Science.gov

Sample records for ac susceptibility studies

  1. Ac magnetic susceptibility study of in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, L.; Mejías, R.; Barber, D. F.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Serna, C. J.; Lázaro, F. J.; Morales, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    We analysed magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution, before and after cytokine conjugation, in a mouse model by ac susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Mice received repeated intravenous injections of nanoparticle suspension for two weeks and they were euthanized 1 h after the last injection. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues. The rest of the particles may probably be metabolized or excreted by the organism. Our findings indicate that the adsorption of interferon to DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles changes their biodistribution, reducing the presence of nanoparticles in lungs and therefore their possible toxicity. The specific targeting of the particles to tumour tissues by the use of an external magnetic field has also been studied. Magnetic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the targeted tissue and quantified by ac magnetic susceptibility.

  2. AC susceptibility study at the inter- and intragranular properties in (Bi,Pb):2223 superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Pop, A.V.; Ciurchea, D.; Ilonca, G.; Deltour, R.; Harabor, A.

    1997-11-20

    The temperature and amplitude of AC field dependencies of both inter- and intragranular T{sub p} and T{sub g} temperatures of the imaginary peaks of {chi}{double_prime} has been studied for a sintered single phase (Bi,Pb):2223 superconductor. The AC field dependencies for T{sub p} and T{sub g} and the relation between inter- and intragrain force densities were discussed by using Mueller critical-state model. From the {chi}{double_prime} curve, the values of intergrain magnetic critical current density J{sub cJ} was obtained via the application of Beans` critical state model. J{sub cJ}(T) dependence near {Tc} agree with the assumption of SNS intergrain junctions.

  3. Upper critical field and AC-Susceptibility studies on FeTe0.5Se0.5 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargar, Rayees A.; Pal, Anand; Hafiz, A. K.; Awana, V. P. S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we present synthesis and characterization of FeTe0.5Se0.5 sample that has been prepared by solid state reaction route by encapsulation of stoichiometric high purity (5N) ingredients in an evacuated quartz tube at 750 °C. The resultant compound is crystallized in single phase tetragonal structure with space group P4/nmm, having lattice parameters a = 3.792(1) Å and c = 6.0081(3) Å. The studied compound is superconducting at below 13K in both magnetic and transport measurements. Further superconductivity is barely affected by external applied magnetic field, giving rise to upper critical field of above 180 Tesla at 0 K. The sample is studied extensively for AC susceptibility measurements in superconducting state. The AC drive field and frequency are varied from 1-13 Oe and 33-9999 Hz respectively. It is concluded that though the grain boundaries of this superconductor are mainly metallic the minor (undetectable in XRD) foreign phases and the role of porosity cannot be ruled out completely. This is because both frequency and amplitude affects slightly the superconductivity coupling temperature of the grains.

  4. Superconducting transition in ruthenocuprate RuSr2GdCu2O8 viewed from the studies of the imaginary part of ac susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, I.; Drobac, D.; Ariosa, D.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.; Prester, M.

    2002-12-01

    We have measured two structurally similar superconducting systems, RuSr2GdCu2O8 and GdBa2Cu3O7 by means of high-resolution ac susceptibility. The real and the imaginary part of ac susceptibility of both bulk-ceramic and powdered samples have been studied down to the very small magnetic-field levels. We show that there are significant differences in the evolution of superconductivity in the two studied superconducting systems. In particular, we show that the superconducting transition in the grains in RuSr2GdCu2O8 system is masked with intrinsic magnetism of complex origin.

  5. Spectroscopic AC Susceptibility Imaging (sASI) of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurement to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R2 = 0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R2 = 0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R2 = 0.97, p <0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI. PMID:25477704

  6. Spectroscopic AC Susceptibility Imaging (sASI) of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ficko, Bradley W; Nadar, Priyanka M; Diamond, Solomon G

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurement to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R(2) = 0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R(2) = 0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R(2) = 0.97, p <0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI. PMID:25477704

  7. Spectroscopic AC susceptibility imaging (sASI) of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurements to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement set and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R2=0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R2=0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R2=0.97, p<0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI.

  8. Slow Relaxation of Magnetization in an Isostructural Series of Zinc-Lanthanide Complexes: An Integrated EPR and AC Susceptibility Study.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Asma; Madalan, Augustin M; Andruh, Marius; Caneschi, Andrea; Sorace, Lorenzo

    2016-08-26

    We report the synthesis, structure, and spectroscopic and dynamic magnetic properties of a series of heterodinuclear complexes, [ZnLn(LH4 )2 ](NO3 )3 ⋅6 H2 O (Ln=Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb), with the singly deprotonated form of a new compartmentalized Schiff-base ligand, LH5 . The Ln(III) ions in these systems show a distorted square-antiprism geometry with an LnO8 coordination sphere. EPR spectroscopy and DC magnetic studies have shown that the anisotropic nature of the complexes is far more complicated than predicted on the basis of a simple electrostatic model. Among the investigated systems, only the Dy(III) derivative showed single-ion magnet behavior, in zero and an applied magnetic field, both in pure polycrystalline samples and in a series of polycrystalline samples with different degrees of dilution at the single-crystal level in the isostructural Y(III) derivative. The rich dynamics observed as functions of frequency, field, and temperature reveals that multiple relaxation mechanisms are at play, resulting in a barrier of 189 cm(-1) , which is among the highest reported for a dinuclear Zn-Dy system. Analysis of the dynamic behavior as a function of dilution degree further evidenced the persistence of non-negligible intermolecular interactions, even at the lowest concentration of 1 %. PMID:27465998

  9. ac susceptibility of an assembly of nanomagnets: Combined effects of surface anisotropy and dipolar interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernay, F.; Sabsabi, Z.; Kachkachi, H.

    2014-09-01

    We compute the ac susceptibility of a weakly dipolar-interacting monodisperse assembly of magnetic nanoclusters with oriented anisotropy. For this purpose, we first compute the relaxation rate in a longitudinal magnetic field of a single nanomagnet taking account of both dipolar interactions in the case of dilute assemblies and surface anisotropy. We then study the behavior of the real and imaginary components of the ac susceptibility as functions of temperature, frequency, surface anisotropy, and interparticle interactions. We find that the surface anisotropy induces an upward shift of the temperature at the maximum of the ac susceptibility components and that its effects may be tuned so as to screen out the effects of interactions. The phenomenological Vogel-Fulcher law for the effect of dipolar interaction on the relaxation rate is revisited within our formalism and a semianalytical expression is given for the effective temperature in terms of inter alia the applied field, surface anisotropy, and dipolar interaction.

  10. Field-dependence of AC susceptibility in titanomagnetites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, M.; Moskowitz, B.; Rosenbaum, J.; Kissel, Catherie

    1998-01-01

    AC susceptibility measurements as a function of field amplitude Hac and of frequency show a strong field dependence for a set of synthetic titanomagnetites (Fe3-xTixO4) and for certain basalts from the SOH-1 Hawaiian drill hole and from Iceland. In-phase susceptibility is constant below fields of about 10-100 A/m, and then increases by as much as a factor of two as Hsc is increased to 2000 A/m. Both the initial field-independent susceptibilities and field-dependence of susceptibility are systematically related to composition: initial susceptibility is 3 SI for a single-crystal sphere of TMO (x = 0) and decreases with increasing titanium content; field-dependence is nearly zero for TM0 and increases systematically to a maximum near TM60 (x = 0.6). This field dependence can in some cases be mistaken for frequency dependence, and leaf to incorrect interpretations of magnetic grain size and composition when titanomagnetite is present.

  11. Baseline susceptibility to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, K C; Merlin, B L; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Omoto, C

    2013-08-01

    The tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), is one of the target pests of genetically modified cotton expressing Cry1Ac insecticidal protein (Bt cotton) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. This study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of field-collected populations of H. virescens to Cry1Ac to establish a baseline for use in an insect resistance management program for Bt cotton in Brazil. Insects were sampled from the main Brazilian cotton-growing regions (Bahia, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás) during the cropping seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Cry1Ac susceptibility was estimated by using diet incorporation bioassays. H. virescens was highly susceptible to Cry1Ac protein. The estimated LC50 values varied from 0.18 to 0.66 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet among the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.7-fold variation). Similarly, the EC50 values based on growth inhibition ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0161 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet for the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.0-fold variation). A joint analysis of the mortality data across all tested populations was used to develop and validate the diagnostic concentrations of 3.1 and 5.6 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet, the upper bound of the confidence interval and twice the LC99 were selected, for resistance monitoring programs of H. virescens to Cry1Ac protein in Brazil.

  12. Slow relaxation of the magnetization in an Isostructural series of Zinc-lanthanide complexes: an integrated EPR and AC susceptibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Asma; Madalan, Augustin; Andruh, Marius; Caneschi, Andrea; Sorace, Lorenzo; University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Bucharest, Romania Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Lanthanide based molecular complexes have shown potential to behave as single molecule magnets proficient to function above cryogenic temperatures. In this work we explore the dynamics of one such family, [Zn(LH)2Ln](NO3)3 .6H2O - (Ln = Nd3+, Dy3+, Tb3+, Ho3+, Er3+, Yb3+) . The series has a single lanthanide ion as a magnetic center in a low symmetry environment; the dynamics and energy landscape of the series is explored using X-band EPR, AC and DC susceptibility over a range of temperature, field and frequency. DC magnetic data show χT value consistent with expected behavior. EPR spectra for Er3+ and Yb3+ complexes shows EPR spectra typical for easy-plane and quasi-isotropic systems respectively, thus explaining the lack of out of phase susceptibility even in an external applied filed. However, Dy3+ derivative show slow relaxation of the magnetization in zero field up to 15 K and is, accordingly EPR silent.

  13. Monitoring colloidal stability of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles using AC susceptibility measurements.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Adriana P; Barrera, Carola; Zayas, Yashira; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2010-02-15

    The application of the response of magnetic nanoparticles to oscillating magnetic fields to probe transitions in colloidal state and structure of polymer-coated nanoparticles is demonstrated. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were prepared and shown to respond to oscillating magnetic fields through a Brownian relaxation mechanism, which is dependent on the mechanical coupling between the particle dipoles and the surrounding matrix. These nanoparticles were coated with covalently-attached poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) or poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide) (pNIPMAM) through free radical polymerization. The temperature induced transitions of colloidal suspensions of these nanoparticles were studied through a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and AC susceptibility measurements. In the pNIPAM coated nanoparticles excellent agreement was found for a transition temperature of approximately 30 degrees C by all three methods, although the AC susceptibility measurements indicated aggregation which was not evident from the DLS results. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) results obtained for pNIPAM coated nanoparticles confirmed that aggregation indeed occurs above the lower critical transition temperature of pNIPAM. For the pNIPMAM coated nanoparticles DLS and AC susceptibility measurements indicated aggregation at a temperature of approximately 33-35 degrees C, much lower than the transition temperature peak at 40 degrees C observed by DSC. However, the transition observed by DSC is very broad, hence it is possible that aggregation begins to occur at temperatures lower than the peak, as indicated by the AC susceptibility and DLS results. These experiments and observations demonstrate the possibility of using AC susceptibility measurements to probe transitions in colloidal suspensions induced by external stimuli. Because magnetic measurements do not require optical transparency, these

  14. Refined Candidate Region for F4ab/ac Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Susceptibility Situated Proximal to MUC13 in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Coppieters, Wouter; Nguyen, Van Ut; Melkebeek, Vesna; Coddens, Annelies; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter; Cox, Eric; Peelman, Luc J.

    2014-01-01

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea in neonatal and newly-weaned pigs. Based on the predicted differential O-glycosylation patterns of the 2 MUC13 variants (MUC13A and MUC13B) in F4ac ETEC susceptible and F4ac ETEC resistant pigs, the MUC13 gene was recently proposed as the causal gene for F4ac ETEC susceptibility. Because the absence of MUC13 on Western blot from brush border membrane vesicles of F4ab/acR+ pigs and the absence of F4ac attachment to immunoprecipitated MUC13 could not support this hypothesis, a new GWAS study was performed using 52 non-adhesive and 68 strong adhesive pigs for F4ab/ac ETEC originating from 5 Belgian farms. A refined candidate region (chr13: 144,810,100–144,993,222) for F4ab/ac ETEC susceptibility was identified with MUC13 adjacent to the distal part of the region. This candidate region lacks annotated genes and contains a sequence gap based on the sequence of the porcine GenomeBuild 10.2. We hypothesize that a porcine orphan gene or trans-acting element present in the identified candidate region has an effect on the glycosylation of F4 binding proteins and therefore determines the F4ab/ac ETEC susceptibility in pigs. PMID:25137053

  15. Refined candidate region for F4ab/ac enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli susceptibility situated proximal to MUC13 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Coppieters, Wouter; Nguyen, Van Ut; Melkebeek, Vesna; Coddens, Annelies; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter; Cox, Eric; Peelman, Luc J

    2014-01-01

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea in neonatal and newly-weaned pigs. Based on the predicted differential O-glycosylation patterns of the 2 MUC13 variants (MUC13A and MUC13B) in F4ac ETEC susceptible and F4ac ETEC resistant pigs, the MUC13 gene was recently proposed as the causal gene for F4ac ETEC susceptibility. Because the absence of MUC13 on Western blot from brush border membrane vesicles of F4ab/acR+ pigs and the absence of F4ac attachment to immunoprecipitated MUC13 could not support this hypothesis, a new GWAS study was performed using 52 non-adhesive and 68 strong adhesive pigs for F4ab/ac ETEC originating from 5 Belgian farms. A refined candidate region (chr13: 144,810,100-144,993,222) for F4ab/ac ETEC susceptibility was identified with MUC13 adjacent to the distal part of the region. This candidate region lacks annotated genes and contains a sequence gap based on the sequence of the porcine GenomeBuild 10.2. We hypothesize that a porcine orphan gene or trans-acting element present in the identified candidate region has an effect on the glycosylation of F4 binding proteins and therefore determines the F4ab/ac ETEC susceptibility in pigs. PMID:25137053

  16. Power-law index and penetration depth of (NdxSmxGd1-2x)Ba2Cu3O7-δ films studied by AC susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Fen; He, Dong; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2012-12-01

    Superconducting (NdxSmxGd1-2x)Ba2Cu3O7-δ films with x=0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.33 were grown by PLD on STO single crystal substrates. The power-law index n and penetration depth λ are studied by AC susceptibility. During cooling, n in films with x ≠ 0 increases much slower compared with the films with x = 0. The films with x ≠ 0 also tend to have a longer penetration depth. These properties might be related to the higher possibility for disorder in the mixed (Nd,Sm,Gd)BCO films.

  17. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  18. A Toxin-Binding Alkaline Phosphatase Fragment Synergizes Bt Toxin Cry1Ac against Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects. PMID:25885820

  19. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects. PMID:25885820

  20. Consistent behaviour of AC susceptibility and transport properties in magnetic superconductor RuSr 2GdCu 2O 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Očko, M.; Živkovic, I.; Prester, M.; Drobac, Dj.; Ariosa, D.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.

    2004-02-01

    We report on AC susceptibility, resistivity, thermopower and measurements of sintered magnetic superconductor RuSr 2GdCu 2O 8. The antiferromagnetic phase transition at 133 K is seen clearly in the AC susceptibility as well as in the derivative of resistivity and thermopower. Above the antiferromagnetic transition, we have found some new evidences of the similarity between HTC compounds and the magnetic superconductor. The onset of superconductivity is observed by both transport methods at 46 K, and an explanation why it is not seen in the AC susceptibility data is given. The end of the SC transition occurs at about 24 K in all measured properties. We discuss the steps of broad SC transition, especially the maximum in susceptibility at 34 K, and compare our results with related studies reported in the literature.

  1. A.C. Susceptibility in MAGNESIUM(1+T)TITANIUM(T)IRON(2 -2T)OXYGEN(4) Near the Breakdown of Ferrimagnetic Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautzenhiser, Frans Peter

    1990-01-01

    The complex a.c. susceptibility _ {Xac} in t = 0.45 and 0.5 powder samples of the ferrimagnetic magnesium-titanium-iron oxide spinel have been measured. Frequency, a.c. amplitude, and d.c. field were varied with temperatures ranging from 5K to above the ferrimagnetic Neel temperature T _{N} (285K and 225K, respectively). For fixed frequency f, temperature T, and a.c. amplitude H _{ac}, a monotonic decrease in _{Xac} with increasing d.c. field, characteristic of superparamagnetism (SPM), was seen over the range of field 0.5 Oe < H_{dc} < 65 Oe. The derivative -d_ {Xac}/dH_{ dc} shows a sharp peak near T _{p} = 225K in the t = 0.45 sample. For fixed f, H_{dc}, and T, an increase in _ {Xac} with H_ {ac} was observed over the range of amplitudes 10^{-3} Oe < H_{ac } < 10 Oe. At 200Hz, this nonlinear a.c. response reaches a peak at T_{ac} = 55K and 70K in the t = 0.45 and 0.5 samples respectively. The peak temperature T_{ac} is reduced by lowering f. This frequency dependence is seen neither in the ferrimagnetic Neel temperature nor in the broad peaks of the a.c. susceptibility which occur near T = 0.8T_{N}. Although similar to a SPM blocking transition, the transition at T_{ac} is interpreted as a spin glass freezing temperature. The samples used in this study were previously analyzed by Brand et al. (J. Phys. F 15 1987 (1985).) using d.c. susceptibility and Mossbauer effect measurements.

  2. Line profile analysis and low temperature AC susceptibility of Cu-Zn ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Lamani, Ashok. R.; Jayanna, H. S.; Prasanna, G. D.

    2012-06-05

    The Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0{center_dot}2, 0{center_dot}4, 0{center_dot}6, 0{center_dot}8, 1.0) samples were prepared using double sintering ceramic method by adding Zn{sup 2+} at different concentration. The X-ray line profile analysis were carried out to confirm the spinel phase formation as well as to know the (%) strain in the crystal. The real and imaginary part of a.c. susceptibility measured from 77K to room temperature. The high temperature peak corresponds to magnetic blocking of individual particles, while the low temperature peak is attributed to surface spin-glass freezing. To prove the dynamics of the spin (dis)order in both regimes of freezing and blocking, the frequency dependent ac susceptibility is investigated under a biasing dc field. The frequency shift in the ''frozen'' low-temperature ac susceptibility peak is fitted to a dynamic scaling law which indicates a spin-glass phase. Exchange bias is turned on at low temperature which signifies the existence of a strong core-shell interaction.

  3. Activation of Bt Protoxin Cry1Ac in Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Gemei; Wang, Bingjie; Zhong, Feng; Chen, Lin; Khaing, Myint Myint; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Yuyuan; Wu, Kongming; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced by evolution of resistance in pests. Here we evaluated reduced activation of Cry1Ac protoxin as a potential mechanism of resistance in the invasive pest Helicoverpa armigera. Based on the concentration killing 50% of larvae (LC50) for a laboratory-selected resistant strain (LF120) divided by the LC50 for its susceptible parent strain (LF), the resistance ratio was 1600 for Cry1Ac protoxin and 1200 for trypsin-activated Cry1Ac toxin. The high level of resistance to activated toxin as well as to protoxin indicates reduced activation of protoxin is not a major mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in LF120. For both insect strains, treatment with either the trypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) or the chymotrypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not significantly affect the LC50 of Cry1Ac protoxin. Enzyme activity was higher for LF than LF120 for trypsin-like proteases, but did not differ between strains for chymotrypsin-like proteases. The results here are consistent with previous reports indicating that reduced activation of protoxin is generally not a major mechanism of resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27257885

  4. Activation of Bt Protoxin Cry1Ac in Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Bollworm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jizhen; Liang, Gemei; Wang, Bingjie; Zhong, Feng; Chen, Lin; Khaing, Myint Myint; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Yuyuan; Wu, Kongming; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced by evolution of resistance in pests. Here we evaluated reduced activation of Cry1Ac protoxin as a potential mechanism of resistance in the invasive pest Helicoverpa armigera. Based on the concentration killing 50% of larvae (LC50) for a laboratory-selected resistant strain (LF120) divided by the LC50 for its susceptible parent strain (LF), the resistance ratio was 1600 for Cry1Ac protoxin and 1200 for trypsin-activated Cry1Ac toxin. The high level of resistance to activated toxin as well as to protoxin indicates reduced activation of protoxin is not a major mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in LF120. For both insect strains, treatment with either the trypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) or the chymotrypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not significantly affect the LC50 of Cry1Ac protoxin. Enzyme activity was higher for LF than LF120 for trypsin-like proteases, but did not differ between strains for chymotrypsin-like proteases. The results here are consistent with previous reports indicating that reduced activation of protoxin is generally not a major mechanism of resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27257885

  5. AC susceptibility analysis on MgB2 bulk and Ti-sheathed wire superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiçek, Özlem; Yetiş, Hakan; Gencer, Ali

    2014-09-01

    We report a comparative study for bulk MgB2 superconductors and monofilamentary Ti/MgB2 wires as functions of the boron powder purity, average particle size of magnesium, and applied pressure. The structural and magnetic characterizations of the bulk samples were performed by means of XRD and AC susceptibility measurements, respectively. We found that the applied pressure did not cause any significant change on the onset transition temperature Tc,onset and transition width. This is also confirmed by the calculation of the lattice parameters. On the other hand, Tc,onset values were measured as 37.3 K, 38.0 K, and 38.6 K for the samples prepared from the precursor boron powders with purities of 95.2%, ⩾95%, and >98%, respectively. However Mg-particle size (Mg1: AlfaAesar Mg powder, avg. par. size: -325 mesh, purity: 99.8%; Mg2: SigmaAldrich Mg powder, avg. par. size: 20-230 mesh, purity: 98%) did not affect the Tc,onset but increasing the Mg particle size caused a significant broadening at the superconducting transition width for all precursor boron powder purity levels. Magnetization measurements showed that the critical current density of Ti/MgB2 wire prepared from AlfaAesar Mg powder (avg. par. size: -325 mesh) and Aldrich B powder (amorphous, purity ⩾ 95%) is greater than that of prepared by SigmaAldrich Mg powder (avg. par. size: 20-230 mesh) and Pavezyum B powder (amorphous, avg. par. size: 0,3 μm (max), purity > 98%) as 2.6 × 105 A/cm2 and 1.4 × 105 A/cm2 at T = 10 K and μ0H = 0.5 T, respectively. In addition, SigmaAldrich Mg and Pavezyum B wire sample has a lower pinning force, Fp, value at each temperature.

  6. AC susceptibility and critical current in the organic superconductor {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Velez, M.; Vicent, J.L.; Schleuter, J.; Williams, J.M.; Crabtree, G.W.

    1994-05-01

    The AC susceptibility (X{prime}, X{double_prime}) has bee measured in a single crystal of the organic superconductor K-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} ({Tc} = 9.5 K) as a function of the DC magnetic field, for several frequencies (10 {sup 2} Hz AC fields (l{mu}T

  7. AC susceptibility and EPR investigations of superspin dynamics in magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Alex D.

    In this investigation we use two complementary techniques to distinguish between superparamagnetic blocking (SPB) and superspin-glass (SSG) freezing phenomena in magnetite nanoparticles. While these manifestations of the superspin dynamics are fundamentally different, they have similar "signatures", especially in dc-magnetization experiments. Even if ac-susceptibility measurements are employed, careful use of mathematical models to analyze the data are needed to uncover which type of phenomena (SPB or SSG freezing) occurs within the material. Yet, by utilizing electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) on a 10 nm Fe3O4 nano-powder as well as on a ferrofluid (based on the same nanoparticle ensemble) we found a very distinct difference in the absorption spectra between the two samples, which indicates markedly different EPR signatures from SPB and SSG freezing behaviors.

  8. Granular Responses of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ Using ac Magnetic Susceptibility Measurement under ac and dc Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namuco, S. B.; Lao, M. L.; Sarmago, R. V.

    Granularity of bulk materials has a great impact on the characterization of superconductors as well as its path towards room temperature applications. Bulk GdBCO that has crystal formation and Tc close to YBCO were fabricated using the conventional solid state route method. AC magnetic susceptibility measurement is done on the sample to observe the granular responses brought about by small magnetic field values that is superimposed with DC magnetic field. Results show that compared to YBCO, GdBCO show more sensitive behaviour with the addition of DC magnetic field. It is shown in the results that abrupt response in the AC loss peaks observed in χ" is more prominent in GdBCO even at lower applied magnetic fields.

  9. Association Between IL-10 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms (-592 A/C, -819 T/C, -1082 A/G) and Susceptibility to HBV Infection in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Moudi, Bita; Heidari, Zahra; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, Hamidreza; Hashemi, Mohammad; Metanat, Malihe; Khosravi, Soheila; Farrokh, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Background IL-10 can play a vital role in immune response against HBV. Three biallelic SNPs from the transcription start site control the transcription of the IL-10 gene. An association between susceptibility to HBV and IL-10 polymorphisms has been suggested in patients with HBV infection. Objectives The present study was designed to study the association between polymorphisms in interleukin-10 (-1082 A/G, -819 T/C and -592 A/C) promoter gene and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients and Methods 221 chronically infected patients and 200 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Three biallelic (-1082 A/G, -819 T/C and -592 A/C) polymorphisms in the IL-10 promoter gene were determined by PCR-RFLP method. Results Persistent HBV infection was associated with IL-10-1082 AG (P = 0.001) and GG (P = 0.004) genotypes and G (P = 0.000) allele. IL-10-819 T/C and -592 A/C genotype and allele frequencies did not show any correlation with the risk of chronic hepatitis B infection. Conclusions These results suggest that polymorphisms in interleukin-10 gene promoter influence clinical outcome of HBV infection and susceptibility to HBV infection. PMID:27148384

  10. High Susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Low Resistance Allele Frequency Reduce the Risk of Resistance of Helicoverpa armigera to Bt Soybean in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bacalhau, Fabiana B.; Amado, Douglas; Carvalho, Renato A.; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced into Brazil, where it has caused extensive damage to cotton and soybean crops. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, which expresses the Bt protein Cry1Ac, was recently deployed in Brazil, providing high levels of control against H. armigera. To assess the risk of resistance to the Cry1Ac protein expressed by MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil, we conducted studies to evaluate the baseline susceptibility of H. armigera to Cry1Ac, in planta efficacy including the assessment of the high-dose criterion, and the initial resistance allele frequency based on an F2 screen. The mean Cry1Ac lethal concentration (LC50) ranged from 0.11 to 1.82 μg·mL−1 of diet among all H. armigera field populations collected from crop seasons 2013/14 to 2014/15, which indicated about 16.5-fold variation. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean exhibited a high level of efficacy against H. armigera and most likely met the high dose criterion against this target species in leaf tissue dilution bioassays up to 50 times. A total of 212 F2 family lines of H. armigera were established from field collections sampled from seven locations across Brazil and were screened for the presence of MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean resistance alleles. None of the 212 families survived on MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean leaf tissue (estimated allele frequency = 0.0011). The responses of H. armigera to Cry1Ac protein, high susceptibility to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, and low frequency of resistance alleles across the main soybean-producing regions support the assumptions of a high-dose/refuge strategy. However, maintenance of reasonable compliance with the refuge recommendation will be essential to delay the evolution of resistance in H. armigera to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil. PMID:27532632

  11. High Susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Low Resistance Allele Frequency Reduce the Risk of Resistance of Helicoverpa armigers to Bt Soybean in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bacalhau, Fabiana B.; Amado, Douglas; Carvalho, Renato A.; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced into Brazil, where it has caused extensive damage to cotton and soybean crops. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, which expresses the Bt protein Cry1Ac, was recently deployed in Brazil, providing high levels of control against H. armigera. To assess the risk of resistance to the Cry1Ac protein expressed by MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil, we conducted studies to evaluate the baseline susceptibility of H. armigera to Cry1Ac, in planta efficacy including the assessment of the high-dose criterion, and the initial resistance allele frequency based on an F2 screen. The mean Cry1Ac lethal concentration (LC50) ranged from 0.11 to 1.82 μg·mL−1 of diet among all H. armigera field populations collected from crop seasons 2013/14 to 2014/15, which indicated about 16.5-fold variation. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean exhibited a high level of efficacy against H. armigera and most likely met the high dose criterion against this target species in leaf tissue dilution bioassays up to 50 times. A total of 212 F2 family lines of H. armigera were established from field collections sampled from seven locations across Brazil and were screened for the presence of MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean resistance alleles. None of the 212 families survived on MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean leaf tissue (estimated allele frequency = 0.0011). The responses of H. armigera to Cry1Ac protein, high susceptibility to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, and low frequency of resistance alleles across the main soybean-producing regions support the assumptions of a high-dose/refuge strategy. However, maintenance of reasonable compliance with the refuge recommendation will be essential to delay the evolution of resistance in H. armigera to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil. PMID:27532632

  12. High Susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Low Resistance Allele Frequency Reduce the Risk of Resistance of Helicoverpa armigers to Bt Soybean in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Patrick M; Bacalhau, Fabiana B; Amado, Douglas; Carvalho, Renato A; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced into Brazil, where it has caused extensive damage to cotton and soybean crops. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, which expresses the Bt protein Cry1Ac, was recently deployed in Brazil, providing high levels of control against H. armigera. To assess the risk of resistance to the Cry1Ac protein expressed by MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil, we conducted studies to evaluate the baseline susceptibility of H. armigera to Cry1Ac, in planta efficacy including the assessment of the high-dose criterion, and the initial resistance allele frequency based on an F2 screen. The mean Cry1Ac lethal concentration (LC50) ranged from 0.11 to 1.82 μg·mL-1 of diet among all H. armigera field populations collected from crop seasons 2013/14 to 2014/15, which indicated about 16.5-fold variation. MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean exhibited a high level of efficacy against H. armigera and most likely met the high dose criterion against this target species in leaf tissue dilution bioassays up to 50 times. A total of 212 F2 family lines of H. armigera were established from field collections sampled from seven locations across Brazil and were screened for the presence of MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean resistance alleles. None of the 212 families survived on MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean leaf tissue (estimated allele frequency = 0.0011). The responses of H. armigera to Cry1Ac protein, high susceptibility to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, and low frequency of resistance alleles across the main soybean-producing regions support the assumptions of a high-dose/refuge strategy. However, maintenance of reasonable compliance with the refuge recommendation will be essential to delay the evolution of resistance in H. armigera to MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean in Brazil. PMID:27532632

  13. Characterization of a Cry1Ac-receptor alkaline phosphatase in susceptible and resistant Heliothis virescens larvae.

    PubMed

    Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L; Adang, Michael J

    2004-08-01

    We reported previously a direct correlation between reduced soybean agglutinin binding to 63- and 68-kDa midgut glycoproteins and resistance to Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens). In the present work we describe the identification of the 68-kDa glycoprotein as a membrane-bound form of alkaline phosphatase we term HvALP. Lectin blot analysis of HvALP revealed the existence of N-linked oligosaccharides containing terminal N-acetylgalactosamine required for [125I]Cry1Ac binding in ligand blots. Based on immunoblotting and alkaline phosphatase activity detection, reduced soybean agglutinin binding to HvALP from Cry1Ac resistant larvae of the H. virescens YHD2 strain was attributable to reduced amounts of HvALP in resistant larvae. Quantification of specific alkaline phosphatase activity in brush border membrane proteins from susceptible (YDK and F1 generation from backcrosses) and YHD2 H. virescens larvae confirmed the observation of reduced HvALP levels. We propose HvALP as a Cry1Ac binding protein that is present at reduced levels in brush border membrane vesicles from YHD2 larvae. PMID:15265032

  14. Study of AC/RF properties of SRF ingot niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Tsindlekht, Menachem I; Genkin, Valery M; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to correlate the performance of superconducting radiofrequency cavities made of niobium with the superconducting properties, we present the results of the magnetization and ac susceptibility of the niobium used in the superconducting radiofrequency cavity fabrication. The samples were subjected to buffer chemical polishing (BCP) surface and high temperature heat treatments, typically applied to the cavities fabrications. The analysis of the results show the different surface and bulk ac conductivity for the samples subjected to BCP and heat treatment. Furthermore, the RF surface impedance is measured on the sample using a TE011 microwave cavity for a comparison to the low frequency measurements.

  15. The 3'UTR 1188A/C polymorphism of IL-12p40 is not associated with susceptibility for developing plaque psoriasis in Mestizo population from western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Talamantes, Ana Karen; Brito-Luna, Myrian Johanna; Fafutis-Morris, Mary; Villanueva-Quintero, Delfina Guadalupe; Graciano-Machuca, Omar; Ramírez-Dueñas, María Guadalupe; Alvarado-Navarro, Anabell

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects the skin and the joints. Psoriasis is characterized by the keratinocyte proliferation, which is induced by cytokines Th1 and Th17. Patients with plaque psoriasis present a chronic inflammatory response with high levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23. Various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been identified in the IL12B gene, such as SNP 3' UTR 1188 A/C (SNP rs3212227), which has been associated with susceptibility to developing plaque psoriasis and with the production of IL-12 and IL-23 in individuals of different ethnic groups. In this study, we determined whether there is an association of SNP rs3212227 with the susceptibility of developing plaque psoriasis and with serum levels of IL-12 and IL-23 in Mestizo population in western Mexico. We included 112 patients with psoriasis and 112 clinical healthy individuals in the study. The frequencies of genotypes A/A, A/C, and C/C in patients with plaque psoriasis were 41, 53, and 6%, respectively, while in the control group, these were 37, 53, and 10%, respectively, without finding statistically significant differences between both groups (p>0.05). Although IL-12 and IL-23 serum levels were higher in patients than in controls, we found no significant differences. The group of patients with genotype CC presented the highest levels of IL-23 (p<0.05). These data suggest that the SNP rs3212227 phenotype is not associated with the risk of developing plaque psoriasis or with IL-12 and IL-23 levels in Mestizo population in western Mexico.

  16. Investigation of magnetic spin glass property in La{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} sample using non-linear AC susceptibility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Punith V. Manju, M. R. Dayal, Vijaylakshmi

    2014-04-24

    We present a comprehensive study on origin of Spin Glass (SG) property in polycrystalline La{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} perovskite oxide using linear and higher order ac susceptibility (χ) measurements. The third order harmonic susceptibility (χ{sub 3}) vs. temperature (K) with varying magnetic fields from 0.95 to 9.45 Oe and the divergence in their χ{sub 3} (max) allows us to infer the SG behavior occurring in the sample possibly due to co-operative freezing of the spins.

  17. The effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab,ac on early-weaned piglets: a gene expression study.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, M; Goddeeris, B M; Stinckens, A; Verhelst, R; Janssens, S; Cox, E; Georges, M; Niewold, T; Buys, N

    2013-03-15

    Diarrhoea in neonatal and early-weaned piglets due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-F4 (ETEC-F4) is an important problem in the pig farming industry. There is substantial evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to ETEC-F4 since not all pigs suffer from diarrhoea after an ETEC-F4 infection. A region on SSC13 has been found to be in close linkage to the susceptibility of piglets for ETEC-F4ab,ac. Potential candidate genes on SSC13 have been examined and although some polymorphisms were found to be in linkage disequilibrium with the phenotype, the causative mutation has not yet been found. In this study we are looking at the expression of porcine genes in relation to ETEC-F4ab,ac. With the aid of the Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Array we were able to find differentially expressed genes between ETEC-F4ab,ac receptor positive (Fab,acR(+)) piglets without diarrhoea and F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea or F4ab,acR(-) animals. Since the susceptibility to ETEC-F4ab,ac was described as a Mendelian trait, it is not so surprisingly that only two differentially expressed genes, transferrin receptor (TFRC) and trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), came out of the analysis. Although both genes could pass for functional candidate genes only TFRC also mapped to the region on SSC13 associated with susceptibility for ETEC-F4, which makes TFRC a positional functional candidate gene. Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of TFRC and TFF1. In piglets without diarrhoea, the expression of both genes was higher in F4ab,acR(+) than in F4ab,acR(-) piglets. Similarly, TFRC and TFF1 expression in F4ab,acR(+) piglets without diarrhoea was also higher than in F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea. Consequently, although both genes might not play a role as receptor for F4 fimbriae, they could be of great importance during an ETEC-F4 outbreak. An upregulation of TFRC can be a consequence of the piglets ability to raise an effective immune response. An elevation of TFF1, a

  18. Ac-susceptibility investigations of superspin blocking and freezing in interacting magnetic nanoparticle ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botez, Cristian E.; Morris, Joshua L.

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of dipolar interactions on the superspin blocking and freezing of 9 nm average size Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle ensembles. Our dynamic susceptibility data reveals a two-regime behavior of the blocking temperature, T B, upon diluting a Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluid. As the nanoparticle volume ratio, Φ, is reduced from an as-prepared reference Φ = 1 to Φ = 1/96, the blocking temperature decreases from 46.1 K to 34.2 K, but higher values reenter upon further diluting the magnetic fluid to Φ = 1/384 (where T B = 42.5 K). We found evidence that cooling below T B within the higher concentration range (Φ > 1/48) leads to the collective freezing of the superspins, whereas individual superspin blocking occurs in the presence of weaker interactions (Φ < 1/96). The unexpected increase of the blocking temperature with the decrease of the inter-particle interactions observed at low nanoparticle concentrations is well described by the Mørup-Tronc model.

  19. AC-susceptibility investigations of superspin blocking and freezing in interacting magnetic nanoparticle ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Joshua Logan

    We have investigated the effect of dipolar interactions on the superspin blocking and freezing of 10 nm average size Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle ensembles. Our dynamic susceptibility data reveals a two-regime behavior of the blocking temperature, TB, upon diluting a Fe 3O4/hexane magnetic nanoparticle fluid. As the nanoparticle volume ratio, Phi, is reduced from an as-prepared reference Phi = 1 to Phi = 1/96, the blocking temperature decreases from 46.1 K to 34.2 K, but higher values reenter upon further diluting the magnetic fluid to Phi = 1/384 (where TB = 42.5 K). We show that cooling below TB within the higher concentration range (Phi > 1/48) leads to the collective freezing of the superspins in a spin-glass-like fashion, whereas individual superspin blocking occurs in the presence of weaker dipolar interactions (Phi < 1/96). The unexpected increase of the blocking temperature with the decrease of the interparticle interactions observed at low nanoparticle concentrations is well described by the Morup-Tronc (MT) model.

  20. Ac-susceptibility investigations of superspin blocking and freezing in interacting magnetic nanoparticle ensembles.

    PubMed

    Botez, Cristian E; Morris, Joshua L

    2016-03-18

    We have investigated the effect of dipolar interactions on the superspin blocking and freezing of 9 nm average size Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle ensembles. Our dynamic susceptibility data reveals a two-regime behavior of the blocking temperature, T(B), upon diluting a Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluid. As the nanoparticle volume ratio, Φ, is reduced from an as-prepared reference Φ = 1 to Φ = 1/96, the blocking temperature decreases from 46.1 K to 34.2 K, but higher values reenter upon further diluting the magnetic fluid to Φ = 1/384 (where T(B) = 42.5 K). We found evidence that cooling below T B within the higher concentration range (Φ > 1/48) leads to the collective freezing of the superspins, whereas individual superspin blocking occurs in the presence of weaker interactions (Φ < 1/96). The unexpected increase of the blocking temperature with the decrease of the inter-particle interactions observed at low nanoparticle concentrations is well described by the Mørup-Tronc model. PMID:26876797

  1. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  2. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Reddy, C. Narayana; Gowda, Veeranna

    2011-07-01

    Glasses in the system xLi2SO4-20Li2O-(80-x) [80P2O5-20V2O5] (5⩾x⩾20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation σ(ω) = σ(0)+Aωs where `s' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  3. Serotonergic genes and depressive disorder in acute coronary syndrome: The Korean depression in ACS (K-DEPACS) study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Min; Stewart, Robert; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-06-01

    Genes coding for the serotonergic pathway have been associated with depressive disorders. However, these associations have rarely been tested in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients vulnerable to depression. This study aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and serotonin 2a receptor (5-HTR2a) genes are associated with occurrence of depressive disorder in ACS. 969 patients with recently developed ACS were recruited at baseline, and 711 were followed 1 year thereafter. Depressive disorder was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and analysed as an outcome at baseline (prevalence), and follow up (incidence and persistence). Genotypes were ascertained for 5-HTTLPR, STin2 VNTR, 5-HTR2a 102T/C, and 5-HTR2a 1438A/G. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations. The 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype was independently associated with depressive disorder prevalence and persistence following ACS, but no significant associations were found with the other polymorphisms. ACS patients with the 5-HTTLPR s allele are thus potentially susceptible to depressive disorder in the early phase after ACS, and with its persistence over the subsequent year.

  4. The Study of Porous Media with AC Electrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pengra, David B.; Wong, Po-Zen

    1996-11-01

    Electrokinetic phenomena, which involve the coupling of fluid and electric currents, are present in many porous media systems. They arise from the presence of a space charge layer at the fluid/solid interface, and depend on characteristics of the interface and properties of the porous material. Although understood for years, electrokinetic phenomena have been typically too weak to use as an experimental probe of such systems. Recently we have shown that modern instrumentation, based on AC excitations, can be used to measure electrokinetic response in porous rock. From the measurements we derive the permeability of the rock exactly, and study other physicochemical properties. We review electrokinetic theory, describe our results for porous rock, and discuss present research using the AC techniques. Research supported by the Gas Research Institute, Contract 5090-260-1953, and National Science Foundation Grant DMR-9405672.

  5. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Gowda, Veeranna; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-07-15

    Glasses in the system xLi{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-20Li{sub 2}O-(80-x) [80P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-20V{sub 2}O{sub 5}](5{>=}x{>=}20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation {sigma}({omega}) = {sigma}(0)+A{omega}{sup s} where 's' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  6. Eddy currents in the anisotropy of out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility measurement - A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezek, Josef; Hrouda, Frantisek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical solutions of Maxwell equations for eddy currents caused by AC field in a conductive sphere, known from 1950s, provide a general formula for magnetic susceptibility. It contains the parameters describing the sphere (its size, conductivity and permeability), surrounding medium (permeability) and the applied field (frequency). The formula is complex and without numerical evaluation it is difficult to distinguish the real (in-phase) and imaginary (out-of-phase) part of susceptibility. Representing all the parameters by only two, relative permeability (sphere vs. medium) and skin ratio (summarizing the effect of sphere size, conductivity and permeability, and frequency of the field), we derive approximate formulas for both phases and the phase angle. These are valid for a reasonable range of parameters (from rock magnetism point of view) and enable us to study their influence. The in-phase susceptibility depends very weakly on the fourth power of the skin ratio while the out-of-phase susceptibility depends more strongly on its second power. The coefficients of the dependence are expressed by means of relative permeability. The approximations of in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibilities provide a possibility to assess possible effects of eddy currents in rocks in case of low content of conductive minerals and solve problems of the type by which size one piece of a mineral in the measured sample can produce a phase shift that is observed by measurement. Examples of magnetite and pyrrhotite are given.

  7. AC biosusceptometry in the study of drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Corá, L A; Romeiro, F G; Stelzer, M; Américo, M F; Oliveira, R B; Baffa, O; Miranda, J R A

    2005-06-15

    Conventionally, pharmaceutical substances are administered orally because the gastrointestinal tract possesses the appropriate features for drug absorption. Nevertheless, the gastrointestinal tract physiology is complex and influenced by many factors. These factors must be completely understood for the optimization of oral drug delivery systems. Although in vitro tests provide information about release and drug absorption profiles, in vivo studies are essential, due to the biological variability. Several techniques have been employed in an attempt to conveniently characterize the behavior of solid dosage forms in vivo. The noninvasive biomagnetic technique of alternate current biosusceptometry (ACB) has been used in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the performance of magnetic dosage forms. This article will discuss the main characteristics of AC biosusceptometry and its applicability for determination of the relationship between the human gastrointestinal tract and orally administered pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  8. Structural and AC loss study for pure and doped MgB{sub 2} superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Hansdah, J. S.; Sarun, P. M.

