killing was achieved. The observed cytotoxicity of 213Bi (T1/2 - 47 min) indicates that this radionuclide is a useful alternative for the alpha-emitter 212Bi in the treatment of blood-borne malignancies. 225Ac-immunoconjugates (T1/2 of 225Ac is 10 days) may be applicable for the treatment of solid tumours, since the daughter radionuclides of 225Ac contribute to the cytotoxic efficacy by a field effect (i.e. toxicity in an area distal from the antibody-binding site). The lack of an adequate chelator for 225Ac is a major drawback.

  3. Recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kamini A; Pillai, Jyothi R

    2006-08-01

    Recurrent abortions are hisheartening to the couple and also to the treating clinicians. Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy weighing 500 g or less. Recurrent miscarriage or habitual abortion is defined as three or more consective abortions. Important factors involved in recurrent early pregnancy loss are genetic factors, endocrine factors, anatomic factors, immunologic factors, infectious factors and environmental factors. The factors are described in a nutshell in the text. Any severe infection that leads to bacteraemia orviraemia can cause sporadic miscarriage. Congenital uterine abnormalities have been associated most often with second-trimestar pregnancy loss. As regarding management of recurrent pregnancy loss the clinician has limited options. The use of aspiration in low dose (75 mg) and heparin is beneficial in APS positive patients. Multivitamins and folic acid assume importance in thrombophilic disorders. Tender live care with regular antenatal check-ups go a great way in achieving live term pregnancy.

  4. Occupational hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Sounds above 80 decibels ( ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery Military jobs that involve combat, aircraft ...

  5. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  6. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss surgery (especially gastric bypass). Doctors call this "dumping syndrome." It can cause nausea, weakness, sweating, cramping, ... high-sugar or high-fat foods can make dumping worse. Patients need to be careful about what ...

  7. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... family, including dad Bob, have adapted to her hearing impairment. Photo courtesy of Stefan Radtke, www.stefanradtke. ...

  8. Bone Loss in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  9. What causes bone loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight-loss surgery) Cystic fibrosis Other conditions that prevent the small intestine from absorbing nutrients well People with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia , are also at higher risk ...

  10. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. As Alzheimer’s progresses, brain cells ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  11. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Maggie; Heman-Ackah, Selena E.; Shaikh, Jamil A.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is commonly encountered in audiologic and otolaryngologic practice. SSNHL is most commonly defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring within a 72-hr period. Although the differential for SSNHL is vast, for the majority of patients an etiologic factor is not identified. Treatment for SSNHL of known etiology is directed toward that agent, with poor hearing outcomes characteristic for discoverable etiologies that cause inner ear hair cell loss. Steroid therapy is the current mainstay of treatment of idiopathic SSNHL in the United States. The prognosis for hearing recovery for idiopathic SSNHL is dependent on a number of factors including the severity of hearing loss, age, presence of vertigo, and shape of the audiogram. PMID:21606048

  12. Iron losses in sweat

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, M.; Magnusson, B.; Persson, H.; Hallberg, L.

    1986-03-01

    The losses of iron in whole body cell-free sweat were determined in eleven healthy men. A new experimental design was used with a very careful cleaning procedure of the skin and repeated consecutive sampling periods of sweat in a sauna. The purpose was to achieve a steady state of sweat iron losses with minimal influence from iron originating from desquamated cells and iron contaminating the skin. A steady state was reached in the third sauna period (second sweat sampling period). Iron loss was directly related to the volume of sweat lost and amounted to 22.5 micrograms iron/l sweat. The findings indicate that iron is a physiological constituent of sweat and derived not only from contamination. Present results imply that variations in the amount of sweat lost will have only a marginal effect on the variation in total body iron losses.

  13. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  14. Understanding Grief and Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other common behaviors include restlessness and excessive activity. Religion and spirituality Grief and loss may also cause ... The grieving person’s age and gender The life history of the person who is grieving, including previous ...

  15. Coping with Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... either using computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – can help to identify strokes and tumors, which can sometimes cause memory loss. “The goal is to rule out factors ...