    2015-06-24

    Superconducting polycrystalline bulk MgB{sub 2} samples doped with n-C, n-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and n-Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by powder-in-sealed (PIST) method. XRD measurement shows the influence of dopants on phase and lattice parameters of samples. The ac susceptibility measurement reveals ac loss and activation energy of the samples. Nano-C doped sample shows less ac loss in all frequency (208 Hz – 999 Hz) among the doped samples; whereas n-Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped sample shows highest ac loss. The activation energy is high for rare earth (n-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and n-Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3}) doped samples as compare to n-C doped samples which reveals the enhancement in flux-pinning properties of these materials.

  9. Structural and AC loss study for pure and doped MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansdah, J. S.; Sarun, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting polycrystalline bulk MgB2 samples doped with n-C, n-Y2O3 and n-Ho2O3 were prepared by powder-in-sealed (PIST) method. XRD measurement shows the influence of dopants on phase and lattice parameters of samples. The ac susceptibility measurement reveals ac loss and activation energy of the samples. Nano-C doped sample shows less ac loss in all frequency (208 Hz - 999 Hz) among the doped samples; whereas n-Ho2O3 doped sample shows highest ac loss. The activation energy is high for rare earth (n-Y2O3 and n-Ho2O3) doped samples as compare to n-C doped samples which reveals the enhancement in flux-pinning properties of these materials.

  10. Determination of the magnetic ground state in the martensite phase of Ni-Mn-Z (Z = In, Sn and Sb) off-stoichiometric Heusler alloys by nonlinear AC susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Umetsu, R Y; Fujita, A; Ito, W; Kanomata, T; Kainuma, R

    2011-08-17

    DC and AC magnetic measurements were carried out to clarify the difference in the magnetic ground state depending on the kinds of Z element used in the martensite phase in Ni-Mn-Z (Z = In, Sn and Sb) off-stoichiometric Heusler alloys. Magnetic field cooling effects were observed in the DC thermomagnetization curves in the low temperature regions, and a frequency dependence on AC susceptibility was also observed in both real and imaginary parts of the susceptibility. Negative divergence was clearly observed in nonlinear AC susceptibility only for the Ni(50)Mn(40)Sb(10) alloy, suggesting that the magnetic feature of its ground state is the spin-glass state. The magnetic ground state of the martensite phase in these alloys would relate to the magnetic configuration of the Mn atoms in the ferromagnetic austenite phase.

  11. AC impedance study of degradation of porous nickel battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenhart, Stephen J.; Macdonald, D. D.; Pound, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    AC impedance spectra of porous nickel battery electrodes were recorded periodically during charge/discharge cycling in concentrated KOH solution at various temperatures. A transmission line model (TLM) was adopted to represent the impedance of the porous electrodes, and various model parameters were adjusted in a curve fitting routine to reproduce the experimental impedances. Degradation processes were deduced from changes in model parameters with electrode cycling time. In developing the TLM, impedance spectra of planar (nonporous) electrodes were used to represent the pore wall and backing plate interfacial impedances. These data were measured over a range of potentials and temperatures, and an equivalent circuit model was adopted to represent the planar electrode data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the characteristics of the oxygen evolution reaction on planar nickel electrodes during charging, since oxygen evolution can affect battery electrode charging efficiency and ultimately electrode cycle life if the overpotential for oxygen evolution is sufficiently low.

  12. BOLD signal effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in the alpha range: A concurrent tACS-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Vosskuhl, Johannes; Huster, René J; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2016-10-15

    Many studies have proven transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to manipulate brain activity. Until now it is not known, however, how these manipulations in brain activity are represented in brain metabolism or how spatially specific these changes are. Alpha-tACS has been shown to enhance the amplitude of the individual alpha frequency (IAF) and a negative correlation between alpha amplitude and occipital BOLD signal was reported in numerous EEG/fMRI experiments. Thus, alpha-tACS was chosen to test the effects of tACS on the BOLD signal. A reduction thereof was expected during alpha-tACS which shows the spatial extent of tACS effects beyond modeling studies. Three groups of subjects were measured in an MRI scanner, receiving tACS at either their IAF (N=11), 1Hz (control; N=12) or sham (i.e., no stimulation - a second control; N=11) while responding to a visual vigilance task. Stimulation was administered in an interleaved pattern of tACS-on runs and tACS-free baseline periods. The BOLD signal was analyzed in response to tACS-onset during resting state and in response to seldom target stimuli. Alpha-tACS at 1.0mA reduced the task-related BOLD response to visual targets in the occipital cortex as compared to tACS-free baseline periods. The deactivation was strongest in an area where the BOLD signal was shown to correlate negatively with alpha amplitude. A direct effect of tACS on resting state BOLD signal levels could not be shown. Our findings suggest that tACS-related changes in BOLD activity occur only as a modulation of an existing BOLD response.

  13. Demagnetization Treatment of Remanent Composite Microspheres Studied by Alternating Current Susceptibility Measurements

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, Susanne; Erné, Ben H.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample. PMID:24009021

  14. A targeted genetic association study of epithelial ovarian cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene; Winham, Stacey J.; Larson, Nicholas; Permuth, Jennifer B.; Sicotte, Hugues; Chien, Jeremy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Marc T.; Levine, Douglas A.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bisogna, Maria; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Carney, Michael E.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fogarty, Zachary C.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Kraft, Peter; Larson, Melissa C.; Le, Nhu D.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Lissowska, Jolanta; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Olson, Sara H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Rider, David N.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; van den Berg, David; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah P.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Phelan, Catherine M.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Chen, Yian Ann; Sellers, Thomas A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified several common susceptibility alleles for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To further understand EOC susceptibility, we examined previously ungenotyped candidate variants, including uncommon variants and those residing within known susceptibility loci. Results At nine of eleven previously published EOC susceptibility regions (2q31, 3q25, 5p15, 8q21, 8q24, 10p12, 17q12, 17q21.31, and 19p13), novel variants were identified that were more strongly associated with risk than previously reported variants. Beyond known susceptibility regions, no variants were found to be associated with EOC risk at genome-wide statistical significance (p <5×10−8), nor were any significant after Bonferroni correction for 17,000 variants (p< 3×10-6). Methods A customized genotyping array was used to assess over 17,000 variants in coding, non-coding, regulatory, and known susceptibility regions in 4,973 EOC cases and 5,640 controls from 13 independent studies. Susceptibility for EOC overall and for select histotypes was evaluated using logistic regression adjusted for age, study site, and population substructure. Conclusion Given the novel variants identified within the 2q31, 3q25, 5p15, 8q21, 8q24, 10p12, 17q12, 17q21.31, and 19p13 regions, larger follow-up genotyping studies, using imputation where necessary, are needed for fine-mapping and confirmation of low frequency variants that fall below statistical significance. PMID:26848776

  15. Study on Bt Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms in the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose response and growth inhibition of Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, were evaluated with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the Cry1Ab-resistant strain was estimated to be >80- and 45-fold greater than that of...

  16. Fabrication and study of AC electro-osmotic micropumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xin

    In this thesis, microelectrode arrays of micropumps have been designed, fabricated and characterized for transporting microfluid by AC electro-osmosis (ACEO). In particular, the 3D stepped electrode design which shows superior performance to others in literature is adopted for making micropumps, and the performance of such devices has been studied and explored. A novel fabrication process has also been developed in the work, realizing 3D stepped electrodes on a flexible substrate, which is suitable for biomedical use, for example glaucoma implant. There are three major contributions to ACEO pumping in the work. First, a novel design of 3D "T-shaped" discrete electrode arrays was made using PolyMUMPsRTM process. The breakthrough of this work was discretizing the continuous 3D stepped electrodes which were commonly seen in the past research. The "T-shaped" electrodes did not only create ACEO flows on the top surfaces of electrodes but also along the side walls between separated electrodes. Secondly, four 3D stepped electrode arrays were designed, fabricated and tested. It was found from the experiment that PolyMUMPsRTM ACEO electrodes usually required a higher driving voltage than gold electrodes for operation. It was also noticed that a simulation based on the modified model taking into account the surface oxide of electrodes showed a better agreement with the experimental results. It thus demonstrated the possibility that the surface oxide of electrodes had impact on fluidic pumping. This methodology could also be applied to metal electrodes with a native oxide layer such as titanium and aluminum. Thirdly, a prototype of the ACEO pump with 3D stepped electrode arrays was first time realized on a flexible substrate using Kapton polyimide sheets and packaged with PDMS encapsulants. Comprehensive experimental testing was also conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties as well as the pumping performance. The experimental findings indicated that this fabrication

  17. AC conductivity and Dielectric Study of Chalcogenide Glasses of Se-Te-Ge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Fathy

    2004-01-01

    The ac conductivity and dielectric properties of glassy system SexTe79 - xGe21, with x = 11, 14, 17 at.%, has been studied at temperatures 300 to 450 K and over a wide range of frequencies (50 Hz to 500 kHz). Experimental results indicate that the ac conductivity and the dielectric constants depend on temperature, frequency and Se content. The conductivity as a function of frequency exhibited two components: dc conductivity s dc, and ac conductivity s ac, where s ac ˜ w s. The mechanism of ac conductivity can be reasonably interpreted in terms of the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH). The activation energies are estimated and discussed. The dependence of ac conductivity and dielectric constants on the Se content x can be interpreted as the effect of Se fraction on the positional disorder. The impedance plot at each temperature appeared as a semicircle passes through the origin. Each semicircle is represented by an equivalent circuit of parallel resistance Rb and capacitance Cb.

  18. Structural and AC conductivity study of CdTe nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sayantani; Banerjee, Sourish; Sinha, T. P.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanomaterials have been synthesized by soft chemical route using mercapto ethanol as a capping agent. Crystallization temperature of the sample is investigated using differential scanning calorimeter. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope measurements show that the prepared sample belongs to cubic structure with the average particle size of 20 nm. Impedance spectroscopy is applied to investigate the dielectric relaxation of the sample in a temperature range from 313 to 593 K and in a frequency range from 42 Hz to 1.1 MHz. The complex impedance plane plot has been analyzed by an equivalent circuit consisting of two serially connected R-CPE units, each containing a resistance (R) and a constant phase element (CPE). Dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the imaginary parts of the spectra. The frequency dependence of real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity is analyzed using modified Cole-Cole equation. The temperature dependence relaxation time is found to obey the Arrhenius law having activation energy ~0.704 eV. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to follow the power law. The frequency dependence ac conductivity is analyzed by power law.

  19. HIV Susceptibility Among Migrant Miners in Chokwe: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Martins-Fonteyn, Emilia; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Wouters, Edwin; Raimundo, Ines; Hens, Niel; Aerts, Marc; Meulemans, Herman

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the association between risky sexual behavior and HIV risk perception among miners. A cross-sectional survey (n = 293) was conducted with miners who worked in South African mines and lived in the Chokwe district of Gaza Province in southern Mozambique. The study used ordinary logistic and cumulative logistic models to understand what drives miners to HIV susceptibility. The study revealed that most miners were at risk of HIV infection as a result of risky sexual behavior. However, there was a strong negative association between risky sexual behavior and HIV risk perception. Seventy percent of the miners practicing risky sexual behavior reported low HIV risk perception. This demonstrates that miners tend to underestimate their HIV risk, which makes them more susceptible to contracting HIV. Risk perception among miners is related to a range of factors, both individual and environmental. Informed risk awareness is essential for these men to adopt preventive measures against HIV/AIDS. Therefore, it is important to consider cultural beliefs, as they influence the understanding of HIV risk perception.

  20. Upset susceptibility study employing circuit analysis and digital simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to predicting the susceptibility of digital systems to signal disturbances. Electrical disturbances on a digital system's input and output lines can be induced by activities and conditions including static electricity, lightning discharge, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Pulsation (EMP). The electrical signal disturbances employed for the susceptibility study were limited to nondestructive levels, i.e., the system does not sustain partial or total physical damage and reset and/or reload will bring the system to an operational status. The front-end transition from the electrical disturbances to the equivalent digital signals was accomplished by computer-aided circuit analysis. The Super-Sceptre (system for circuit evaluation of transient radiation effects) Program was used. Gate models were developed according to manufacturers' performance specifications and parameters resulting from construction processes characteristic of the technology. Digital simulation at the gate and functional level was employed to determine the impact of the abnormal signals on system performance and to study the propagation characteristics of these signals through the system architecture. Example results are included for an Intel 8080 processor configuration.

  1. AC susceptibility of the Hg0.3La0.7Ba2Ca3(Cu0.95Ag0.5)4O10+δ superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, M. F.; Hassen, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the temperature, magnetic field and frequency dependence of the ac susceptibility of Hg0.3La0.7Ba2Ca3(Cu0.95Ag0.5)4O10+δ were studied. The superconductivity still survives even at this amount of Ag. The magnetic field dependence of the irreversibility line (IL) and the flux pinning of this compound are discussed and compared with those of low Ag content. The IL exhibits thermally activated behaviour. A collective creep of the vortex bundle also occurs for this level of doping. A crossover from a two- to a three-dimensional system is suggested at T/Tc = 0.75 and a magnetic field, Hdc = 0.04 T. Based on vortex glass phase transition theory, the effective pinning energy, ueff, was calculated. The change in the characteristic temperature of the studied compound and that of low Ag content samples are summarised. Comparisons with similar materials are discussed.

  2. A study of some features of ac and dc electric power systems for a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanania, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    This study analyzes certain selected topics in rival dc and high frequency ac electric power systems for a Space Station. The interaction between the Space Station and the plasma environment is analyzed, leading to a limit on the voltage for the solar array and a potential problem with resonance coupling at high frequencies. Certain problems are pointed out in the concept of a rotary transformer, and further development work is indicated in connection with dc circuit switching, special design of a transmission conductor for the ac system, and electric motors. The question of electric shock hazards, particularly at high frequency, is also explored. and a problem with reduced skin resistance and therefore increased hazard with high frequency ac is pointed out. The study concludes with a comparison of the main advantages and disadvantages of the two rival systems, and it is suggested that the choice between the two should be made after further studies and development work are completed.

  3. A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

  4. Simulational studies of epitaxial semiconductor superlattices: Quantum dynamical phenomena in ac and dc electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.

    1997-10-08

    Using high-accuracy numerical methods the author investigates the dynamics of independent electrons in both ideal and realistic superlattices subject to arbitrary ac and/or dc electric fields. For a variety of superlattice potentials, optically excited initial wave packets, and combinations of ac and dc electric fields, he numerically solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. In the case of ideal periodic superlattice potentials, he investigates a long list of dynamical phenomena involving multiple miniband transitions and time-dependent electric fields. These include acceleration effects associated with interminiband transitions in strong fields, Zener resonances between minibands, dynamic localization with ac fields, increased single-miniband transport with an auxiliary resonant ac field, and enhanced or suppressed interminiband probability exchange using an auxiliary ac field. For all of the cases studied, the resulting time-dependent wave function is analyzed by projecting the data onto convenient orthonormal bases. This allows a detailed comparison with approximately analytic treatments. In an effort to explain the rapid decay of experimentally measured Bloch oscillation (BO) signals the author incorporates a one-dimensional representation of interface roughness (IR) into their superlattice potential. He shows that as a result of IR, the electron dynamics can be characterized in terms of many discrete, incommensurate frequencies near the Block frequency. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 have been removed from this report and will be processed separately.

  5. Marketing information system online design for craftsmen small medium enterprises (case study: craftsmen ac)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriana, Rina; Kurniawan, Wawan; Barlianto, Anung; Adriansyah Putra, Rizki

    2016-02-01

    AC is small and medium enterprises which is engaged in the field of crafts. This SME (Small Medium Enterprise) didn't have an integrated information system for managing sales. This research aims to design a marketing Information system online as applications that built as web base. The integrated system is made to manage sales and expand its market share. This study uses a structured analysis and design in its approach to build systems and also implemented a marketing framework of STP (Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning) and 4P (Price, Product, Place, Promotion) to obtain market analysis. The main market target customer craftsmen AC is women aged 13 years to 35 years. The products produced by AC are shoes, brooch, that are typical of the archipelago. The prices is range from Rp. 2000 until Rp. 400.000. Marketing information system online can be used as a sales transaction document, promoting the goods, and for customer booking products.

  6. Susceptibility study of audio recording devices to electromagnetic stimulations

    SciTech Connect

    Halligan, Matthew S.; Grant, Steven L.; Beetner, Daryl G.

    2014-02-01

    Little research has been performed to study how intentional electromagnetic signals may couple into recording devices. An electromagnetic susceptibility study was performed on an analog tape recorder, a digital video camera, a wired computer microphone, and a wireless microphone system to electromagnetic interference. Devices were subjected to electromagnetic stimulations in the frequency range of 1-990 MHz and field strengths up to 4.9 V/m. Carrier and message frequencies of the stimulation signals were swept, and the impacts of device orientation and antenna polarization were explored. Message signals coupled into all devices only when amplitude modulated signals were used as stimulation signals. Test conditions that produced maximum sensitivity were highly specific to each device. Only narrow carrier frequency ranges could be used for most devices to couple messages into recordings. A basic detection technique using cross-correlation demonstrated the need for messages to be as long as possible to maximize message detection and minimize detection error. Analysis suggests that detectable signals could be coupled to these recording devices under realistic ambient conditions.

  7. Dynamic Properties of Dielectric Susceptibility in Ferroelectric Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lian; Cui, Haiying; Wu, Chunmei; Yang, Guihua; He, Zelong; Wang, Yuling; Che, Jixin

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, frequency, temperature, film thickness, surface effects, and various parameters dependence of dielectric susceptibility is investigated theoretically for ferroelectric thin films by the modified Landau theory under an AC applied field. The dielectric susceptibility versus AC applied field shows butterfly-shaped behavior, and depends strongly on the frequency and amplitude of the field and temperature. Our study shows that the existence of the surface transition layer can depress the dielectric susceptibility of a ferroelectric thin film. These results are well consistent with the phenomena reported in experiments.

  8. Numerical study of dc-biased ac-electrokinetic flow over symmetrical electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yang Ng, Wee; Ramos, Antonio; Cheong Lam, Yee; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of DC-biased AC-electrokinetic (DC-biased ACEK) flow over a pair of symmetrical electrodes. The flow mechanism is based on a transverse conductivity gradient created through incipient Faradaic reactions occurring at the electrodes when a DC-bias is applied. The DC biased AC electric field acting on this gradient generates a fluid flow in the form of vortexes. To understand more in depth the DC-biased ACEK flow mechanism, a phenomenological model is developed to study the effects of voltage, conductivity ratio, channel width, depth, and aspect ratio on the induced flow characteristics. It was found that flow velocity on the order of mm/s can be produced at higher voltage and conductivity ratio. Such rapid flow velocity is one of the highest reported in microsystems technology using electrokinetics. PMID:22662084

  9. Numerical study of dc-biased ac-electrokinetic flow over symmetrical electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yang Ng, Wee; Ramos, Antonio; Cheong Lam, Yee; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of DC-biased AC-electrokinetic (DC-biased ACEK) flow over a pair of symmetrical electrodes. The flow mechanism is based on a transverse conductivity gradient created through incipient Faradaic reactions occurring at the electrodes when a DC-bias is applied. The DC biased AC electric field acting on this gradient generates a fluid flow in the form of vortexes. To understand more in depth the DC-biased ACEK flow mechanism, a phenomenological model is developed to study the effects of voltage, conductivity ratio, channel width, depth, and aspect ratio on the induced flow characteristics. It was found that flow velocity on the order of mm/s can be produced at higher voltage and conductivity ratio. Such rapid flow velocity is one of the highest reported in microsystems technology using electrokinetics. PMID:22662084

  10. Nonlinear dynamics studies in the Fermilab tevatron using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto,R.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M. J.; Kopp, S. E.

    2009-05-04

    An AC dipole magnet produces a sinusoidally oscillating dipole field with frequency close to betatron frequency and excites large sustained oscillations of beam particles circulating in a synchrotron. Observation of such oscillations with beam position monitors allows direct measurements of a synchrotron's nonlinear parameters. This paper presents experimental studies to measure perturbative effects of sextupole and octupole fields, performed in the Fermilab Tevatron using an ACdipole.

  11. -383 A/C tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 polymorphism and ankylosing spondylitis in Mexicans: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Corona-Sanchez, Esther Guadalupe; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Sanchez-Hernandez, Julia Dolores; Vazquez-Del Mercado, Monica; Ontiveros-Mercado, Heriberto; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Celis, Alfredo; Ortega-Flores, Ricardo; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in allele and genotype frequencies of -383 tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) polymorphism between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and controls. Mexican Mestizos with AS were matched by gender, age, and ethnicity with healthy controls and compared in allele and genotype frequencies of the -383 TNFR1 polymorphism. Polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. The AA genotype occurred at a higher frequency in the AS group (92%) compared with controls (79%, P = 0.03). A allele was increased in AS (96% vs. 88%, P = 0.015) and was associated with genetic susceptibility for AS (odds ratio = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.23-10.61). This preliminary study is the first assessing the association of the -383 A/C TNFR1 polymorphism with AS, although it has the limitation of a small sample size. These data are of interest for the genetic epidemiology of AS in the Mexican population, requiring further investigation in other countries.

  12. Pattern of susceptibility to measles in Italy. Serological Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Salmaso, S.; Gabutti, G.; Rota, M. C.; Giordano, C.; Penna, C.; Mandolini, D.; Crovari, P.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of seroprevalence and incidence data we describe the distribution of individuals susceptible and immune to measles in Italy in 1996-97. In regions where vaccination coverage was at least 70%, approximately 10% of 3-year-old children were susceptible to measles, whereas 40% were in this category in regions with lower vaccination coverage. Seroprevalence among children older than 4 years was similar for the two groups of regions; in the age group 20-39 years it was approximately 95%. During 1990-96 in the regions with lower vaccination coverage the incidence was highest among children aged 4-6 years, and the median age of cases was 7 years; in the regions with higher vaccination coverage, however, the incidence remained at around 5% for the age group 4-16 years, and the overall median age was 10 years. These data confirm the partial reduction in measles incidence in Italy, although transmission has still not been interrupted. The size and geographical distribution of the current pool of susceptible individuals can be expected to present an obstacle to measles elimination if appropriate vaccination strategies, such as catch-up campaigns, are not adopted. PMID:10994277

  13. Development of a nano-tesla magnetic field shielded chamber and highly precise AC-susceptibility measurement coil at μK temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Om; Ramakrishanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    A special sample measurement chamber has been developed to perform experiments at ultralow temperatures and ultralow magnetic field. A high permeability material known as cryoperm 10 and Pb is used to shield the measurement space consisting of the signal detecting set-up and the sample. The detecting setup consists of a very sensitive susceptibility coil wound on OFHC Cu bobbin.

  14. S4AC Case Study: Enhancing Underserved Seniors' Access to Health Promotion Programs.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Sharon; Habib, Sanzida; Bukhari, Syeda

    2016-03-01

    The Seniors Support Services for South Asian Community (S4AC) project was developed in response to the underutilization of available recreation and seniors' facilities by South Asian seniors who were especially numerous in a suburban neighbourhood in British Columbia. Addressing the problem required the collaboration of the municipality and a registered non-profit agency offering a wide range of services and programs to immigrant and refugee communities. Through creative outreach and accommodation, the project has engaged more than 100 Punjabi-speaking seniors annually in diverse exercise activities. Case study research methods with staff and current and former senior participants of S4AC include participant observation, individual interviews, and focus groups. Viewed through the critical interpretive lens of the "candidacy framework", findings reveal the myriad ways in which access to health promotion and physical activity for immigrant older adults is a complex iterative process of negotiation at multiple levels.

  15. AC Conductivity Studies in Lithium-Borate Glass Containing Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaprakash, Y.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2011-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in a base glass with composition 30Li2O-70B2O3 using gold chloride (HAuCl4.3H2O) as a dopant. The samples are characterized using XRD, ESR, SEM and optical absorption in the visible range. AC conductivity studies have been performed at RT over a frequency range 100 to 10 MHz. The dc conductivity is calculated from the complex impedence plot. The dc conductivity is found to be increasing with the increase of dopant concentration. AC conductivity data is fitted with Almond-West law with power exponent `s'. The values of `s' is found to lie in the range of 0.70-0.73.

  16. ACS experiment for atmospheric studies on "ExoMars-2016" Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O. I.; Montmessin, F.; Fedorova, A. A.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Shakun, A. V.; Trokhimovskiy, A. V.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Anufreichik, K. A.; Kozlova, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    ACS is a set of spectrometers for atmospheric studies (Atmospheric Chemistry Suite). It is one of the Russian instruments for the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) of the Russian-European "ExoMars" program. The purpose of the experiment is to study the Martian atmosphere by means of two observations regimes: sensitive trace gases measurements in solar occultations and by monitoring the atmospheric state during nadir observations. The experiment will allow us to approach global problems of Mars research such as current volcanism, and the modern climate status and its evolution. Also, the experiment is intended to solve the mystery of methane presence in the Martian atmosphere. Spectrometers of the ACS set cover the spectral range from the near IR-range (0.7 μm) to the thermal IR-range (17 μm) with spectral resolution λ/Δλ reaching 50000. The ACS instrument consists of three independent IR spectrometers and an electronics module, all integrated in a single unit with common mechanical, electrical and thermal interfaces. The article gives an overview of scientific tasks and presents the concept of the experiment.

  17. Theoretical study of electromagnetic electron cyclotron waves in the presence of AC field in Uranian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. S.; Kaur, Rajbir

    2015-10-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron (EMEC) waves with temperature anisotropy in the magnetosphere of Uranus have been studied in present work. EMEC waves are investigated using method of characteristic solution by kinetic approach, in presence of AC field. In 1986, Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus revealed that magnetosphere of Uranus exhibit non-Maxwellian high-energy tail distribution. So, the dispersion relation, real frequency and growth rate are evaluated using Lorentzian Kappa distribution function. Effect of temperature anisotropy, AC frequency and number density of particles is found. The study is also extended to oblique propagation of EMEC waves in presence and absence of AC field. Through comprehensive mathematical analysis it is found that when EMEC wave propagates parallel to intrinsic magnetic field of Uranus, its growth is more enhanced than in case of oblique propagation. Results are also discussed in context to magnetosphere of Earth and also gives theoretical explanation to existence of high energetic particles observed by Voyager 2 in the magnetosphere of Uranus. The results can present a further insight into the nature of electron-cyclotron instability condition for the whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belts of Uranus or other space plasmas.

  18. Study of DC and AC electric field effect on Pisum sativum seeds growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Bahar; Jaleh, Sojoodi; Yasaman, Yasaie

    2014-07-01

    In this research the effect of electric field on two groups of wet and dry Pisum sativum seeds growth was studied. To generate the required electric field a parallel-plate capacitor with round copper plates of 30 cm diameter was used. The experiments were performed once in fixed exposure duration of 8 min in variable DC electric field of 0.25-1.5 kV/m. The other experiments were performed in variable fields of 50-125 kV/m in fixed exposure duration of 8 min, in two groups of AC and DC electric fields. The experiments were repeated three times. In each experiment 10 seeds were used and there was a sham exposed group for comparison, too. After application of electric field, the seeds were kept for six days in the same growth chamber with the temperature of 25 ± 1 °C and 12 h light/12 h darkness. On the 6th day length of stems and height of roots were measured. After doing statistical analysis, in low intensities of DC electric field, the highest significant increase of mean growth (The average of stem length and the height of roots) was seen in 1.5 kV/m in wet seeds. In high intensities of DC and AC electric fields, the highest significant increase of mean growth was seen in AC electric field of 100 kV/m in wet seeds.

  19. AC corrosion -- A new challenge to pipeline integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e. less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels when cathodic protection was applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in the initiation of several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, normal levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion to acceptable levels and that AC mitigation is often required to prevent serious corrosion. Several other AC corrosion sites were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. A graph, relating AC voltage to holiday size at the minimum AC current density for corrosion, is presented to assist the pipeline operator in determining whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion activity.

  20. AC corrosion -- a new threat to pipeline integrity?

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.; Wakelin, R.G.; Segall, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion of steel by alternating current was investigated as far back as the early 1900`s. These early studies and others in the 1950--60`s indicated that AC corrosion of steel was only a fraction of an equivalent amount of direct current (i.e., less than 1% of a like amount of DC) and in addition was controlled to negligible levels with cathodic protection applied to industry standards. In 1986 however, an investigation into a corrosion failure on a high pressure gas pipeline in Germany indicated that the sole cause of the failure was AC corrosion. This corrosion failure on an otherwise well protected pipeline resulted in several laboratory and field studies which indicated, that above a certain minimum AC current density, standard levels of cathodic protection will not control AC corrosion and AC mitigation is required to prevent further corrosion. Several other corrosion anomalies were discovered at coating holidays during the follow-up investigations in Germany. The authors have investigated several corrosion occurrences on pipelines in Ontario during the last 2--3 years which appear to be caused by AC corrosion. This presentation traces the literature record on AC electrolysis from the past to the present and discusses the key parameters which determine the likelihood of corrosion attack. Several case histories of suspected AC corrosion will be discussed and guidelines on how to assess whether or not a pipeline is susceptible to AC corrosion will be offered.

  1. Superparamagnetic state by linear and non-linear AC magnetic susceptibility in Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrites nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Suneetha, T; Kundu, S; Kashyap, Subhash C; Gupta, H C; Nath, T K

    2013-01-01

    The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles has been synthesized using citrate-gel-precursor method. The direct mixing of nitrates and acetates yields homogeneous nanoparticles. Phase formation and crystal structure of the synthesized powder were examined through the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the sample confirm the spinel structure. The average particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The average particle size is found to be about 13 nm. Superparamagnetic-like nature of the nanoparticles of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 has been revealed through various dc and linear and non-linear ac magnetization measurements. However, the nanoparticles do not behave like ideal non-interacting superparamagnets. The magnetic particle size is found to be about 8 nm with saturation magnetization about 18.1 emu/g. The blocking temperature (T(B)) of the nanoparticle assembly is found to be about 150 K as observed from dc and ac magnetization measurements. The frequency dependence of the blocking temperature (T(B)) is found to follow Vogel-Fulcher law. The associated characteristic time tau0 is found to be 10(-5) s. This value is different from that generally found for non-interacting superparamagnetic (SPM) systems (tau0 = 10(-9)-10(-10) s).

  2. Kinetic studies of the stress corrosion cracking of D6AC steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noronha, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of load interactions on the crack growth velocity of D6AC steel under stress corrosion cracking conditions was determined. The environment was a 3.5 percent salt solution. The modified-wedge opening load specimens were fatigue precracked and subjected to a deadweight loading in creep machines. The effects of load shedding on incubation times and crack growth rates were measured using high-sensitivity compliance measurement techniques. Load shedding results in an incubation time, the length of which depends on the amount of load shed and the baseline stress intensity. The sequence of unloading the specimen also controls the subsequent incubation period. The incubation period is shorter when load shedding passes through zero load than when it does not if the specimen initially had the same baseline stress intensity. The crack growth rates following the incubation period are also different from the steady-state crack growth rate at the operating stress intensity. These data show that the susceptibility of this alloy system to stress corrosion cracking depends on the plane-strain fracture toughness and on the yield strength of the material.

  3. Retention studies of recoiling daughter nuclides of 225Ac in polymer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; de Kruijff, R M; Rol, A; Thijssen, L; Mendes, E; Morgenstern, A; Bruchertseifer, F; Stuart, M C A; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G

    2014-02-01

    Alpha radionuclide therapy is steadily gaining importance and a large number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have been carried out. However, due to the recoil effects the daughter recoil atoms, most of which are alpha emitters as well, receive energies that are much higher than the energies of chemical bonds resulting in decoupling of the radionuclide from common targeting agents. Here, we demonstrate that polymer vesicles (i.e. polymersomes) can retain recoiling daughter nuclei based on an experimental study examining the retention of (221)Fr and (213)Bi when encapsulating (225)Ac. PMID:24374072

  4. Retention studies of recoiling daughter nuclides of 225Ac in polymer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; de Kruijff, R M; Rol, A; Thijssen, L; Mendes, E; Morgenstern, A; Bruchertseifer, F; Stuart, M C A; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G

    2014-02-01

    Alpha radionuclide therapy is steadily gaining importance and a large number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have been carried out. However, due to the recoil effects the daughter recoil atoms, most of which are alpha emitters as well, receive energies that are much higher than the energies of chemical bonds resulting in decoupling of the radionuclide from common targeting agents. Here, we demonstrate that polymer vesicles (i.e. polymersomes) can retain recoiling daughter nuclei based on an experimental study examining the retention of (221)Fr and (213)Bi when encapsulating (225)Ac.

  5. Potentiostatic and ac impedance studies of the hydrogen electrodes used in Ni/H2 batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Helloco, Jean-Guy; Bojkov, Hristo; Parthasarathy, Arvind; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    In a study of electrode activity for hydrogen evolution and hydrogen ionization, knowledge of the detailed kinetics and of the surface coverage by adsorbed hydrogen is essential. In the Ni/H2 battery, the hydrogen electrode is subjected to high hydrogen pressure; elucidation of the variation of kinetic parameters with hydrogen pressure is therefore of interest. Potentiostatic and ac impedance spectroscopic techniques were used in the present study. The equivalent circuit of the reaction, the kinetic parameters, and their pressure dependence have been determined.

  6. Age-related changes in ac-impedance spectroscopy studies of normal human dentine: further investigations.

    PubMed

    Eldarrat, A H; High, A S; Kale, G M

    2010-01-01

    One of the age-related changes occurring in dentine structure is the formation of peritubular dentine on the inner walls of dentinal tubules leading to complete closure of tubules. Ac-impedance is safe, fast and non-invasive technique. In the last decade, the popularity of the technique has increased in dental research. Several investigators have used the technique to detect tooth cracks and caries. The results of in vitro studies showed that ac-impedance technique was more advanced for caries detection than visual and radiographic methods. However, other studies demonstrated that the accuracy of impedance measurements can be affected by many factors such as remineralization after tooth eruption. A study has been published on effect of age on impedance measurements by the authors for two age groups by employing ac-impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the importance of this technique by conducting further investigations on dentine samples of wider age groups. Dentine samples were prepared from extracted sound third molars of known patient age. The ac-impedance measurements were carried out over a wide range of frequency. After performing all electrical measurements, dentine samples were examined under SEM to correlate the electrical measurements with their structure. Impedance measurements showed that there were differences in impedance between young and old dentine. One-way ANOVA of the means of resistance and capacitance for all age groups (20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 years old dentine) revealed a significant difference (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) as a function of age. Applying Tukey's post hoc test, to the same data showed that this difference was due to the 50 years old dentine for resistance and was due to the 40 and 50 years old dentine for capacitance which were statistically different to all other groups. SEM investigation of dentine samples showed that young dentine is characterized by open dentinal tubules distributed all over the

  7. Isolation of sequences flanking Ac insertion sites by Ac casting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Localizing Ac insertions is a fundamental task in studying Ac-induced mutation and chromosomal rearrangements involving Ac elements. Researchers may sometimes be faced with the situation in which the sequence flanking one side of an Ac/Ds element is known, but the other flank is unknown. Or, a researcher may have a small sequence surrounding the Ac/Ds insertion site and needs to obtain additional flanking genomic sequences. One way to rapidly clone unknown Ac/Ds flanking sequences is via a PCR-based method termed Ac casting. This approach utilizes the somatic transposition activity of Ac during plant development, and provides an efficient means for short-range genome walking. Here we describe the principle of Ac casting, and show how it can be applied to isolate Ac macrotransposon insertion sites.

  8. Theoretical model study of dynamic ferromagnetic susceptibility in mono-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sivabrata; Parashar, S. K. S.; Rout, G. C.

    2016-04-01

    We report here a microscopic theoretical study of dynamic ferromagnetic spin susceptibility of electrons for graphene systems, which deal with a tight-binding model Hamiltonian consisting of the hopping of electrons up to third-nearest-neighbors, impurity and substrate effects besides Coulomb interaction of electrons at A-and B- sub- lattices. The spin susceptibility involves four two-particle Green's functions, which are calculated by Zubarev's Green's function technique. The up and down electron occupancies at A and B sub-lattices are computed numerically and self-consistently. The temperature dependent susceptibility shows a pronounced peak at Curie temperature for critical Coulomb interaction Uc = 2.2t1.

  9. [Studies on the genetic susceptibility to dilated cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Li, Y Y; Zhang, J N; Ma, W Z

    1993-01-01

    HLA-DQB1,-DRB1 genes of 27 Chinese patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 7 high risk individuals in a DCM kindred and 17 normal control subjects were analysed with the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) with full length DQB1 and DRB1 cDNA probes according to the standard and nomenclature of the Xth International Histocompatibility Workshop. The resulting restriction patterns allowed genotyping of HLA-DR and HLA-DQw. D-DQw8 frequency increased significantly in patients with DCM as compared with that of the controls (P < 0.05). D-DQw4 also increased in patients although no statistical significance was shown when Chi-square value was corrected with Yate's correction, whereas D-DQw5 overrepresented in controls (P < 0.05). Over half of the high risk individuals (4/7) in the familial DCM kindred carry D-DQw8 and D-DQw4. These results support the hypothesis that HLA class II genes were associated with an increased risk for DCM, HLA-DQB rather than -DRB may confer genetic susceptibility to DCM. PMID:8104770

  10. AC impedance spectroscopy studies on solid-state sintered zinc aluminum oxide (ZnAl2O4) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2012-07-01

    In the present investigation Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZnAl2O4) is prepared by solid-state reaction technique. Dielectric constant (ɛ'), dielectric loss(tan δ), ac conductivity (σac) as a function of temperature are studied by varying frequencies from 100 Hz to 1MHz using an impedance analyzer. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss increases gradually with an increase of temperature, but it decreases with increase of frequency. The ac conductivity (σac) also increases with increases of frequency. The transition peaks for ZnAl2O4 are observed at 490°C, 510°C, 520°C for the frequencies 1 KHz, 10 KHz and 100 KHz. No transition peaks are found for the frequency 100 Hz and 1 MHz because of high conductive loss.

  11. Study on A.C. electrical properties of pure and L-serine doped ADP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, J. H.; Dixit, K. P.; Joshi, M. J.; Parikh, K. D.

    2016-05-01

    Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADP) crystals have a wide range of applications in integrated and nonlinear optics. Amino acids having significant properties like molecular chirality, zwitter ionic nature, etc. attracted many researchers to dope them in various NLO crystals. In the present study, pure and different weight percentage L-serine doped ADP crystals were grown by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature. The A.C. electrical study was carried out for palletized samples at room temperature. The Nyquist plot showed two semi circles for pure ADP indicated the effect of grain and grain boundary, whereas the doped ADP samples exhibited the single semi circle suggesting the effect of grain. The values resistance and capacitance for grain and grain boundary were calculated. The effect of doping was clearly seen in the grain capacitance and resistance values. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreased with increase in frequency for all samples. The Jonscher power law was applied for A.C. conductivity for pure and doped ADP samples. The imaginary part of modulus and impedance versus frequency were drawn and the value of stretch exponent (β) was calculated for all the samples.

  12. Exploratory studies of physiological components of motion sickness: Cardiopulmonary differences between high and low susceptibles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naifeh, K.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of cardiovascular autonomic response to motion sickness was studied and whether differences in cardiopulmonary function exist in high and low susceptibility groups were determined. Measurement techniques were developed as was test equipment for its ability to provide accurately new measures of interest and to test the adequately of these new measures in differentiating between susceptibility groups. It was concluded that these groups can be differentiated using simple, brief stressors and measurements of cardiodynamic function.

  13. Comparing physically-based and statistical landslide susceptibility model outputs - a case study from Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canli, Ekrem; Thiebes, Benni; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    By now there is a broad consensus that due to human-induced global change the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation events is expected to increase in certain parts of the world. Given the fact, that rainfall serves as the most common triggering agent for landslide initiation, also an increased landside activity can be expected there. Landslide occurrence is a globally spread phenomenon that clearly needs to be handled. The present and well known problems in modelling landslide susceptibility and hazard give uncertain results in the prediction. This includes the lack of a universal applicable modelling solution for adequately assessing landslide susceptibility (which can be seen as the relative indication of the spatial probability of landslide initiation). Generally speaking, there are three major approaches for performing landslide susceptibility analysis: heuristic, statistical and deterministic models, all with different assumptions, its distinctive data requirements and differently interpretable outcomes. Still, detailed comparison of resulting landslide susceptibility maps are rare. In this presentation, the susceptibility modelling outputs of a deterministic model (Stability INdex MAPping - SINMAP) and a statistical modelling approach (generalized additive model - GAM) are compared. SINMAP is an infinite slope stability model which requires parameterization of soil mechanical parameters. Modelling with the generalized additive model, which represents a non-linear extension of a generalized linear model, requires a high quality landslide inventory that serves as the dependent variable in the statistical approach. Both methods rely on topographical data derived from the DTM. The comparison has been carried out in a study area located in the district of Waidhofen/Ybbs in Lower Austria. For the whole district (ca. 132 km²), 1063 landslides have been mapped and partially used within the analysis and the validation of the model outputs. The respective

  14. Long-term toxicity study on transgenic rice with Cry1Ac and sck genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhuo, Qin; Tian, Yuan; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we evaluated the chronic effects of the transgenic insect-resistant rice carrying Cry1Ac and sck genes on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats through a 78-week feeding study. Based on the gender and weight, 180 SD rats were randomly and evenly assigned into three groups. GM rice and non-GM rice were separately formulated into diets at high levels. AIN-93 diet was used as a nutritional control. Body weight, food consumption, hematology and serum chemistry were monitored regularly. Rats were sacrificed for organ weight measurement and pathological examination at 52 weeks and 78 weeks. Body weight, food consumption, mortality rates, tumor incidences and pathological findings showed no significant difference among the three groups. Although certain differences in some hematology, serum chemistry parameters and relative organ weights were observed between GM rice group and control groups, they were not considered as treatment-related. Taken together, long-term intake of transgenic rice carrying Cry1Ac and sck genes at a high level exerts no unintended adverse effects on rats.

  15. Editorial--Avoiding Unethical Helicobacter pylori Clinical Trials: Susceptibility-Based Studies and Probiotics as Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2015-10-01

    As a general rule, any clinical study where the result is already known or when the investigator(s) compares an assigned treatment against another assigned treatment known to be ineffective in the study population (e.g., in a population with known clarithromycin resistance) is unethical. As susceptibility-based therapy will always be superior to empiric therapy in any population with a prevalence of antimicrobial resistance >0%, any trial that randomizes susceptibility-based therapy with empiric therapy would be unethical. The journal Helicobacter welcomes susceptibility or culture-guided studies, studies of new therapies, and studies of adjuvants and probiotics. However, the journal will not accept for review any study we judge to be lacking clinical equipoise or which assign subjects to a treatment known to be ineffective, such as a susceptibility-based clinical trial with an empiric therapy comparator. To assist authors, we provide examples and suggestions regarding trial design for comparative studies, for susceptibility-based studies, and for studies testing adjuvants or probiotics.

  16. Differential susceptibility to the environment: Are developmental models compatible with the evidence from twin studies?

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-08-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic variation interacts with exposure to early environmental factors, such as prenatal stress hormones and family conflict. In this study I employed a simulation approach to explore whether, and under what conditions, developmental models of differential susceptibility are compatible with the cumulative findings from twin studies of personality and behavior, which consistently show sizable effects of genetic and nonshared environmental factors and small to negligible effects of the shared environment. Simulation results showed that, to a first approximation, current alternative models of differential susceptibility are all equally compatible with the evidence from twin research; that sizable interaction effects involving individual differences in plasticity are plausible, but only if direct environmental effects are correspondingly weak; and that a major role of shared environmental factors is plausible in early development (consistent with the developmental mechanisms postulated in the differential susceptibility literature) but not in later development. These results support the general plausibility of differential susceptibility models and suggest some realistic constraints on their assumptions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455408

  17. Studies on the Mechanism of Telavancin Decreased Susceptibility in a Laboratory-Derived Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Lunde, Christopher S.; Benton, Bret M.

    2013-01-01

    Telavancin is a novel semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide derivative of vancomycin with a dual mode of action. This study sought to understand the mechanisms of decreased telavancin susceptibility in a laboratory-derived Staphlococcus aureus mutant TlvDSMED1952. There were extensive changes in the transcriptome of TlvDSMED1952 compared to the susceptible parent strain MED1951. Genes upregulated included cofactor biosynthesis genes, cell wall-related genes, fatty acid biosynthesis genes, and stress genes. Downregulated genes included lysine operon biosynthesis genes and lrgB, which are induced by telavancin in susceptible strains, agr and kdpDE genes, various cell surface protein genes, phenol-soluble modulin genes, several protease genes, and genes involved in anaerobic metabolism. The decreased susceptibility mutant had somewhat thicker cell walls and a decreased autolytic activity that may be related to decreased proteolytic peptidoglycan hydrolase processing. Membrane fatty acid changes correlated with increased membrane fluidity were observed. It seems likely that there are multiple genetic changes associated with the development of decreased telavancin susceptibility. The TlvDS mutant showed some similar features to vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and decreased daptomycin susceptibility strains, but also exhibited its own unique features. PMID:23551248

  18. Studies on the mechanism of telavancin decreased susceptibility in a laboratory-derived mutant.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Lunde, Christopher S; Benton, Bret M; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2013-08-01

    Telavancin is a novel semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide derivative of vancomycin with a dual mode of action. This study sought to understand the mechanisms of decreased telavancin susceptibility in a laboratory-derived Staphlococcus aureus mutant Tlv(DS)MED1952. There were extensive changes in the transcriptome of Tlv(DS)MED1952 compared to the susceptible parent strain MED1951. Genes upregulated included cofactor biosynthesis genes, cell wall-related genes, fatty acid biosynthesis genes, and stress genes. Downregulated genes included lysine operon biosynthesis genes and lrgB, which are induced by telavancin in susceptible strains, agr and kdpDE genes, various cell surface protein genes, phenol-soluble modulin genes, several protease genes, and genes involved in anaerobic metabolism. The decreased susceptibility mutant had somewhat thicker cell walls and a decreased autolytic activity that may be related to decreased proteolytic peptidoglycan hydrolase processing. Membrane fatty acid changes correlated with increased membrane fluidity were observed. It seems likely that there are multiple genetic changes associated with the development of decreased telavancin susceptibility. The Tlv(DS) mutant showed some similar features to vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and decreased daptomycin susceptibility strains, but also exhibited its own unique features.

  19. Isochronal Annealing Studies in Pu and Pu Alloys Using Magnetic Susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, S. K.; Fluss, M. J.; Chung, B. W.; McElfresh, M. W.; Chapline, G.F.; Jackson, D. D.; Haire, Richard {Dick} G

    2007-01-01

    The isochronal annealing of the low temperature accumulated damage from the radioactive decay of plutonium in {alpha}-Pu, {delta}-Pu{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} (x = 0.043) and {delta}-Pu{sub 1-x}Am{sub x} (x = 0.224) was characterized using magnetic susceptibility. In each specimen, thermal annealing, as tracked by magnetic susceptibility, only commenced when T > 33 K and the magnetic susceptibility changes due to defects were fully annealed at T not, vert, similar 300 K. The {alpha}-Pu magnetic susceptibility isochronal annealing data is similar to earlier measurements of resistivity characterized isochronal annealing. However, the {delta}-Pu{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} (x = 0.043) magnetic susceptibility isochronal annealing data, when compared with similar resistivity data, indicates that for this alloy magnetic susceptibility studies are more sensitive to vacancies than to the interstitials accumulated at low temperatures. The Pu{sub 1-x}Am{sub x} (x = 0.224) alloy shows a remarkable change in properties, over a limited temperature range beginning where interstitial defects are first mobile, and characterized by an induced effective moment of order 1.1 {mu}{sub B}/Pu. This transient behavior may be evidence for a disorder driven low temperature phase transition, perhaps indicative of a compositional and structural proximity to a state possessing significant magnetic moments.

  20. Design studies for the Mead-Phoenix 500 kV AC transmission project

    SciTech Connect

    Thallam, R.S.; Lundquist, T.G.; Gerlach, D.W.; Atmuri, S.R.; Selin, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    The Mead-Phoenix 500 kV ac line is 243 miles long and runs parallel to the existing Mead-Liberty 345 kV line. This line is planned for 70% series and 70% shunt compensation; it also incorporates the first application of a 50 kV phase shifting transformer that enables a 1,300 MW transmission capacity. This paper presents the design studies that were undertaken in arriving at the equipment ratings and insulation levels that lead to the equipment specifications. The shunt reactor switching requirements utilizing MOV across the breaker, line switching with line connected arresters and the breaker transient recovery voltage are also dealt with in the paper.

  1. Ac vortex-dependent torsional oscillation response and onset temperature T0 in solid 4He.

    PubMed

    Penzev, Andrey; Yasuta, Yoshinori; Kubota, Minoru

    2008-08-01

    Detailed studies of ac velocity V_{ac} and T dependence of torsional oscillator responses of solid 4He are reported. A characteristic onset temperature T_{0} approximately 0.5 K is found, below which a significant V_{ac}-dependent change occurs in the energy dissipation for the samples at approximately 32 bar and for one at 49 bar. A V_{ac} dependence of the so-called "nonclassical rotational inertia" fraction also appears below approximately T_{0}. The log(V_{ac}) linear dependence, which suggests involvement of quantized vorticies, was examined in the nonclassical rotational inertia fraction. We find a common 1/T;{2} dependence for this linear slope change in all of the samples for 30ac}<300 microm/s. We discuss that our observation is consistent with nonlinear rotational susceptibility of the vortex fluid, proposed by Anderson above T_{c} below T0. PMID:18764467

  2. Binding and Oligomerization of Modified and Native Bt Toxins in Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm.

    PubMed

    Ocelotl, Josue; Sánchez, Jorge; Arroyo, Raquel; García-Gómez, Blanca I; Gómez, Isabel; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers. In this study, we evaluated how Bt toxin Cry1Ac and its genetically engineered counterpart Cry1AcMod interact with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant and susceptible larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm), a global pest of cotton. Compared with Cry1Ac, Cry1AcMod lacks 56 amino acids at the amino-terminus including helix α-1; previous work showed that Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in vitro without cadherin and killed P. gossypiella larvae harboring cadherin mutations linked with >1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Here we found that resistance to Cry1Ac was associated with reduced oligomer formation and insertion. In contrast, Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in BBMV from resistant larvae. These results confirm the role of cadherin in oligomerization of Cry1Ac in susceptible larvae and imply that forming oligomers without cadherin promotes toxicity of Cry1AcMod against resistant P. gossypiella larvae that have cadherin mutations.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) breast cancer susceptibility loci in Arabs: susceptibility and prognostic implications in Tunisians.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jingxuan; Mahfoudh, Wijden; Dsouza, Shoba P; Hassen, Elham; Bouaouina, Noureddine; Abdelhak, Sonia; Benhadjayed, Ahlem; Memmi, Hager; Mathew, Rebecca Ann; Aigha, Idil I; Gabbouj, Sallouha; Remadi, Yassmine; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2012-10-01

    Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) revealed novel genetic markers for breast cancer susceptibility. But little is known about the risk factors and molecular events associated with breast cancer in Arab Population. Therefore, we designed a broad study to investigate the susceptibility and prognostic implications of the GWAS breast cancer loci in the Tunisian population. In a cohort of 640 unrelated patients with breast cancer and 371 healthy control subjects, we characterized the variation of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely rs1219648, rs2981582; rs8051542, rs12443621, and rs3803662; rs889312; rs3817198; rs13387042 and rs13281615. Only 5 out of 9 GWAS breast cancer loci were found to be significantly associated with breast cancer in Tunisians: The rs1219648 (G vs. A allele: OR = 1.36, P = 1 × 10(-3)) and rs2981582 (A vs. G allele: OR = 1.55, P = 3 × 10(-6)) of FGFR2 gene; the rs8051542 of the TNRC9 gene (T vs. C allele: OR = 1.40, P = 4 × 10(-4)); the rs889312 of the MAP3K1 gene (C vs. A allele: OR = 1.33, P = 3 × 10(-3)) and the rs13281615 located on 8q24 (G vs. A allele: OR = 1.21, P = 0.03). Homozygous variant genotypes of rs2981582 were strongly related to lymph node negative breast cancer (OR = 3.33, P = 6 × 10(-7)) and the minor allele of rs2981582 was associated with increased risk of ER+ tumors (OR = 1.57, P = 0.02; OR = 2.15, P = 0.001, for heterozygous and homozygous variant genotypes, respectively) and increased risk of distant metastasis development (OR = 2.30, P = 4 × 10(-3); OR = 3.57, P = 6 × 10(-5), for heterozygous and homozygous variant genotypes, respectively) in a dose dependent manner. The association for rs8051542 was stronger for high-grade SBR tumors (OR = 2.54, P = 2 × 10(-4)). GG genotype of rs13387042 on 2q35 showed a significant association with the risk of developing distant metastasis (OR = 1.94, P = 0.02). The G allele of rs1219648 in FGFR2 and the A allele of rs13387042 on 2q35 indicated a better prognosis

  4. Comparative Study of DC and AC Microgrids in Commercial Buildings Across Different Climates and Operating Profiles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Fregosi, D.; Ravula, S.; Brhlik, D.; Saussele, J.; Frank, S.; Bonnema, E.; Scheib, J.; Wilson, E.

    2015-04-22

    Bosch has developed and demonstrated a novel DC microgrid system designed to maximize utilization efficiency for locally generated photovoltaic energy while offering high reliability, safety, redundancy, and reduced cost compared to equivalent AC systems. Several demonstration projects validating the system feasibility and expected efficiency gains have been completed and additional ones are in progress. This work gives an overview of the Bosch DC microgrid system and presents key results from a large simulation study done to estimate the energy savings of the Bosch DC microgrid over conventional AC systems. The study examined the system performance in locations across the United States for several commercial building types and operating profiles and found that the Bosch DC microgrid uses generated PV energy 6%–8% more efficiently than traditional AC systems.

  5. Susceptibility to Chronic Mucus Hypersecretion, a Genome Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E.; Smolonska, Joanna; van den Berge, Maarten; Wijmenga, Ciska; Zanen, Pieter; Luinge, Marjan A.; Platteel, Mathieu; Lammers, Jan-Willem; Dahlback, Magnus; Tosh, Kerrie; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Spira, Avi; Vestbo, Jorgen; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Benn, Marianne; Nielsen, Sune F.; Dahl, Morten; Verschuren, W. Monique; Picavet, H. Susan J.; Smit, Henriette A.; Owsijewitsch, Michael; Kauczor, Hans U.; de Koning, Harry J.; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Eva; Mejza, Filip; Nastalek, Pawel; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Cho, Michael H.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Lomas, David A.; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, M. A.; Loth, Daan W.; Lahousse, Lies; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Andre; Stricker, Bruno H.; Brusselle, Guy G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Brouwer, Uilke; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Vonk, Judith M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Timens, Wim; Boezen, H. Marike; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a minority of smokers develops CMH. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is a predisposing genetic constitution. Therefore, we performed a genome wide association (GWA) study of CMH in Caucasian populations. Methods GWA analysis was performed in the NELSON-study using the Illumina 610 array, followed by replication and meta-analysis in 11 additional cohorts. In total 2,704 subjects with, and 7,624 subjects without CMH were included, all current or former heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years). Additional studies were performed to test the functional relevance of the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Results A strong association with CMH, consistent across all cohorts, was observed with rs6577641 (p = 4.25×10−6, OR = 1.17), located in intron 9 of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 locus (SATB1) on chromosome 3. The risk allele (G) was associated with higher mRNA expression of SATB1 (4.3×10−9) in lung tissue. Presence of CMH was associated with increased SATB1 mRNA expression in bronchial biopsies from COPD patients. SATB1 expression was induced during differentiation of primary human bronchial epithelial cells in culture. Conclusions Our findings, that SNP rs6577641 is associated with CMH in multiple cohorts and is a cis-eQTL for SATB1, together with our additional observation that SATB1 expression increases during epithelial differentiation provide suggestive evidence that SATB1 is a gene that affects CMH. PMID:24714607

  6. Electric properties of carbon nano-onion/polyaniline composites: a combined electric modulus and ac conductivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanassiou, Anthony N.; Mykhailiv, Olena; Echegoyen, Luis; Sakellis, Ilias; Plonska-Brzezinska, Marta E.

    2016-07-01

    The complex electric modulus and the ac conductivity of carbon nano-onion/polyaniline composites were studied from 1 mHz to 1 MHz at isothermal conditions ranging from 15 K to room temperature. The temperature dependence of the electric modulus and the dc conductivity analyses indicate a couple of hopping mechanisms. The distinction between thermally activated processes and the determination of cross-over temperature were achieved by exploring the temperature dependence of the fractional exponent of the dispersive ac conductivity and the bifurcation of the scaled ac conductivity isotherms. The results are analyzed by combining the granular metal model (inter-grain charge tunneling of extended electron states located within mesoscopic highly conducting polyaniline grains) and a 3D Mott variable range hopping model (phonon assisted tunneling within the carbon nano-onions and clusters).

  7. Inheritance patterns, dominance and cross-resistance of Cry1Ab- and Cry1Ac-selected Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiantao; He, Mingxia; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Wang, Zhenying; Edwards, Martin G; Li, Qing; He, Kanglai

    2014-09-11

    Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS) for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR) and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR) toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR) of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively), indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased.

  8. Inheritance Patterns, Dominance and Cross-Resistance of Cry1Ab- and Cry1Ac-Selected Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tiantao; He, Mingxia; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Wang, Zhenying; Edwards, Martin G.; Li, Qing; He, Kanglai

    2014-01-01

    Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS) for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR) and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR) toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR) of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively), indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased. PMID:25216083

  9. Inheritance patterns, dominance and cross-resistance of Cry1Ab- and Cry1Ac-selected Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiantao; He, Mingxia; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Wang, Zhenying; Edwards, Martin G; Li, Qing; He, Kanglai

    2014-09-01

    Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS) for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR) and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR) toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR) of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively), indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased. PMID:25216083

  10. RESPIRATORY DOSE TO SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS ASSESSED BY EXPOSURE AND DOSIMETRY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory Dose to Susceptible Populations Assessed by Exposure and Dosimetry Studies

    Chong Kim1 and Ronald Williams2, 1USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory and 2USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory, RTP, NC.

    Rationale: Parti...

  11. XPG Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility: A Two-Stage Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Rui-Xi; Zhuo, Zhen-Jian; Zhu, Jinhong; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Zhang, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Hong-Mei; Li, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Pei-Fen; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene polymorphisms may modulate colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. In this study, we performed a two-stage case-control study to comprehensively investigate the associations of five polymorphisms in the XPG gene with CRC risk in 1,901 cases and 1,976 controls from Southern China, including rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, rs2296147 T>C, rs1047768 T>C and rs873601 G>A. After combining data from two stages, we found that three of the studied polymorphisms (rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, and rs873601 G>A) were significantly associated with CRC susceptibility. After adjustment for age and gender, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that carriers of the rs2094258 T alleles had an increased CRC risk [CT vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.36; TT vs. CC: adjusted OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.18-1.89; TT vs. CT/CC: adjusted OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.10-1.72]. Likely, rs873601 A allele also conferred increased CRC susceptibility. In contrast, a protective association was identified between rs751402 C>T polymorphism and the risk of CRC. In summary, our results indicated that these three polymorphisms were found to associate with CRC susceptibility in a Southern Chinese population.

  12. [Recommendations for selecting antimicrobial agents for in vitro susceptibility studies using automatic and semiautomatic systems].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Baquero, Fernando; Calvo, Jorge; Campos, José; Castillo, Javier; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, M Angeles; Liñares, Josefina; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Marco, Francesc; Mirelis, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Torres, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. The majority of these systems determine MIC values using microdilution panels or specific cards, with grouping into clinical categories (susceptible, intermediate or resistant) and incorporate expert systems to infer resistance mechanisms. This document presents the recommendations of a group of experts designated by Grupo de Estudio de los Mecanismos de Acción y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (GEMARA, Study group on mechanisms of action and resistance to antimicrobial agents) and Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (MENSURA, Spanish Group for Normalizing Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance), with the aim of including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations for the susceptibility testing panels of automatic systems. The following have been defined: various antimicrobial categories (A: must be included in the study panel; B: inclusion is recommended; and C: inclusion is secondary, but may facilitate interpretative reading of the antibiogram) and groups (0: not used in therapeutics but may facilitate the detection of resistance mechanisms; 1: must be studied and always reported; 2: must be studied and selectively reported; 3: must be studied and reported at a second level; and 4: should be studied in urinary tract pathogens isolated in urine and other specimens). Recommended antimicrobial concentrations are adapted from the breakpoints established by EUCAST, CLSI and MENSURA. This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram.

  13. Probe imaging studies of magnetic susceptibility and permeability for sensitive characterisation of carbonate reservoir rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Bigaliyeva, Akmaral; Dubinin, Vladislav

    2016-04-01

    In this study were disclosed the main principals of identifying petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs such as porosity, permeability and magnetic susceptibility. While exploring and developing reservoir there are significant diversity of tasks that can be solved by appropriate knowledge of properties which are listed above. Behavior of fluid flow, distribution of hydrocarbons and other various industrial applications can be solved by measuring areal distribution of these petrophysical parameters. The results demonstrate how magnetic probe and hysteresis measurements correlate with petrophysical parameters in carbonate reservoirs. We made experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of how much magnetic susceptibility depends on the porosity of the rocks and analyzed data with graphics. In theoretical model of the carbonate rocks we considered calcite, dolomite, quartz and combinations of calcite and dolomite, calcite and Fe-dolomite, calcite and quartz, calcite and aragonite with increasing concentrations of the dolomite, Fe-dolomite, quartz and aragonite up to 50% with step of 5%. Here we defined dependence of magnetic susceptibility from the porosity: the higher porosity measurements, the less slope of magnetic susceptibility, consequently mass magnetization is higher for diamagnetic and lower for paramagnetic carbonate rocks, but in the both cases magnetic susceptibility tries to reach zero with increasing of the total porosity. Rock measurements demonstrate that reservoir zones of the low diamagnetic magnetic susceptibility are generally correlated with higher permeability and also porosity distribution. However for different carbonate reservoirs we establish different relationships depending on the complexity of their mineralogy and texture. Application of integral understanding in distribution of permeability, porosity and mineral content in heterogeneous carbonates represented by this approach can be useful tool for carbonate reservoir

  14. A genome-wide association study identifies PLCL2 and AP3D1-DOT1L-SF3A2 as new susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Megumi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ashikawa, Kyota; Miya, Fuyuki; Shigemizu, Daichi; Ozaki, Kouichi; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Nakatani, Daisaku; Suna, Shinichiro; Imai, Yasushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Matsuda, Koichi; Kadowaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Kubo, Michiaki

    2015-03-01

    Despite considerable progress in preventive and therapeutic strategies, myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world. A total of 55 susceptibility genes have been identified mostly in European genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Nevertheless, large-scale GWAS from other population could possibly find additional susceptibility loci. To identify as many MI susceptibility loci as possible, we performed a large-scale genomic analysis in Japanese population. To identify MI susceptibility loci in Japanese, we conducted a GWAS using 1666 cases and 3198 controls using the Illumina Human610-Quad BeadChip and HumanHap550v3 Genotyping BeadChip. We performed replication studies using a total of 11,412 cases and 28,397 controls in the Japanese population. Our study identified two novel susceptibility loci for MI: PLCL2 on chromosome 3p24.3 (rs4618210:A>G, P = 2.60 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) = 0.91) and AP3D1-DOT1L-SF3A2 on chromosome 19p13.3 (rs3803915:A>C, P = 3.84 × 10(-9), OR = 0.89). Besides, a total of 14 previously reported MI susceptibility loci were replicated in our study. In particular, we validated a strong association on chromosome 12q24 (rs3782886:A>G: P = 1.14 × 10(-14), OR = 1.46). Following pathway analysis using 265 genes related to MI or coronary artery disease, we found that these loci might be involved in the pathogenesis of MI via the promotion of atherosclerosis. In the present large-scale genomic analysis, we identified PLCL2 and AP3D1-DOT1L-SF3A2 as new susceptibility loci for MI in the Japanese population. Our findings will add novel findings for MI susceptibility loci.

  15. Susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates from hospitalised patients with respiratory tract infections (MOXIAKTIV Study).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Enno; Dalhoff, Axel; Korfmann, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine: (i) the prevalence of resistance in current clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae; (ii) the prevalence of production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and methicillin resistance in S. aureus; and (iii) regional differences in the prevalence of ESBL production and clonality of K. pneumoniae isolates. Pathogens causing respiratory tract infections in hospitalised patients were prospectively collected from all over Germany. Drugs tested by Etest included moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, clarithromycin and penicillin G. ESBL production by K. pneumoniae was determined using cefotaxime/ceftazidime +/- clavulanic acid. Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardisation)/European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (DIN/EUCAST) breakpoints were used where applicable. Overall, 1859 pathogens were analysed. For all species tested the fluoroquinolones achieved the highest overall susceptibility rate (92.8%) compared with clarithromycin (60.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (85.7%) and cefuroxime (89.6%). From 438 K. pneumoniae isolates, 13.0% produced an ESBL. The ESBL prevalence was 38.8% in Eastern Germany with a trend towards clonality in some centres, but ranged from 4.7% to 7.1% in Southern, Northern and Western Germany. Among the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, 10.1% were moxifloxacin- and levofloxacin-resistant. Of the S. pneumoniae isolates, 99.3% were moxifloxacin- and levofloxacin-susceptible, 93.9% were penicillin G-susceptible and 85.7% were clarithromycin-susceptible. With a MIC90 value (minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% of the isolates) of 0.19 mg/L, moxifloxacin was more potent than levofloxacin (MIC90 = 1 mg/L) against S. pneumoniae. Haemophilus influenzae and M. catarrhalis were almost 100% susceptible to the

  16. Superspin relaxation in Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluids: A dynamic susceptibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botez, Cristian E.; Morris, Joshua L.; Eastman, Michael P.

    2012-07-01

    We have used frequency-resolved (100 Hz < f < 10,000 Hz) ac magnetic susceptibility measurements to directly determine the Néel and Brown relaxation times in 30-nm-size Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluids at temperatures between 200 and 300 K. Our data collected on both powder and magnetic fluid samples allow the separation of the contributions from the Néel and Brown relaxation mechanisms that act concomitantly within the above-mentioned temperature range. At all temperatures we find that the Brown relaxation times (τB) are shorter than their Néel counterparts (τN), evidence that the Brown mechanism yields the major contribution towards the system's overall superspin dynamics. τB exhibits a steep two-order-of-magnitude decrease upon heating, from τB = 1 × 10-3 s at T = 237 K to τB = 1.5 × 10-5 s at T = 270 K, a behavior mostly driven by the heating-induced reduction of the liquid carrier's viscosity.

  17. A 52-week safety study in cynomolgus macaques for genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jie; Sun, Xing; Cheng, Jian-Hua; Shi, Yong-Jie; Wang, Xin-Zheng; Qin, Jun-Jie; Sang, Zhi-Hong; He, Kun; Xia, Qing

    2016-09-01

    A 52-week feeding study in cynomolgus macaques was carried out to evaluate the safety of Bt rice Huahui 1 (HH1), a transgenic rice line expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein. Monkeys were fed a diet with 20% or 60% HH1 rice, 20% or 60% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), normal diet, normal diet spiked with purified recombinant Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein or bovine serum albumin (BSA) respectively. During the feeding trail, clinical observations were conducted daily, and multiple parameters, including body weight, body temperature, electrocardiogram, hematology, blood biochemistry, serum metabolome and gut microbiome were examined at regular intervals. Upon sacrifice, the organs were weighted, and the macroscopic, microscopic and electron microscopic examinations were performed. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of Bt rice HH1 or Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein on monkeys. Therefore, the present 52-week primate feeding study suggests that the transgenic rice containing Cry 1Ab/1Ac is equivalent to its parental rice line MH63. PMID:27338709

  18. A 52-week safety study in cynomolgus macaques for genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jie; Sun, Xing; Cheng, Jian-Hua; Shi, Yong-Jie; Wang, Xin-Zheng; Qin, Jun-Jie; Sang, Zhi-Hong; He, Kun; Xia, Qing

    2016-09-01

    A 52-week feeding study in cynomolgus macaques was carried out to evaluate the safety of Bt rice Huahui 1 (HH1), a transgenic rice line expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein. Monkeys were fed a diet with 20% or 60% HH1 rice, 20% or 60% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), normal diet, normal diet spiked with purified recombinant Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein or bovine serum albumin (BSA) respectively. During the feeding trail, clinical observations were conducted daily, and multiple parameters, including body weight, body temperature, electrocardiogram, hematology, blood biochemistry, serum metabolome and gut microbiome were examined at regular intervals. Upon sacrifice, the organs were weighted, and the macroscopic, microscopic and electron microscopic examinations were performed. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of Bt rice HH1 or Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein on monkeys. Therefore, the present 52-week primate feeding study suggests that the transgenic rice containing Cry 1Ab/1Ac is equivalent to its parental rice line MH63.

  19. Biocompatible Silver-containing a-C:H and a-C coatings: AComparative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Endrino, Jose Luis; Allen, Matthew; Escobar Galindo, Ramon; Zhang, Hanshen; Anders, Andre; Albella, Jose Maria

    2007-04-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like-carbon (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings are known to be biocompatible and have good chemical inertness. For this reason, both of these materials are strong candidates to be used as a matrix that embeds metallic elements with antimicrobial effect. In this comparative study, we have incorporated silver into diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings by plasma based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D) using methane (CH4) plasma and simultaneously depositing Ag from a pulsed cathodic arc source. In addition, we have grown amorphous carbon - silver composite coatings using a dual-cathode pulsed filtered cathodic-arc (FCA) source. The silver atomic content of the deposited samples was analyzed using glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOES). In both cases, the arc pulse frequency of the silver cathode was adjusted in order to obtain samples with approximately 5 at.% of Ag. Surface hardness of the deposited films was analyzed using the nanoindentation technique. Cell viability for both a-C:H/Ag and a-C:/Ag samples deposited on 24-well tissue culture plates has been evaluated.

  20. Human aquaporin 4 gating dynamics in dc and ac electric fields: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garate, J.-A.; English, Niall J.; MacElroy, J. M. D.

    2011-02-01

    Water self-diffusion within human aquaporin 4 has been studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the absence and presence of external ac and dc electric fields. The computed diffusive (pd) and osmotic (pf) permeabilities under zero-field conditions are (0.718 ± 0.24) × 10-14 cm3 s-1 and (2.94 ± 0.47) × 10-14 cm3 s-1, respectively; our pf agrees with the experimental value of (1.50 ± 0.6) × 10-14 cm3 s-1. A gating mechanism has been proposed in which side-chain dynamics of residue H201, located in the selectivity filter, play an essential role. In addition, for nonequilibrium MD in external fields, it was found that water dipole orientation within the constriction region of the channel is affected by electric fields (e-fields) and that this governs the permeability. It was also found that the rate of side-chain flipping motion of residue H201 is increased in the presence of e-fields, which influences water conductivity further.

  1. AC Dielectric Properties and Positron Annihilation Study on Co and Ti Substitution Effect on Ca-Sr M-Hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, K. R.; Eraky, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    The dependence of AC conductivity σ AC, dielectric constant έ, and dielectric loss tangent tan δ on frequency and composition have been investigated at room temperature for polycrystalline Ca0.5Sr0.5Co x Ti x Fe12 - 2 x O19 (where 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) hexaferrites. It was found that the parameters σ AC, ɛ ', and tan δ have maximum values at x = 0.4 of the Co and Ti substitution. The behavior of σ AC, ɛ ', and tan δ with frequency and composition was explained on the basis of the hopping conduction mechanism and the Koops model. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to investigate the defects and changes in electron density for hexaferrite samples. The PAL parameters ( τ 1, I 1, τ 2, I 2, and mean lifetime) show that altering the doping percentage of the Co and Ti ions affects the size and concentration of defects. The results reveal that there are some large voids in the studied samples. The obtained results indicate the high sensitivity of the PALS technique to the enhanced structure changes with changing composition of the investigated samples and correlate the results with the measured electrical parameters.

  2. Peak effect in optimally doped p-type single-crystal Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 studied by ac magnetization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Gutierrez, J.; Li, J.; Yuan, J.; Wang, H.-B.; Yamaura, K.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2013-10-01

    We have used the ac magnetic susceptibility to investigate the vortex state in an optimally doped p-type Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 single crystal under various ac and dc fields. A peak effect is observed in the temperature dependence of the in-phase ac susceptibility, indicating an order-disorder transition on the vortex phase diagram. The peak effect displays an anomalous history effect compared with other type-II superconductors, which we ascribe to the strong pinning existing in the material. We observe the development of a small dissipation peak at the temperature Tp2 slightly below the peak effect region. Similar to the peak effect boundary, Tp2 delimits a region in the H-T phase diagram which is independent on the ac field amplitude. We argue that this small peak may arise from the softening of the vortex lattice, leading to a collective pinning of the whole vortex lattice. This effect assists and further enhances the peak effect occurring in the Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 superconductor.

  3. Interpretation of the Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Test for Amikacin: Report of a Collaborative Study

    PubMed Central

    Washington, John A.; Yu, Pauline K. W.; Gavan, Thomas L.; Schoenknecht, Fritz D.; Thornsberry, Clyde

    1979-01-01

    Because excessively high rates of false resistance have been encountered with the 10-μg amikacin disk in diffusion susceptibility tests, a study was performed to examine existing zone diameter interpretative criteria and to compare the accuracy of 10- and 30-μg amikacin disks by the error rate-bounded classification scheme. Although current zone diameter interpretative criteria eliminate false susceptibles, there is an unacceptably high rate of false resistants. This problem can be resolved in most instances by revising the zone diameter interpretative criteria for the 10-μg disk (resistant, ≤9 mm; indeterminate, 10 to 11 mm; susceptible, ≥12 mm) or, preferably, by replacing the 10-μg disk with a 30-μg disk and adopting new interpretative criteria (resistant, ≤14 mm; indeterminate, 15 to 16 mm; susceptible, ≥17 mm). Because of significant differences in performance among media, it is necessary to include Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 among controls routinely tested and to exclude from use lots of Mueller-Hinton agar yielding results outside the 75% tolerance (90% confidence) limits for amikacin. PMID:464567

  4. Study of the DEF Feedback Control System in AC Operation of Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Luo, Jiarong; Yuan, Qiping; Xu, Congdong

    2007-02-01

    AC operation with multiple full cycles has been successfully performed on the superconducting tokamak HT-7. In the experiment, it was discovered that the saturation of the transformer magnetic flux with DEF, a signal name, was one of key aspects that affected the AC operation. The conditions of DEF were examined through the DEF feedback control system. By controlling the working patterns of the subsystems, namely the poloidal field control system and density control system, it was guaranteed that DEF would remain in the non-saturated status.

  5. Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of AC power systems for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1991-01-01

    A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of the Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three phase, balanced, AC system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, AC systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20 kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

  6. Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of ac power systems for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. A.; Kankam, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three-phase, balanced, ac system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, ac systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20-kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of the present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

  7. Association Between P2RX7 Gene and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Susceptibility: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaobo; Yu, Jie; Han, Zhiyu; Cheng, Zhigang; Liang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of liver cancer. It is hypothesized that P2RX7 genetic polymorphisms have strong association with HCC susceptibility. Therefore, a case-control study was designed and performed to verify the association between P2RX7 gene polymorphisms and HCC susceptibility. Material/Methods A total of 646 subjects were recruited in our study, including 323 HCC patients and 323 healthy controls. Five gene polymorphisms, −762C>T (rs2393799), 946G>A (rs28360457), 1513A>C (rs3751143), 1068G>A (rs1718119), and 1096C>G (rs2230911), were selected. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to quantify the association between P2RX7 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to HCC. All tests were performed using SPSS 20 and a 2-sided P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Our results suggest that allelic frequencies of these 5 SNPs all conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). There was no significant difference in genotype and allele distributions of −762C>T and 1096C>G between the case group and the control group. However, an increased risk of HCC was associated with 946G>A (A vs. G: OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.09–2.01, P=0.013; GA+AA vs. GG: OR=1.46, 95%CI=1.03–2.07, P=0.033). A similar increased risk was associated with 1513A>C polymorphism (C vs. A: OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.05–1.79, P=0.021; AC+CC vs. AA: OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.01–1.93, P=0.041). On the other hand, a decreased risk of HCC was associated with gene polymorphism of 1068G>A (A vs. G: OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.51–0.91, P=0.010; GA+AA vs. GG: OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.49–0.96, P=0.027; AA vs. GG: OR=0.42, 95%CI=0.18–0.99, P=0.048). Conclusions Our results suggest that 3 of the 5 polymorphisms of P2RX7 described above (1513A>C, 946G>A, and 1068G>A) are significantly associated with HCC susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. Studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to confirm whether our results will

  8. Methodology for Elaborating Regional Susceptibility Maps of Slope Instability: the State of Guerrero (mexico) Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Huesca, A. E.; Ferrés, D.; Domínguez-M, L.

    2013-05-01

    Numerous cases of different types of slope instability occur every year in the mountain areas of México. Sometimes these instabilities severely affect the exposed communities, roads and infrastructure, causing deaths and serious material damage, mainly in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas, at the central and south sectors of the country. The occurrence of the slope instability is the result of the combination of climatic, geologic, hydrologic, geomorphologic and anthropogenic factors. The National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) is developing several projects in order to offer civil protection authorities of the Mexican states some methodologies to address the hazard assessment for different natural phenomena in a regional level. In this framework, during the past two years, a methodology was prepared to construct susceptibility maps for slope instability at regional (≤ 1:100 000) and national (≤ 1:1 000 000) levels. This research was addressed in accordance to the criteria established by the International Association of Engineering Geology, which is the highest international authority in this topic. The state of Guerrero has been taken as a pilot scheme to elaborate the susceptibility map for slope instability at a regional level. The major constraints considered in the methodology to calculate susceptibility are: a) the slope of the surface, b) the geology and c) the land use, which were integrated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The arithmetic sum and weighting factors to obtain the final susceptibility map were based on the average values calculated in the individual study of several cases of slope instability occurred in the state in the past decade. For each case, the evaluation format proposed by CENAPRED in 2006 in the "Guía Básica para la elaboración de Atlas Estatales y Municipales de Peligros y Riesgos" to evaluate instabilities in a local level, was applied. The resulting susceptibility map shows

  9. Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Giles, Graham G; Guy, Michelle; Severi, Gianluca; Muir, Kenneth; Hopper, John L; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Stanford, Janet L; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Daniel; Park, Jong Y; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith; Dickinson, Joanne L; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Dörk, Thilo; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Cooney, Kathleen A; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Chappuis, Pierre O; Hutter, Pierre; Zeegers, Maurice; Kaneva, Radka; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Foulkes, William D; English, Dallas R; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Morrison, Jonathan; Ardern-Jones, Audrey T; Hall, Amanda L; O'Brien, Lynne T; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Saunders, Edward J; Page, Elizabeth C; Sawyer, Emma J; Edwards, Stephen M; Dearnaley, David P; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A; Khoo, Vincent S; Parker, Christopher C; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J; Thompson, Alan; Christmas, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S; Southey, Melissa C; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Liu, Jo-Fen; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L; Auvinen, Anssi; Lewis, Sarah J; Cox, Angela; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Karyadi, Danielle M; Kwon, Erika M; Stern, Mariana C; Corral, Roman; Joshi, Amit D; Shahabi, Ahva; McDonnell, Shannon K; Sellers, Thomas A; Pow-Sang, Julio; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Gardiner, R A Frank; Batra, Jyotsna; Kedda, Mary Anne; Lose, Felicity; Polanowski, Andrea; Patterson, Briony; Serth, Jürgen; Meyer, Andreas; Luedeke, Manuel; Stefflova, Klara; Ray, Anna M; Lange, Ethan M; Farnham, Jim; Khan, Humera; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitkova, Atanaska; Cao, Guangwen; Easton, Douglas F

    2009-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common PrCa susceptibility alleles, we previously conducted a genome-wide association study in which 541,129 SNPs were genotyped in 1,854 PrCa cases with clinically detected disease and in 1,894 controls. We have now extended the study to evaluate promising associations in a second stage in which we genotyped 43,671 SNPs in 3,650 PrCa cases and 3,940 controls and in a third stage involving an additional 16,229 cases and 14,821 controls from 21 studies. In addition to replicating previous associations, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, 11 and 22 (with P = 1.6 x 10(-8) to P = 2.7 x 10(-33)). PMID:19767753

  10. Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Giles, Graham G; Guy, Michelle; Severi, Gianluca; Muir, Kenneth; Hopper, John L; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Stanford, Janet L; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Daniel; Park, Jong Y; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith; Dickinson, Joanne L; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Dörk, Thilo; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Cooney, Kathleen A; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Chappuis, Pierre O; Hutter, Pierre; Zeegers, Maurice; Kaneva, Radka; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Foulkes, William D; English, Dallas R; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Morrison, Jonathan; Ardern-Jones, Audrey T; Hall, Amanda L; O'Brien, Lynne T; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Saunders, Edward J; Page, Elizabeth C; Sawyer, Emma J; Edwards, Stephen M; Dearnaley, David P; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A; Khoo, Vincent S; Parker, Christopher C; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J; Thompson, Alan; Christmas, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S; Southey, Melissa C; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Liu, Jo-Fen; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L; Auvinen, Anssi; Lewis, Sarah J; Cox, Angela; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Karyadi, Danielle M; Kwon, Erika M; Stern, Mariana C; Corral, Roman; Joshi, Amit D; Shahabi, Ahva; McDonnell, Shannon K; Sellers, Thomas A; Pow-Sang, Julio; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Gardiner, R A Frank; Batra, Jyotsna; Kedda, Mary Anne; Lose, Felicity; Polanowski, Andrea; Patterson, Briony; Serth, Jürgen; Meyer, Andreas; Luedeke, Manuel; Stefflova, Klara; Ray, Anna M; Lange, Ethan M; Farnham, Jim; Khan, Humera; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitkova, Atanaska; Cao, Guangwen; Easton, Douglas F

    2009-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common PrCa susceptibility alleles, we previously conducted a genome-wide association study in which 541,129 SNPs were genotyped in 1,854 PrCa cases with clinically detected disease and in 1,894 controls. We have now extended the study to evaluate promising associations in a second stage in which we genotyped 43,671 SNPs in 3,650 PrCa cases and 3,940 controls and in a third stage involving an additional 16,229 cases and 14,821 controls from 21 studies. In addition to replicating previous associations, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, 11 and 22 (with P = 1.6 x 10(-8) to P = 2.7 x 10(-33)).

  11. Rodent models of cardiopulmonary disease: their potential applicability in studies of air pollutant susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, U P; Costa, D L; Bromberg, P A

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which increased mortality and morbidity occur in individuals with preexistent cardiopulmonary disease following acute episodes of air pollution are unknown. Studies involving air pollution effects on animal models of human cardiopulmonary diseases are both infrequent and difficult to interpret. Such models are, however, extensively used in studies of disease pathogenesis. Primarily they comprise those developed by genetic, pharmacologic, or surgical manipulations of the cardiopulmonary system. This review attempts a comprehensive description of rodent cardiopulmonary disease models in the context of their potential application to susceptibility studies of air pollutants regardless of whether the models have been previously used for such studies. The pulmonary disease models include bronchitis, emphysema, asthma/allergy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial fibrosis, and infection. The models of systemic hypertension and congestive heart failure include: those derived by genetics (spontaneously hypertensive, Dahl S. renin transgenic, and other rodent models); congestive heart failure models derived by surgical manipulations; viral myocarditis; and cardiomyopathy induced by adriamycin. The characteristic pathogenic features critical to understanding the susceptibility to inhaled toxicants are described. It is anticipated that this review will provide a ready reference for the selection of appropriate rodent models of cardiopulmonary diseases and identify not only their pathobiologic similarities and/or differences to humans but also their potential usefulness in susceptibility studies. Images Figure 2 PMID:9539009

  12. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. PMID:25843583

  13. Influences of Cry1Ac Broccoli on Larval Survival and Oviposition of Diamondback Moth

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. PMID:25843583

  14. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management.

  15. Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer identifies six new susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Schmit, Stephanie L.; Jiao, Shuo; Edlund, Christopher K.; Wang, Hansong; Zhang, Ben; Hsu, Li; Huang, Shu-Chen; Fischer, Christopher P.; Harju, John F.; Idos, Gregory E.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Manion, Frank J.; McDonnell, Kevin; McNeil, Caroline E.; Melas, Marilena; Rennert, Hedy S.; Shi, Wei; Thomas, Duncan C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Butterbach, Katja; Caan, Bette J.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Curtis, Keith R.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gala, Manish; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian; Hunter, David J.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Küry, Sébastien; LaCroix, Andrea; Laurie, Cathy C.; Laurie, Cecelia A.; Lemire, Mathieu; Levine, David; Ma, Jing; Makar, Karen W.; Qu, Conghui; Taverna, Darin; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Wu, Kana; Kono, Suminori; West, Dee W.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Campbell, Peter T.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Conti, David V.; Duggan, David; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Fortini, Barbara K.; Gallinger, Steven J.; Gauderman, W. James; Giles, Graham; Green, Roger; Haile, Robert; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jacobs, Eric; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jee, Sun Ha; Jenkins, Mark; Jia, Wei-Hua; Joshi, Amit; Li, Li; Lindor, Noralene M.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Newcomb, Polly A.; Potter, John D.; Raskin, Leon; Rennert, Gad; Rosse, Stephanie; Severi, Gianluca; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slattery, Martha L.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; White, Emily; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zanke, Brent W.; Zheng, Wei; Le Marchand, Loic; Casey, Graham; Gruber, Stephen B.; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is caused by rare pathogenic mutations and common genetic variants that contribute to familial risk. Here we report the results of a two-stage association study with 18,299 cases of colorectal cancer and 19,656 controls, with follow-up of the most statistically significant genetic loci in 4,725 cases and 9,969 controls from two Asian consortia. We describe six new susceptibility loci reaching a genome-wide threshold of P<5.0E-08. These findings provide additional insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of colorectal cancer and demonstrate the scientific value of large consortia-based genetic epidemiology studies. PMID:26151821

  16. Case-only exome sequencing and complex disease susceptibility gene discovery: study design considerations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lang; Schaid, Daniel J; Sicotte, Hugues; Wieben, Eric D; Li, Hu; Petersen, Gloria M

    2015-01-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify the potential aetiological role of rare functional variants in human complex diseases. Large-scale collaborations have generated germline WES data on patients with a number of diseases, especially cancer, but less often on healthy controls under the same sequencing procedures. These data can be a valuable resource for identifying new disease susceptibility loci if study designs are appropriately applied. This review describes suggested strategies and technical considerations when focusing on case-only study designs that use WES data in complex disease scenarios. These include variant filtering based on frequency and functionality, gene prioritisation, interrogation of different data types and targeted sequencing validation. We propose that if case-only WES designs were applied in an appropriate manner, new susceptibility genes containing rare variants for human complex diseases can be detected.