  16. The A to Z of A/C plasmids.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2015-07-01

    Plasmids belonging to incompatibility groups A and C (now A/C) were among the earliest to be associated with antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. A/C plasmids are large, conjugative plasmids with a broad host range. The prevalence of A/C plasmids in collections of clinical isolates has revealed their importance in the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases. They also mobilize SGI1-type resistance islands. Revived interest in the family has yielded many complete A/C plasmid sequences, revealing that RA1, designated A/C1, is different from the remainder, designated A/C2. There are two distinct A/C2 lineages. Backbones of 128-130 kb include over 120 genes or ORFs encoding proteins of at least 100 amino acids, but very few have been characterized. Genes potentially required for replication, stability and transfer have been identified, but only the replication system of RA1 and the regulation of transfer have been studied. There is enormous variety in the antibiotic resistance genes carried by A/C2 plasmids but they are usually clustered in larger regions at various locations in the backbone. The ARI-A and ARI-B resistance islands are always at a specific location but have variable content. ARI-A is only found in type 1 A/C2 plasmids, which disseminate blaCMY-2 and blaNDM-1 genes, whereas ARI-B, carrying the sul2 gene, is found in both type 1 and type 2. This review summarizes current knowledge of A/C plasmids, and highlights areas of research to be considered in the future.

  17. Lost: loss of chance.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara

    2010-09-01

    Loss of chance claims involve an allegation that a patient has lost the chance of a better medical outcome, in terms of treatment and/or prognosis, as a result of the negligence of the medical practitioner. A recent High Court of Australia judgment confirmed that monetary damages are not available for the loss of a chance of a better medical outcome. This article discusses the judgment and its implications for medical practitioners in Australia.

  18. Heat Loss Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Infrared scanning devices are being used to produce images that show, by color or black-and-white shading differences, which buildings and homes are losing heat to the outdoors, and how much. Heat loss surveys done by Texas Instruments, Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. and other companies have growing acceptance of their services among industrial firms, utilities, local governments, and state and federal agencies interested in promoting heat loss awareness and inspiring corrective actions.

  19. Peroneal neuropathy after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martinez, A; Arpa, J; Palau, F

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological findings in peroneal mononeuropathies following a weight-reduction diet. Thirty patients with acute peroneal palsy and weight loss were studied. Complete nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed in upper and lower limbs. NCS showed conduction block (CB) of the peroneal nerve at the fibular head that recovered in 29 patients within 3 weeks to 3 months. Severity of CB was correlated with clinical weakness. Three patients had abnormalities consistent with polyneuropathy (PNP). NCS in asymptomatic relatives confirmed familial neuropathy. Nerve biopsy and molecular study were consistent with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). One of these peroneal palsies (6 months) recovered after neurolysis. Weight loss might be a risk factor in peroneal mononeuropathies. NCS is a tool in the diagnosis of the site and severity of the nerve injury. Testing should be considered for relatives of patients with PNP because peroneal mononeuropathies may be the first expression of HNPP.

  20. An Ac transposon system based on maize chromosome 4S for isolating long-distance-transposed Ac tags in the maize genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaoying; Fan, Jun; Li, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Gang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-12-01

    Transposon tagging is an important tool for gene isolation and functional studies. In maize, several transposon-tagging systems have been developed, mostly using Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) and Mutator systems. Here, we establish another Ac-based transposon system with the donor Ac tightly linked with sugary1 (su1) on maize chromosome 4S. Newly transposed Ac (tr-Acs) were detected based on a negative dosage effect, and long-distance-transposed Ac events were identified and isolated from the donor Ac by a simple backcross scheme. In this study, we identified 208 independent long-distance-transposed Ac lines. Thirty-one flanking sequences of these tr-Acs were isolated and localized in the maize genome. As found in previous studies, the tr-Acs preferentially inserted into genic sequences. The distribution of tr-Acs is not random. In our study, the tr-Acs preferentially transposed into chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 10. We discuss the preferential distribution of tr-Acs from Ac systems. Our system is complementary to two other Ac-based regional-mutagenesis systems in maize, and the combined use of these systems will achieve an even and high-density distribution of Ac elements throughout the maize genome for functional-genomics studies.