  17. Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer identifies six new susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schmit, Stephanie L; Jiao, Shuo; Edlund, Christopher K; Wang, Hansong; Zhang, Ben; Hsu, Li; Huang, Shu-Chen; Fischer, Christopher P; Harju, John F; Idos, Gregory E; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Manion, Frank J; McDonnell, Kevin; McNeil, Caroline E; Melas, Marilena; Rennert, Hedy S; Shi, Wei; Thomas, Duncan C; Van Den Berg, David J; Hutter, Carolyn M; Aragaki, Aaron K; Butterbach, Katja; Caan, Bette J; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Curtis, Keith R; Fuchs, Charles S; Gala, Manish; Giovannucc, Edward L; Giocannucci, Edward L; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Hayes, Richard B; Henderson, Brian; Hunter, David J; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Küry, Sébastien; Kury, Sebastian; LaCroix, Andrea; Laurie, Cathy C; Laurie, Cecelia A; Lemire, Mathieu; Lemire, Mathiew; Levine, David; Ma, Jing; Makar, Karen W; Qu, Conghui; Taverna, Darin; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wu, Kana; Kono, Suminori; West, Dee W; Berndt, Sonja I; Bezieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Campbell, Peter T; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Conti, David V; Duggan, David; Figueiredo, Jane C; Fortini, Barbara K; Gallinger, Steven J; Gauderman, W James; Giles, Graham; Green, Roger; Haile, Robert; Harrison, Tabitha A; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L; Hudson, Thomas J; Jacobs, Eric; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jee, Sun Ha; Jenkins, Mark; Jia, Wei-Hua; Joshi, Amit; Li, Li; Lindor, Noralene M; Matsuo, Keitaro; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Raskin, Leon; Rennert, Gad; Rosse, Stephanie; Severi, Gianluca; Schoen, Robert E; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slattery, Martha L; Tsugane, Shoichiro; White, Emily; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zanke, Brent W; Zheng, Wei; Le Marchand, Loic; Casey, Graham; Gruber, Stephen B; Peters, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is caused by rare pathogenic mutations and common genetic variants that contribute to familial risk. Here we report the results of a two-stage association study with 18,299 cases of colorectal cancer and 19,656 controls, with follow-up of the most statistically significant genetic loci in 4,725 cases and 9,969 controls from two Asian consortia. We describe six new susceptibility loci reaching a genome-wide threshold of P<5.0E-08. These findings provide additional insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of colorectal cancer and demonstrate the scientific value of large consortia-based genetic epidemiology studies.

  18. Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G.; Guy, Michelle; Severi, Gianluca; Muir, Kenneth; Hopper, John L.; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Daniel; Park, Jong Y.; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith; Dickinson, Joanne L.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Dörk, Thilo; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Chappuis, Pierre O.; Hutter, Pierre; Zeegers, Maurice; Kaneva, Radka; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Foulkes, William D.; English, Dallas R.; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Morrison, Jonathan; Ardern-Jones, Audrey T.; Hall, Amanda L.; O’Brien, Lynne T.; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Saunders, Edward J.; Page, Elizabeth C.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Edwards, Stephen M.; Dearnaley, David P.; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Parker, Christopher C.; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J.; Thompson, Alan; Christmas, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S.; Southey, Melissa C.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Liu, Jo-Fen; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Auvinen, Anssi; Lewis, Sarah J.; Cox, Angela; FitzGerald, Liesel M.; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Kwon, Erika M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Corral, Roman; Joshi, Amit D.; Shahabi, Ahva; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Sellers, Thomas A; Pow-Sang, Julio; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Gardiner, R.A. (Frank); Batra, Jyotsna; Kedda, Mary Anne; Lose, Felicity; Polanowski, Andrea; Patterson, Briony; Serth, Jürgen; Meyer, Andreas; Luedeke, Manuel; Stefflova, Klara; Ray, Anna M.; Lange, Ethan M.; Farnham, Jim; Khan, Humera; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitkova, Atanaska; Cao, Guangwen; Easton, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. To identify common PrCa susceptibility alleles, we have previously conducted a genome-wide association study in which 541, 129 SNPs were genotyped in 1,854 PrCa cases with clinically detected disease and 1,894 controls. We have now evaluated promising associations in a second stage, in which we genotyped 43,671 SNPs in 3,650 PrCa cases and 3,940 controls, and a third stage, involving an additional 16,229 cases and 14,821 controls from 21 studies. In addition to previously identified loci, we identified a further seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, 11, and 22 (P=1.6×10−8 to P=2.7×10−33). PMID:19767753

  19. Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis within Households: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Gilman, Robert H.; Martin, Laura; Soto, Esther; Castro, Beatriz; Lopez, Sonia; Coronel, Jorge; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Lopez, Virginia; San Miguel, Angela; Quispe, Neyda; Asencios, Luis; Dye, Christopher; Moore, David A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease. The fitness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) relative to drug-susceptible tuberculosis is cited as one of the most important determinants of MDRTB spread and epidemic size. To estimate the relative fitness of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, we compared the incidence of tuberculosis disease among the household contacts of MDRTB index patients to that among the contacts of drug-susceptible index patients. Methods and Findings This 3-y (2010–2013) prospective cohort household follow-up study in South Lima and Callao, Peru, measured the incidence of tuberculosis disease among 1,055 household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases and 2,362 household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index cases. A total of 35/1,055 (3.3%) household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases developed tuberculosis disease, while 114/2,362 (4.8%) household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index patients developed tuberculosis disease. The total follow-up time for drug-susceptible tuberculosis contacts was 2,620 person-years, while the total follow-up time for MDRTB contacts was 1,425 person-years. Using multivariate Cox regression to adjust for confounding variables including contact HIV status, contact age, socio-economic status, and index case sputum smear grade, the hazard ratio for tuberculosis disease among MDRTB household contacts was found to be half that for drug-susceptible contacts (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.90, p = 0.017). The inference of transmission in this study was limited by the lack of genotyping data for household contacts. Capturing incident disease only among household contacts may also limit the extrapolation of these findings to the community setting. Conclusions The low relative fitness of MDRTB estimated by this study improves the chances of controlling drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, fitter

  20. Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Toma, Luciano; Boccolini, Daniela; Romi, Roberto; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Rizzo, Caterina; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    We report a study on vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. albopictus was susceptible to ZIKV infection (infection rate: 10%), and the virus could disseminate and was secreted in the mosquito's saliva (dissemination rate: 29%; transmission rate: 29%) after an extrinsic incubation period of 11 days. The observed vector competence was lower than that of an Ae. aegypti colony tested in parallel.

  1. Polymorphic Regions in the Interleukin-1 Gene and Susceptibility to Chronic Periodontitis: A Genetic Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Lavu, Vamsi; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi; Lakkakula, Bhaskar Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya; Venugopal, Priyanka; Paul, Solomon Franklin Durairaj

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL1B (−511, +3954), IL1A (−889, +4845), and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) polymorphism in the IL-1RN gene with chronic periodontitis susceptibility and to analyze gene–gene interactions in a hospital-based sample population from South India. Subjects and Methods: A total of 400 individuals were recruited for this study; 200 individuals with healthy gingiva and 200 chronic periodontitis patients. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and genotyping was performed for the above-mentioned single nucleotide and VNTR polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: A higher proportion of the variant alleles were observed in the chronic periodontitis group for all the SNPs examined. The SNP at +3954 (C>T) in the IL1B gene was found to be significantly associated with chronic periodontitis (p=0.007). VNTR genotypes (χ2 value: 5.163, df=1, p=0.023) and alleles (χ2 value: 6.818, df=1, p=0.009) were found to have a significant association with chronic periodontitis susceptibility. Conclusion: In the study population examined, the SNP in the IL1B gene (+3954) and VNTR polymorphisms in the IL1RN gene were found to have a significant association with chronic periodontitis susceptibility. PMID:25710474

  2. First principles study of atomic-scale nanowires and dynamical transverse spin susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Liqin

    This dissertation includes two independent theoretical studies: (a) structure and electron transport in Au and Co nanowires by using the local-density approximation (LDA), and (b) studies of the dynamical transverse spin susceptibility in Fe, Ni, Co and FeSe. Ballistic conductance calculations of infinite zigzag chains of Co and Au, and multi-atom Au nanowires, were calculated within the Landauer-Buttiker formalism. The Co chain was spin polarized, and the majority spin channel exhibits quantized conductance. But because of the close spacing of Co d levels, the minority channel does not. In contrast, Au is not spin polarized, and shows well-behaved quantization. The deformation of an atomic Au wire placed between Au electrodes was investigated theoretically. It was found that the lowest phonon eigenstates are associated with lateral motion of atoms in the middle of the chain. Large displacements which resulted in wire breakage were studied, and the energy barrier associated with this process has been calculated. At certain stages of the wire breaking process, atomic fluctuations become very large, which results in an intrinsic conductance fluctuation, even at arbitrarily low temperature. The theoretical background and calculational formalism of the dynamical transverse spin susceptibility is presented in two approximations, the Rigid Spin Approximation (RSA) and the time-dependent LDA. The latter was implemented with a recently developed full product basis (FPB) method. In the RSA case, the exchange-correlation kernel is determined indirectly from a sum rule. The theory was applied to bcc-Fe, fcc-Ni, hcp-Co, and to FeSe in the Neel magnetic structure. In the FeSe case, intra-pocket and inter-pocket mechanisms were found to govern the low energy bare susceptibility. The enhanced susceptibility was found to consist of some admixture of Stoner excitations and spin wave parts.

  3. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, P; Belzile, F; Page, T; Dean, C

    1997-05-01

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity.

  4. Canadian multicenter laboratory study for standardized second-line antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meenu; Thibert, Louise; Chedore, Pamela; Shandro, Cary; Jamieson, Frances; Tyrrell, Gregory; Christianson, Sara; Soualhine, Hafid; Wolfe, Joyce

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a standardized protocol for second-line antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in Canadian laboratories. Four Canadian public health laboratories compared the susceptibility testing results of 9 second-line antimicrobials between the Bactec 460 and Bactec MGIT 960 systems. Based on the data generated, we have established that the Bactec MGIT 960 system provides results comparable to those obtained with the previous Bactec 460 method. The critical concentrations established for the testing of the antimicrobials used are as follows: amikacin, 1 μg/ml; capreomycin, 2.5 μg/ml; ethionamide, 5 μg/ml; kanamycin, 2.5 μg/ml; linezolid, 1 μg/ml; moxifloxacin, 0.25 μg/ml; ofloxacin, 2 μg/ml; p-aminosalicylic acid, 4 μg/ml; rifabutin, 0.5 μg/ml.

  5. [Cancer pharmacogenetics: study of genetically determined variations on cancer susceptibility due to xenobiotic exposure].

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Luis; Lee, Kuen; Varela F, Nelson; Escala, Mario; García, Karen; Godoy, Loreto; Castro, Andrés; Soto, Jorge; Saavedra, Iván; Cáceres, Dante

    2006-04-01

    Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetically determined variations in the response to drugs and toxic agents, and their implications on disease. Recently, the discipline has acquired great relevancy due to the development of non-invasive molecular techniques that identify genetic variants in human beings. There is also a need to explain the individual differences in susceptibility to drug actions and disease risk. Genetic variants can modify the magnitude of a pharmacologic effect, toxicity threshold, secondary effects and drug interactions. There are approximately thirty families of drug-metabolizing enzymes with genetic variants that cause functional alterations and variations in pharmacologic activity. We summarize the general knowledge about genetic variants of biotransformation enzymes, their relationship with cancer risk and the role of ethnicity. Cancer pharmacogenetics is another promising and exciting research area that will explain why people with an almost identical group of genes, have a different susceptibility to cancer, whose etiology has genetic and environmental components.

  6. Magnetic susceptibility of actinide(iii) cations: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Autillo, Matthieu; Guerin, Laetitia; Bolvin, Hélène; Moisy, Philippe; Berthon, Claude

    2016-03-01

    In a previous paper, the influence of radioactive decay (α and β(-)) on magnetic susceptibility measurements by the Evans method has been demonstrated by the study of two americium isotopes. To characterize more accurately this phenomenon and particularly its influence on the Curie law, a new study has been performed on two uranium isotopes ((238)U and (233)U) and on tritiated water ((3)H2O). The results on the influence of α emissions have established a relationship between changes in the temperature dependence and the radioactivity in solution. Regarding the β(-) emissions, less influence was observed while no temperature dependence linked to this kind of radioactive emission could be identified. Once magnetic susceptibility measurements of actinide(iii) cations were corrected from radioactivity effects, methods of quantum chemistry have been used on free ions and aquo complexes to calculate the electronic structure explaining the magnetic properties of Pu(iii), Am(iii) and Cm(iii). The ligand field effect on the magnetic behavior (the Curie constant and temperature-independent susceptibilities) was analyzed by considering different solvation environments. PMID:26864302

  7. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Campa, Daniele; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim; Gronberg, Henrik; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Thun, Michael J; Ingles, Sue; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius; Hayes, Richard B; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Pharoah, Paul; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Stanford, Janet L; Ostrander, Elaine A; Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Dörk, Thilo; Andriole, Gerald; Dickinson, Joanne L; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Gardiner, R A Frank; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Dan; John, Esther M; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Cooney, Kathleen A; Park, Jong Y; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Habuchi, Tomonori; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Kaneva, Radka; Muir, Ken; Benlloch, Sara; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Saunders, Edward J; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Guy, Michelle; O'Brien, Lynne T; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Hall, Amanda L; Sawyer, Emma J; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morrison, Jonathan; Dearnaley, David P; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A; Khoo, Vincent S; Parker, Christopher C; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J; Thompson, Alan; Christmas, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S; Lophatonanon, Aritaya; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Klarskov, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Røder, M Andreas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Bojesen, Stig E; Travis, Ruth; Canzian, Federico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Lindstrom, Sara; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan; Stern, Mariana C; Corral, Roman; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cox, Angela; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Fitzgerald, Liesel; Kolb, Suzanne; Kwon, Erika M; Karyadi, Danielle M; Orntoft, Torben Falck; Borre, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Serth, Jürgen; Yeager, Meredith; Berndt, Sonja I; Marthick, James R; Patterson, Briony; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Batra, Jyotsna; Lose, Felicity; McDonnell, Shannon K; Joshi, Amit D; Shahabi, Ahva; Rinckleb, Antje E; Ray, Ana; Sellers, Thomas A; Lin, Hui-Yi; Stephenson, Robert A; Farnham, James; Muller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Narita, Shintaro; Cao, Guang-Wen; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitev, Vanio; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2011-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of stage 3, in which we evaluated 1,536 SNPs in 4,574 individuals with prostate cancer (cases) and 4,164 controls. We followed up ten new association signals through genotyping in 51,311 samples in 30 studies from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. In addition to replicating previously reported loci, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2p11, 3q23, 3q26, 5p12, 6p21, 12q13 and Xq12 (P = 4.0 × 10(-8) to P = 2.7 × 10(-24)). We also identified a SNP in TERT more strongly associated with PrCa than that previously reported. More than 40 PrCa susceptibility loci, explaining ∼25% of the familial risk in this disease, have now been identified.

  8. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p<0.01; d>0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  9. Experimental approach for bacteriophage susceptibility testing of planktonic and sessile bacterial populations – Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Neguţ, Alina Cristina; Săndulescu, Oana; Popa, Marcela; Streinu-Cercel, Anca; Alavidze, Zemphira; Berciu, Ioana; Bleotu, Coralia; Popa, Mircea Ioan; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat for all clinical branches. This phenomenon poses important challenges in controlling infectious diseases. However, multidrug resistance is not the only issue, as bacteria that are otherwise susceptible to common antibiotics express other patterns for evading antibiotherapy, for example they can aggregate within a self-produced matrix to form biofilm. Methods We intend to perform a prospective laboratory study of the germs isolated from different samples collected from patients admitted with infectious pathology in reference hospitals in Romania. We will perform antibiotic resistance testing as well as phage testing, both on solid and liquid growth medium, for Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. We intend to collect data for 150 patients with different infections with these identified pathogens. Phage susceptibility testing will be performed using 5 types of strain-specific bacteriophage mixtures: PYO, INTESTI, STAPHYLOCOCCAL (Eliava BioPreparations, Tbilisi, Georgia), PHAGYO, PHAGESTI (JSC “Biochimpharm”, Tbilisi, Georgia). For phage-susceptible strains, we will evaluate biofilm formation in the presence of phages, as well as phage effect on already formed biofilm. Expected results Through this study, we intend to provide the first set of results on bacteriophage-susceptibility of bacteria isolated from patients with hard to treat infections, from reference hospitals in Romania. By evaluating a large number of bacterial strains we aim to predict and project biofilm kinetics, while adding binary phage dilutions at key timepoints during biofilm formation. Acknowledgments POSDRU/159/1.5/S/141531; Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Young Researchers Grant no. 28341/2013. PMID:25505742

  10. Study of the Dependency on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; denHartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; deKorte, P.; vanderKuur, J.; Linderman, M.; Adams, J.; Bailey, C.; Bandler, S.; Chervenak, J.; Eckart, M.; Finkbeiner, F.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; Porter, F.; Sadlier, J.; Smith, S.

    2012-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in an AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6 keV the pixel shows an x-ray energy resolution Delta E(sub FWHM) = 3.7 eV, which is about a factor 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in an identical DC-biased pixel. In order to better understand the reasons for this discrepancy we characterized the detector as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied perpendicular magnetic field. A strong periodic dependency of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recently observed weak-link behaviour of a TES microcalorimeter.

  11. Application of the A.C. Admittance technique to double layer studies on polycrystalline gold electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, W. R.; Kovacova, Zuzana; Motheo, Arthur J.; Foss, Colby A., Jr.

    1992-02-01

    A detailed examination of the dependence of the a.c. admittance of a cell containing a polycrystalline gold electrode has been made in the double layer region as a function of d.c. potential, a.c. frequency, and electrode history. It is shown that the interfacial impedance of a gold electrode with a carefully prepared surface can be treated under these circumstances as a constant phase element when it is in contact with an aqueous solution containing 0.05 M KClO4. Analysis of the frequency dependence of the cell impedance gives the surface inhomogeneity parameter n which turns out to be very close to unity. Although the electrode surface is only slightly inhomogeneous on a microscopic scale, a very large frequency dispersion of the impedance is observed experimentally. A method of estimating the true specific capacity of the electrode is presented, and conditions for carrying out the experiments in a reproducible manner are discussed.

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Harvind S.; Lin, Yuan; Ransohoff, Katherine J.; Hinds, David A.; Wu, Wenting; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Tang, Jean Y.; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7–11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2. We identify an additional four susceptibility loci: 11q23.3 CADM1, a metastasis suppressor gene involved in modifying tumour interaction with cell-mediated immunity; 2p22.3; 7p21.1 AHR, the dioxin receptor involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and melanoma progression; and 9q34.3 SEC16A, a putative oncogene with roles in secretion and cellular proliferation. These susceptibility loci provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27424798

  13. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Marshall, Katherine L; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Erdman, Matthew M; Kopral, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples collected on sheep operations in the United States. Another objective was to compare the use of composite fecal samples with fecal samples collected from individual sheep as a tool for screening sheep flocks for Salmonella. Sheep fecal samples (individual and composite) were collected on operations in 22 states. Salmonella isolates were characterized with regard to species, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Most operations (72.1%) had at least one positive sample and overall 26.9% of samples were positive. The percentage of positive samples varied by animal age class. Composite and individual samples gave similar results. The majority of the isolates (94%) were Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serotype 61:-:1,5,7. Nearly all of the isolates (91.2%) tested for antimicrobial susceptibility were susceptible to all antimicrobials in the panel. The findings suggest that salmonellae typically associated with foodborne disease transmission are infrequently found on sheep operations in the United States. PMID:26540254

  14. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Marshall, Katherine L; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Erdman, Matthew M; Kopral, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples collected on sheep operations in the United States. Another objective was to compare the use of composite fecal samples with fecal samples collected from individual sheep as a tool for screening sheep flocks for Salmonella. Sheep fecal samples (individual and composite) were collected on operations in 22 states. Salmonella isolates were characterized with regard to species, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Most operations (72.1%) had at least one positive sample and overall 26.9% of samples were positive. The percentage of positive samples varied by animal age class. Composite and individual samples gave similar results. The majority of the isolates (94%) were Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serotype 61:-:1,5,7. Nearly all of the isolates (91.2%) tested for antimicrobial susceptibility were susceptible to all antimicrobials in the panel. The findings suggest that salmonellae typically associated with foodborne disease transmission are infrequently found on sheep operations in the United States.

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Harvind S; Lin, Yuan; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Hinds, David A; Wu, Wenting; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Tang, Jean Y; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7-11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2. We identify an additional four susceptibility loci: 11q23.3 CADM1, a metastasis suppressor gene involved in modifying tumour interaction with cell-mediated immunity; 2p22.3; 7p21.1 AHR, the dioxin receptor involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and melanoma progression; and 9q34.3 SEC16A, a putative oncogene with roles in secretion and cellular proliferation. These susceptibility loci provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27424798

  16. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  17. Determining the involvement of two aminopeptidase Ns in the resistance of Plutella xylostella to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac: cloning and study of in vitro function.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wang, Ran; Yang, Zhongxia; Chen, Defeng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Mao, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-02-01

    The cloning, expression in vitro, and characterization of two aminopeptidase Ns (APN5s and APN2s) isolated from the midgut of Cry1Ac-resistant (R) and susceptible (S) strains of Plutella xylostella larvae are presented in this paper. The deduced amino acid sequences of APN5s included C-terminal GPI-modification sites, the gluzincin aminopeptidase motif GATEN, and three N-glycosylated sites; those of APN2s had no GPI-modification sites, had gluzincin aminopeptidase motif GAMEN, and had four N-glycosylated sites. O-glycosylated sites were not predicted for either APN. Because APN2R and APN2S cDNAs contained the same nucleotides, only full-length cDNAs encoding APN5R and APN5S were expressed in Trichoplusia ni cells. Far-Western blotting showed that the expressed receptor APN5 bound to the Cry1Ac toxin. An enzyme-specific activity experiment also showed that APN5 genes were expressed in T. ni cells. ELISA revealed no differences in the binding of expression proteins from the resistant and susceptible strain with Cry1Ac. PMID:22371317

  18. GIS-analysis of gully erosion susceptibility: a key study in north-central Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnesi, Valerio; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Maerker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    Erosion by water is responsible for severe geo-environmental problems in semi-humid to arid Mediterranean areas. Large sectors of Sicily are affected by intense soil erosion phenomena leading to severe damages in agriculture lands that, in some cases, experience high soil loss rates. An important contribution to sediment yield from these areas is given by gully erosion phenomena; the latter, in the last decades, attracted attention of many researches that developed and applied methods to quantify soil loss volumes and to evaluate proneness of territory to this process. The present research aims to assess gully erosion susceptibility in the basin of the San Giorgio torrent, a mountain stream flowing in north-central Sicily and draining an area of about 9.5 km2; the watershed, which is mainly covered by arable lands, has highly erodible slopes characterized by the outcropping of clays and marls. In order to predict gully erosion susceptibility, a multivariate geostatistical approach is adopted here. In particular, the method is based on the definition of spatial relationships between the geographical variability of a set of controlling factors and the occurrence of gullies on slopes; the linear density of gullies computed on homogeneous domains is selected as the probabilistic function expressing how proneness to gully erosion spatially changes in the studied area. Available thematic maps, which were integrated by field and remote surveys, and a high quality DEM, were used to derive eight layers of terrain variables, selected according to geomorphological criteria and expressing both soil erodibility (bedrock lithology, land use) and erosivity of flowing waters (slope angle, Stream Power Index, SL-factor, Topographic Wetness Index, plan and profile curvature). All the parameters were computed for homogeneous spatial domains, created by intersecting a grid of 50m square polygons and a layer of slope units automatically derived from DEM; therefore, the eight layers

  19. Bacteriological study of neonatal sepsis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, R K; Rai, S K; Khanal, L K; Manda, P K

    2013-03-01

    Bloodstream infections in neonates are life-threatening emergencies. Identification of the common bacteria causing such infections and their susceptibility patterns will provide necessary information for timely intervention. This study was done to determine the prevalence of neonatal septicaemia, identify the bacterial isolates and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital (NMCTH), Kathmandu, Nepal. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in NMCTH from July 2011 to January 2012. Blood culture of all neonates who were suspected for neonatal sepsis was performed. Bacterial isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done by standard microbiological method. Out of 120 neonates suspected of having neonatal sepsis, 30.8% (37/120) were blood culture positive (i.e. prevalence = 30.8%). The most common causative agents of neonatal sepsis was Staphylococcus aureus (56.8%; 21/37) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.7%; 8/37), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.4%; 5/37) and others. Neonatal sepsis was more frequent in male neonates (32.5%) while (26.5%) in female neonates in the ratio of 1.2:1 (p > 0.05). Neonatal sepsis was significantly higher (58.3%) in low birth weight (LBW) (< 2.5kg) neonates compared with good birth weight (GBW) (23.9%) (< 0.05). Prevalence was higher in preterm neonates (57.8%; 11/19) as compared with term-babies (25.7%) (P = 0.05). Generally, all of the isolates were sensitive to most of the antibiotics used as the first line drugs like amikacin, gentamicin, cefotaxime and ampicillin except Acinetobacter baumannii. This organisms was only sensitive towards cotrimoxazole, azithromicin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime.

  20. Association study confirms two susceptibility loci for breast cancer in Chinese Han women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minggui; Xu, Yihui; Chen, Mengyun; Li, Yang; Li, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Mingjun; Chen, Zhendong; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    To date, many loci associated with breast cancer have been identified through genome-wide association studies; most of these studies were conducted using populations of European descent. Thus, it is not clear whether these susceptibility loci are also risk factors for Chinese populations. We selected and genotyped 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the Sequenom iPLEX platform in a female Chinese cohort of 3036 breast cancer cases and 3036 healthy controls. A total of 23 SNPs passed the quality control test. The associations of these SNPs with disease susceptibility were assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for age. The Bonferroni correction was used to conservatively account for multiple testing, and the threshold for statistical significance was P < 2.17 × 10(-3) (0.05/23). We confirmed ten risk-associated variants within three reported breast cancer susceptibility loci in a Chinese Han population: 5q11.2 (rs16886181, P = 5.29 × 10(-6), OR = 1.19; rs1017226, P = 5.24 × 10(-4), OR = 1.22; rs16886034, P = 2.00 × 10(-3), OR = 1.21; rs16886113, P = 1.24 × 10(-3), OR = 1.20; rs16886364, P = 9.20 × 10(-4), OR = 1.21; rs16886397, P = 1.17 × 10(-3), OR = 1.20; rs16886448, P = 1.62 × 10(-3,)OR = 1.20; and rs2229882, P = 5.14 × 10(-4), OR = 1.31), 5q14.3 (rs421379, P = 2.83 × 10(-13), OR = 1.83), and 10q26.1 (rs35054928, P = 7.73 × 10(-6), OR = 1.18). The 10q26.1 locus was found to be a susceptibility locus for breast cancer in Chinese Han women in our previous studies. 5q11.2 and 5q14.3 are confirmed here for the first time as susceptibility loci for breast cancer in Chinese Han women. This study reports three breast cancer susceptibility loci that were previously identified in European populations and are also risk factors for Chinese populations. This study may extend the genetic basis of breast cancer in Chinese Han women and highlight the contribution of multiple variants

  1. Ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding studies of susceptible populations and individuals.

    PubMed

    Soskolne, C L

    1997-06-01

    Calls for professional accountability have resulted in the development of ethics guidelines by numerous specialty and subspecialty groups of scientists. Indeed, guidelines among some health professions now address vulnerable and dependent groups: but these are silent on issues related to biomarkers. In parallel, attention has been drawn to human rights concerns associated with attempts to detect hypersusceptible workers, especially in democratic countries. Despite this, concern for vulnerable populations grows as advances in biomarker technology make the identification of genetic predisposition and susceptibility markers of both exposure and outcome more attainable. In this article, the principles derived from the ethical theory of utilitarianism provide the basis for principle-based ethical analysis. In addition, the four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and social justice--are considered for biomarker studies. The need for a context in which ethical analysis is conducted and from which prevailing social values are shown to drive decisions of an ethical nature is emphasized; these include statutory regulation and law. Because biomarker studies can result in more harm than good, special precautions to inform research participants prior to any involvement in the use of biomarkers are needed. In addition, safeguards to maintain the privacy of data derived from biomarker studies must be developed and implemented prior to the application of these new technologies. Guidelines must be expanded to incorporate ethical, social, and legal considerations surrounding the introduction of new technologies for studying susceptible populations and individuals who may be vulnerable to environmental exposures.

  2. AFLP studies on downy-mildew-resistant and downy-mildew-susceptible genotypes of opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Mukesh K; Shasany, Ajit K; Dhawan, Om P; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2010-04-01

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens, is a serious disease in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which has a world-wide spread. The establishment of DM-resistant cultivars appears to be a sustainable way to control the In this paper, we present the results of a study aimed at the identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers for DM-resistance in opium poppy. Three opium poppy genotypes (inbred over about 10 years): Pps-1 (DM-resistant), Jawahar-16 (DM-susceptible) and H-9 (DM-susceptible) were crossed in a diallel manner and the F(1) progeny along with the parents were subjected to AFLP analysis of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear DNA with seven and nine EcoRI / MseI primer combinations, respectively. cpDNA AFLP analysis identified 24 Pps-1 (DM-resistant)-specific unique fragments that were found to be maternally inherited in both the crosses, Pps-1 x Jawahar-16 and Pps-1 x H-9. In the case of nuclear DNA AFLP analysis, it was found that 17 fragments inherited from Pps-1 were common to the reciprocal crosses of both (i) Pps-1 and Jawahar-16 as well as (ii) Pps-1 and H-9. This is the first molecular investigation on the identification of polymorphism between DM-resistant and DM-susceptible opium poppy genotypes and development of DM-resistant opium poppy genotypespecific AFLP markers. These AFLP markers could be used in future genetic studies for analysis of linkage to the downy mildew resistance trait.

  3. Association Study between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and the Susceptibility Genes Polymorphisms in Hui Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Lingxia; Shi, Yuhua; Zhao, Junli; Li, Tao; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders. Evidence of familial aggregation analysis and different clinical traits among different regions and ethnicities indicated that the pathogenesis of PCOS is associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. Our previous research had identified three susceptibility loci (rs2479106, DENND1A; rs13405728, LHCGR; rs13429458, THADA) for PCOS in Han Chinese women. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between three susceptibility gene polymorphisms and PCOS in Hui ethnic women. Methods 151 patients with PCOS (case group) and 99 healthy women (control group) were recruited from the Reproductive Medicine Center of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. Clinical data and serum hormone characteristics of case and control groups were collected and analyzed. The three susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been replicated in both case and control groups. Gene polymorphisms were detected by direct sequencing after polymerase chain reaction. Results The Body Mass Index, LH, LH/FSH ratio and total testosterone were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to control group (P<0.05). The frequencies of genotype and allele in rs13405728 were significantly different between the PCOS and the control groups (P<0.05). Of the SNP rs13405728, the PCOS cases with TT genotype stayed at a higher level of total testosterone, TG and LDL than those with the CC and CT genotypes. In contrary, there was no statistical difference between the two groups for SNP rs13429458 and rs2479106 (P>0.05). Conclusion The present study suggested that the SNP rs13405728 in the LHCGR gene was associated with PCOS in Hui ethnic women, and its TT genotype characterized with higher level of TT, TG and LDL. PMID:25978310

  4. Study of metal corrosion using ac impedance techniques in the STS launch environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    1989-01-01

    AC impedance measurements were performed to investigate the corrosion resistance of 19 alloys under conditions similar to the STS launch environment. The alloys were: Zirconium 702, Hastelloy C-22, Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-4, Inconel 600, 7Mo + N, Ferralium 255, Inco Alloy G-3, 20Cb-3, SS 904L, Inconel 825, SS 304LN, SS 316L, SS 317L, ES 2205, SS 304L, Hastelloy B-2, and Monel 400. AC impedance data were gathered for each alloy after one hour immersion time in each of the following three electrolyte solutions: 3.55 percent NaCl, 3.55 percent NaCl-0.1N HCl, and 3.55 percent NaCl-1.0N HCl. The data were analyzed qualitatively using the Nyquist plot and quantitatively using the Bode plot. Polarization resistance, Rp, values were obtained using the Bode plot. Zirconium 702 was the most corrosion resistant alloy in the three electrolytes. The ordering of the other alloys according the their resistance to corrosion varied as the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the electrolyte increased. The corrosion resistance of Zirconium 702 and Ferralium 255 increased as the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the electrolyte increased. The corrosion resistance of the other 17 alloys decreased as the concentration of the hyrdochloric acid in the electrolyte increased.

  5. Comparison of three patterns of feed supplementation with live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on postweaning diarrhea, health status, and blood metabolic profile of susceptible weaning pigs orally challenged with Escherichia coli F4ac.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, P; Colombo, M; Priori, D; Fontanesi, L; Galimberti, G; Calò, G; Motta, V; Latorre, R; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Pagotto, U; Gherpelli, Y; D'Inca, R; Bosi, P

    2015-05-01

    The development of effective feeding strategies to reduce the detrimental effect of enterotoxigenic F4ac (ETEC) plays a crucial role in reducing the occurrence of therapeutic intervention with antibiotics in livestock. The ability of CNCM I-4407 (SCC), supplied in different patterns to counteract ETEC infection in weaned pigs, was evaluated. Fifty pigs weaned at 24 d were then divided into 5 groups: control (CO), CO + colistin (AB), CO + 5 × 10(10) cfu of SCC/ kg feed, from d 0 to 21 (PR), CO + 5 × 10(10) cfu of SCC/ kg feed from d 7 to 11 (CM), and CO + 1 shot of 2 × 10(11) cfu of SCC when the first diarrhea appeared (CU). On d 7 postweaning, all the pigs were orally challenged with 10(8) cfu of ETEC. Blood samples were taken from the pigs (d 7, 8, 12, and 21) while the fecal excretion of ETEC was assessed on d 7 and 10. Fecal consistency was scored from 12 h before infection to 144 h postinfection (p.i.). On d 21, the pigs were sacrificed. The in vitro adhesion test on the intestinal villi confirmed individual susceptibility to ETEC, excluding the presence of resistant pigs. Growth performance did not differ between the treatments. Mortality was reduced in the AB group (P< 0.01) and, marginally, in the PR group (P = 0.089) when compared to the CO group. The CO group had a higher fecal score than AB in the period of observation (from P = 0.01 to P< 0.001). Yeast administration reduced the fecal score when compared to the CO group 12 and 48 h p.i. (P = 0.04). Total IgA never differed among the treatments, but the ETEC-specific IgA concentration was lower in the AB group than in CO (P = 0.04) at d 12. Four days p.i., the pigs fed live yeast had reduced ETEC excretion compared with the CO pigs (P = 0.05). Blood concentrations of dodecenoyl-L-carnitine (P < 0.01), glutaryl-L-carnitine/hydroxyhex¬anoyl-L-carnitine, phosphatidylcholine diacyl and phosphatidylcholine diacyl (P = 0.01 and P< 0.01, respectively), and α-amino adipic acid (P < 0.01) were reduced in the

  6. Re-evaluation of putative rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility genes in the post-genome wide association study era and hypothesis of a key pathway underlying susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Barton, Anne; Thomson, Wendy; Ke, Xiayi; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Bowes, John; Gibbons, Laura; Plant, Darren; Wilson, Anthony G; Marinou, Ioanna; Morgan, Ann; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Worthington, Jane

    2008-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an archetypal, common, complex autoimmune disease with both genetic and environmental contributions to disease aetiology. Two novel RA susceptibility loci have been reported from recent genome-wide and candidate gene association studies. We, therefore, investigated the evidence for association of the STAT4 and TRAF1/C5 loci with RA using imputed data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). No evidence for association of variants mapping to the TRAF1/C5 gene was detected in the 1860 RA cases and 2930 control samples tested in that study. Variants mapping to the STAT4 gene did show evidence for association (rs7574865, P = 0.04). Given the association of the TRAF1/C5 locus in two previous large case-control series from populations of European descent and the evidence for association of the STAT4 locus in the WTCCC study, single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to these loci were tested for association with RA in an independent UK series comprising DNA from >3000 cases with disease and >3000 controls and a combined analysis including the WTCCC data was undertaken. We confirm association of the STAT4 and the TRAF1/C5 loci with RA bringing to 5 the number of confirmed susceptibility loci. The effect sizes are less than those reported previously but are likely to be a more accurate reflection of the true effect size given the larger size of the cohort investigated in the current study.

  7. Neural network-based model for landslide susceptibility and soil longitudinal profile analyses: Two case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhzad, F.; Barari, A.; Choobbasti, A. J.; Ibsen, L. B.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to create an empirical model for assessing the landslide risk potential at Savadkouh Azad University, which is located in the rural surroundings of Savadkouh, about 5 km from the city of Pol-Sefid in northern Iran. The soil longitudinal profile of the city of Babol, located 25 km from the Caspian Sea, also was predicted with an artificial neural network (ANN). A multilayer perceptron neural network model was applied to the landslide area and was used to analyze specific elements in the study area that contributed to previous landsliding events. The ANN models were trained with geotechnical data obtained from an investigation of the study area. The quality of the modeling was improved further by the application of some controlling techniques involved in ANN. The observed >90% overall accuracy produced by the ANN technique in both cases is promising for future studies in landslide susceptibility zonation.

  8. The environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis susceptibility: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Shaygannejad, Vahid; Rezaie, Nooshin; Paknahad, Zamzam; Ashtari, Freshteh; Maghzi, Helia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and degenerating disease which involves central nervous system. Environmental risk factors have a key role in MS susceptibility. Here we aim to investigate different risk factors effect on MS susceptibility in a large population of MS patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional hospital-based study, which was conducted on a large group of MS patients registered in Kashani hospital and a control group from normal healthy population. Demographic data, age at onset of the disease, history of viral infections, vaccination, history of trauma to head, recent stressful events, alimentation, familial history, method of delivery (caesarean section, normal vaginal delivery), disability score and history of smoking were gathered using a designed questionnaire. Results: Totally 536 MS patient with the mean age of 34.37 ± 9.22 and 399 individuals from healthy population with the mean age of 32.53 ± 9.91 were recruited. Significant difference in history of measles infection (control = 15.5%, case = 22.4%, P = 0.009), consumption of dairy products (case = 56.6%, control = 67.5%, P = 0.01) and major stressful life events (case = 62.2%, control = 52.7%, P < 0.05) between these two groups were demonstrated. Conclusion: A significant relation between stress, history of infection and milk consumption was reached that highlights the importance of environmental risk factors in MS pathogenesis. PMID:27376037

  9. Study of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility on Central Chimei Fault, Coastal Range of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Chimei fault is the only major reverse fault across the entire Coastal Range and is also a typical lithology-contrast fault thrusting the volcanic Tuluanshan Formation of Miocene over the sedimentary Paliwan Formation of Pleistocene. To investigate the deformation pattern across the Chimei fault more precisely, we analyzed oriented coring samples of mudstone across the fault zone, damage zone, fold zone and wall rocks along the Hsiukuluan River via anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Prolate (cigar-shaped) and oblate (disc-shaped) ellipsoids appear together at fault zone, damage zone and fold zone, suggesting that strong variation of deformation and lithology in each zone of the Chimei fault. Previous study pointed out that oblate ellipsoid usually appears in the footwall, further indicating that the Chimei fault behaves differently from regular detachment faults. It strongly speculates although the central Chimei fault displays N-S shortening, the deformation is not strong enough to develop penetrative oblate fabric, even in the main fault zone of the Chimei fault. Further studies will be rnrformation is not sobear theequired to identify the magnetic carriers and grain size to improve current concept. Keywords : Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Coastal Range, Chimei Fault, Taiwan

  10. Upset susceptibility study employing circuit analysis and digital simulation. [digital systems and electromagnetic interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    An approach to predict the susceptibility of digital systems to signal disturbances is described. Electrical disturbances on a digital system's input and output lines can be induced by activities and conditions including static electricity, lightning discharge, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and electromagnetic pulsation (EMP). The electrical signal disturbances employed for the susceptibility study were limited to nondestructive levels, i.e., the system does not sustain partial or total physical damage and reset and/or reload brings the system to an operational status. The front-end transition from the electrical disturbances to the equivalent digital signals was accomplished by computer-aided circuit analysis. The super-sceptre (system for circuit evaluation of transient radiation effects) programs was used. Gate models were developed according to manufacturers' performance specifications and parameters resulting from construction processes characteristic of the technology. Digital simulation at the gate and functional level was employed to determine the impact of the abnormal signals on system performance and to study the propagation characteristics of these signals through the system architecture. Example results are included for an Intel 8080 processor configuration.

  11. [Study on the Character Relationship Between the Density and Susceptibility of the Rock and the Reflection Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-long; Yang, Chang-bao; Liu, Wan-song; Wu, Yan-gang; Zhang, Chen-xi

    2015-08-01

    It chooses 15 kinds of rock from the three major rock categories as the rock samples (the number of rock samples is 208) and obtains the density, susceptibility and reflection spectrum at the wave band of 350~2500 nm. It calculates the correlative coefficients with the aim of studying the characteristic relationship between the property (including the density and the susceptibility) of the rock and the reflectivity. It concludes the wave band of the reflection spectrum which owes the prospect to discuss the density and susceptibility of the rock qualitatively or quantitatively, meanwhile, it sums up the characteristic of the curves of the correlative coefficients. In this paper, the discussion and analysis based on the results show that the study on the character relationship between the property of rock (density and susceptibility) and the reflection spectrum is meaningful and workable.

  12. Landslide susceptibility mapping for rural development: Case studies and research findings from the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, J.; Petley, D. N.

    2003-04-01

    In 2002 landslides caused a reported 346 human fatalities in the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal. Over the last decade the total reported deaths due to landslides has exceeded 900. During the past 2-3 years in neighbouring Bhutan landslides have caused extensive damage to roads and other infrastructure, also leading to significant loss of life. Landslides, therefore, are major considerations in the siting of new infrastructure, the maintenance of existing facilities and the protection of rural communities and road users in the Himalayan region. Despite this, there is extremely limited information available on landslide hazards in the region, and the situation is a particular concern in Nepal and Bhutan. The Landslide Risk Assessment Project was established in 2000 to investigate cause-effect relationships in landslide occurrence and to develop simple techniques of landslide susceptibility mapping. A total of over 1300 landslides have been mapped from remote sensing and field surveys in six study areas in Nepal and Bhutan. GIS has been used to compare the spatial distribution of these landslides with a range of geological, terrain and land use factors. The research has shown that consistent relationships can be found between the location of landslides and rock type, geological structure, slope steepness and terrain classification. The results have positive implications for the assessment of landslide susceptibility for rural development planning in areas where limited data already exist.

  13. Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a novel susceptibility locus

    PubMed Central

    Radstake, Timothy R.D.J.; Gorlova, Olga; Rueda, Blanca; Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Coenen, Marieke J.; Vonk, Madelon C.; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Scheurwegh, Annemie J.; Broen, Jasper C.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van ‘t Slot, Ruben; Italiaander, Annet; Ophoff, Roel A.; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Hunzelmann, Nico; Simeon, Carmen P.; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; González-Gay, Miguel A.; González-Escribano, María F.; Airo, Paolo; van Laar, Jaap; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Hesselstrand, Roger; Smith, Vanessa; de Keyser, Filip; Houssiau, Fredric; Chee, Meng May; Madhok, R; Shiels, Paul; Westhovens, Rene; Kreuter, Alexander; Kiener, Hans; de Baere, Elfride; Witte, Torsten; Padykov, Leonid; Klareskog, Lars; Beretta, Lorenzo; Scorza, Rafaella; Lie, Benedicte A.; Hoffman-Vold, Anna-Maria; Carreira, P; Varga, J.; Hinchcliff, M.; Gregersen, Peter; Lee, Annette T.; Ying, Jun; Han, Younghun; Weng, Shih-Feng; Amos, Christopher I.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Hummers, Laura; Nelson, J. Lee; Agarwal, Sandeep K.; Assassi, Shervin; Gourh, Pravitt; Tan, Filemon K.; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Arnett, Frank C; Martin, Javier; Mayes, Maureen D.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs that leads to profound disability and premature death. To identify novel SSc susceptibility loci we conducted the first genome wide association study (GWAS) in a population of Caucasian ancestry including a total of 2296 SSc patients and 5171 controls. Analysis of 279,621 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed by replication testing in an independent case-control set of European ancestry (2,753 SSc patients / 4,569 controls) identified a new susceptibility locus for systemic sclerosis at CD247 (1q22-23; rs2056626, P = 2.09 × 10−7 in the discovery samples, P = 3.39 × 10−9 in the combined analysis). Additionally, we confirm and firmly establish the role of MHC (2.31 × 10−18), IRF5 (P =1.86 × 10−13) and STAT4 (P =3.37 × 10−9) gene regions as SSc genetic risk factors. PMID:20383147

  14. Multi-ethnic genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Cook, James P; Morris, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have traditionally been undertaken in homogeneous populations from the same ancestry group. However, with the increasing availability of GWAS in large-scale multi-ethnic cohorts, we have evaluated a framework for detecting association of genetic variants with complex traits, allowing for population structure, and developed a powerful test of heterogeneity in allelic effects between ancestry groups. We have applied the methodology to identify and characterise loci associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) using GWAS data from the Resource for Genetic Epidemiology on Adult Health and Aging, a large multi-ethnic population-based cohort, created for investigating the genetic and environmental basis of age-related diseases. We identified a novel locus for T2D susceptibility at genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8) that maps to TOMM40-APOE, a region previously implicated in lipid metabolism and Alzheimer's disease. We have also confirmed previous reports that single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the TCF7L2 locus demonstrate the greatest extent of heterogeneity in allelic effects between ethnic groups, with the lowest risk observed in populations of East Asian ancestry. PMID:27189021

  15. Antibiotic Susceptibility Evaluation of Group A Streptococcus Isolated from Children with Pharyngitis: A Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of Group A streptococcus (GAS) to antibiotics usually used in Iran for treatment of GAS pharyngitis in children. Materials and Methods From 2011 to 2013, children 3-15 years of age with acute tonsillopharyngitis who attended Mofid Children's Hospital clinics and emergency ward and did not meet the exclusion criteria were enrolled in a prospective study in a sequential manner. The isolates strains from throat culture were identified as GAS by colony morphology, gram staining, beta hemolysis on blood agar, sensitivity to bacitracin, a positive pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase (PYR) test result, and the presence of Lancefield A antigen determined by agglutination test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was identified by both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods. Results From 200 children enrolled in this study, 59 (30%) cases were culture positive for GAS. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G. The prevalence of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin resistance by broth dilution method was 33.9%, 57.6%, and 33.9%, respectively. Surprisingly, 8.4% of GAS strains were resistant to rifampin. In this study, 13.5% and 32.2% of the strains were resistant to clindamycin and ofloxacin, respectively. Conclusion The high rate of resistance of GAS to some antibiotics in this study should warn physicians, especially in Iran, to use antibiotics restrictedly and logically to prevent the rising of resistance rates in future. It also seems that continuous local surveillance is necessary to achieve the best therapeutic option for GAS treatment. PMID:26788405

  16. Common Variants Confer Susceptibility to Barrett's Esophagus: Insights from the First Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Palles, Claire; Findlay, John M; Tomlinson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Eight loci have been identified by the two genome-wide association studies of Barrett's esophagus that have been conducted to date. Esophageal adenocarcinoma cases were included in the second study following evidence that predisposing genetic variants for this cancer overlap with those for Barrett's esophagus. Genes with roles in embryonic development of the foregut are adjacent to 6 of the loci identified (FOXF1, BARX1, FOXP1, GDF7, TBX5, and ALDH1A2). An additional locus maps to a gene with known oncogenic potential (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1), but expression quantitative trait data implicates yet another gene involved in esophageal development (PBX4). These results strongly support a model whereby dysregulation of genes involved in esophageal and thoracic development increases susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma, probably by reducing anatomical antireflux mechanisms. An additional signal at 6p21 in the major histocompatibility complex also reinforces evidence that immune and inflammatory response to reflux is involved in the development of both diseases. All of the variants identified are intronic or intergenic rather than coding and are presumed to be or to mark regulatory variants. As with genome-wide association studies of other diseases, the functional variants at each locus are yet to be identified and the genes affected need confirming. In this chapter as well as discussing the biology behind each genome-wide association signal, we review the requirements for successfully conducting genome-wide association studies and discuss how progress in understanding the genetic variants that contribute to Barrett's esophagus/esophageal adenocarcinoma susceptibility compares to other cancers. PMID:27573776

  17. Comparative study on the susceptibility of freshwater species to copper-based pesticides.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Lopes, Renato Matos; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2004-07-01

    Copper compounds have been intentionally introduced into water bodies as aquatic plant herbicides, algicides and molluscicides. Copper-based fertilizers and fungicides have been widely used in agriculture as well. Despite the fact that copper is an essential element for all biota, elevated concentrations of this metal have been shown to affect a variety of aquatic organisms. Nonetheless, comparative studies on the susceptibility of different freshwater species to copper compounds have seldom been performed. This study was conducted to compare toxicity of copper-based pesticides (copper oxychloride, cuprous oxide and copper sulfate) to different freshwater target (Raphidocelis subcapitata, a planktonic alga and Biomphalaria glabrata, a snail) and non-target (Daphnia similis, a planktonic crustacean and Danio rerio, a fish) organisms. Test water parameters were as follows: pH = 7.4 +/- 0.1; hardness 44 +/- 1 mg/l as CaCO3; DO 8-9 mg/l at the beginning and > 4 mg/l at the end; temperature, fish and snails 25 +/- 1 degrees C, Daphnia 20 +/- 2 degrees C, algae 24 +/- 1 degrees C. D. similis (immobilization), 48-h EC50s (95% CLs) ranging from 0.013 (0.011-0.016) to 0.043 (0.033-0.057) mg Cu/l, and R. subcapitata (growth inhibition), 96-h IC50s from 0.071 (0.045-0.099) to 0.137 (0.090-0.174) mg Cu/l, were the most susceptible species. B. glabrata (lethality), 48-h LC50s from 0.179 (0.102-0.270) to 0.854 (0.553-1.457) mg Cu/l, and D. rerio (lethality), 48-h LC50s 0.063 (0.045-0.089), 0.192 (0.133-0.272) and 0.714 (0.494-1.016) mg Cu/l, were less susceptible than Daphnia to copper-based pesticides. Findings from the present study therefore suggest that increased levels of copper in water bodies is likely to adversely affect a variety of aquatic species. PMID:15183999

  18. Binding and Oligomerization of Modified and Native Bt Toxins in Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Ocelotl, Josue; Sánchez, Jorge; Arroyo, Raquel; García-Gómez, Blanca I.; Gómez, Isabel; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers. In this study, we evaluated how Bt toxin Cry1Ac and its genetically engineered counterpart Cry1AcMod interact with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant and susceptible larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm), a global pest of cotton. Compared with Cry1Ac, Cry1AcMod lacks 56 amino acids at the amino-terminus including helix α-1; previous work showed that Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in vitro without cadherin and killed P. gossypiella larvae harboring cadherin mutations linked with >1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Here we found that resistance to Cry1Ac was associated with reduced oligomer formation and insertion. In contrast, Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in BBMV from resistant larvae. These results confirm the role of cadherin in oligomerization of Cry1Ac in susceptible larvae and imply that forming oligomers without cadherin promotes toxicity of Cry1AcMod against resistant P. gossypiella larvae that have cadherin mutations. PMID:26633693

  19. Assessment of land degradation susceptibility by scenario analysis. A case study in Southern Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerker, Michael; Angeli, Luca; Bottai, Lorenzo; Innocenti, Lucia; Sicilliano, Giuseppina

    2010-05-01

    In the Mediterranean area land degradation phenomena are becoming more and more important due to future climate change and increasing climate variability as highlighted in recent global assessment projects such as the "Millennium Ecosystem Assessment" or "The Dialogue on water and Climate". Thus, there are consistent evidences that extreme events such as droughts and floods are more frequent than before. On the other hand the Mediterranean area is strongly influenced by human activities such as cultivations over hundreds of years. However, in the last decades the cultivation methods and techniques are subject to profound changes such as mechanization, use of fertilizer and pesticides, remodellation of entire hillslopes etc.. This particular situation leads to, and aggravates the existing stress on land resources. As a result, land degradation and soil erosion phenomena are leading to decreasing soil productivity or the loss of fertile top soil and related water quality and quantity issues. The aim of this paper is to assess land degradation sensitivity by scenario analysis. As a proxi for land degradation surface wash erosion processes such as rill-interill erosion processes are chosen. This present day processes are identified by aerial photo interpretation and subsequently modelled with a simple RUSLE approach on a monthly basis. In this study boundary conditions such as future precipitation were taken form the A2 future climate scenario published by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). Moreover, current landuse was identified from aerial photographs and future land use scenarios were developed considering ecological and socio-economical issues for present day conditions of the test area. Subsequently, the different climate and landuse scenarios were analysed to study soil erosion susceptibility on the landscape scale. The study shows that even with a decline in precipitation volume till 2070, in some

  20. Association between the −794 (CATT)5–8  MIF Gene Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Western Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Alvarado, Emmanuel; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Valle, Yeminia; Sandoval-Pinto, Elena; García-González, Ilian Janet; Valdez-Haro, Angélica; Flores-Salinas, Héctor Enrique; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorgé Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is related to the progression of atherosclerosis, which, in turn, is a key factor in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). MIF has a CATT short tandem repeat (STR) at position −794 that might be involved in its expression rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the −794 (CATT)5–8  MIF gene polymorphism and susceptibility to ACS in a western Mexican population. This research included 200 ACS patients classified according to the criteria of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and 200 healthy subjects (HS). The −794 (CATT)5–8  MIF gene polymorphism was analyzed using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The 6 allele was the most frequent in both groups (ACS: 54% and HS: 57%). The most common genotypes in ACS patients and HS were 6/7 and 6/6, respectively, and a significant association was found between the 6/7 genotype and susceptibility to ACS (68% versus 47% in ACS and HS, resp., P = 0.03). We conclude that the 6/7 genotype of the MIF −794 (CATT)5–8 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to ACS in a western Mexican population. PMID:25105152

  1. Association between the -794 (CATT)5-8  MIF gene polymorphism and susceptibility to acute coronary syndrome in a western Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Alvarado, Emmanuel; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Valle, Yeminia; Sandoval-Pinto, Elena; García-González, Ilian Janet; Valdez-Haro, Angélica; De la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises; Flores-Salinas, Héctor Enrique; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorgé Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is related to the progression of atherosclerosis, which, in turn, is a key factor in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). MIF has a CATT short tandem repeat (STR) at position -794 that might be involved in its expression rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the -794 (CATT)5-8  MIF gene polymorphism and susceptibility to ACS in a western Mexican population. This research included 200 ACS patients classified according to the criteria of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and 200 healthy subjects (HS). The -794 (CATT)5-8  MIF gene polymorphism was analyzed using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The 6 allele was the most frequent in both groups (ACS: 54% and HS: 57%). The most common genotypes in ACS patients and HS were 6/7 and 6/6, respectively, and a significant association was found between the 6/7 genotype and susceptibility to ACS (68% versus 47% in ACS and HS, resp., P = 0.03). We conclude that the 6/7 genotype of the MIF -794 (CATT)5-8 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to ACS in a western Mexican population.

  2. Preliminary Geological Maps of the Ac-H-10 Rongo and Ac-H-15 Zadeni Quadrangles: An integrated Mapping Study Using Dawn Spacecraft Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, T.; Nathues, A.; Crown, D. A.; Mest, S. C.; Williams, D. A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schäfer, M.; Sizemore, H. G.; Yingst, R. A.; Ruesch, O.; Buczkowski, D.; Kneissl, T.; Schmedemann, N.; Hughson, K.; Preusker, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    We used geologic mapping applied to Dawn spacecraft data as a tool to understand the geologic history of the Ac-H-10 Rongo and Ac-H-15 Zadeni quadrangles of dwarf planet Ceres. These regions, Rongo and Zadeni, are located between 22°S-22°N and 288°-360°E and 65-90°S and 0°-360°E, respectively. The Rongo Quadrangle hosts a number of features: 1) the southwest portion is dissected by curvilinear structures likely caused by Yalode basin formation; 2) the central part is marked by dome-like constructs up to 100 km across; 3) a peculiar bright, c.4 km tall, conical structure informally known as the 'pyramid'; 4) impact craters of various diameters appear moderately to highly degraded or are partially buried; and 5) bright material is primarily exposed in the central portion and often associated with craters. Rongo crater (68 km across) exhibits a central peak and scalloped walls indicative of its degraded appearance. The Zadeni Quadrangle is characterised by impact craters up to 130 km in diameter of which Zadeni crater is the largest. Impact craters across all sizes exhibit fresh to highly degraded morphologies or are partially buried. Many craters developed central peaks. Inter-crater plains are generally hummocky with isolated regions of smooth-textured surfaces. The south pole area (85-90°S) is poorly illuminated and may host a large impact structure. At the time of this writing geologic mapping was performed on Framing Camera (FC) mosaics from Approach (1.3 km/px) and Survey (415 m/px) orbits, including clear filter and colour images and digital terrain models derived from stereo images. In Fall 2015 images from the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (140 m/px) will be used to refine the mapping, followed by Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (35 m/px) starting in December 2015. Support of the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams is acknowledged. This work is supported by grants from NASA through the Dawn project, and from the German and Italian Space Agencies.

  3. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. A light and electron microscopic study of endomyocardial biopsy specimens from nine patients.

    PubMed

    Mambo, N C; Silver, M D; McLaughlin, P R; Huckell, V F; McEwan, P M; Britt, B A; Morch, J E

    1980-07-01

    Cardiomyopathy develops in some individuals who have a susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia. We studied right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy specimens from nine patients defined as having this disorder because of positive caffeine contracture tests on skeletal muscle biopsy specimens. Three patients had clinical evidence of cardiomyopathy and six did not. Light microscopy showed cytoplasmic contraction bands, perinuclear clearing, and a mild to moderate variation in myocyte and nuclear size. Ultrastructurally cytoplasmic contraction bands were associated with cardiac villi, myofiberlysis, and myofibrillolysis. These changes and occasional breaks in the sarcolemma were regarded as artefacts of the biopsy procedure. Megamitochondriosis with accompanying degenerative changes in the mitochondria were also seen and probably indicate increased cell metabolism; vacuolation of the cytoplasm was regarded as an "aging" phenomenon. Thus, the biopsy specimens were abnormal, but the changes were artefactual or nonspecific and were not unique to this group of patients. Biopsy did not provide a morphological explanation for abnormal cardiac function.

  4. Combining TMS and tACS for Closed-Loop Phase-Dependent Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Raco, Valerio; Bauer, Robert; Tharsan, Srikandarajah; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The corticospinal excitability indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the sensorimotor cortex is characterized by large variability. The instantaneous phase of cortical oscillations at the time of the stimulation has been suggested as a possible source of this variability. To explore this hypothesis, a specific phase needs to be targeted by TMS pulses with high temporal precision. Objective: The aim of this feasibility study was to introduce a methodology capable of exploring the effects of phase-dependent stimulation by the concurrent application of alternating current stimulation (tACS) and TMS. Method: We applied online calibration and closed-loop TMS to target four specific phases (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°) of simultaneous 20 Hz tACS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of seven healthy subjects. Result: The integrated stimulation system was capable of hitting the target phase with high precision (SD ± 2.05 ms, i.e., ± 14.45°) inducing phase-dependent MEP modulation with a phase lag (CI95% = −40.37° to −99.61°) which was stable across subjects (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The combination of different neuromodulation techniques facilitates highly specific brain state-dependent stimulation, and may constitute a valuable tool for exploring the physiological and therapeutic effect of phase-dependent stimulation, e.g., in the context of neurorehabilitation. PMID:27252625

  5. DNA fingerprinting and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical and environmental Acinetobacter baumannii isolates: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Salimizand, Himen; Menbari, Shaho; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Khonsha, Masomeh; Vahedi, Mohammad Saleh

    2014-11-21

    Backgrounds and aims: The aims of this study were to establish antibiotic profile and the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, with considering the effectiveness of control infection measures across three hospitals in the Kurdistan, west part of Iran. Methods: Fifty-four A. baumannii isolates were collected from patients and environmental specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns (Antibio-type) were evaluated for 17 different antibiotics and MIC for imipenem was done. Isolates were assessed for the presence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), class 1 and 2 integrons, and integrated gene cassettes and blaOXA-like family genes. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) was done for analysing clonality and relativeness of isolates (REP-type). Results: Antibiotic susceptibility patterns distinguished 11 distinct Antibio-types and REP-PCR showed three clusters with 20 subclusters, mostly belonged to two clonal subgroups, A1 and B1. blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 were detected in 100% (54/54) and 52% (28/54), respectively, while blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58 were not present in isolates. MBLs were not detected, but, however, high rate of imipenem resistance was observed (52%). MIC90 of imipenem was 16 μg/ml. Class 1 integrons were detected in 11% (6/54) of isolates followed by 24% (13/54) of class 2. Both classes of integron genes were detected in 15% (8/54) of isolates. Integrated gene cassettes were in low level (11% of class 1 harboring isolates). Two arrays of gene cassettes were revealed, dfrA5-like and dfrA17-aadA5. Conclusion: Infection control surveillance should be considered as a serious manner, even the superficial eradication of hospital acquired pathogens. MBL genes were not induced carbapenem resistance in studied hospital settings, but blaOXA-51 & 23 contributed in imipenem resistant. Integrons had a little share in resistance of A. baumannii isolates.

  6. Further Evidence of Subphenotype Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility Loci: A European Cases Only Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Perez, Elisa; Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Balada, Eva; Bijl, Marc; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; Witte, Torsten; Endreffy, Emöke; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Santos, Maria Jose; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Barizzone, Nadia; Pullmann, Rudolf; Ruzickova, Sarka; Lauwerys, Bernard R.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) shows a spectrum of clinical manifestations that complicate its diagnosis, treatment and research. This variability is likely related with environmental exposures and genetic factors among which known SLE susceptibility loci are prime candidates. The first published analyses seem to indicate that this is the case for some of them, but results are still inconclusive and we aimed to further explore this question. Methods European SLE patients, 1444, recruited at 17 centres from 10 countries were analyzed. Genotypes for 26 SLE associated SNPs were compared between patients with and without each of 11 clinical features: ten of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria (except ANAs) and age of disease onset. These analyses were adjusted for centre of recruitment, top ancestry informative markers, gender and time of follow-up. Overlap of samples with previous studies was excluded for assessing replication. Results There were three new associations: the SNPs in XKR6 and in FAM167A-BLK were associated with lupus nephritis (OR = 0.76 and 1.30, Pcorr = 0.007 and 0.03, respectively) and the SNP of MECP2, which is in chromosome X, with earlier age of disease onset in men. The previously reported association of STAT4 with early age of disease onset was replicated. Some other results were suggestive of the presence of additional associations. Together, the association signals provided support to some previous findings and to the characterization of lupus nephritis, autoantibodies and age of disease onset as the clinical features more associated with SLE loci. Conclusion Some of the SLE loci shape the disease phenotype in addition to increase susceptibility to SLE. This influence is more prominent for some clinical features than for others. However, results are only partially consistent between studies and subphenotype specific GWAS are needed to unravel their genetic component. PMID:23049788

  7. Differential Susceptibility to the Environment: Are Developmental Models Compatible with the Evidence from Twin Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-01-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic…

  8. The Psychosocial Experience of High School Girls Highly Susceptible to Stereotype Threat: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picho, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The author used phenomenology to explore the subjective experience of ninth-grade girls susceptible to mathematics-related stereotype threat in their authentic learning environments. The sample constituted students categorized as either having low or high susceptibility to stereotype threat (SST) enrolled in Honors mathematics classes at an urban…

  9. Spatial analysis for susceptibility of second-time karst sinkholes: A case study of Jili Village in Guangxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Yan, Hongbo; Chen, Kunhua; Zhang, Rongting

    2016-04-01

    After a big karst sinkhole happened in Jili Village of Guangxi, China, the local government was eager to quantitatively analyze and map susceptible areas of the potential second-time karst sinkholes in order to make timely decisions whether the residents living in the first-time sinkhole areas should move. For this reason, karst sinkholes susceptibility geospatial analysis is investigated using multivariate spatial data, logistic regression model (LRM) and Geographical Information System (GIS). Ten major karst sinkholes related factors, including (1) formation lithology, (2) soil structure, (3) profile curvature, (4) groundwater depth, (5) fluctuation of groundwater level, (6) percolation rate of soil, (7) degree of karst development, (8) distance from fault, (9) distance from the traffic route, and (10) overburden thickness were selected, and then each of factors was classified and quantitated with the three or four levels. The LRM was applied to evaluate which factor makes significant contributions to sinkhole. The results demonstrated that formation lithology, soil structure, profile curvature, groundwater depth, ground water level, percolation rate of soil, and degree of karst development, the distance from fault, and overburden thickness are positive, while one factor, the distance from traffic routes is negative, which is deleted from LRM model. The susceptibility of the potential sinkholes in the study area is estimated and mapped using the solved impact factors. The susceptible degrees of the study area are classified into five levels, very high, high, moderate, low, and ignore susceptibility. It has been found that that both very high and high susceptibility areas are along Datou Hill and the foothills of the study area. This finding is verified by field observations. With the investigations conducted in this paper, it can be concluded that the susceptibility maps produced in this paper are reliable and accurate, and useful as a reference for local

  10. Neural correlates of restrained eaters' high susceptibility to food cues: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Dong, Debo; Todd, Jackson; Du, Jie; Yang, Zhou; Lu, Hui; Chen, Hong

    2016-09-19

    Many studies have reported that specific susceptibility to food cues plays an important role in disordered eating behavior. However, whether restraint status modulates the neural bases of attentional bias to different types of food cues remains unknown. Thus, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted in individuals (12 restraint eaters, 12 unrestraint eaters) exposed to high/low-energy food and neutral images while performing a two-choice oddball task. The results indicated that restrained eaters responded more quickly to high-energy food images than to neutral and low-energy food images. More notably, compared with unrestrained eaters, restrained eaters showed faster reaction times, hyper-activation in a much wider array of reward (e.g., insula/orbitofrontal cortex), attention (superior frontal gyrus) and visual processing (e.g., superior temporal gyrus) regions, and hypo-activation in cognitive control areas (e.g., anterior cingulate) in response to high-energy food cues. Furthermore, among restrained eaters, the longest reaction times were found for low-energy food images, and activation of the attention and visual-related cortex (e.g., superior parietal gyrus) in the low-neutral contrast condition was significantly stronger than in unrestrained eaters. These findings contribute to our understanding of susceptibility to food cues: in addition to the special sensitivity (attentional bias) to high-energy food images, restrained eaters may also be more sensitive (allocate more attentional resources) to low-energy food images. These potential neural bases of restrained eaters may help clarify why dieting to lose or maintain weight is so often unsuccessful. PMID:27524674

  11. Study of Ac Dielectrophoretic Process of SiC Nanowires: A Universal Method for Alignment of Semiconductor Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yao, Limei; Cui, Yan; Cong, Haining; Zheng, Jinju; Shang, Minghui; Yang, Zuobao; Yang, Weiyou; Wei, Guodong; Gao, Fengmei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the dielectrophoretic processes of SiC nanowires suspended in three typical solvents, (highly purified water, ethanol and isopropanol) were systematically investigated. Optical microscope and SEM characterizations were used to observe the order of SiC nanowires on the surface of gold microchannels. The gold microchannels were induced by Ac dielectrophoresis of the corresponding dispersion solutions of SiC nanowires, with a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. The study shows that the dielectrophoresis process is an effective way of synthesizing highly oriented SiC nanoarrays using isopropanol solution. The results also show that the arrangement of SiC nanowires on the interdigital electrode configuration not only depend on the kind of solvent used, but also on the applied frequency (1000 Hz~1 MHz) and voltage (1 V~20 V). PMID:27451739

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectral study of [Mn(acs)2(2-pic)2(H2O)2] single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocakoç, Mehpeyker; Tapramaz, Recep

    2016-03-01

    Acesulfame potassium salt is a synthetic and non-caloric sweetener. It is also important chemically for its capability of being ligand in coordination compounds, because it can bind over Nitrogen and Oxygen atoms of carbonyl and sulfonyl groups and ring oxygen. Some acesulfame containing transition metal ion complexes with mixed ligands exhibit solvato and thermo chromic properties and these properties make them physically important. In this work single crystals of Mn+2 ion complex with mixed ligand, [Mn(acs)2(2-pic)2(H2O)2], was studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. EPR parameters were determined. Zero field splitting parameters indicated that the complex was highly symmetric. Variable temperature studies showed no detectable chance in spectra.

  13. Study of Ac Dielectrophoretic Process of SiC Nanowires: A Universal Method for Alignment of Semiconductor Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yao, Limei; Cui, Yan; Cong, Haining; Zheng, Jinju; Shang, Minghui; Yang, Zuobao; Yang, Weiyou; Wei, Guodong; Gao, Fengmei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the dielectrophoretic processes of SiC nanowires suspended in three typical solvents, (highly purified water, ethanol and isopropanol) were systematically investigated. Optical microscope and SEM characterizations were used to observe the order of SiC nanowires on the surface of gold microchannels. The gold microchannels were induced by Ac dielectrophoresis of the corresponding dispersion solutions of SiC nanowires, with a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. The study shows that the dielectrophoresis process is an effective way of synthesizing highly oriented SiC nanoarrays using isopropanol solution. The results also show that the arrangement of SiC nanowires on the interdigital electrode configuration not only depend on the kind of solvent used, but also on the applied frequency (1000 Hz~1 MHz) and voltage (1 V~20 V).

  14. Assessment of land degradation susceptibility by scenario analysis: A case study in Southern Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märker, Michael; Angeli, Luca; Bottai, Lorenzo; Costantini, Roberto; Ferrari, Raffaella; Innocenti, Lucia; Siciliano, Giuseppina

    2008-01-01

    -use scenarios were analysed to study soil erosion susceptibility on the landscape scale. The study shows that even with a decline in precipitation volume until 2070, in some months higher erosion rates occur due to higher rainfall erosivity. Furthermore, land-use changes play an important role for soil erosion susceptibility. As shown, the various scenarios can effectively reduce or enhance soil erosion.

  15. A Comparison Study of Single-Echo Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and Combined Multi-Echo Susceptibility Weighted Imaging in Visualizing Asymmetric Medullary Veins in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Qiu, Tiantian; Song, Ruirui; Jiaerken, Yerfan; Yang, Linglin; Wang, Shaoze

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymmetric medullary veins (AMV) are frequently observed in stroke patients and single-echo susceptibility weighted imaging (SWIs) is the main technique in detecting AMV. Our study aimed to investigate which echo time (TE) on single-echo susceptibility is the optimal echo for visualizing AMV and to compare the ability in detecting AMV in stroke patients between SWIs and multi-echo susceptibility weighted imaging (SWIc). Materials and Methods Twenty patients with middle cerebral artery stroke were included. SWI was acquired by using a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence with six echoes ranging from 5 ms to 35.240 ms. Three different echoes of SWIs including SWIs1 (TE = 23.144 ms), SWIs2 (TE = 29.192 ms) and SWIs3 (TE = 35.240 ms) were reconstructed. SWIc was averaged using the three echoes of SWIs. Image quality and venous contrast of medullary veins were compared between SWIs and SWIc using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), mean opinion score (MOS), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The presence of AMV was evaluated in each SWIs (1–3) and SWIc. Results SWIs2 had the highest PSNR, MOS and CNR and SWIs1 had the highest SNR among three different echoes of SWIs. No significant difference was found in SNR between SWIs1 and SWIs2. PSNR, MOS and CNR in SWIc were significantly increased by 27.9%, 28.2% and 17.2% compared with SWIs2 and SNR in SWIc was significantly increased by 32.4% compared with SWIs1. 55% of patients with AMV were detected in SWIs2, SWIs3 and SWIc, while 50% AMV were found in SWIs1. Conclusions SWIs using TE around 29ms was optimal in visualizing AMV. SWIc could improve image quality and venous contrast, but was equal to SWIs using a relative long TE in evaluating AMV. These results provide the technique basis for further research of AMV in stroke. PMID:27494171

  16. Magnetic fabric of selected loess/paleosol sections as studied by AMS, anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, M.; Hrouda, F.; Jezek, J.

    2015-12-01

    The preferred orientation of magnetic minerals in loess/paleosol sequencies can be studied through the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which can be above all employed in the investigation of the dynamics of the eolian deposition including the changes in paleowind directions. In addition, it can be used in the indication of the post-depositional magnetic fabric re-working, or in tracing the magnetic fabric changes during pedogenesis. Recently developed techniques using anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility (fdAMS) and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility (opAMS) can assess the magnetic sub-fabrics of viscous particles on transition between SP and SSD. The width of the particle size interval investigated by the fdAMS is controlled by the operating frequencies used and their differences. In case of opAMS, the interval is always narrower than that in fdAMS and depends also on the operating frequency used. In three loess/paleosol sequences investigated in the Czech Republic, the degrees of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are significantly lower in paleosols than in loess horizons. This indicates that the preferred orientation of magnetic particles created during pedogenesis is much weaker than that of the particles deposited during loess formation. In addition, the degrees of fdAMS and opAMS are much higher than that of AMS. This may indicate strong anisotropy of viscous magnetic particles, because the fdAMS and opAMS are primarily controlled by them. The degree of AMS of the whole rock is low due to compensation effects of SP and SSD particles, whose grain anisotropies are anti-coaxial. The principal directions of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are mostly roughly co-axial suggesting more or less identical origins of magnetic sub-fabrics according to grain size. Less frequently, the principal directions of fdAMS or opAMS differ from those of AMS probably indicating post-depositional effects on particular grain-size classes. The fdAMS and opAMS show as powerful

  17. Unsupervised multiparametric classification of dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging: study of the healthy brain.

    PubMed

    Artzi, M; Aizenstein, O; Hendler, T; Ben Bashat, D

    2011-06-01

    Characterization and quantification of magnetic resonance perfusion images is important for clinical interpretation, though this calls for a reproducible and accurate method of analysis and a robust healthy reference. The few studies which have examined the perfusion of the healthy brain using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging were largely limited to manual definition of the regions of interest (ROI) and results were dependent on the location of the ROI. The current study aimed to develop a methodology for DSC data analysis and to obtain reference values of healthy subjects. Twenty three healthy volunteers underwent DSC. An unsupervised multiparametric clustering method was applied to four perfusion parameters. Three clusters were defined and identified as: dura-blood-vessels, gray matter and white matter and their vascular characteristics were obtained. Additionally, regional perfusion differences were studied and revealed a prolonged mean transient time and a trend for higher vascularity in the posterior compared with the anterior and middle cerebral vascular territories. While additional studies are required to confirm our findings, this result may have important clinical implications. The proposed unsupervised multiparametric method enabled accurate tissue differentiation, is easy replicable and has a wide range of applications in both pathological and healthy brains.

  18. Single-ion anisotropy and exchange interactions in the cyano-bridged trimers MnIII2MIII(CN)6 (MIII = Co, Cr, Fe) species incorporating [Mn(5-Brsalen)]+ units: an inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility study.

    PubMed

    Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Sheptyakov, Denis; Keller, Lukas; Klokishner, Sophia I; Ostrovsky, Sergei M; Palii, Andrei V; Reu, Oleg S; Bendix, Jesper; Brock-Nannestad, Theis; Pedersen, Kasper; Weihe, Høgni; Mutka, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structures of the compounds K[(5-Brsalen)(2)(H(2)O)(2)-Mn(2)M(III)(CN)(6)].2H(2)O (M(III) = Co(III), Cr(III), Fe(III)) have been determined by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and magnetic susceptibility studies, revealing the manganese(III) single-ion anisotropy and exchange interactions that define the low-lying states of the Mn-M(III)-Mn trimeric units. Despite the presence of an antiferromagnetic intertrimer interaction, the experimental evidence supports the classification of both the Cr(III) and Fe(III) compounds as single-molecule magnets. The value of 17(2) cm(-1) established from AC susceptibility measurements for a spin-reversal barrier of K[(5-Brsalen)(2)(H(2)O)(2)-Mn(2)Cr(CN)(6)].2H(2)O may be readily rationalized in terms of the energy level diagram determined directly by INS. AC susceptibility measurements on samples of K[(5-Brsalen)(2)(H(2)O)(2)-Mn(2)Fe(CN)(6)].2H(2)O are contrary to those previously reported, exhibiting but the onset of peaks below temperatures of 1.8 K at oscillating frequencies in the range of 100-800 Hz. INS measurements reveal an anisotropic ferromagnetic manganese(III)-iron(III) exchange interaction, in accordance with theoretical expectations based on the unquenched orbital angular momentum of the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) anion, giving rise to an M(s) approximately +/-9/2 ground state, isolated by approximately 11.5 cm(-1) from the higher-lying levels. The reported INS and magnetic data should now serve as a benchmark against which theoretical models that aim to inter-relate the electronic and molecular structure of molecular magnets should be tested. PMID:19035636

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, Brian M; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kraft, Peter; Kooperberg, Charles; Petersen, Gloria M; Wang, Zhaoming; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige M; Buring, Julie; Canzian, Federico; Duell, Eric J; Gallinger, Steven; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Gary E; Goodman, Phyllis J; Jacobs, Eric J; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison P; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kulke, Matthew H; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Olson, Sara H; Risch, Harvey A; Sesso, Howard D; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Zheng, Wei; Abnet, Christian C; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Austin, Melissa A; Barfield, Richard; Basso, Daniela; Berndt, Sonja I; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Brotzman, Michelle; Büchler, Markus W; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Bugert, Peter; Burdette, Laurie; Campa, Daniele; Caporaso, Neil E; Capurso, Gabriele; Chung, Charles; Cotterchio, Michelle; Costello, Eithne; Elena, Joanne; Funel, Niccola; Gaziano, J Michael; Giese, Nathalia A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goggins, Michael; Gorman, Megan J; Gross, Myron; Haiman, Christopher A; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Henderson, Brian E; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hu, Nan; Hunter, David J; Innocenti, Federico; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Klein, Eric A; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krogh, Vittorio; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Landi, Maria T; Landi, Stefano; Le Marchand, Loic; Mambrini, Andrea; Mannisto, Satu; Milne, Roger L; Nakamura, Yusuke; Oberg, Ann L; Owzar, Kouros; Patel, Alpa V; Peeters, Petra H M; Peters, Ulrike; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Piepoli, Ada; Porta, Miquel; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Rothman, Nathaniel; Scarpa, Aldo; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Soucek, Pavel; Sund, Malin; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Taylor, Philip R; Theodoropoulos, George E; Thornquist, Mark; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vodicka, Pavel; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wu, Chen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hoover, Robert; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles; Chanock, Stephen J; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S; Amundadottir, Laufey T

    2014-09-01

    We performed a multistage genome-wide association study including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.84, P = 3.0 × 10(-12)), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.30-1.65, P = 1.1 × 10(-10)), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1, OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20, P = 2.4 × 10(-9)) and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3, OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.12-1.25, P = 1.2 × 10(-8)). We identified an independent signal in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098, OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.85, P = 9.8 × 10(-14)). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer that are worthy of follow-up studies. PMID:25086665

  20. Disentangling fetal and maternal susceptibility for pre-eclampsia: a British multicenter candidate-gene study.

    PubMed

    2005-07-01

    The Genetics of Pre-Eclampsia (GOPEC) collaboration aims to identify genetic factors in U.K. families affected by pre-eclampsia. A number of genetic studies have reported associations with pre-eclampsia, but attempts to replicate these findings have yielded inconsistent results. We describe the results of extensive genotyping of seven candidate genes previously reported as conferring susceptibility to pre-eclampsia. Six hundred fifty-seven women affected by pre-eclampsia and their families were genotyped at 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes encoding angiotensinogen, the angiotensin receptors, factor V Leiden variant, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, nitric oxide synthase, and TNFalpha. Genotypes were analyzed by the transmission/disequilibrium test. Genotype risk ratios (GRRs) associated with maternal genotypes had a range of 0.70-1.16; GRRs associated with fetal genotypes had a range of 0.72-1.11. No GRR achieved the prespecified criteria for statistical significance (posterior probability >.05). We conclude that none of the genetic variants tested in this large study of strictly defined pre-eclamptic pregnancies confers a high risk of disease. The results emphasize the importance of conducting rigorously designed studies of adequate size to provide precise genetic risks with narrow confidence intervals, if overreporting of false-positive results is to be avoided.

  1. The Association Study of Calmodulin 1 Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Zuchao; Qiu, Guixing

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common pediatric spinal deformity affecting 1% to 3% of the population, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for approximately 80% of these cases; however, the etiology and pathogenesis of AIS are still uncertain. The current study aims to identify the relationship between calmodulin 1 (CALM1) gene and AIS predisposition, to identify the relationship between the genotypes of the SNPs and the clinical phenotypes of AIS. Methods. 146 AIS patients and 146 healthy controls were enrolled into this case-control study. 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) candidates in CALM1 gene were selected to determine the relationship between CALM1 gene and AIS predisposition. Case-only study was performed to determine the effects of these variants on the severity of the condition. Results. Three SNPs from 12 candidates were found to be associated with AIS predisposition. The ORs were observed as 0.549 (95% CI 0.3519–0.8579, P = 0.0079), 0.549 (95% CI 0.3519–0.8579, P = 0.0079), and 1.6139 (95% CI 1.0576–2.4634, P = 0.0257) for rs2300496, rs2300500, and rs3231718, respectively. There was no statistical difference between main curve, severity, and genotype distributions of all of 12 SNPs. Conclusion. Genetic variants of CALM1 gene are associated with AIS susceptibility. PMID:24551838

  2. Genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction; a candidate-gene association study

    PubMed Central

    Levran, O.; Londono, D.; O’Hara, K.; Nielsen, D. A.; Peles, E.; Rotrosen, J.; Casadonte, P.; Linzy, S.; Randesi, M.; Ott, J.; Adelson, M.; Kreek, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify genetic variants that are associated with susceptibility to develop heroin addiction, by analyzing 1350 variants in 130 candidate genes. All subjects had Caucasian ancestry. The sample consisted of 412 former severe heroin addicts in methadone treatment, and 184 healthy controls with no history of drug abuse. Nine variants, in six genes, showed the lowest nominal P values in the association tests (P < 0.01). These variants were in non-coding regions of the genes encoding the mu (OPRM1; rs510769, rs3778151), kappa (OPRK1; rs6473797), and delta opioid receptors, (OPRD1; rs2236861, rs2236857 and rs3766951), the neuropeptide galanin (GAL; rs694066), the serotonin receptor subtype 3B (HTR3B; rs3758987) and the casein kinase 1 isoform epsilon (CSNK1E; rs1534891). Several haplotypes and multi-locus genotype patterns showed nominally significant associations (e.g. OPRM1; P = 0.0006 and CSNK1E; P = 0.0007). Analysis of a combined effect of OPRM1 and OPRD1 showed that rs510769 and rs2236861 increase the risk of heroin addiction (P = 0.0005). None of these associations remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. This study suggests the involvement of several genes and variants in heroin addiction that is worthy of future study. PMID:18518925

  3. Circadian Gene Variants and Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, M. Ann; Rees, Simon D.; Hydrie, M. Zafar I.; Shera, A. Samad; Bellary, Srikanth; O’Hare, J. Paul; Kumar, Sudhesh; Taheri, Shahrad; Basit, Abdul; Barnett, Anthony H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We present the results of a pilot study investigating the association between type 2 diabetes and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in/near nine circadian genes. The variants were chosen based on their previously reported association with prostate cancer, a disease that has been suggested to have a genetic link with type 2 diabetes through a number of shared inherited risk determinants. Methodology/Principal Findings The pilot study was performed using two genetically homogeneous Punjabi cohorts, one resident in the United Kingdom and one indigenous to Pakistan. Subjects with (N = 1732) and without (N = 1780) type 2 diabetes were genotyped for thirteen circadian variants using a competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method. Associations between the SNPs and type 2 diabetes were investigated using logistic regression. The results were also combined with in silico data from other South Asian datasets (SAT2D consortium) and white European cohorts (DIAGRAM+) using meta-analysis. The rs7602358G allele near PER2 was negatively associated with type 2 diabetes in our Punjabi cohorts (combined odds ratio [OR] = 0.75 [0.66–0.86], p = 3.18×10−5), while the BMAL1 rs11022775T allele was associated with an increased risk of the disease (combined OR = 1.22 [1.07–1.39], p = 0.003). Neither of these associations was replicated in the SAT2D or DIAGRAM+ datasets, however. Meta-analysis of all the cohorts identified disease associations with two variants, rs2292912 in CRY2 and rs12315175 near CRY1, although statistical significance was nominal (combined OR = 1.05 [1.01–1.08], p = 0.008 and OR = 0.95 [0.91–0.99], p = 0.015 respectively). Conclusions/significance None of the selected circadian gene

  4. Study on the Humidity Susceptibility of Thin-Film CIGS Absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Egaas, B.; To, B.; Jiang, C. S.; Li, J. V.; Glynn, S.; DeHart, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report summarizes the research on the susceptibility of a thermally co-evaporated CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film absorber to humidity and its consequence on composition, morphology, electrical and electronic properties, and device efficiency.

  5. The spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility applying artificial neural network and logistic regression models: A case study of Inje, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saro, Lee; Woo, Jeon Seong; Kwan-Young, Oh; Moung-Jin, Lee

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs) followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering forest, geophysical, soil and topographic data, was built on the study area using the Geographical Information System (GIS). These factors were analysed using artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression models to generate a landslide susceptibility map. The study validates the landslide susceptibility map by comparing them with landslide occurrence areas. The locations of landslide occurrence were divided randomly into a training set (50%) and a test set (50%). A training set analyse the landslide susceptibility map using the artificial network along with logistic regression models, and a test set was retained to validate the prediction map. The validation results revealed that the artificial neural network model (with an accuracy of 80.10%) was better at predicting landslides than the logistic regression model (with an accuracy of 77.05%). Of the weights used in the artificial neural network model, `slope' yielded the highest weight value (1.330), and `aspect' yielded the lowest value (1.000). This research applied two statistical analysis methods in a GIS and compared their results. Based on the findings, we were able to derive a more effective method for analyzing landslide susceptibility.

  6. The association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility: Evidence from 33 studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyi; Gao, Yisha; He, Jing; Cai, Jiao; Ta, Na; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Jinhong; Zheng, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant folate metabolism is closely related to tumorigenesis. Genetic variations in the Reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) may alter the progress of folate metabolism, and thereby cause the initiation and progress of the cancer. Considerable studies have performed to investigate the association between RFC1 G80A (rs1051266) polymorphism and cancer susceptibility, but the conclusions were conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to reevaluate the association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism with cancer risk. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies. The association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer risk was evaluated by the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The significant association was found between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and hematological malignance susceptibility (A vs. G: OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.003-1.23, P=0.045; GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.06-1.31, P=0.002; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.07-1.29, P=0.001). Stratified analysis by ethnicity indicated that the association became more prominent among Caucasians (GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.12-1.45, P<0.001; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.21, 95%CI=1.08-1.36, P=0.001). In term of the cancer type, this polymorphism significantly increased the risk of acute lymphoblast leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.001-1.28, P=0.048; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.13-1.46, P<0.001) and acute myeloid leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=2.57, 95%CI=1.37-4.85, P=0.003). No significant association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and overall solid cancer risk was observed, but a protective association with digestive cancer risk was found (GA vs. GG: OR=0.89, 95%CI= 0.81-0.99, P=0.030). The comprehensive meta-analysis encouraged the notion that RFC1 G80A polymorphism may play an important role in hematopoietic system malignance. These findings need further validation in the large multicenter investigations. PMID:26819637

  7. Association of Common Susceptibility Variants of Pancreatic Cancer in Higher-Risk Patients: A PACGENE Study.

    PubMed

    Childs, Erica J; Chaffee, Kari G; Gallinger, Steven; Syngal, Sapna; Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L; Bondy, Melissa L; Hruban, Ralph H; Chanock, Stephen J; Hoover, Robert N; Fuchs, Charles S; Rider, David N; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Wolpin, Brian M; Risch, Harvey A; Goggins, Michael G; Petersen, Gloria M; Klein, Alison P

    2016-07-01

    Individuals from pancreatic cancer families are at increased risk, not only of pancreatic cancer, but also of melanoma, breast, ovarian, and colon cancers. While some of the increased risk may be due to mutations in high-penetrance genes (i.e., BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, p16/CDKN2A or DNA mismatch repair genes), common genetic variants may also be involved. In a high-risk population of cases with either a family history of pancreatic cancer or early-onset pancreatic cancer (diagnosis before the age of 50 years), we examined the role of genetic variants previously associated with risk of pancreatic, breast, ovarian, or prostate cancer. We genotyped 985 cases (79 early-onset cases, 906 cases with a family history of pancreatic cancer) and 877 controls for 215,389 SNPs using the iSelect Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (iCOGS) array with custom content. Logistic regression was performed using a log-linear additive model. We replicated several previously reported pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci, including recently identified variants on 2p13.3 and 7p13 (2p13.3, rs1486134: OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63; P = 9.29 × 10(-4); 7p13, rs17688601: OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.93; P = 6.59 × 10(-3)). For the replicated loci, the magnitude of association observed in these high-risk patients was similar to that observed in studies of unselected patients. In addition to the established pancreatic cancer loci, we also found suggestive evidence of association (P < 5 × 10(-5)) to pancreatic cancer for SNPs at HDAC9 (7p21.1) and COL6A2 (21q22.3). Even in high-risk populations, common variants influence pancreatic cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1185-91. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197284

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies new prostate cancer susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Fredrick R; Berndt, Sonja I; Siddiq, Afshan; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Lindstrom, Sara; Stevens, Victoria L; Chen, Constance; Mondul, Alison M; Travis, Ruth C; Stram, Daniel O; Eeles, Rosalind A; Easton, Douglas F; Giles, Graham; Hopper, John L; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Muir, Kenneth; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Guy, Michelle; Severi, Gianluca; Grönberg, Henrik; Isaacs, William B; Karlsson, Robert; Wiklund, Fredrik; Xu, Jianfeng; Allen, Naomi E; Andriole, Gerald L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L; Johansson, Mattias; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Sieri, Sabina; Stattin, Pär; Stampfer, Meir J; Tjonneland, Anne; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vogel, Ulla; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Yeager, Meredith; Thun, Michael J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Albanes, Demetrius; Hayes, Richard B; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Riboli, Elio; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Kraft, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most common non-skin cancer diagnosed among males in developed countries and the second leading cause of cancer mortality, yet little is known regarding its etiology and factors that influence clinical outcome. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of PrCa have identified at least 30 distinct loci associated with small differences in risk. We conducted a GWAS in 2782 advanced PrCa cases (Gleason grade ≥ 8 or tumor stage C/D) and 4458 controls with 571 243 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Based on in silico replication of 4679 SNPs (Stage 1, P < 0.02) in two published GWAS with 7358 PrCa cases and 6732 controls, we identified a new susceptibility locus associated with overall PrCa risk at 2q37.3 (rs2292884, P= 4.3 × 10(-8)). We also confirmed a locus suggested by an earlier GWAS at 12q13 (rs902774, P= 8.6 × 10(-9)). The estimated per-allele odds ratios for these loci (1.14 for rs2292884 and 1.17 for rs902774) did not differ between advanced and non-advanced PrCa (case-only test for heterogeneity P= 0.72 and P= 0.61, respectively). Further studies will be needed to assess whether these or other loci are differentially associated with PrCa subtypes.

  9. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  10. Exploiting the Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility to Control Convection in Fundamental Studies of Solidification Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, C. D.; Evans, J. W.; Leslie, Fred; Jones, W. K., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that convection is a dominant mass transport mechanism when materials are solidified on Earth's surface. This convection is caused by gradients in density (and therefore gravitational force) that are brought about by gradients in temperature, composition or both. Diffusion of solute is therefore dwarfed by convection and the study of fundamental parameters, such as dendrite tip shape and growth velocity in the absence of convection is nearly impossible. Significant experimental work has therefore been carried out in orbiting laboratories with the intent of minimizing convection by minimizing gravity. One of the best known experiments of this kind is the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), supported by NASA. Naturally such experiments are costly and one objective of the present investigation is to develop an experimental method whereby convection can be- halted, in solidification and other experiments, on the surface. A second objective is to use the method to minimize convection resulting from the residual accelerations suffered by experiments in microgravity. The method to be used to minimize convection relies on the dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of a fluid on temperature or composition (whichever is driving convection). All materials experience a force when placed in a magnetic field gradient. The direction and magnitude of that force depend on the magnetic susceptibility of the material. Consequently the force will vary if the susceptibility varies with temperature or composition. With a magnetic field gradient in the right direction (typically upward) and of the right magnitude, this variation in the magnetic force can be made to exactly cancel the variation in the gravitational force. Expressed another way, normal buoyancy is exactly countered by a "magnetic buoyancy". To demonstrate the principle, a solution of MnC12 in water has been used. First the variation of the susceptibility of this paramagnetic solution with

  11. APN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac but not Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jizhen; Zhang, Min; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Guo, Yuyuan; Ni, Xinzhi; Li, Xianchun

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are phylogenetically divided into eight clusters, designated as APN1–8. Although APN1 has been implicated as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in several species, its potential role in the mode of action of Cry2Ab has not been functionally determined so far. To test whether APN1 also acts as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa zea and even for Cry2Ab in this species, we conducted a gain of function analysis by heterologously expressing H. zea APN1 (HzAPN1) in the midgut and fat body cell lines of H. zea and the ovarian cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and a loss of function analysis by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing of the endogenous APN1 in the three cell lines using the HzAPN1 double strand RNA (dsRNA). Heterologous expression of HzAPN1 significantly increased the susceptibility of the three cell lines to Cry1Ac, but had no effects on their susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Knocking down of the endogenous APN1 made the three cell lines resistant to Cry1Ac, but didn’t change cell lines susceptibility to Cry2Ab. The findings from this study demonstrate that HzAPN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but not Cry2Ab. PMID:26755166

  12. Susceptibility of limestone petrographic features to salt weathering: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Carlos; Figueiredo, Carlos; Maurício, António; Aires-Barros, Luís

    2013-10-01

    Salt weathering is a major erosive process affecting porous materials in buildings. There have been attempts to relate erosive mass loss to physical characteristics of materials, but in the case of natural stone it is necessary to consider the effect of petrographic features that are a source of heterogeneity. In this paper, we use scanning electron microscopy before and after salt weathering tests in cubic specimens of three limestone types (two grainstones and a travertine) in an attempt to built conceptual models that relate petrographic features and salt weathering susceptibility (represented by mass loss). In the grainstones, the most relevant feature in controlling salt weathering processes is the interface between micrite aggregates and sparry cement that constitute weakness surfaces and barriers to fluid migration. Given the small size of the heterogeneities in relation to the test sample dimension and their spatial distribution, the macroscopic erosive patterns are globally homogeneously distributed, affecting edges and corners. In the travertine specimens, there are macroheterogeneities related to the presence of detritic-rich portions that cause heterogeneous erosive patterns in the specimens. Petrological modeling helps to understand results of salt weathering tests, supporting field studies for natural stone selection. PMID:23702191

  13. Susceptibility of limestone petrographic features to salt weathering: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Carlos; Figueiredo, Carlos; Maurício, António; Aires-Barros, Luís

    2013-10-01

    Salt weathering is a major erosive process affecting porous materials in buildings. There have been attempts to relate erosive mass loss to physical characteristics of materials, but in the case of natural stone it is necessary to consider the effect of petrographic features that are a source of heterogeneity. In this paper, we use scanning electron microscopy before and after salt weathering tests in cubic specimens of three limestone types (two grainstones and a travertine) in an attempt to built conceptual models that relate petrographic features and salt weathering susceptibility (represented by mass loss). In the grainstones, the most relevant feature in controlling salt weathering processes is the interface between micrite aggregates and sparry cement that constitute weakness surfaces and barriers to fluid migration. Given the small size of the heterogeneities in relation to the test sample dimension and their spatial distribution, the macroscopic erosive patterns are globally homogeneously distributed, affecting edges and corners. In the travertine specimens, there are macroheterogeneities related to the presence of detritic-rich portions that cause heterogeneous erosive patterns in the specimens. Petrological modeling helps to understand results of salt weathering tests, supporting field studies for natural stone selection.

  14. Dense fine-mapping study identifies new susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jimmy Z; Almarri, Mohamed A; Gaffney, Daniel J; Mells, George F; Jostins, Luke; Cordell, Heather J; Ducker, Samantha J; Day, Darren B; Heneghan, Michael A; Neuberger, James M; Donaldson, Peter T; Bathgate, Andrew J; Burroughs, Andrew; Davies, Mervyn H; Jones, David E; Alexander, Graeme J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Sandford, Richard N; Anderson, Carl A

    2012-10-01

    We genotyped 2,861 cases of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) from the UK PBC Consortium and 8,514 UK population controls across 196,524 variants within 186 known autoimmune risk loci. We identified 3 loci newly associated with PBC (at P<5×10(-8)), increasing the number of known susceptibility loci to 25. The most associated variant at 19p12 is a low-frequency nonsynonymous SNP in TYK2, further implicating JAK-STAT and cytokine signaling in disease pathogenesis. An additional five loci contained nonsynonymous variants in high linkage disequilibrium (LD; r2>0.8) with the most associated variant at the locus. We found multiple independent common, low-frequency and rare variant association signals at five loci. Of the 26 independent non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) signals tagged on the Immunochip, 15 have SNPs in B-lymphoblastoid open chromatin regions in high LD (r2>0.8) with the most associated variant. This study shows how data from dense fine-mapping arrays coupled with functional genomic data can be used to identify candidate causal variants for functional follow-up.

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for glioma

    PubMed Central

    Kinnersley, Ben; Labussière, Marianne; Holroyd, Amy; Di Stefano, Anna-Luisa; Broderick, Peter; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Mokhtari, Karima; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Fleming, Sarah J.; Herms, Stefan; Heilmann, Stefanie; Schreiber, Stefan; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Nöthen, Markus M.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Lathrop, Mark; Simon, Matthias; Bondy, Melissa; Sanson, Marc; Houlston, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of glioma. To identify new glioma susceptibility loci, we conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS (totalling 4,147 cases and 7,435 controls), with imputation using 1000 Genomes and UK10K Project data as reference. After genotyping an additional 1,490 cases and 1,723 controls we identify new risk loci for glioblastoma (GBM) at 12q23.33 (rs3851634, near POLR3B, P=3.02 × 10−9) and non-GBM at 10q25.2 (rs11196067, near VTI1A, P=4.32 × 10−8), 11q23.2 (rs648044, near ZBTB16, P=6.26 × 10−11), 12q21.2 (rs12230172, P=7.53 × 10−11) and 15q24.2 (rs1801591, near ETFA, P=5.71 × 10−9). Our findings provide further insights into the genetic basis of the different glioma subtypes. PMID:26424050

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Chinese girls

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zezhang; Tang, Nelson Leung-Sang; Xu, Leilei; Qin, Xiaodong; Mao, Saihu; Song, Yueming; Liu, Limin; Li, Fangcai; Liu, Peng; Yi, Long; Chang, Jiang; Jiang, Long; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Shi, Benlong; Zhang, Wen; Qiao, Jun; Sun, Xu; Qiu, Xusheng; Wang, Zhou; Wang, Fei; Xie, Dingding; Chen, Ling; Chen, Zhonghui; Jin, Mengran; Han, Xiao; Hu, Zongshan; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Feng; Qian, Bang-ping; Yu, Yang; Wang, Bing; Lee, K. M.; Lee, Wayne Y.W.; Lam, T. P.; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural deformity of the spine affecting millions of children. As a complex disease, the genetic aetiology of AIS remains obscure. Here we report the results of a four-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a sample of 4,317 AIS patients and 6,016 controls. Overall, we identify three new susceptibility loci at 1p36.32 near AJAP1 (rs241215, Pcombined=2.95 × 10−9), 2q36.1 between PAX3 and EPHA4 (rs13398147, Pcombined=7.59 × 10−13) and 18q21.33 near BCL-2 (rs4940576, Pcombined=2.22 × 10−12). In addition, we refine a previously reported region associated with AIS at 10q24.32 (rs678741, Pcombined=9.68 × 10−37), which suggests LBX1AS1, encoding an antisense transcript of LBX1, might be a functional variant of AIS. This is the first GWAS investigating genetic variants associated with AIS in Chinese population, and the findings provide new insight into the multiple aetiological mechanisms of AIS. PMID:26394188

  17. A genome-wide association study identifies four novel susceptibility loci underlying inguinal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Eric; Makki, Nadja; Shen, Ling; Chen, David C.; Tian, Chao; Eckalbar, Walter L.; Hinds, David; Ahituv, Nadav; Avins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed operations in the world, yet little is known about the genetic mechanisms that predispose individuals to develop inguinal hernias. We perform a genome-wide association analysis of surgically confirmed inguinal hernias in 72,805 subjects (5,295 cases and 67,510 controls) and confirm top associations in an independent cohort of 92,444 subjects with self-reported hernia repair surgeries (9,701 cases and 82,743 controls). We identify four novel inguinal hernia susceptibility loci in the regions of EFEMP1, WT1, EBF2 and ADAMTS6. Moreover, we observe expression of all four genes in mouse connective tissue and network analyses show an important role for two of these genes (EFEMP1 and WT1) in connective tissue maintenance/homoeostasis. Our findings provide insight into the aetiology of hernia development and highlight genetic pathways for studies of hernia development and its treatment. PMID:26686553

  18. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; BARBOSA, Carolina Silveira; LEITE, Aline de Lima; CHANG, Sywe-Ren; LIU, Jun; CZAJKA-JAKUBOWSKA, Agata; CLARKSON, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain) or resistant (129P3/J strain) to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Material and Methods Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain) were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra) was measured. Results The mean (±SD) Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm) was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm) but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247). Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm) were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013) than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm). Conclusion Enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis. PMID:25025555

  19. An adapted Coffey model for studying susceptibility losses in interacting magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Osaci, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: Nanoparticles can be used in biomedical applications, such as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in tumor therapy or against cardiovascular diseases. Single-domain nanoparticles dissipate heat through susceptibility losses in two modes: Néel relaxation and Brownian relaxation. Results: Since a consistent theory for the Néel relaxation time that is applicable to systems of interacting nanoparticles has not yet been developed, we adapted the Coffey theoretical model for the Néel relaxation time in external magnetic fields in order to consider local dipolar magnetic fields. Then, we obtained the effective relaxation time. The effective relaxation time is further used for obtaining values of specific loss power (SLP) through linear response theory (LRT). A comparative analysis between our model and the discrete orientation model, more often used in literature, and a comparison with experimental data from literature have been carried out, in order to choose the optimal magnetic parameters of a nanoparticle system. Conclusion: In this way, we can study effects of the nanoparticle concentration on SLP in an acceptable range of frequencies and amplitudes of external magnetic fields for biomedical applications, especially for tumor therapy by magnetic hyperthermia. PMID:26665090

  20. A genome-wide association study identifies four novel susceptibility loci underlying inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Eric; Makki, Nadja; Shen, Ling; Chen, David C; Tian, Chao; Eckalbar, Walter L; Hinds, David; Ahituv, Nadav; Avins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed operations in the world, yet little is known about the genetic mechanisms that predispose individuals to develop inguinal hernias. We perform a genome-wide association analysis of surgically confirmed inguinal hernias in 72,805 subjects (5,295 cases and 67,510 controls) and confirm top associations in an independent cohort of 92,444 subjects with self-reported hernia repair surgeries (9,701 cases and 82,743 controls). We identify four novel inguinal hernia susceptibility loci in the regions of EFEMP1, WT1, EBF2 and ADAMTS6. Moreover, we observe expression of all four genes in mouse connective tissue and network analyses show an important role for two of these genes (EFEMP1 and WT1) in connective tissue maintenance/homoeostasis. Our findings provide insight into the aetiology of hernia development and highlight genetic pathways for studies of hernia development and its treatment. PMID:26686553

  1. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied.

  2. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied. PMID:25464308

  3. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-09-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors.

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kraft, Peter; Kooperberg, Charles; Petersen, Gloria M.; Wang, Zhaoming; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige M.; Buring, Julie; Canzian, Federico; Duell, Eric J.; Gallinger, Steven; Giles, Graham G.; Goodman, Gary E.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison P.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Sesso, Howard D.; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Zheng, Wei; Abnet, Christian C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Austin, Melissa A.; Barfield, Richard; Basso, Daniela; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Brotzman, Michelle; Büchler, Markus W.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Bugert, Peter; Burdette, Laurie; Campa, Daniele; Caporaso, Neil E.; Capurso, Gabriele; Chung, Charles; Cotterchio, Michelle; Costello, Eithne; Elena, Joanne; Funel, Niccola; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giese, Nathalia A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Gorman, Megan J.; Gross, Myron; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hu, Nan; Hunter, David J.; Innocenti, Federico; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Klein, Eric A.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krogh, Vittorio; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Landi, Maria T.; Landi, Stefano; Le Marchand, Loic; Mambrini, Andrea; Mannisto, Satu; Milne, Roger L.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Oberg, Ann L.; Owzar, Kouros; Patel, Alpa V.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Peters, Ulrike; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Piepoli, Ada; Porta, Miquel; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Rothman, Nathaniel; Scarpa, Aldo; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Soucek, Pavel; Sund, Malin; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Taylor, Philip R.; Theodoropoulos, George E.; Thornquist, Mark; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vodicka, Pavel; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wu, Chen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hoover, Robert; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT; per-allele odds ratio [OR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74–0.84; P = 3.0×10−12), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2; OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.30–1.65; P = 1.1×10−10), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1; OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.10–1.20; P = 2.4×10−9), and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3; OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.12–1.25; P = 1.2×10−8). An independent signal was identified in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098; OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.76–0.85; P = 9.8×10−14). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927; P = 1.3×10−7) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study has identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer worthy of follow-up studies. PMID:25086665

  5. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies New Susceptibility Loci for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Pingxing; Kranzler, Henry R.; Yang, Can; Zhao, Hongyu; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic factors influence the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a potentially chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder that can arise after exposure to trauma. Candidate gene association studies have identified few genetic variants that contribute to PTSD risk. Methods We conducted genome-wide association analyses in 1578 European Americans (EAs), including 300 PTSD cases, and 2766 African Americans, including 444 PTSD cases, to find novel common risk alleles for PTSD. We used the Illumina Omni1-Quad microarray, which yielded approximately 870,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) suitable for analysis. Results In EAs, we observed that one SNP on chromosome 7p12, rs406001, exceeded genome-wide significance (p = 3.97×10−8). A SNP that maps to the first intron of the Tolloid-Like 1 gene (TLL1) showed the second strongest evidence of association, although no SNPs at this locus reached genome-wide significance. We then tested six SNPs in an independent sample of nearly 2000 EAs and successfully replicated the association findings for two SNPs in the first intron of TLL1, rs6812849 and rs7691872, with p values of 6.3×10−6 and 2.3×10−4, respectively. In the combined sample, rs6812849 had a p value of 3.1 ×10−9. No significant signals were observed in the African American part of the sample. Genome-wide association study analyses restricted to trauma-exposed individuals yielded very similar results. Conclusions This study identified TLL1 as a new susceptibility gene for PTSD. PMID:23726511

  6. Genome-wide Association Study for Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility using Pooled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; deFazio, Anna; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergotes, Ignace; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Carney, Michael E.; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Leminen, Arto; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda; Earp, Madalene; Kelemen, Linda; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate or low penetrance variants exist among the subset of SNPs not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by the less dense arrays. However our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small effect variants. PMID:22794196

  7. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  8. Genetic Susceptibility to Dental Caries Differs between the Sexes: A Family-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W.; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience has been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although may be partly explained by the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family-based study (N=2,663; 740 families; ages 1–93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:25612913

  9. Vectorial transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: an experimental field study with susceptible and immunized hosts.

    PubMed

    Catala, S S; Gorla, D E; Basombrio, M A

    1992-07-01

    The dynamics of vectorial transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and the level of host (guinea pigs) protection after immunization with attenuated parasites (TCC strain) was studied under natural climatic conditions in an endemic region of northern Argentina. The experimental design included two guinea pig corrals isolated by mosquito netting. One (controls) had 17 healthy and susceptible adult guinea pigs. The other had 19 guinea pigs immunized with attenuated T. cruzi TCC strain. Each corral was colonized in April 1988 with equal-sized populations of Triatoma infestans naturally infected by T. cruzi. To evaluate relevant variables in the natural transmission of Chagas' disease, corrals were sampled in both winter and late spring to assess vector populations, and to carry out parasitologic studies on both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In both corrals, vector density decreased in winter and reached a maximum in the hot season. The vector infection rate was very high (greater than 50%) throughout the experiment. Vector infectivity increased with temperature and vector age, but did not differ between the experimental and control corrals. The vector-host contact rate showed a close relationship with temperature, although a very high vector density decreased this rate, even with high ambient temperatures. Initial infections by T. cruzi occurred among guinea pigs only during the hot season. Vectorial transmission risk was estimated from the total number of bug bites per day, the proportion of infected bugs, and the daily incidence in the guinea pig population. During the hot season, this risk was 6.84 x 10(-4) in the control group and 1.82 x 10(-4) in the immunized group. PMID:1636879

  10. Seven novel prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Frederico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim; Gronberg, Henrik; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Thun, Michael J; Ingles, Sue; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius; Hayes, Richard B; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Pharoah, Paul; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E.; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Dörk, Thilo; Andriole, Gerald; Dickinson, Joanne L.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Frank Gardiner, R. A.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Dan; John, Esther M.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Park, Jong Y.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Habuchi, Tomonori; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Kaneva, Radka; Muir, Ken; Benlloch, Sara; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Saunders, Edward J.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Guy, Michelle; O’Brien, Lynne T.; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Hall, Amanda L.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morrison, Jonathan; Dearnaley, David P.; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Parker, Christopher C.; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J.; Thompson, Alan; Christmas, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S.; Lophatonanon, Aritaya; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; English, Dallas; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo LJ; Klarskov, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Røder, M. Andreas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Bojesen, Stig E.; Travis, Ruth; Campa, Daniele; Kaaks, Rudolf; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Lindstrom, Sara; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan; Stern, Mariana C; Corral, Roman; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cox, Angela; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; FitzGerald, Liesel; Kolb, Suzanne; Kwon, Erika M.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Orntoft, Torben Falck; Borre, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Serth, Jürgen; Yeager, Meredith; Berndt, Sonja I.; Marthick, James R; Patterson, Briony; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Batra, Jyotsna; Lose, Felicity; McDonnell, Shannon K; Joshi, Amit D.; Shahabi, Ahva; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Ray, Ana; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lin, Huo-Yi; Stephenson, Robert A; Farnham, James; Muller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Narita, Shintaro; Cao, Guang-Wen; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitev, Vanio; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. To identify common PrCa susceptibility alleles, we conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for PrCa. Here we report the results of stage 3 in which we evaluated 1,536 SNPs in 4,574 cases and 4,164 controls. Ten novel association signals were followed up through genotyping in 51,311 samples in 30 studies through the international PRACTICAL consortium. In addition to previously reported loci, we identified a further seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2p, 3q, 5p, 6p, 12q and Xq (P=4.0 ×10−8 to P=2.7 ×10−24). We also identified a SNP in TERT more strongly associated with PrCa than that previously reported. More than 40 PrCa susceptibility loci, explaining ~25% of the familial risk in this disease, have now been identified. PMID:21743467

  11. Biochemical studies on strain differences of mice in the susceptibility to nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinose, T.; Suzuki, A.K.; Tsubone, H.; Sagai, M.

    1982-11-01

    Strain differences of mice in their susceptibility to nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) were examined by measuring the activities of antioxidative protective enzymes, and the amounts of antioxidants and lipid peroxides in lungs. Four strains of mice: ICR, BALB/c, ddy and C57BL/6 were used in this study and their LC/sub 50/ values after exposure to NO/sub 2/ for 16 hr were: 38, 49, 51 and 64 ppm, respectively. Genetic strain differences were observed in the enzyme activities, the antioxidant contents and lipid peroxide contents among these four different strains. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GP/sub x/), glutathione S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the contents of non-protein sulfyhdryls (NPSH), ..cap alpha..-tocopherol (..cap alpha..-Toc) and total lipids in lungs of the four strains were related to their LC/sub 50/, while TBA reactants in lungs of the four strains were inversely related to their LC/sub 50/. After exposure to 20 ppm NO/sub 2/ for 16 hr, the activities of the protective enzymes and the contents of NPSH decreased, while the level of ..cap alpha..-Toc increased markedly. The activities of GP/sub x/, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, SOD and disulfide reductase, and the contents of NPSH, ..cap alpha..-Toc and total lipids were also related to their LC/sub 50/. On the other hand, TBA reactants increased higher than those of the control groups and were inversely related to their LC/sub 50/. These results suggest that the protective enzymes and the antioxidants are important factors as defence mechanism in lungs to NO/sub 2/ and that the intensity of the protective systems in pigmented strains is generally greater than that in albino strains.

  12. Susceptibility of restorative materials to staining by common beverages: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Neveen M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the staining potential of glass-ionomer and composite resin restorative materials following immersion in common beverages. Nine tooth-colored restorative materials were used: three glass ionomers (ceramic-reinforced, resin-modified, and conventional) and six composite resins (nanofilled, ormocer-based, flowable ormocer-based, polyacid-modified, microhybrid, and flowable microhybrid). Disk-shaped specimens were prepared and immersed in 37 degrees C distilled water for 24 hours. Over a 2-week period, five specimens of each material were immersed daily in one of three test beverages (coffee, tea, or cola), then stored in distilled water. A control group of five specimens of each material was continuously immersed in distilled water during the test period. Color coefficients (CIE Lab) were measured by a spectrophotometer before and after staining. All materials were susceptible to staining by all test beverages, while distilled water caused no perceptible color change. As determined by ANOVA and Bonferroni tests, there were highly significant differences in the change in color (deltaE) for tested materials in different beverages (P < or = .001). The deltaE was significantly higher for coffee and tea than for cola; the deltaE was significantly higher for the polyacid-modified composite resin than for all other materials. The material with the least amount of color change in coffee and tea was the ceramic-reinforced glass ionomer (deltaE = 12.45 and 10.64, respectively) and in cola was the nanofilled composite resin (deltaE = 1.93).

  13. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Five Susceptibility Loci for Follicular Lymphoma outside the HLA Region

    PubMed Central

    Skibola, Christine F.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Conde, Lucia; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Foo, Jia-Nee; Bracci, Paige M.; Vermeulen, Roel C.H.; Slager, Susan L.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Wang, Sophia S.; Linet, Martha S.; Salles, Gilles; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Lightfoot, Tracy; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Ghesquières, Hervé; Link, Brian K.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Alex; Tinker, Lesley F.; Teras, Lauren R.; Kricker, Anne; Becker, Nikolaus; Purdue, Mark P.; Spinelli, John J.; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G.; Vineis, Paolo; Monnereau, Alain; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Gabbas, Attilio; Chung, Charles C.; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Liang, Liming; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Liu, Jianjun; Adami, Hans-Olov; Glimelius, Bengt; Ye, Yuanqing; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Dogan, Ahmet; Thompson, Carrie A.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Novak, Anne J.; Liebow, Mark; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cozen, Wendy; Zhi, Degui; Akers, Nicholas K.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Lacher, Mortimer; Villano, Danylo J.; Maria, Ann; Roman, Eve; Kane, Eleanor; Jackson, Rebecca D.; North, Kari E.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Jenny; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; McKay, James; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Chamosa, Saioa; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kelly, Rachel S.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Travis, Ruth C.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Clavel, Jacqueline; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Virtamo, Jarmo; Mazza, Patrizio; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Chiu, Brian C.H.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Nieters, Alexandra; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; Cerhan, James R.; Smedby, Karin E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European ancestry. Five non-HLA loci were associated with FL risk: 11q23.3 (rs4938573, p = 5.79 × 10−20) near CXCR5; 11q24.3 (rs4937362, p = 6.76 × 10−11) near ETS1; 3q28 (rs6444305, p = 1.10 × 10−10) in LPP; 18q21.33 (rs17749561, p = 8.28 × 10−10) near BCL2; and 8q24.21 (rs13254990, p = 1.06 × 10−8) near PVT1. In an analysis of the HLA region, we identified four linked HLA-DRβ1 multiallelic amino acids at positions 11, 13, 28, and 30 that were associated with FL risk (pomnibus = 4.20 × 10−67 to 2.67 × 10−70). Additional independent signals included rs17203612 in HLA class II (odds ratio [ORper-allele] = 1.44; p = 4.59 × 10−16) and rs3130437 in HLA class I (ORper-allele = 1.23; p = 8.23 × 10−9). Our findings further expand the number of loci associated with FL and provide evidence that multiple common variants outside the HLA region make a significant contribution to FL risk. PMID:25279986

  14. Corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution: AC impedance study and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrini, M.; Fontaine, G.; Gengembre, L.; Traisnel, M.; Lerasle, O.; Genet, N.

    2008-08-01

    The efficiency of a new triazole derivative, namely, 2-{(2-hydroxyethyl)[(4-methyl-1 H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amino}ethanol (TTA) has been studied for corrosion inhibition of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution. Corrosion inhibition was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These studies have shown that TTA was a very good inhibitor. Data obtained from EIS show a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution was also investigated in the presence of 4-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (TTA unsubstituted) by EIS. These studies have shown that the ability of the molecule to adsorb on the steel surface was dependent on the group in triazole ring substituent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis with TTA shows that it chemisorbed on surface of galvanized steel and electroplating steel.

  15. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  16. The study of past damaging hydrogeological events for damage susceptibility zonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    Damaging Hydrogeological Events are defined as periods during which phenomena, such as landslides, floods and secondary floods, cause damage to people and the environment. A Damaging Hydrogeological Event which heavily damaged Calabria (Southern Italy) between December 1972, and January 1973, has been used to test a procedure to be utilised in the zonation of a province according to damage susceptibility during DHEs. In particular, we analyzed the province of Catanzaro (2391 km2), an administrative district composed of 80 municipalities, with about 370 000 inhabitants. Damage, defined in relation to the reimbursement requests sent to the Department of Public Works, has been quantified using a procedure based on a Local Damage Index. The latter, representing classified losses, has been obtained by multiplying the value of the damaged element and the percentage of damage affecting it. Rainfall has been described by the Maximum Return Period of cumulative rainfall, for both short (1, 3, 5, 7, 10 consecutive days) and long duration (30, 60, 90, 180 consecutive days), recorded during the event. Damage index and population density, presumed to represent the location of vulnerable elements, have been referred to Thiessen polygons associated to rain gauges working at the time of the event. The procedure allowed us to carry out a preliminary classification of the polygons composing the province according to their susceptibility to damage during DHEs. In high susceptibility polygons, severe damage occurs during rainfall characterised by low return periods; in medium susceptibility polygons maximum return period rainfall and induced damage show equal levels of exceptionality; in low susceptibility polygons, high return period rainfall induces a low level of damage. The east and west sectors of the province show the highest susceptibility, while polygons of the N-NE sector show the lowest susceptibility levels, on account of both the low population density and high average

  17. Changing attitudes toward smoking and smoking susceptibility through peer crowd targeting: more evidence from a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Sussman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Peer crowd identification consistently predicts an adolescent's smoking behavior. As such, several interventions have targeted adolescents and young adults based on their identification with a specific crowd (e.g., Hipsters). This study uses a controlled experimental design to isolate and test the effect of peer crowd targeting in an antismoking ad on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Two hundred and thirty-nine adolescents, age 13-15 years, completed a baseline survey and then viewed an antismoking ad targeting one of eight crowds; 1 week later they completed a posttest. Participants were assessed on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Adolescents who strongly identified with the crowd targeted by the ad reported stronger antismoking attitudes and lower levels of smoking susceptibility. Those who disidentified with the crowd targeted in the ad exhibited not statistically significant increases in smoking susceptibility and weaker antismoking attitudes at posttest. These findings indicate that targeting youths based on their peer crowd is a useful strategy for antismoking interventions. Additional research should further examine whether youths who disidentify with the targeted crowd in an ad exhibit reactance against the message.

  18. Changing Attitudes Toward Smoking and Smoking Susceptibility Through Peer Crowd Targeting: More Evidence From a Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Peer crowd identification consistently predicts an adolescent’s smoking behavior. As such, several interventions have targeted adolescents and young adults based on their identification with a specific crowd (e.g., Hipsters). This study uses a controlled experimental design to isolate and test the effect of peer crowd targeting in an antismoking ad on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Two hundred and thirty-nine adolescents, age 13–15 years, completed a baseline survey and then viewed an antismoking ad targeting one of eight crowds; 1 week later they completed a posttest. Participants were assessed on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Adolescents who strongly identified with the crowd targeted by the ad reported stronger antismoking attitudes and lower levels of smoking susceptibility. Those who disidentified with the crowd targeted in the ad exhibited not statistically significant increases in smoking susceptibility and weaker antismoking attitudes at posttest. These findings indicate that targeting youths based on their peer crowd is a useful strategy for antismoking interventions. Additional research should further examine whether youths who disidentify with the targeted crowd in an ad exhibit reactance against the message. PMID:25204200

  19. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using evidential belief function and weights of evidence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiqing; Li, Wenping; Wu, Yanli; Pei, Yabing; Xing, Maolin; Yang, Dongdong

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility map of a landslide-prone area (Daguan County, China) by evidential belief function (EBF) model and weights of evidence (WoE) model to compare the results obtained. For this purpose, a landslide inventory map was constructed mainly based on earlier reports and aerial photographs, as well as, by carrying out field surveys. A total of 194 landslides were mapped. Then, the landslide inventory was randomly split into a training dataset; 70% (136 landslides) for training the models and the remaining 30% (58 landslides) was used for validation purpose. Then, a total number of 14 conditioning factors, such as slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, altitude, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI), stream power index (SPI), and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used in the analysis. Subsequently, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using the EBF and WoE models. Finally, the validation of landslide susceptibility map was accomplished with the area under the curve (AUC) method. The success rate curve showed that the area under the curve for EBF and WoE models were of 80.19% and 80.75% accuracy, respectively. Similarly, the validation result showed that the susceptibility map using EBF model has the prediction accuracy of 80.09%, while for WoE model, it was 79.79%. The results of this study showed that both landslide susceptibility maps obtained were successful and would be useful for regional spatial planning as well as for land cover planning.

  20. Mapping erosion susceptibility by a multivariate statistical method: A case study from the Ayvalık region, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, Aykut; Türk, Necdet

    2011-09-01

    Erosion is one of the most important natural hazard phenomena in the world, and it poses a significant threat to Turkey in terms of land degredation and desertification. To cope with this problem, we must determine which areas are erosion-prone. Many studies have been carried out and different models and methods have been used to this end. In this study, we used a logistic regression to prepare an erosion susceptibility map for the Ayvalık region in Balıkesir (NW Turkey). The following were our assessment parameters: weathering grades of rocks, slope gradient, structural lineament density, drainage density, land cover, stream power index (SPI) and profile curvature. These were processed by Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS software. We used logistic regression analysis to relate predictor variables to the occurrence or non-occurrence of gully erosion sites within geographic cells, and then we used this relationship to produce a probability map for future erosion sites. The results indicate that lineament density, weathering grades of rocks and drainage density are the most important variables governing erosion susceptibility. Other variables, such as land cover and slope gradient, were revealed as secondary important variables. Highly weathered basalt, andesite, basaltic andesite and lacustrine sediments were the units most susceptible to erosion. In order to calculate the prediction accuracy of the erosion susceptibility map generated, we compared it with the map showing the gully erosion areas. On the basis of this comparison, the area under curvature (AUC) value was found to be 0.81. This result suggests that the erosion susceptibility map we generated is accurate.

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies a possible susceptibility locus for endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jirong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Lose, Felicity; Thompson, Deborah; Tomlinson, Ian; Yu, Herbert; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lambrechts, Diether; Dörk, Thilo; Dubrowinskaja, Natalia; Goodman, Marc T.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Scott, Rodney J.; Delahanty, Ryan; Zheng, Ying; O’Mara, Tracy; Healey, Catherine S.; Hodgson, Shirley; Risch, Harvey; Yang, Hannah P.; Amant, Frederic; Turmanov, Nurzhan; Schwake, Anita; Lurie, Galina; Trovik, Jone; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ashton, Katie; Ji, Bu-Tian; Bao, Ping-Ping; Howarth, Kimberly; Lu, Lingeng; Lissowska, Jolanta; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Kaydarova, Dylyara; Dürst, Matthias; Thompson, Pamela J.; Krakstad, Camilla; Ekici, Arif B.; Otton, Geoffrey; Shi, Jiajun; Zhang, Ben; Gorman, Maggie; Brinton, Louise; Coosemans, An; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Halle, Mari K.; Hein, Alexander; Proietto, Anthony; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Dunning, Alison; Easton, Douglas; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Qiuyin; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 100 genetic loci for various cancers. However, only one is for endometrial cancer. METHODS We conducted a three-stage GWAS including 8,492 endometrial cancer cases and 16,596 controls. After analyzing 585,963 SNPs in 832 cases and 2,682 controls (Stage 1) from the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Genetics Study, we selected the top 106 SNPs for in silico replication among 1,265 cases and 5,190 controls from the Australian/British Endometrial Cancer GWAS (Stage 2). Nine SNPs showed results consistent in direction with Stage 1 with P<0.1. These 9 SNPs were investigated among 459 cases and 558 controls (Stage 3a) and 6 SNPs showed a direction of association consistent with Stages 1 and 2. These 6 SNPs, plus 2 additional SNPs selected based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) and P values in Stage 2, were investigated among 5,936 cases and 8,166 controls from an additional 11 studies (Stage 3b). RESULTS SNP rs1202524, near the CAPN9 gene on chromosome 1q42.2, showed a consistent association with endometrial cancer risk across all three stages, with odds ratios (OR) of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.03–1.16) for the A/G genotype and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.05–1.30) for the G/G genotype (P=1.6 × 10−4 in combined analyses of all samples). The association was stronger when limited to the endometrioid subtype, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.11 (1.04–1.18) and 1.21 (1.08–1.35), respectively (P=2.4 × 10−5). CONCLUSIONS Chromosome 1q42.2 may host an endometrial cancer susceptibility locus. IMPACT This study identified a potential genetic locus for endometrial cancer risk. PMID:22426144

  2. Electron spin susceptibility of superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Levitov, L.S.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Eliashberg, G.M.

    1985-03-10

    The effect of spin polarization due to the Meissner currents on the electron spin susceptibility of a superconductor is studied. This effect accounts for a susceptibility considerably stronger than that of a normal metal. The spin distribution is discussed.

  3. Association study of MICA gene polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in south Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Achour, Y; Kammoun, A; Ben Hamad, M; Mahfoudh, N; Chaabane, S; Marzouk, S; Keskes, L; Gaddour, L; Bahloul, Z; Maalej, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA) polymorphisms, important in natural killer (NK) cell function, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A transmembrane (TM) alanine-encoding GCT repeats, termed A4, A5, A5.1, A6 and A9 in the MICA gene, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): the Met129Val polymorphism (rs1051792) and the nonsynonymously coding SNP (rs1051794) were genotyped in 142 patients with RA and 123 unrelated healthy individuals using, respectively, PCR fluorescent method, nested PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR (ASP). Association was assessed based on the χ2 test, genotype relative risk (GRR) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our results show a trend of association of the different MICA genotypes G/G, G/A and A/A (P = 0.029) which did not attain the significance after Bonferroni's correction (pc = 0.08). Although, we revealed a significant association of the genotype A/A of MICA-250 in patients with RA compared to healthy controls (pc = 0.033). In contrast, no significant differences between alleles and genotypes frequencies were found either with MICA-TM or MICA met129 val (P > 0.05) in our sample. Moreover, stratification of patients with RA according to clinical and immunological data for the different polymorphisms studied shows a significant association of both MICA-250 G allele (pc = 0.0075) and MICA-250 GG genotype (pc = 0.008) and both allelic (val) (pc = 0.021) and genotypic (val/val) distribution (pc = 0.0095) for MICA met129 val in the RF-positive subgroup compared to RF-negative patients with RA. In contrast, we found a strong association of the MICA-TM A9 allele in RF-negative patients with RA (pc = 0.0003). This study indicates the involvement of the MICA-250 polymorphism in the genetic susceptibility and severity to RA and suggests that variations in MICA-TM and MICA met129 val may have an effect on RA severity in our

  4. Studies of structural, optical, dielectric relaxation and ac conductivity of different alkylbenzenesulfonic acids doped polypyrrole nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, J.; Kumar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) nanofibers doped with alkylbenzenesulfonic acids (ABSA) have been synthesized using interfacial polymerization method. HRTEM studies confirm the formation of PPy nanofibers with average diameter ranging from 13 nm to 25 nm. Broad X-ray diffraction peak in 2 θ range 20-23.46° reveals amorphous structure of PPy nanofibers. The ordering or crystallinity of polymer chains increases, while their interplanar spacing (d) and interchain separation (R) decreases for short alkyl chain ABSA doped PPy nanofibers. FTIR studies reveal that short alkyl chain ABSA doped PPy nanofibers show higher value of "effective conjugation length". PPy nanofibers doped with short alkyl chain ABSA dopant exhibit smaller optical band gap. TGA studies show enhanced thermal stability of short alkyl chain ABSA doped PPy nanofibers. Decrease in dielectric permittivity ε ‧ (ω) with increasing frequency suggests presence of electrode polarization effects. Linear decrease in dielectric loss ε ″ (ω) with increasing frequency suggests dominant effect of dc conductivity process. Low value of non-exponential exponent β (<1) reveals non-Debye relaxation of charge carriers. Scaling of imaginary modulus (M ″) reveals that the charge carriers follow the same relaxation mechanism. Moreover, the charge carriers in PPy nanofibers follow the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) transport mechanism.

  5. Conjugation, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity of calix[4]arenes; model study to potential calix[4]arene-based Ac3+ chelators.

    PubMed

    Grote Gansey, M H; de Haan, A S; Bos, E S; Verboom, W; Reinhoudt, D N

    1999-01-01

    For the development of calix[4]arene-based radiotherapeutic agents, the conjugation to biomolecules and immunogenicity in mice of potential 225Ac3+-chelating calix[4]arenes were studied. A calix[4]arene triethyl ester isothiocyanate and a bis(calix[4]arene) hexacarboxylic acid, containing a masked thiol functionality, were used in conjugation experiments to a mouse monoclonal antibody and serum albumins. All characterization techniques indicate that only the calix[4]arene carboxylic acid is successfully conjugated to the biomolecules. The immunoreactivity of the conjugates is not impaired when up to 6 equiv of calixarene are bound to the monoclonal antibody. Animal tests indicated that the immunogenicity toward the calix[4]arene is strongly influenced by the nature of the carrier, the dosage, and the injection method. No immune response occurred when a homologous carrier was used or when a heterologous carrier was applied at a dosage of 10 microg per immunization via intravenous injection. Under all other conditions, the presence of antibodies directed against the calix[4]arene was demonstrated. Thus, for the application in radioimmunotherapy, the conjugation of a calix[4]arene to a humanized antibody will probably not lead to an immune response, and the immunoreactivity will not be disturbed.

  6. Study on preferred crystal orientations of Mg-Zr-O composite protective layer in AC-PDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingang, G.; Chunliang, L.; Zhongxiao, S.; Liu, L.; Yufeng, F.; Xing, X.; Duowang, F.

    2006-11-01

    In order to study the preferred crystal orientations of Mg-Zr-O composite protective layers in PDP, Mg-Zr-O composite protective layers were deposited by Electron-beam Evaporator using (MgO+ZrO{2}) powder mixture as evaporation source material. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to determine preferred crystal orientations of Mg-Zr-O composite protective layers, surface morphologies of films were analyzed by FESEM and voltage characteristics were examined in a testing macroscopic discharge cell of AC-PDP. On the basis of experimental analysis, the influence of oxide addition and deposition conditions on preferred orientations of Mg-Zr-O composite protective layers were investigated. The results showed that the preferred orientations of Mg-Zr-O films were determined by lattice distortion of MgO crystal. The deposition conditions have great effects on the preferred orientations of Mg-Zr-O films. The preferred orientations affect voltage characteristics through affecting surface morphology of Mg-Zr-O films. A small amount of Zr solution in MgO can decrease firing voltage compared with using pure MgO film. Firing voltage is closely related with the [ ZrO{2}/(MgO+ZrO{2})] ratio of evaporation source materials.

  7. Cryptoccocal meningitis in Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV infected patients: Diagnosis, frequency and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates susceptibility study to fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Kammalac Ngouana, T; Dongtsa, J; Kouanfack, C; Tonfack, C; Fomena, S; Mallié, M; Delaporte, E; Boyom, F-Fekam; Bertout, S

    2015-03-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a mycosis encountered especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and is fatal in the absence of treatment. Information on epidemiology, diagnosis and susceptibility profile to antifungal drugs, are scarce in Cameroon. Authors evaluated the diagnosis possibilities of the cryptococcal meningitis in Cameroon, and studied the antifungal susceptibility of isolated strains to fluconazole, used as first line treatment of the disease in Cameroon. Between December 2009 and July 2011, 146 cerebrospinal fluids obtained from HIV patients with suspicion of meningitis were analysed. The diagnosis procedure involved macroscopic and cyto-chemical analysis, India ink test, culture on Sabouraud chloramphenicol medium and antigen latex agglutination test. Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolated strains to fluconazole was done by the E-test(®) method. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis gave 28.08% positive cases. Among these patients, 80% were at stages III and IV and 20% at stage I of the HIV infection, according to the WHO previous classification. Cyto-chemical analysis showed current findings in the case of cryptococcal meningitis. India ink test and latex agglutination test exhibited very high sensitivity and specificity (>94%). Fluconazole antifungal susceptibility testing gave MICs lower than 32μg/mL to 92.7% of isolated strains and MICs greater than this value to 7.3% of isolates. These results showed that cryptococcal meningitis remains a real problem among HIV infected patients in Yaoundé. The emergence of fluconazole reduced susceptibility strains is worrying. Nevertheless, efficacy of rapid detection tests is interesting because this will help in rapid diagnosis and treatment of patients.

  8. Highly sensitive pseudo-differential ac-nanocalorimeter for the study of the glass transition

    SciTech Connect

    Laarraj, Mohcine; Adhiri, Rahma; Moussetad, Mohamed; Ouaskit, Said; Guttin, Christophe; Richard, Jacques; Garden, Jean-Luc

    2015-11-15

    We present a nanocalorimeter designed for the measurement of the dynamic heat capacity of thin films. The microfabricated sensor, the thermal conditioning of the sensor, as well as the highly stable and low noise electronic chain allow measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the complex specific heat with a resolution Δ C/C of about 10{sup −5}. The performances of this quasi-differential nanocalorimeter were tested on a model of polymeric glass-former, the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). The high stability and low noise of the device are essential for accurate studies on non-equilibrium slow relaxing systems such as glasses.

  9. Paleomagnetism and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility study of the Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (Nevada, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, S.; Petronis, M. S.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gordon, L.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (JST) outcrops across the western Mina Deflection accommodation zone, west-central Nevada and into eastern California. Previously, the source location for the JST was unknown, yet recent studies northwest of Mono Lake, CA have identified a relatively un-rotated structural block in which to reference the paleomagnetic data. Although new studies have indicated that this block may be rotated up to 13º, we argue that the probable source area is located near the Bodie Hills, CA. At this site, the paleomagnetic reference direction is D = 353°, I = 43°, α95 = 7.7° (Carlson et al, 2013). Based on these data, the JST can be used to measure absolute vertical-axis rotation as well as enable reconstruction of the paleo-topography using the corrected anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. A total of 19 sites were sampled to constrain Cenozoic to recent vertical axis rotation within the region and AMS experiments were conducted to determine the flow direction of the JST. Curie point estimates indicate that the JST ranges in titanium concentration from 0.042 to 1.10, indicating a low to moderate titanomagnetite phase (Akimoto, 1962). Demagnetization experiments reveal mean destructive fields of the NRM ranging between 15mT and 40mT suggesting that both multi-domain to pseudo-single domain grains are the dominant ferromagnetic phases that carry the remanence and AMS fabric. Preliminary paleomagnetic data yield stable single component demagnetization behavior for most sites that, after structural correction, indicate clockwise vertical axis rotation ranging from +20°± 10° to +60°± 11° between multiple fault blocks. The uncorrected AMS data yield oblate magnetic fabrics that can be used to infer the transport direction, source region, and paleovalley geometry of the JST. These data are tentatively interpreted to indicate west to east transport of the JST across the Mono Basin region into the Mina Deflection that was erupted and

  10. A comprehensive analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify prostate cancer susceptibility loci for the Romanian population.

    PubMed

    Rădăvoi, George Daniel; Pricop, Cătălin; Jinga, Viorel; Mateş, Dana; Rădoi, Viorica Elena; Jinga, Mariana; Ursu, Radu Ioan; Bratu, Ovidiu Gabriel; Mischianu, Dan Liviu Dorel; Iordache, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine a large dataset of single nucleotide polymorphism known to be associated with prostate cancer from previous genome-wide association studies and create a dataset of single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used in replication studies for the Romanian population. This study will define a list of markers showing a significant association with this phenotype. We propose the results of this study as a starting point for any Romanian genome-wide association studies researching the genetic susceptibility for prostate cancer. PMID:27516020

  11. Genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity: the evidence from clinical and experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Gerd; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Coster, Douglas J; Williams, Keryn A

    2007-12-01

    Despite advances in management and treatment, retinopathy of prematurity remains a major cause of childhood blindness. Evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is examined, including the influences of sex, ethnicity, and ocular pigmentation. The role of polymorphisms is explored in the genes for vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, and of mutations in the Norrie disease gene. Insights into the genetic basis of retinopathy of prematurity provided by the animal model of oxygen induced retinopathy are examined. Evidence for a genetic component for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is strong, although the molecular identity of the gene or genes involved remains uncertain. PMID:18024814

  12. An In vitro Study on Post Bleaching Pigmentation Susceptibility of Teeth and Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Latha, S Pushpa; Hegde, Vani; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Tarakji, Bassel; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Background: To determine the susceptibility of teeth for repigmentation after bleaching. Materials and Methods: Forty premolars were assigned to three groups (n = 12). Group 1 was bleached using 30% w/v hydrogen peroxide 15 min 3 times a day every other day for 4 days. In Group 2 was bleached using 16% carbamide peroxide (Polanight), 90 min a day for 15 days. 2 days later, the shades of the bleached teeth were recorded. Remaining 4 teeth were bleached according to Group 1 and 2 and were subjected to atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy analysis. Results: Specimens of athome bleaching were lighter than the specimens of inoffice bleaching. Conclusion: The susceptibility of enamel to pigmentation can be increased after bleaching, and pigmentation is greater if bleaching is performed with H2O2. The percentage change (lighter) was more for athome bleaching specimens as compared to inoffice bleaching specimens. PMID:25395800

  13. Development of a computer algorithm for the analysis of variable-frequency AC drives: Case studies included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Benjamin, Owen

    1991-01-01

    The development of computer software for performance prediction and analysis of voltage-fed, variable-frequency AC drives for space power applications is discussed. The AC drives discussed include the pulse width modulated inverter (PWMI), a six-step inverter and the pulse density modulated inverter (PDMI), each individually connected to a wound-rotor induction motor. Various d-q transformation models of the induction motor are incorporated for user-selection of the most applicable model for the intended purpose. Simulation results of selected AC drives correlate satisfactorily with published results. Future additions to the algorithm are indicated. These improvements should enhance the applicability of the computer program to the design and analysis of space power systems.

  14. Factors controlling building susceptibility to earthquakes: 14-year recordings of Islamic archaeological sites in Old Cairo, Egypt: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamh, G. M. E.; Kallash, A.; Azzam, R.

    2008-11-01

    Cairo City has a large number and different forms of Islamic archaeological sites, in particular, at El-Gammalia and El-Moez streets, as well as Coptic archaeological sites, e.g. at Mari Gergis. Human interference and activities at these historical areas resulted in flooding such sites’ foundations with domestic water, deteriorating its basal courses by salt weathering. The 1992 earthquake is another natural environmental hazard severely affecting many of these sites. The aim of the current study is to examine some factors (of bedrock and buildings) that are expected to control building susceptibility to damage by earthquakes by taking 38 Islamic archaeological sites in the El-Gammalia area as a representative case study. Detailed field recordings of site damage category before and after the quake and continued recording of damage features generated by the 1992 quake over the last 14 years, measuring depth to sub-surface water, measuring buildings’ height before the quake and bedrock sampling at these sites for geotechnical investigations were all considered for achieving this aim. The data has been processed mathematically and graphically (using the Excel package) to examine the main factors responsible for building susceptibility to damage by earthquakes. The selected archaeological sites give an excellent representation of the factors controlling building susceptibility to damage by quakes; it is found that the sites with heights (before the quake) ranging from 12 to 14 m are the most affected ones; the sites with the highest damage category before the quake were more susceptible to more damage by the quake; the sites that had been built on alluvium soil were more affected than those built on the Eocene limestone. The age of these sites has, to a small extent, indirect control on sites’ susceptibility to damage by the quake, particularly in parts flooded with domestic water (i.e. affected by salt weathering). The depth to sub-surface water is an effective

  15. Patient and provider attitudes toward genomic testing for prostate cancer susceptibility: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The strong association between family history and prostate cancer (PCa) suggests a significant genetic contribution, yet specific highly penetrant PCa susceptibility genes have not been identified. Certain single-nucleotide-polymorphisms have been found to correlate with PCa risk; however uncertainty remains regarding their clinical utility and how to best incorporate this information into clinical decision-making. Genetic testing is available directly to consumers and both patients and healthcare providers are becoming more aware of this technology. Purchasing online allows patients to bypass their healthcare provider yet patients may have difficulty interpreting test results and providers may be called upon to interpret results. Determining optimal ways to educate both patients and providers, and strategies for appropriately incorporating this information into clinical decision-making are needed. Methods A mixed-method study was conducted in Utah between October 2011 and December 2011. Eleven focus group discussions were held and surveys were administered to 23 first-degree relatives of PCa patients living in Utah and 24 primary-care physicians and urologists practicing in Utah to present specific information about these assessments and determine knowledge and attitudes regarding health implications of using these assessments. Results Data was independently coded by two researchers (relative Kappa = .88; provider Kappa = .77) and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results indicated differences in attitudes and behavioral intentions between patient and provider. Despite the test’s limitations relatives indicated interest in genetic testing (52%) while most providers indicated they would not recommend the test for their patients (79%). Relatives expected providers to interpret genetic test results and use results to provide personalized healthcare recommendations while the majority of providers did not think the information would be useful in

  16. Dielectric spectroscopy studies and ac electrical conductivity on (AuZn)/TiO2/p-GaAs(110) MIS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şafak Asar, Yasemin; Asar, Tarık; Altındal, Şemsettin; Özçelik, Süleyman

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated temperature and voltage dependence of dielectric properties and ac electrical conductivity (σac) of (AuZn)/TiO2/p-GaAs(110) metal-insulator-semiconductor structures in the temperature range of 80-290 K using the capacitance-voltage ? and conductance-voltage ? measurements at 1 MHz. The intersection/crossing behaviour of C-V plots at sufficiently high forward biases and the increase in σac with increasing temperature was attributed to the lack of sufficient number of enough free charge carriers at low temperatures. The values of the dielectric constant (ε‧), dielectric loss (ε″), loss tangent ?, ac electrical conductivity (σac), the real and imaginary parts of electric modulus (?) were found to be strong functions of temperature and applied bias voltage. The Cole-Cole plots between ? have shown only one semicircle for each temperature. This indicates one of the relaxation processes was suppressed and this can be attributed to the surface polarization effect. On the other hand, ? plot has a peak for each temperature. The ? plots revealed two linear regions with different slopes for sufficiently high forward biases (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 V) which correspond to low (80-200 K) and moderate/intermediate (230-290 K) temperatures. Thus, the values of activation energy (Ea) were obtained from the slope of these Arrhenius plots for two linear regions as 87.3 and 3.4 meV, respectively, at 1.0 V. On the other hand, Mott plots have only one linear region except for 260 and 290 K and Mott parameters were determined from these plots at 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 V.

  17. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs

  18. Cytokine production in arthritis susceptible and resistant rats: a study with arthritogenic and non-arthritogenic Lactobacillus cell walls.

    PubMed

    Simelyte, E; Isomäki, P; Rimpiläinen, M; Zhang, X; Toivanen, P

    2001-02-01

    The basis of the different susceptibility to bacterial cell wall-induced arthritis between Lewis and Fischer rats is unclear. Likewise, it is not known why cell walls of some species of Lactobacillus are arthritogenic and those of others are not. With these two questions in mind, we investigated the role of anti-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4) and proinflammatory (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-1 beta) cytokines in Lewis and Fischer rats injected intraperitoneally with cell walls from arthritogenic or nonarthritogenic species of Lactobacillus. Cytokine levels in the serum and in vitro production by peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes were studied. The results obtained indicate that the differences in the production of IL-10, IL-4, TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta do not explain the difference in the arthritis susceptibility between Lewis and Fischer rats. Likewise, the arthritogenicity of different Lactobacillus cell walls appears not to be dependent on their capacity to stimulate cytokine production. PMID:11169216

  19. A genome-wide association study identifies CDHR3 as a susceptibility locus for early childhood asthma with severe exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sleiman, Patrick; Nielsen, Kasper; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mercader, Josep M; Belgrave, Danielle; den Dekker, Herman T; Husby, Anders; Sevelsted, Astrid; Faura-Tellez, Grissel; Mortensen, Li Juel; Paternoster, Lavinia; Flaaten, Richard; Mølgaard, Anne; Smart, David E; Thomsen, Philip F; Rasmussen, Morten A; Bonàs-Guarch, Silvia; Holst, Claus; Nohr, Ellen A; Yadav, Rachita; March, Michael E; Blicher, Thomas; Lackie, Peter M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Simpson, Angela; Holloway, John W; Duijts, Liesbeth; Custovic, Adnan; Davies, Donna E; Torrents, David; Gupta, Ramneek; Hollegaard, Mads V; Hougaard, David M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Bisgaard, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations are among the most frequent causes of hospitalization during childhood, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of a specific asthma phenotype characterized by recurrent, severe exacerbations occurring between 2 and 6 years of age in a total of 1,173 cases and 2,522 controls. Cases were identified from national health registries of hospitalization, and DNA was obtained from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. We identified five loci with genome-wide significant association. Four of these, GSDMB, IL33, RAD50 and IL1RL1, were previously reported as asthma susceptibility loci, but the effect sizes for these loci in our cohort were considerably larger than in the previous genome-wide association studies of asthma. We also obtained strong evidence for a new susceptibility gene, CDHR3 (encoding cadherin-related family member 3), which is highly expressed in airway epithelium. These results demonstrate the strength of applying specific phenotyping in the search for asthma susceptibility genes. PMID:24241537

  20. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Technique for Gentamicin Drug Susceptibility Studies with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, Lara; Busto, Jesús H.; Avenoza, Alberto; Sáenz, Yolanda; Peregrina, Jesús Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests involving multiple time-consuming steps are still used as reference methods. Today, there is a need for the development of new automated instruments that can provide faster results and reduce operating time, reagent costs, and labor requirements. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy meets those requirements. The metabolism and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in the presence of gentamicin have been analyzed using NMR and compared with a reference method. Direct incubation of the bacteria (with and without gentamicin) into the NMR tube has also been performed, and differences in the NMR spectra were obtained. The MIC, determined by the reference method found in this study, would correspond with the termination of the bacterial metabolism observed with NMR. Experiments carried out directly into the NMR tube enabled the development of antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests to assess the effectiveness of the antibiotic. NMR is an objective and reproducible method for showing the effects of a drug on the subject bacterium and can emerge as an excellent tool for studying bacterial activity in the presence of different antibiotic concentrations. PMID:25972417

  1. Bacterial antibiotic resistance studies using in vitro dynamic models: Population analysis vs. susceptibility testing as endpoints of mutant enrichment.

    PubMed

    Firsov, Alexander A; Strukova, Elena N; Portnoy, Yury A; Shlykova, Darya S; Zinner, Stephen H

    2015-09-01

    Emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance is usually characterised either by population analysis or susceptibility testing. To compare these endpoints in their ability to demonstrate clear relationships with the ratio of 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), enrichment of ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of four clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in an in vitro dynamic model that simulates mono-exponential pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin over a wide range of the AUC24/MIC ratios. Each organism was exposed to twice-daily ciprofloxacin for 3 days. Amplification of resistant mutants was monitored by plating on media with 2×, 4×, 8× and 16× MIC of ciprofloxacin. Population analysis data were expressed by the area under the bacterial mutant concentration-time curve (AUBCM). Changes in P. aeruginosa susceptibility were examined by daily MIC determinations. To account for the different susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa strains, post-exposure MICs (MICfinal) were related to the MICs determined with the starting inoculum (MICinitial). For each organism, AUC24/MIC relationships both with AUBCM and MICfinal/MICinitial were bell-shaped, but the latter were more strain-specific than the former. Using combined data on all four isolates, AUBCM showed a better correlation than MICfinal/MICinitial (r(2)=0.75 vs. r(2)=0.53). The shift of MICfinal/MICinitial relative to AUBCM vs. AUC24/MIC curves resulted in a weak correlation between AUBCM and MICfinal/MICinitial (r(2)=0.41). These data suggest that population analysis is preferable to susceptibility testing in bacterial resistance studies and that these endpoints should not be considered interchangeable.

  2. Ferrets exclusively synthesize Neu5Ac and express naturally humanized influenza A virus receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Preston S.K.; Böhm, Raphael; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Steen, Jason A.; Wang, Hui; Lukowski, Samuel W.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Trezise, Ann E.O.; Coloe, Peter J.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Haselhorst, Thomas; von Itzstein, Mark; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals express the sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) on cell surfaces, where they act as receptors for pathogens, including influenza A virus (IAV). Neu5Gc is synthesized from Neu5Ac by the enzyme cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH). In humans, this enzyme is inactive and only Neu5Ac is produced. Ferrets are susceptible to human-adapted IAV strains and have been the dominant animal model for IAV studies. Here we show that ferrets, like humans, do not synthesize Neu5Gc. Genomic analysis reveals an ancient, nine-exon deletion in the ferret CMAH gene that is shared by the Pinnipedia and Musteloidia members of the Carnivora. Interactions between two human strains of IAV with the sialyllactose receptor (sialic acid—α2,6Gal) confirm that the type of terminal sialic acid contributes significantly to IAV receptor specificity. Our results indicate that exclusive expression of Neu5Ac contributes to the susceptibility of ferrets to human-adapted IAV strains. PMID:25517696

  3. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  4. Identification of Calcification with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen; Mittal, Sandeep; Kish, Karl; Yu, Yingjian; Hu, J.; Haacke, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a new MRI technique that can identify calcification by using phase images. We present a single case with a partially calcified oligodendroglioma, multiple calcified cysticercosis lesions, and multiple physiologic calcifications in the same patient. SWI phase images and computed tomography (CT) images are compared. SWI phase images showed the same calcified lesions as shown on CT and sometimes some new calcifications. Our conclusion is that SWI filtered phase images can identify calcifications as well as CT in this case. PMID:19097156

  5. Properties of magnetoelectric susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Junyi; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Bichurin, M. I.

    2006-03-01

    The magnetoelectric (ME) susceptibility is the principle property of ME materials, determining the connection between polarization (or electric induction) and an external magnetic field. Since measurement of the ME susceptibility over a wide frequency range [1] and the design of new ME devices require more information about the ME susceptibility, the present work has focused on this property in detail. First, we consider the ME susceptibility as a complex parameter with both real and the imaginary parts, advancing a methodology for measurement of these values. Second, we have analyzed the ME susceptibility, for example a trilayer laminate composite of Terfenol-D/PZT, Terfenol-D, and found a maximum value of ˜3.5x10-7s/m in the electromechanical resonance range. In addition, we have studied the internal structure of the ME susceptibility: i.e., its dependencies on phase volume fractions, layer thickness, and choice of materials couple. Our results for the ME susceptibility will allow it to be more correctly used both as a fundamental materials property and also in potential ME device applications. [1] M.I. Bichurin, V.M. Petrov,Yu.V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 66, 134404 (2002).

  6. A prospective study on evaluation of pathogenesis, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility of microbial community in urinary catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to isolate, detect biofilm formation ability and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary catheter adherent microorganisms from elderly hospitalized patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Microorganisms were isolated from three samples of urinary catheters (UC) surface; one of the acute vascular rejection patient (UCB) and two from benign prostate hyperplasia patients (UCC and UCD). A total of 100 isolates was isolated with 35 from UCB, 38 (UCC) and 28 (UCD). Ninety six were identified as Gram-negative bacilli, one Gram-positive bacilli and three yeasts. Results of biofilm forming on sterile foley catheter showed that all the isolates can form biofilm at different degrees; strong biofilm forming: 32% from the 35 isolates (UCB), 25% out of 38 isolates (UCC), 26% out of 28 isolates (UCD). As for moderate biofilm forming; 3% from UCB, 10% from UCC and 2% from UCD. Weak biofilm forming in UCC (3%). The antibiotic susceptibility for (UCB) isolates showed highly resistant to ampicillin, novobiocin and penicillin 100 (%), kanamycin (97%), tetracycline (94%), chloramphenicol (91%), streptomycin (77%) and showed low level of resistance to gentamycin (17%), while all the isolates from (UCC-D) showed high resistant towards ampicillin and penicillin, novobiocin (94%), tetracycline (61%), streptomycin (53%), gentamycin (50%) and low level of resistance to kanamycin (48%), chloramphenicol (47%). The findings indicate that these isolates can spread within the community on urinary catheters surface and produce strong biofilm, therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the aggregation is recommended.

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial strains isolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in France. Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, F W

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial strains isolated from adults with community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in France. From December 1996 to March 1997, each of 15 private laboratories in France consecutively collected about 80 non-duplicate strains isolated from adult outpatients with UTI, including patients receiving care at home, and tested their susceptibility by the disk diffusion test. A total of 1160 strains were collected: 1031 gram-negative bacilli, including Escherichia coli (n = 865), Proteus mirabilis (n = 68) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 40), and 129 gram-positive cocci, including Staphylococcus aureus (n = 16), other staphylococci (n = 25), group B streptococci (n = 25) and enterococci (n = 63). In the case of 430 bacterial isolates, the patients had either been hospitalised in the last 6 months or received antibiotic treatment in the last 3 months. The antibiotic susceptibility rates for Escherichia coli were: amoxicillin (58.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (63.3%), ticarcillin (61.4%), cephalothin (66.8%) cefuroxime (77.6%), cefixime (83.6%), cefotaxime (99.8%), ceftazidime (99%), nalidixic acid (91.9%), norfloxacin (96.6%), ofloxacin (96.3%), ciprofloxacin (98.3%), cotrimoxazole (78.2%), fosfomycin (99.1%) and gentamicin (98.4%). Of the Enterobacteriaceae, five strains produced an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. Methicillin resistance was detected in nine Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The most important findings were two extended-spectrum, beta-lactamase-producing and three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients who had not been hospitalised in the last 6 months or taken antibiotics in the last 3 months. The findings indicate that these strains can spread within the community; therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the community appears to be mandatory.

  8. Comparison study of broth macrodilution and microdilution antifungal susceptibility tests for the filamentous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, I; Guarro, J; Llop, C; Soler, L; Fernández-Ballart, J

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of broth dilution antifungal susceptibility tests was performed by determining both the micro- and macrodilution MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, miconazole, and itraconazole against representative species of opportunistic hyphomycetes (Fusarium spp. and Cladosporium [Cladophialophora] spp.) and ascomycetes (Chaetomium spp.). A total of 78 strains were tested, the majority of them twice and some three times on different days. Both methods were performed according to the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (Document M27-P), with the exception of the temperature of incubation, which was 25 degrees C in our case. A spectrophotometric method for inoculum preparation, RPMI 1640 medium buffered with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (pH 7.0), and an additive drug dilution procedure were used. The MICs obtained by the two methods were read after 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation for Fusarium spp. and after 72, 96, and 120 h for the remaining isolates. The kappa test was used to calculate the degree of agreement. Considering the three fungal groups together, a good agreement between the results of both tests was observed with almost all the drugs at the different incubation times. There were no cases of poor agreement. The highest level (kappa index = 1) was observed with ketoconazole at the second-day reading. These results support the further evaluation of the broth microdilution test as an alternative to the reference broth macrodilution susceptibility test. PMID:8878589

  9. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene -376 polymorphism and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis: an Egyptian study.

    PubMed

    Nada, Mona Abd el Fattah; Labib, Dalia Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha, a proinflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the clinical activity of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and the development of progression. Dysregulation in the expression of tumor necrosis factor gene had been suggested in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between tumor necrosis factor α-376 polymorphism with disease susceptibility and course of multiple sclerosis in Egyptian patients. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were carried out on 36 primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, 36 age- and sex-matched remitting relapsing multiple sclerosis patients (diagnosed according to McDonald's Diagnostic criteria) and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The GG genotype and the guanine allele (G) were detected significantly more often in the primary progressive (p = 0.02; p = 0.004, respectively) and remitting relapsing (p = 0.015; p = 0.024, respectively) multiple sclerosis groups as compared with the healthy control group. The G allele in the examined position in tumor necrosis factor alpha might have a role as regards susceptibility in both remitting relapsing and primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

  10. Susceptibility-resistant variable-flip-angle turbo spin echo imaging for reliable estimation of cortical thickness: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Kim, Eung-Yeop; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jaeseok

    2012-01-01

    The thickness of the human cerebral cortex, which provides valuable information in the studies of normal and abnormal neuroanatomy, is commonly estimated using high-resolution, volumetric magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) magnetic resonance imaging due to its strong T1-weighted contrast and high signal-to-noise ratio. However, the accuracy of cortical thickness estimates using MP-RAGE is potentially contaminated by susceptibility-induced signal loss particularly at regions in close proximity to air-filled cavities. The purpose of this work is to investigate the feasibility of susceptibility-resistant variable-flip-angle (VFA) three-dimensional turbo/fast spin echo imaging for reliable estimation of cortical thickness of the human brain, wherein 1) radio-frequency (RF) pulse refocuses susceptibility-induced spin de-phasing, 2) the VFA refocusing pulse train is applied for a tissue-specific prescribed signal evolution along the echo train, 3) the desired T1-weighted contrast is achieved by composite restore pulses at the end of the refocusing pulse train, and 4) blood signals are suppressed using the VFA scheme combined with increasing moments of flow-sensitizing gradients while dura mater signals are attenuated due to short T2 relaxation time, which alleviates potential failure in brain segmentation. Numerical simulations of the Bloch equation are performed in both MP-RAGE and the proposed method for comparison. In vivo studies are performed in 14 healthy volunteers at 3 T. Image processing is then performed using the Freesurfer, resulting in mean and standard deviations of cortical thickness for the entire cortical surfaces. Statistical analysis demonstrates that particularly in the inferior prefrontal and temporal regions heavily affected by susceptibility-induced signal loss conventional MP-RAGE, if compared with the proposed method, significantly under-estimates cortical thickness. It is expected that the proposed pulse sequence, which is

  11. Assessment of the E-Selectin rs5361 (561A>C) Polymorphism and Soluble Protein Concentration in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Association with Circulating Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Pinto, Elena; Ramon Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Valdes-Alvarado, Emmanuel; Janet García-González, Ilian; Valdez-Haro, Angelica; Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Jose; Enrique Flores-Salinas, Hector; Rivas, Fernando; Valle, Yeminia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a complex disease where genetic and environmental factors are involved. E-selectin gene is a candidate for ACS progression due to its contribution in the inflammatory process and endothelial function. The rs5361 (561A>C) polymorphism in the E-selectin gene has been linked to changes in gene expression, affinity for its receptor, and plasmatic levels; therefore it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of the rs5361 polymorphism with ACS and to measure serum levels of soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin). Materials and Methods. 283 ACS patients and 205 healthy subjects (HS) from Western Mexico were included. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the rs5361 polymorphism. The sE-selectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Neither genotype nor allele frequencies of the rs5361 polymorphism showed statistical differences between groups. The sE-selectin levels were significantly higher in ACS patients compared to HS (54.58 versus 40.41 ng/ml, P = 0.02). The C allele had no effect on sE-selectin levels. Conclusions. The rs5361 E-selectin gene polymorphism is not a susceptibility marker for ACS in Western Mexico population. However, sE-selectin may be a biological marker of ACS. PMID:25147432

  12. Field Evolved Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ac in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Anwaar H. K.; Sayyed, Ali H.; Naeem, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is one of the most destructive pests of several field and vegetable crops, with indiscriminate use of insecticides contributing to multiple instances of resistance. In the present study we assessed whether H. armigera had developed resistance to Bt cotton and compared the results with several conventional insecticides. Furthermore, the genetics of resistance was also investigated to determine the inheritance to Cry1Ac resistance. To investigate the development of resistance to Bt cotton, and selected foliar insecticides, H. armigera populations were sampled in 2010 and 2011 in several cotton production regions in Pakistan. The resistance ratios (RR) for Cry1Ac, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, cypermethrin, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin and deltamethrin were 580-fold, 320-, 1110-, 1950-, 200-, 380, 690, and 40-fold, respectively, compared with the laboratory susceptible (Lab-PK) population. Selection of the field collected population with Cry1Ac in 2010 for five generations increased RR to 5440-fold. The selection also increased RR for deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, cypermethrin, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin to 125-folds, 650-, 2840-, 9830-, 370-, 3090-, 1330-fold. The estimated LC50s for reciprocal crosses were 105 µg/ml (Cry1Ac-SEL female × Lab-PK male) and 81 g µg/ml (Lab-PK female × Cry1Ac-SEL male) suggesting that the resistance to Cry1Ac was autosomal; the degree of dominance (DLC) was 0.60 and 0.57 respectively. Mixing of enzyme inhibitors significantly decreased resistance to Cry1Ac suggesting that the resistance to Cry1Ac and other insecticides tested in the present study was primarily metabolic. Resistance to Cry1Ac was probably due to a single but unstable factor suggesting that crop rotation with non-Bt cotton or other crops could reduce the selection pressure for H. armigera and improve the sustainability of Bt cotton. PMID:23077589

  13. DNA Repair Deficiency as a Susceptibility Marker for Spontaneous Lymphoma in Golden Retriever Dogs: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Thamm, Douglas H.; Grunerud, Kristen K.; Rose, Barbara J.; Vail, David M.; Bailey, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that an individual’s inability to accurately repair DNA damage in a timely fashion may in part dictate a predisposition to cancer. Dogs spontaneously develop lymphoproliferative diseases such as lymphoma, with the golden retriever (GR) breed being at especially high risk. Mechanisms underlying such breed susceptibility are largely unknown; however, studies of heritable cancer predisposition in dogs may be much more straightforward than similar studies in humans, owing to a high degree of inbreeding and more limited genetic heterogeneity. Here, we conducted a pilot study with 21 GR with lymphoma, 20 age-matched healthy GR and 20 age-matched healthy mixed-breed dogs (MBD) to evaluate DNA repair capability following exposure to either ionizing radiation (IR) or the chemical mutagen bleomycin. Inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity was evaluated in stimulated canine lymphoctyes exposed in vitro utilizing the G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assay to quantify clastogen-induced chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks). Golden retrievers with lymphoma demonstrated elevated sensitivity to induction of chromosome damage following either challenge compared to either healthy GR or MBD at multiple doses and time points. Using the 75th percentile of chromatid breaks per 1,000 chromosomes in the MBD population at 4 hours post 1.0 Gy IR exposure as a benchmark to compare cases and controls, GR with lymphoma were more likely than healthy GR to be classified as “sensitive” (odds ratio = 21.2, 95% confidence interval 2.3-195.8). Furthermore, our preliminary findings imply individual (rather than breed) susceptibility, and suggest that deficiencies in heritable factors related to DNA repair capabilities may be involved in the development of canine lymphoma. These studies set the stage for larger confirmatory studies, as well as candidate-based approaches to probe specific genetic susceptibility factors. PMID:23935952

  14. Exploring the effect of absence selection on landslide susceptibility models: A case study in Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Cama, Mariaelena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Lombardo, Luigi; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    A statistical approach was employed to model the spatial distribution of rainfall-triggered landslides in two areas in Sicily (Italy) that occurred during the winter of 2004-2005. The investigated areas are located within the Belice River basin and extend for 38.5 and 10.3 km2, respectively. A landslide inventory was established for both areas using two Google Earth images taken on October 25th 2004 and on March 18th 2005, to map slope failures activated or reactivated during this interval. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to prepare 5 m grids of the dependent variables (absence/presence of landslide) and independent variables (lithology and 13 DEM-derivatives). Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) were applied to model landslide susceptibility whereas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate model performance. To evaluate the robustness of the whole procedure, we prepared 10 different samples of positive (landslide presence) and negative (landslide absence) cases for each area. Absences were selected through two different methods: (i) extraction from randomly distributed circles with a diameter corresponding to the mean width of the landslide source areas; and (ii) selection as randomly distributed individual grid cells. A comparison was also made between the predictive performances of models including and not including the lithology parameter. The models trained and tested on the same area demonstrated excellent to outstanding fit (AUC > 0.8). On the other hand, predictive skill decreases when measured outside the calibration area, although most of the landslides occur where susceptibility is high and the overall model performance is acceptable (AUC > 0.7). The results also showed that the accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models is higher when lithology is included in the statistical analysis. Models whose absences were selected using random circles showed a

  15. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  16. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  17. Antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed Central

    Rex, J H; Pfaller, M A; Rinaldi, M G; Polak, A; Galgiani, J N

    1993-01-01

    Unlike antibacterial susceptibility testing, reliable antifungal susceptibility testing is still largely in its infancy. Many methods have been described, but they produce widely discrepant results unless such factors as pH, inoculum size, medium formulation, incubation time, and incubation temperature are carefully controlled. Even when laboratories agree upon a common method, interlaboratory agreement may be poor. As a result of numerous collaborative projects carried out both independently and under the aegis of the Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, the effects of varying these factors have been extensively studied and a standard method which minimizes interlaboratory variability during the testing of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans has been proposed. This review summarizes this work, reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed susceptibility testing standard, and identifies directions for future work. PMID:8269392

  18. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified maize expressing Cry1Ac-M protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; He, Xiaoyun; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Cao, Sishuo; Song, Huan; Liu, Ting; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2012-09-01

    The cry1Ac-M gene, coding one of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal proteins, was introduced into maize H99 × Hi IIB genome to produce insect-resistant GM maize BT-38. The food safety assessment of the BT-38 maize was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats by a 90-days feeding study. We incorporated maize grains from BT-38 and H99 × Hi IIB into rodent diets at three concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50%) and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/sex/group) for 90 days. A commercialized rodent diet was fed to an additional group as control group. Body weight, feed consumption and toxicological response variables were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. Moreover, detection of residual Cry1Ac-M protein in the serum of rats fed with GM maize was conducted. No death or adverse effects were observed in the current feeding study. No adverse differences in the values of the response variables were observed between rats that consumed diets containing GM maize BT-38 and non-GM maize H99 × Hi IIB. No detectable Cry1Ac-M protein was found in the serum of rats after feeding diets containing GM maize for 3 months. The results demonstrated that BT-38 maize is as safe as conventional non-GM maize.

  19. Gender and AIDS-related psychosocial processes: a study of perceived susceptibility, social distance, and homophobia.

    PubMed

    Schieman, S

    1998-06-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have accumulated evidence that suggests six main factors are associated with AIDS-related risk reduction behavior: (a) perceived susceptibility (Dolcini et al., 1995; van der Plight & Richard, 1994); (b) attitudes toward condoms (Catania et al., 1994; Maticka-Tynadale, 1991); (c) personally knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (Joseph et al., 1987); (d) perceived peer norms about risk-reduction (Maticka-Tyndale, 1991); (e) previous sexual activity (Joseph et al., 1987); and (f) self-efficacy (Aspinwall, Kemeny, Taylor, & Schneider, 1991; van der Plight & Richard, 1994). Furthermore, there is some suggestion that the epidemiology and sociocultural constructions of the disease has led to considerable gender, racial, and class differences in awareness of AIDS, perception of HIV threat, and HIV-relevant behavior (Cohan & Atwood, 1994; Dolcini et al., 1995; Gillies, 1994). PMID:9642424

  20. Fetal Brain during a Binge Drinking Episode: A dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI fetal brain perfusion study

    PubMed Central

    Kochunov, Peter; Castro, Carlos; Davis, Duff M; Dudley, Donald; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Purdy, David; Fox, Peter T; Simerly, Calvin; Schatten, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a single episode of maternal alcohol intoxication on fetal brain blood perfusion in three pregnant dam (baboons) at the 24th week of pregnancy, using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI. Following the oral administration of alcohol there was a four-fold increase in the peak contrast concentrations in the fetal brain. Additionally, we observed a two-to-three fold increase in the contrast uptake and washout rates in fetal brain. The underlying mechanisms of these changes are unknown but we hypothesized these could include the alcohol-mediated changes in placental permeability and fetal cerebral blood flow. Our findings indicate that alcohol intoxication produced profound changes, which may detrimentally influence neurodevelopmental processes in the brain. PMID:20505549

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies nox3 as a critical gene for susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lavinsky, Joel; Crow, Amanda L; Pan, Calvin; Wang, Juemei; Aaron, Ksenia A; Ho, Maria K; Li, Qingzhong; Salehide, Pehzman; Myint, Anthony; Monges-Hernadez, Maya; Eskin, Eleazar; Allayee, Hooman; Lusis, Aldons J; Friedman, Rick A

    2015-04-01

    In the United States, roughly 10% of the population is exposed daily to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace. Twin studies estimate heritability for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) of approximately 36%, and strain specific variation in sensitivity has been demonstrated in mice. Based upon the difficulties inherent to the study of NIHL in humans, we have turned to the study of this complex trait in mice. We exposed 5 week-old mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) to a 10 kHz octave band noise at 108 dB for 2 hours and assessed the permanent threshold shift 2 weeks post exposure using frequency specific stimuli. These data were then used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Efficient Mixed Model Analysis (EMMA) to control for population structure. In this manuscript we describe our GWAS, with an emphasis on a significant peak for susceptibility to NIHL on chromosome 17 within a haplotype block containing NADPH oxidase-3 (Nox3). Our peak was detected after an 8 kHz tone burst stimulus. Nox3 mutants and heterozygotes were then tested to validate our GWAS. The mutants and heterozygotes demonstrated a greater susceptibility to NIHL specifically at 8 kHz both on measures of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and on auditory brainstem response (ABR). We demonstrate that this sensitivity resides within the synaptic ribbons of the cochlea in the mutant animals specifically at 8 kHz. Our work is the first GWAS for NIHL in mice and elucidates the power of our approach to identify tonotopic genetic susceptibility to NIHL. PMID:25880434

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Nox3 as a Critical Gene for Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lavinsky, Joel; Crow, Amanda L.; Pan, Calvin; Wang, Juemei; Aaron, Ksenia A.; Ho, Maria K.; Li, Qingzhong; Salehide, Pehzman; Myint, Anthony; Monges-Hernadez, Maya; Eskin, Eleazar; Allayee, Hooman; Lusis, Aldons J.; Friedman, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, roughly 10% of the population is exposed daily to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace. Twin studies estimate heritability for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) of approximately 36%, and strain specific variation in sensitivity has been demonstrated in mice. Based upon the difficulties inherent to the study of NIHL in humans, we have turned to the study of this complex trait in mice. We exposed 5 week-old mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) to a 10 kHz octave band noise at 108 dB for 2 hours and assessed the permanent threshold shift 2 weeks post exposure using frequency specific stimuli. These data were then used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Efficient Mixed Model Analysis (EMMA) to control for population structure. In this manuscript we describe our GWAS, with an emphasis on a significant peak for susceptibility to NIHL on chromosome 17 within a haplotype block containing NADPH oxidase-3 (Nox3). Our peak was detected after an 8 kHz tone burst stimulus. Nox3 mutants and heterozygotes were then tested to validate our GWAS. The mutants and heterozygotes demonstrated a greater susceptibility to NIHL specifically at 8 kHz both on measures of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and on auditory brainstem response (ABR). We demonstrate that this sensitivity resides within the synaptic ribbons of the cochlea in the mutant animals specifically at 8 kHz. Our work is the first GWAS for NIHL in mice and elucidates the power of our approach to identify tonotopic genetic susceptibility to NIHL. PMID:25880434

  3. An electrochemical study of corrosion protection by primer-topcoat systems on 4130 steel with ac impedance and dc methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendrek, M. J.; Higgins, R. H.; Danford, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate metal surface corrosion and the breakdown of metal protective coatings, the ac impedance method is applied to six systems of primer coated and primer topcoated 4130 steel. Two primers were used: a zinc-rich epoxy primer and a red lead oxide epoxy primer. The epoxy-polyamine topcoat was used in four of the systems. The EG and G-PARC Model 368 ac impedance measurement system, along with dc measurements with the same system using the polarization resistance method, were used to monitor changing properties of coated 4230 steel disks immersed in 3.5 percent NaCl solutions buffered at pH 5.4 over periods of 40 to 60 days. The corrosion system can be represented by an electronic analog called an equivalent circuit consisting of resistors and capacitors in specific arrangements. This equivalent circuit parallels the impedance behavior of the corrosion system during a frequency scan. Values for the resistors and capacitors, that can be assigned in the equivalent circuit following a least-squares analysis of the data, describe changes that occur on the corroding metal surface and in the protective coatings. Two equivalent circuits have been determined that predict the correct Bode phase and magnitude of the experimental sample at different immersion times. The dc corrosion current density data are related to equivalent circuit element parameters. Methods for determining corrosion rate with ac impedance parameters are verified by the dc method.

  4. iGWAS: Integrative Genome-Wide Association Studies of Genetic and Genomic Data for Disease Susceptibility Using Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Liang, Liming; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C M; Lin, Xihong

    2015-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a standard practice in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for disease susceptibility. We propose a new approach, termed integrative GWAS (iGWAS) that exploits the information of gene expressions to investigate the mechanisms of the association of SNPs with a disease phenotype, and to incorporate the family-based design for genetic association studies. Specifically, the relations among SNPs, gene expression, and disease are modeled within the mediation analysis framework, which allows us to disentangle the genetic effect on a disease phenotype into two parts: an effect mediated through a gene expression (mediation effect, ME) and an effect through other biological mechanisms or environment-mediated mechanisms (alternative effect, AE). We develop omnibus tests for the ME and AE that are robust to underlying true disease models. Numerical studies show that the iGWAS approach is able to facilitate discovering genetic association mechanisms, and outperforms the SNP-only method for testing genetic associations. We conduct a family-based iGWAS of childhood asthma that integrates genetic and genomic data. The iGWAS approach identifies six novel susceptibility genes (MANEA, MRPL53, LYCAT, ST8SIA4, NDFIP1, and PTCH1) using the omnibus test with false discovery rate less than 1%, whereas no gene using SNP-only analyses survives with the same cut-off. The iGWAS analyses further characterize that genetic effects of these genes are mostly mediated through their gene expressions. In summary, the iGWAS approach provides a new analytic framework to investigate the mechanism of genetic etiology, and identifies novel susceptibility genes of childhood asthma that were biologically meaningful. PMID:25997986

  5. Influence of Factor V Leiden on susceptibility to and outcome from critical illness: a genetic association study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Disturbance of the pro-coagulatant and anti-coagulant balance is associated with a poor outcome from critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine whether the Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is associated with susceptibility to or death from critical illness. Methods A genetic association study involving four case cohorts comprising two Gram negative sepsis, one invasive pneumococcal disease and one intensive care unit cohort with a total of 1,249 patients. Controls were derived from a population-based cohort study (N = 8,147). DNA from patients and controls was genotyped for the FVL mutation. Results When all patients were investigated together no significant difference in the frequency of FVL mutation was observed compared with controls (odds ratio (OR), 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83 to 1.29). However, when stratified among patients admitted to intensive care (N = 237), susceptibility and the likelihood of long-term death was influenced by the FVL mutation. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, FVL carriers had an increased risk of ICU admission compared to non-carriers (OR 1.62; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.42). In adjusted Cox regression analysis, FVL carriers were at increased risk of long-term death compared to non-carriers (relative risk 1.78; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.81). FVL carrier status did not predict either susceptibility to or outcome from Gram negative, Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis. Conclusions Overall, the FVL mutation did not appear to increase the risk of admission due to severe invasive infections. Nevertheless, in the subgroup of patients admitted to intensive care an increased risk and a poorer long-term outcome for individuals with critical illness were observed for FVL mutation carriers. PMID:20202226

  6. Fine mapping of breast cancer genome-wide association studies loci in women of African ancestry identifies novel susceptibility markers

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Dezheng

    2013-01-01

    Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these SNPs were primarily discovered and validated in women of European and Asian ancestry. Because linkage disequilibrium is ancestry-dependent and heterogeneous among racial/ethnic populations, we evaluated common genetic variants at 22 GWAS-identified breast cancer susceptibility loci in a pooled sample of 1502 breast cancer cases and 1378 controls of African ancestry. None of the 22 GWAS index SNPs could be validated, challenging the direct generalizability of breast cancer risk variants identified in Caucasians or Asians to other populations. Novel breast cancer risk variants for women of African ancestry were identified in regions including 5p12 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11–1.76; P = 0.004), 5q11.2 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09–1.36; P = 0.00053) and 10p15.1 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08–1.38; P = 0.0015). We also found positive association signals in three regions (6q25.1, 10q26.13 and 16q12.1–q12.2) previously confirmed by fine mapping in women of African ancestry. In addition, polygenic model indicated that eight best markers in this study, compared with 22 GWAS-identified SNPs, could better predict breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry (per-allele OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.16–1.27; P = 9.7 × 10–16). Our results demonstrate that fine mapping is a powerful approach to better characterize the breast cancer risk alleles in diverse populations. Future studies and new GWAS in women of African ancestry hold promise to discover additional variants for breast cancer susceptibility with clinical implications throughout the African diaspora. PMID:23475944

  7. iGWAS: Integrative Genome-Wide Association Studies of Genetic and Genomic Data for Disease Susceptibility Using Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Liang, Liming; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C M; Lin, Xihong

    2015-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a standard practice in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for disease susceptibility. We propose a new approach, termed integrative GWAS (iGWAS) that exploits the information of gene expressions to investigate the mechanisms of the association of SNPs with a disease phenotype, and to incorporate the family-based design for genetic association studies. Specifically, the relations among SNPs, gene expression, and disease are modeled within the mediation analysis framework, which allows us to disentangle the genetic effect on a disease phenotype into two parts: an effect mediated through a gene expression (mediation effect, ME) and an effect through other biological mechanisms or environment-mediated mechanisms (alternative effect, AE). We develop omnibus tests for the ME and AE that are robust to underlying true disease models. Numerical studies show that the iGWAS approach is able to facilitate discovering genetic association mechanisms, and outperforms the SNP-only method for testing genetic associations. We conduct a family-based iGWAS of childhood asthma that integrates genetic and genomic data. The iGWAS approach identifies six novel susceptibility genes (MANEA, MRPL53, LYCAT, ST8SIA4, NDFIP1, and PTCH1) using the omnibus test with false discovery rate less than 1%, whereas no gene using SNP-only analyses survives with the same cut-off. The iGWAS analyses further characterize that genetic effects of these genes are mostly mediated through their gene expressions. In summary, the iGWAS approach provides a new analytic framework to investigate the mechanism of genetic etiology, and identifies novel susceptibility genes of childhood asthma that were biologically meaningful.

  8. Novel Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility Locus at 22q12 Identified in an Extended UK Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Gisela; Viatte, Sebastien; Bowes, John; Martin, Paul; Wilson, Anthony G; Morgan, Ann W; Steer, Sophia; Wordsworth, Paul; Hocking, Lynne J; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of confirmed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) loci currently stands at 32, but many lines of evidence indicate that expansion of existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enhances the power to detect additional loci. This study was undertaken to extend our previous RA GWAS in a UK cohort, adding more independent RA cases and healthy controls, with the aim of detecting novel association signals for susceptibility to RA in a homogeneous UK cohort. Methods A total of 3,223 UK RA cases and 5,272 UK controls were available for association analyses, with the extension adding 1,361 cases and 2,334 controls to the original GWAS data set. The genotype data for all RA cases were imputed using the Impute program version 2. After stringent quality control thresholds were applied, 3,034 cases and 5,271 controls (1,831,729 single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) were available for analysis. Association testing was performed using Plink software. Results The analyses indicated a suggestive association with susceptibility to RA (P < 0.0001) for 6 novel RA loci that have been previously found to be associated with other autoimmune diseases; these 6 SNPs were genotyped in independent samples. Two of the associated loci were validated, one of which was associated with RA at genome-wide levels of significance in the combined analysis, identifying a novel RA locus at 22q12 (P = 6.9 × 10−9). In addition, most of the previously known RA susceptibility loci were confirmed to be associated with RA, and for 16 of the loci, the strength of the association was increased. Conclusion This study identified a new RA locus mapping to 22q12. These results support the notion that increasing the power of GWAS enhances novel gene discovery. PMID:24449572

  9. Fine mapping of breast cancer genome-wide association studies loci in women of African ancestry identifies novel susceptibility markers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Falusi, Adeyinka G; Nathanson, Katherine L; John, Esther M; Hennis, Anselm J M; Ambs, Stefan; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Simon, Michael S; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, Maria Cristina; Odetunde, Abayomi; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Afolabi, Chibuzor; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Christopher O; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-07-01

    Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these SNPs were primarily discovered and validated in women of European and Asian ancestry. Because linkage disequilibrium is ancestry-dependent and heterogeneous among racial/ethnic populations, we evaluated common genetic variants at 22 GWAS-identified breast cancer susceptibility loci in a pooled sample of 1502 breast cancer cases and 1378 controls of African ancestry. None of the 22 GWAS index SNPs could be validated, challenging the direct generalizability of breast cancer risk variants identified in Caucasians or Asians to other populations. Novel breast cancer risk variants for women of African ancestry were identified in regions including 5p12 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.76; P = 0.004), 5q11.2 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.36; P = 0.00053) and 10p15.1 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.38; P = 0.0015). We also found positive association signals in three regions (6q25.1, 10q26.13 and 16q12.1-q12.2) previously confirmed by fine mapping in women of African ancestry. In addition, polygenic model indicated that eight best markers in this study, compared with 22 GWAS-identified SNPs, could better predict breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry (per-allele OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.16-1.27; P = 9.7 × 10(-16)). Our results demonstrate that fine mapping is a powerful approach to better characterize the breast cancer risk alleles in diverse populations. Future studies and new GWAS in women of African ancestry hold promise to discover additional variants for breast cancer susceptibility with clinical implications throughout the African diaspora.

  10. Increased Long-Flight Activity Triggered in Beet Armyworm by Larval Feeding on Diet Containing Cry1Ac Protoxin

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xing Fu; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Sappington, Thomas W.; Luo, Li Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i) sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii) increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving sublethal doses

  11. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xing Fu; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Sappington, Thomas W; Luo, Li Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i) sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii) increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving sublethal doses

  12. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  13. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    PubMed

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx.

  14. Proteomics-based identification of midgut proteins correlated with Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Jixing; Guo, Zhaojiang; Yang, Zezhong; Zhu, Xun; Kang, Shi; Yang, Xin; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Xu, Weijun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide pest of cruciferous crops and can rapidly develop resistance to many chemical insecticides. Although insecticidal crystal proteins (i.e., Cry and Cyt toxins) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been useful alternatives to chemical insecticides for the control of P. xylostella, resistance to Bt in field populations of P. xylostella has already been reported. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms to Bt should be valuable in delaying resistance development. In this study, the mechanisms underlying P. xylostella resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin were investigated using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and ligand blotting for the first time. Comparative analyses of the constitutive expression of midgut proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant P. xylostella larvae revealed 31 differentially expressed proteins, 21 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these identified proteins, the following fell into diverse eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) subcategories may be involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily G member 4 (ABCG4), trypsin, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, actin, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1 protein (GAA1) and solute carrier family 30 member 1 (SLC30A1). Additionally, ligand blotting identified the following midgut proteins as Cry1Ac-binding proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible P. xylostella larvae: ABC transporter subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1), solute carrier family 36 member 1 (SLC36A1), NADH dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein 3 (NDUFS3), prohibitin and Rap1 GTPase-activating protein 1. Collectively, these proteomic results increase our understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in P. xylostella and also demonstrate that resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin is complex and multifaceted. PMID:27521921

  15. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi: a microdilution MIC method and time-kill studies.

    PubMed Central

    Dever, L L; Jorgensen, J H; Barbour, A G

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, to various antimicrobial agents varies widely among published studies. These differences are probably due in part to variations in susceptibility testing techniques and growth endpoint determinations. We developed a microdilution method for determining the MICs of antibiotics against B. burgdorferi. The method incorporated BSK II medium, a final inoculum of 10(6) cells per ml, and a 72-h incubation period and was found to be simple and highly reproducible. A variety of antibiotics and strains of B. burgdorferi and one strain of Borrelia hermsii were examined by this method. MICs of penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin for the B31 strain of B. burgdorferi were 0.06, 0.03, and 0.03 microgram/ml, respectively. We compared the MICs obtained by the microdilution method with those obtained by a macrodilution method using similar criteria for endpoint determinations and found the values obtained by both methods to be in close agreement. To further investigate the bactericidal activities of penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin against strain B31, we used subsurface plating to determine MBCs and we also performed time-kill studies. The MBCs of penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin were 0.125, 0.03, and 0.06 micrograms/ml, respectively. Time-kill curves demonstrated a greater than or equal to 3-log10-unit killing after 72 h with penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin; ceftriaxone provided the greatest reduction in CFU. The described methods offer a more standardized and objective approach to susceptibility testing of B. burgdorferi. Images PMID:1400969

  16. The associations between VEGF gene polymorphisms and diabetic retinopathy susceptibility: a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Han, Liyuan; Zhang, Lina; Xing, Wenhua; Zhuo, Renjie; Lin, XiaLu; Hao, Yanhua; Wu, Qunhong; Zhao, Jinshun

    2014-01-01

    AIMS. Published data on the associations of VEGF polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) susceptibility are inconclusive. A systematic meta-analysis was undertaken to clarify this topic. METHODS. Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, OVID, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Cochrane Library with the last report up to January 10, 2014. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated for VEGF-2578C/A (rs699947), -1154G/A (rs1570360), -460T/C (rs833061), -634G>C (rs2010963), and +936C/T (rs3025039) in at least two published studies. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random effect model by using the software STATA 12.0. RESULTS. A total of 11 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. A significant relationship between VEGF+936C/T (rs3025039) polymorphism and DR was found in a recessive model (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.20-8.41, and P(z) = 0.01) in Asian and overall populations, while a significant association was also found between -460T/C (rs833061) polymorphism and DR risk under a recessive model (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.12-4.01, and P(z) = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that +936C/T (rs3025039) is likely to be associated with susceptibility to DR in Asian populations, and the recessive model of -460T/C (rs833061) is associated with elevated DR susceptibility.

  17. Functional Characterization of the Osteoarthritis Susceptibility Mapping to CHST11—A Bioinformatics and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Reynard, Louise N.; Ratnayake, Madhushika; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs835487 is associated with hip osteoarthritis (OA) at the genome-wide significance level and is located within CHST11, which codes for carbohydrate sulfotransferase 11. This enzyme post-translationally modifies proteoglycan prior to its deposition in the cartilage extracellular matrix. Using bioinformatics and experimental analyses, our aims were to characterise the rs835487 association signal and to identify the causal functional variant/s. Database searches revealed that rs835487 resides within a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block of only 2.7 kb and is in LD (r2 ≥ 0.8) with six other SNPs. These are all located within intron 2 of CHST11, in a region that has predicted enhancer activity and which shows a high degree of conservation in primates. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that of the seven SNPs, rs835487 and rs835488, which have a pairwise r2 of 0.962, are the top functional candidates; the haplotype composed of the OA-risk conferring G allele of rs835487 and the corresponding T allele of rs835488 (the G-T haplotype) demonstrated significantly different enhancer activity relative to the haplotype composed of the non-risk A allele of rs835487 and the corresponding C allele of rs835488 (the A-C haplotype) (p < 0.001). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and supershifts identified several transcription factors that bind more strongly to the risk-conferring G and T alleles of the two SNPs, including SP1, SP3, YY1 and SUB1. CHST11 was found to be upregulated in OA versus non-OA cartilage (p < 0.001) and was expressed dynamically during chondrogenesis. Its expression in adult cartilage did not however correlate with rs835487 genotype. Our data demonstrate that the OA susceptibility is mediated by differential protein binding to the alleles of rs835487 and rs835488, which are located within an enhancer whose target may be CHST11 during chondrogenesis or an alternative gene. PMID:27391021

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel susceptibility loci for severe Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Navarini, Alexander A; Simpson, Michael A; Weale, Michael; Knight, Jo; Carlavan, Isabelle; Reiniche, Pascale; Burden, David A; Layton, Alison; Bataille, Veronique; Allen, Michael; Pleass, Robert; Pink, Andrew; Creamer, Daniel; English, John; Munn, Stephanie; Walton, Shernaz; Willis, Carolyn; Déret, Sophie; Voegel, Johannes J; Spector, Tim; Smith, Catherine H; Trembath, Richard C; Barker, Jonathan N

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris (acne) is a common inflammatory disorder of the cutaneous pilo-sebaceous unit. Here we perform a genome-wide association analysis in the United Kingdom, comparing severe cases of acne (n=1,893) with controls (n=5,132). In a second stage, we genotype putative-associated loci in a further 2,063 acne cases and 1,970 controls. We identify three genome-wide significant associations: 11q13.1 (rs478304, Pcombined=3.23 × 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) = 1.20), 5q11.2 (rs38055, P(combined) = 4.58 × 10(-9), OR = 1.17) and 1q41 (rs1159268, P(combined) = 4.08 × 10(-8), OR = 1.17). All three loci contain genes linked to the TGFβ cell signalling pathway, namely OVOL1, FST and TGFB2. Transcripts of OVOL1 and TFGB2 have decreased expression in affected compared with normal skin. Collectively, these data support a key role for dysregulation of TGFβ-mediated signalling in susceptibility to acne.

  19. Evaluation of debris flow susceptibility by means of a transferability procedure: a study case in Messina area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama, Mariaelena; Luigi, Lombardo; Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows can be described as rapid mass movements, gravity induced able to transport large quantities of material downslope. This type of landslides is strongly controlled by the topography and usually occur in region characterized by steep slopes and at least seasonal heavy rainfall. One of the problem when dealing with debris flow susceptible areas is that the eroded surface is usually very shallow and it can be masked by the vegetation already few years after a landslide event. Therefore, debris flow prone areas very often suffer from lack of reliable landslide inventories necessary to calibrate and validate susceptibility models. In order to deal with this problem, transferability procedure (spatial partition) have already proved to be efficient in areas which show analogous topographic, lithological and climatic characteristics. A procedure to evaluate whether it is possible to apply model transferability is here proposed. This approach is based on the assumption that debris flow trigger in different locations under similar topographic conditions and includes: i) a test of similarity between training and test areas aimed at identifying thresholds in catchment similarity which allow to successfully perform the transferability; ii) the calibration of the susceptibility model in the training area; iii) the validation of the model on the test area. The debris flow susceptibility is here evaluated using a stochastic approach and the all procedure is implemented in a R script which can be easily used to test the procedure in other catchments. The study areas chosen to perform this study are located in the Messina province (southern Italy) respectively on the Ionian sector (Itala catchment) and on the Tyrrhenian sector (Saponara catchment). Itala catchment was hit by the sadly known debris flow event of the 1st October 2009 (37 fatalities and huge damages) while Saponara catchment on the 22nd November 2011 (only two years after the 2009 event) experienced a very

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Susceptibility Genes Associated with Coronary Artery Aneurysm Formation in Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou; Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Fu-Chen; Jiao, Fuyong; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Andrade, Jorge; Chan, Wen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) or Kawasaki syndrome is known as a vasculitis of small to medium-sized vessels, and coronary arteries are predominantly involved in childhood. Generally, 20-25% of untreated with IVIG and 3-5% of treated KD patients have been developed coronary artery lesions (CALs), such as dilatation and aneurysm. Understanding how coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are established and maintained in KD patients is therefore of great importance. Upon our previous genotyping data of 157 valid KD subjects, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been conducted among 11 (7%) CAA-developed KD patients to reveal five significant genetic variants passed pre-defined thresholds and resulted in two novel susceptibility protein-coding genes, which are NEBL (rs16921209 (P = 7.44 × 10-9; OR = 32.22) and rs7922552 (P = 8.43 × 10-9; OR = 32.0)) and TUBA3C (rs17076896 (P = 8.04 × 10-9; OR = 21.03)). Their known functions have been reported to associate with cardiac muscle and tubulin, respectively. As a result, this might imply their putative roles of establishing CAAs during KD progression. Additionally, various model analyses have been utilized to determine dominant and recessive inheritance patterns of identified susceptibility mutations. Finally, all susceptibility genes hit by significant genetic variants were further investigated and the top three representative gene-ontology (GO) clusters were regulation of cell projection organization, neuron recognition, and peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation. Our results help to depict the potential routes of the pathogenesis of CAAs in KD patients and will facilitate researchers to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of KD in personalized medicine. PMID:27171184

  1. A genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci of silica-related pneumoconiosis in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chu, Minjie; Ji, Xiaoming; Chen, Weihong; Zhang, Ruyang; Sun, Chongqi; Wang, Ting; Luo, Chen; Gong, Jianhang; Zhu, Meng; Fan, Jingjing; Hou, Zhiguo; Dai, Juncheng; Jin, Guangfu; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhibin; Ni, Chunhui; Shen, Hongbing

    2014-12-01

    Pneumoconiosis is the most serious occupational disease in China and its leading cause is occupational silica exposure. Pneumoconiosis takes several years to develop depending on the exposure level of silica. However, individual variation in the susceptibility to pneumoconiosis has been observed among the subjects with similar exposure. We conducted a genome-wide screening with 710,999 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cohort of 400 coal workers (202 cases and 198 exposed controls) for pneumoconiosis susceptible loci. Seven promising variants were evaluated in an independent cohort of 568 coal workers (323 cases and 245 exposed controls), followed by a second replication on 463 iron ore workers (167 cases and 296 exposed controls). By pooling all of the genome-wide association studies and replication stages together, we found a genome-wide significant (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) association for rs73329476 (P = 1.74 × 10(-8), OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.66-2.85) and two additional replicated associations for rs4320486 (P < 0.05) and rs117626015 (P < 0.05) with combined P-values of 4.29 × 10(-6) and 5.05 × 10(-6), respectively. In addition, the risk allele T of rs73329476 was significantly associated with lower mRNA expression levels of carboxypeptidase M (CPM) in total cellular RNA from whole blood of 156 healthy individuals (P = 0.0252). The identified pneumoconiosis susceptibility loci may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of pneumoconiosis, and may also have some clinical utility for risk prediction for pneumoconiosis and high-risk population screening for workers with occupational silica exposure.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Susceptibility Genes Associated with Coronary Artery Aneurysm Formation in Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Fu-Chen; Jiao, Fuyong; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Andrade, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) or Kawasaki syndrome is known as a vasculitis of small to medium-sized vessels, and coronary arteries are predominantly involved in childhood. Generally, 20–25% of untreated with IVIG and 3–5% of treated KD patients have been developed coronary artery lesions (CALs), such as dilatation and aneurysm. Understanding how coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are established and maintained in KD patients is therefore of great importance. Upon our previous genotyping data of 157 valid KD subjects, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been conducted among 11 (7%) CAA-developed KD patients to reveal five significant genetic variants passed pre-defined thresholds and resulted in two novel susceptibility protein-coding genes, which are NEBL (rs16921209 (P = 7.44 × 10−9; OR = 32.22) and rs7922552 (P = 8.43 × 10−9; OR = 32.0)) and TUBA3C (rs17076896 (P = 8.04 × 10−9; OR = 21.03)). Their known functions have been reported to associate with cardiac muscle and tubulin, respectively. As a result, this might imply their putative roles of establishing CAAs during KD progression. Additionally, various model analyses have been utilized to determine dominant and recessive inheritance patterns of identified susceptibility mutations. Finally, all susceptibility genes hit by significant genetic variants were further investigated and the top three representative gene-ontology (GO) clusters were regulation of cell projection organization, neuron recognition, and peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation. Our results help to depict the potential routes of the pathogenesis of CAAs in KD patients and will facilitate researchers to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of KD in personalized medicine. PMID:27171184

  3. The importance of population susceptibility for air pollution risk assessment: a case study of power plants near Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Greco, Susan L; Spengler, John D

    2002-12-01

    In evaluating risks from air pollution, health impact assessments often focus on the magnitude of the impacts without explicitly considering the distribution of impacts across subpopulations. In this study, we constructed a model to estimate the magnitude and distribution of health benefits associated with emission controls at five older power plants in the Washington, DC, area. We used the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model to determine the primary and secondary fine-particulate-matter (< 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter) concentration reductions associated with the hypothetical application of "Best Available Control Technology" to the selected power plants. We combined these concentration reductions with concentration-response functions for mortality and selected morbidity outcomes, using a conventional approach as well as considering susceptible subpopulations. Incorporating susceptibility had a minimal effect on total benefits, with central estimates of approximately 240 fewer premature deaths, 60 fewer cardiovascular hospital admissions (CHA), and 160 fewer pediatric asthma emergency room visits (ERV) per year. However, because individuals with lower education appear to have both higher background mortality rates and higher relative risks for air-pollution-related mortality, stratifying by educational attainment implies that 51% of the mortality benefits accrue among the 25% of the population with less than high school education. Similarly, diabetics and African Americans bear disproportionate shares of the CHA and ERV benefits, respectively. Although our ability to characterize subpopulations is constrained by the available information, our analysis demonstrates that incorporation of susceptibility information significantly affects demographic and geographic patterns of health benefits and enhances our understanding of individuals likely to benefit from emission controls.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from horses with synovial sepsis: A cross-sectional study of 95 cases.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C S; Timofte, D; Singer, E R; Rimmington, L; Rubio-Martínez, L M

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of septic synovial samples allows instigation of targeted antimicrobial therapy; however, bacterial culture takes more than 24 h and has low sensitivity. This study aimed to identify the most frequently cultured bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile from septic synovial samples in our referral equine hospital, to allow recommendations regarding appropriate initial antimicrobial therapy prior to culture results. Hospital records for all horses with synovial sepsis and a synovial sample submitted to the microbiology laboratory between 2004 and 2013 were retrieved (n= 379 samples). One horse had positive cultures from more than one synovial structure, and two horses had positive cultures obtained from repeat samples. Overall, 114 bacterial isolates were obtained. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 75% of cases, of which 22% were haemolytic Staphylococcus spp., and 52% were Staphylococcus aureus including two multidrug-resistant isolates. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 25% of cases. Anaerobic Clostridium spp. was isolated in 3% of cases. Of the first line antimicrobials, oxytetracycline and doxycycline were effective against 70-100% of the Gram-positive bacteria and 20-100% of the Gram-negative organisms, whilst trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and gentamicin efficacy ranged between 50% and 88% for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Of the equine protected antimicrobials, ceftiofur was effective against 70-90% of all bacterial isolates whilst 80% of isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin. These results indicate that tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole or gentamicin may be suitable first-line antimicrobials for treatment of synovial sepsis cases while awaiting laboratory results, findings which support current recommendations for antimicrobial stewardship in equine medicine. PMID:27687937

  5. The importance of population susceptibility for air pollution risk assessment: a case study of power plants near Washington, DC.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan I; Greco, Susan L; Spengler, John D

    2002-01-01

    In evaluating risks from air pollution, health impact assessments often focus on the magnitude of the impacts without explicitly considering the distribution of impacts across subpopulations. In this study, we constructed a model to estimate the magnitude and distribution of health benefits associated with emission controls at five older power plants in the Washington, DC, area. We used the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model to determine the primary and secondary fine-particulate-matter (< 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter) concentration reductions associated with the hypothetical application of "Best Available Control Technology" to the selected power plants. We combined these concentration reductions with concentration-response functions for mortality and selected morbidity outcomes, using a conventional approach as well as considering susceptible subpopulations. Incorporating susceptibility had a minimal effect on total benefits, with central estimates of approximately 240 fewer premature deaths, 60 fewer cardiovascular hospital admissions (CHA), and 160 fewer pediatric asthma emergency room visits (ERV) per year. However, because individuals with lower education appear to have both higher background mortality rates and higher relative risks for air-pollution-related mortality, stratifying by educational attainment implies that 51% of the mortality benefits accrue among the 25% of the population with less than high school education. Similarly, diabetics and African Americans bear disproportionate shares of the CHA and ERV benefits, respectively. Although our ability to characterize subpopulations is constrained by the available information, our analysis demonstrates that incorporation of susceptibility information significantly affects demographic and geographic patterns of health benefits and enhances our understanding of individuals likely to benefit from emission controls. PMID:12460806

  6. Aberration corrected environmental STEM (AC ESTEM) for dynamic in-situ gas reaction studies of nanoparticle catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, E. D.; Gai, P. L.

    2014-06-01

    Environmental scanning transmission electron microscopy (ESTEM) with aberration correction (AC) has recently been added to the capabilities of the more established ETEM for analysis of heterogeneous nanoparticle based catalysts. It has helped to reveal the importance and potentially unique properties of individual atoms as active sites in their own right as well as pathways between established nanoparticles. A new capability is introduced for dynamic in-situ experiments under controlled conditions of specimen temperature and gas environment related to real world conditions pertinent to a range of industrial and societal priorities for new and improved chemical processes, materials, fuels, pharmaceutical products and processes, and in control or remediation of environmental emissions.

  7. Age-related changes in serological susceptibility patterns to measles: results from a seroepidemiological study in Dongguan, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yongzhen; Wang, Dong; Lin, Weiyan; Tang, Hao; Chen, Shaoli; Ni, Jindong

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of IgG measles antibodies in Dongguan residents (irrespective of vaccination status), to analyze the changes in age-related serological susceptibility patterns. A total of 1960 residents aged 0-60 years and 315 mother-infant pairs were studied. Serum IgG antibodies against measles virus were measured by ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 93.4% in the general population in Dongguan, China. In subgroups aged 1-29 years who were likely vaccinated, there was a declining trend of seropositivity with age from 98.6% at 1-4 years to 85.7% at 20-29 years (P<0.0001). Seroprevalence were near or>95% in the older population (30-39 years and ≥ 40 years) who had not been immunized against measles. Age and sex were independent factors associated with seropositivity. Seroprevalence in pregnant women and their newborns was 87.0% and 84.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that the waning vaccine-induced immunity may be the main cause of increased serological susceptibility in young adults and young infants. An additional vaccination strategy that targets young adults is important for elimination of measles. PMID:24448194

  8. A Prospective Study of Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility in Sabah, Malaysia, and an Algorithm for Management of Isoniazid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rashid Ali, Muhammad Redzwan S.; Parameswaran, Uma; William, Timothy; Bird, Elspeth; Wilkes, Christopher S.; Lee, Wai Khew; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Ralph, Anna P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The burden of tuberculosis is high in eastern Malaysia, and rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine M. tuberculosis susceptibility and document management after receipt of susceptibility results. Methods. Prospective study of adult outpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Sabah, Malaysia. Additionally, hospital clinicians accessed the reference laboratory for clinical purposes during the study. Results. 176 outpatients were enrolled; 173 provided sputum samples. Mycobacterial culture yielded M. tuberculosis in 159 (91.9%) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) in three (1.7%). Among outpatients there were no instances of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Seven people (4.5%) had isoniazid resistance (INH-R); all were switched to an appropriate second-line regimen for varying durations (4.5–9 months). Median delay to commencement of the second-line regimen was 13 weeks. Among 15 inpatients with suspected TB, 2 had multidrug resistant TB (one extensively drug resistant), 2 had INH-R, and 4 had NTM. Conclusions. Current community rates of MDR-TB in Sabah are low. However, INH-resistance poses challenges, and NTM is an important differential diagnosis in this setting, where smear microscopy is the usual diagnostic modality. To address INH-R management issues in our setting, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of isoniazid-resistant PTB. PMID:25838829

  9. Association between Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Scoliosis in Bulgarian Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Svetla; Yablanski, Vasil; Vlaev, Evgeni; Stokov, Luben; Savov, Alexey; Kremensky, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current consensus on idiopathic scoliosis maintains that it has a multifactorial etiology with genetic predisposing factors. AIM: Estrogen receptor alpha gene has been considered as candidate gene of idiopathic scoliosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of Bulgarian population samples (eighty patients with idiopathic scoliosis and one hundred-sixty healthy unrelated gender-matched controls) trying to investigate the association between common genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptor alpha and the susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis. Molecular detection of the restriction polymorphisms XbaI and PvuII was performed by polymerase chain reaction following by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The statistical analysis was performed by Pearson’s chi-squared test. RESULTS: Our case-control study showed statistically significant association between the PvuII polymorphism and susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis and curve progression. No genotype or allele of XbaI polymorphism was found to be correlated with the onset or severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of molecular markers with diagnostic and prognostic value could be useful for early detection of children at risk for the development of scoliosis and for prognosis of the risk for a rapid deformity progression. That would facilitate the therapy decisions and early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures. PMID:27275235

  10. Haematite natural crystals: non-linear initial susceptibility at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Suarez, S.; Martín-Hernández, F.

    2016-06-01

    Several works have reported that haematite has non-linear initial susceptibility at room temperature, like pyrrhotite or titanomagnetite, but there is no explanation for the observed behaviours yet. This study sets out to determine which physical property (grain size, foreign cations content and domain walls displacements) controls the initial susceptibility. The performed measurements include microprobe analysis to determine magnetic phases different to haematite; initial susceptibility (300 K); hysteresis loops, SIRM and backfield curves at 77 and 300 K to calculate magnetic parameters and minor loops at 77 K, to analyse initial susceptibility and magnetization behaviours below Morin transition. The magnetic moment study at low temperature is completed with measurements of zero field cooled-field cooled and AC susceptibility in a range from 5 to 300 K. The minor loops show that the non-linearity of initial susceptibility is closely related to Barkhausen jumps. Because of initial magnetic susceptibility is controlled by domain structure it is difficult to establish a mathematical model to separate magnetic subfabrics in haematite-bearing rocks.

  11. Study on AC-DC Electrical Conductivities in Warm Dense Matter Generated by Pulsed-power Discharge with Isochoric Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Ohuchi, Takumi; Takahashi, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshinari; Saito, Hirotaka; Miki, Yasutoshi; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.

    2016-03-01

    To observe AC and DC electrical conductivity in warm dense matter (WDM), we have demonstrated to apply the spectroscopic ellipsometry for a pulsed-power discharge with isochoric vessel. At 10 μs from the beginning of discharge, the generated parameters by using pulsed-power discharge with isochoric vessel are 0.1 ρ s (ρ s: solid density) of density and 4000 K of temperature, respectively. The DC electrical conductivity for above parameters is estimated to be 104 S/m. In order to measure the AC electrical conductivity, we have developed a four-detector spectroscopic ellipsometer with a multichannel spectrometer. The multichannel spectrometer, in which consists of a 16-channel photodiode array, a two-stages voltage adder, and a flat diffraction grating, has 10 MHz of the frequency response with covered visible spectrum. For applying the four-detector spectroscopic ellipsometer, we observe the each observation signal evolves the polarized behavior compared to the ratio as I 1/I 2.

  12. Longitudinal study of susceptibilities of species of the Bacteroides fragilis group to five antimicrobial agents in three medical centers.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, P; Turgeon, V; Gourdeau, M; Dubois, J; Lamothe, F

    1994-10-01

    A total of 579 clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group collected from three Canadian hospitals were tested for susceptibility to five antimicrobial agents by using an agar dilution method. During the 4-year survey, isolates from intra-abdominal infections were collected from the following sites: abdominal abscesses (48%), peritoneal fluid (39%), blood (10%), and bile (3%). B. fragilis was the most prevalent species (35.4%), followed by B. thetaiotaomicron (19.2%), B. ovatus (15.9%), and B. vulgatus (11%). No metronidazole- or imipenem-resistant strains were found during the survey. Resistance profiles varied among the different species tested: 7.8, 2.9, and 7.3% of B. fragilis strains (n = 205) and 68.1, 17.2, and 9.4% of non-B. fragilis strains (n = 373) were resistant to cefotetan, cefoxitin, and clindamycin, respectively. B. fragilis and B. vulgatus demonstrated lower resistance rates than B. thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus, B. distasonis, and B. caccae. During the study, rates of resistance to cefotetan and clindamycin fluctuated but rates of resistance to cefoxitin increased, particularly at one center. These data indicate a need to determine the susceptibility patterns of the B. fragilis group periodically at each hospital.

  13. Longitudinal study of susceptibilities of species of the Bacteroides fragilis group to five antimicrobial agents in three medical centers.

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, P; Turgeon, V; Gourdeau, M; Dubois, J; Lamothe, F

    1994-01-01

    A total of 579 clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group collected from three Canadian hospitals were tested for susceptibility to five antimicrobial agents by using an agar dilution method. During the 4-year survey, isolates from intra-abdominal infections were collected from the following sites: abdominal abscesses (48%), peritoneal fluid (39%), blood (10%), and bile (3%). B. fragilis was the most prevalent species (35.4%), followed by B. thetaiotaomicron (19.2%), B. ovatus (15.9%), and B. vulgatus (11%). No metronidazole- or imipenem-resistant strains were found during the survey. Resistance profiles varied among the different species tested: 7.8, 2.9, and 7.3% of B. fragilis strains (n = 205) and 68.1, 17.2, and 9.4% of non-B. fragilis strains (n = 373) were resistant to cefotetan, cefoxitin, and clindamycin, respectively. B. fragilis and B. vulgatus demonstrated lower resistance rates than B. thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus, B. distasonis, and B. caccae. During the study, rates of resistance to cefotetan and clindamycin fluctuated but rates of resistance to cefoxitin increased, particularly at one center. These data indicate a need to determine the susceptibility patterns of the B. fragilis group periodically at each hospital. PMID:7840557

  14. Candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility show enriched association within a large genome-wide association study for BMI

    PubMed Central

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Zhao, Jing Hua; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Dudbridge, Frank; Loos, Ruth J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), hundreds of candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility had been identified through a variety of approaches. We examined whether those obesity candidate genes are enriched for associations with body mass index (BMI) compared with non-candidate genes by using data from a large-scale GWAS. A thorough literature search identified 547 candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility based on evidence from animal studies, Mendelian syndromes, linkage studies, genetic association studies and expression studies. Genomic regions were defined to include the genes ±10 kb of flanking sequence around candidate and non-candidate genes. We used summary statistics publicly available from the discovery stage of the genome-wide meta-analysis for BMI performed by the genetic investigation of anthropometric traits consortium in 123 564 individuals. Hypergeometric, rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment analysis tests were used to test for the enrichment of association in candidate compared with non-candidate genes. The hypergeometric test of enrichment was not significant at the 5% P-value quantile (P = 0.35), but was nominally significant at the 25% quantile (P = 0.015). The rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment tests were nominally significant for the full set of genes and borderline significant for the subset without SNPs at P < 10−7. Taken together, the observed evidence for enrichment suggests that the candidate gene approach retains some value. However, the degree of enrichment is small despite the extensive number of candidate genes and the large sample size. Studies that focus on candidate genes have only slightly increased chances of detecting associations, and are likely to miss many true effects in non-candidate genes, at least for obesity-related traits. PMID:22791748

  15. Candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility show enriched association within a large genome-wide association study for BMI.

    PubMed

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Zhao, Jing Hua; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Dudbridge, Frank; Loos, Ruth J F

    2012-10-15

    Before the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), hundreds of candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility had been identified through a variety of approaches. We examined whether those obesity candidate genes are enriched for associations with body mass index (BMI) compared with non-candidate genes by using data from a large-scale GWAS. A thorough literature search identified 547 candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility based on evidence from animal studies, Mendelian syndromes, linkage studies, genetic association studies and expression studies. Genomic regions were defined to include the genes ±10 kb of flanking sequence around candidate and non-candidate genes. We used summary statistics publicly available from the discovery stage of the genome-wide meta-analysis for BMI performed by the genetic investigation of anthropometric traits consortium in 123 564 individuals. Hypergeometric, rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment analysis tests were used to test for the enrichment of association in candidate compared with non-candidate genes. The hypergeometric test of enrichment was not significant at the 5% P-value quantile (P = 0.35), but was nominally significant at the 25% quantile (P = 0.015). The rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment tests were nominally significant for the full set of genes and borderline significant for the subset without SNPs at P < 10(-7). Taken together, the observed evidence for enrichment suggests that the candidate gene approach retains some value. However, the degree of enrichment is small despite the extensive number of candidate genes and the large sample size. Studies that focus on candidate genes have only slightly increased chances of detecting associations, and are likely to miss many true effects in non-candidate genes, at least for obesity-related traits.

  16. Trans-Ancestral Studies Fine Map the SLE-Susceptibility Locus TNFSF4

    PubMed Central

    Manku, Harinder; Langefeld, Carl D.; Guerra, Sandra G.; Malik, Talat H.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Boackle, Susan A.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Freedman, Barry I.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Gregersen, Peter A.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Han, Sang-Hoon; Harley, John B.; Jacob, Chaim O.; James, Judith A.; Kamen, Diane L.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Martin, Javier; Merrill, Joan T.; Moser, Kathy L.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Park, So-Yeon; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Sawalha, Amr H.; Scofield, R. Hal; Shen, Nan; Stevens, Anne M.; Sun, Celi; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Edberg, Jeff C.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Nath, Swapan K.; Tsao, Betty P.; Vyse, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    We previously established an 80 kb haplotype upstream of TNFSF4 as a susceptibility locus in the autoimmune disease SLE. SLE-associated alleles at this locus are associated with inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischaemic stroke. In Europeans, the TNFSF4 causal variants have remained elusive due to strong linkage disequilibrium exhibited by alleles spanning the region. Using a trans-ancestral approach to fine-map the locus, utilising 17,900 SLE and control subjects including Amerindian/Hispanics (1348 cases, 717 controls), African-Americans (AA) (1529, 2048) and better powered cohorts of Europeans and East Asians, we find strong association of risk alleles in all ethnicities; the AA association replicates in African-American Gullah (152,122). The best evidence of association comes from two adjacent markers: rs2205960-T (P = 1.71×10−34, OR = 1.43[1.26–1.60]) and rs1234317-T (P = 1.16×10−28, OR = 1.38[1.24–1.54]). Inference of fine-scale recombination rates for all populations tested finds the 80 kb risk and non-risk haplotypes in all except African-Americans. In this population the decay of recombination equates to an 11 kb risk haplotype, anchored in the 5′ region proximal to TNFSF4 and tagged by rs2205960-T after 1000 Genomes phase 1 (v3) imputation. Conditional regression analyses delineate the 5′ risk signal to rs2205960-T and the independent non-risk signal to rs1234314-C. Our case-only and SLE-control cohorts demonstrate robust association of rs2205960-T with autoantibody production. The rs2205960-T is predicted to form part of a decameric motif which binds NF-κBp65 with increased affinity compared to rs2205960-G. ChIP-seq data also indicate NF-κB interaction with the DNA sequence at this position in LCL cells. Our research suggests association of rs2205960-T with SLE across multiple groups and an independent non-risk signal at rs1234314-C. rs2205960-T is associated with autoantibody production and

  17. Studies of superspin glass state and AC-losses in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles obtained by high-energy ball-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phong, P. T.; Manh, D. H.; Nguyen, L. H.; Tung, D. K.; Phuc, N. X.; Lee, I.-J.

    2014-11-01

    Single-phase perovskite compound La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 was synthesized by a high-energy ball milling method. Nanoparticle nature of this manganite with the average particle diameter of 11 nm was revealed from structure and morphology characterizations. The results of ac magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the system can be described as an ensemble of interacting magnetic nanoparticles, which indicates that the dipole-dipole interactions are strong enough to create superspin glass state in the sample. Furthermore, the specific loss power which is exhausted on the irradiation of an ensemble of particles with a magnetic field has been calculated and measured experimentally.

  18. The ac53, ac78, ac101, and ac103 Genes Are Newly Discovered Core Genes in the Family Baculoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Miele, Solange Ana Belén; Iserte, Javier Alonso; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    The family Baculoviridae is a large group of insect viruses containing circular double-stranded DNA genomes of 80 to 180 kbp, which have broad biotechnological applications. A key feature to understand and manipulate them is the recognition of orthology. However, the differences in gene contents and evolutionary distances among the known members of this family make it difficult to assign sequence orthology. In this study, the genome sequences of 58 baculoviruses were analyzed, with the aim to detect previously undescribed core genes because of their remote homology. A routine based on Multi PSI-Blast/tBlastN and Multi HaMStR allowed us to detect 31 of 33 accepted core genes and 4 orthologous sequences in the Baculoviridae which were not described previously. Our results show that the ac53, ac78, ac101 (p40), and ac103 (p48) genes have orthologs in all genomes and should be considered core genes. Accordingly, there are 37 orthologous genes in the family Baculoviridae. PMID:22933288

  19. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  20. Complex genetic control of susceptibility to malaria: positional cloning of the Char9 locus

    PubMed Central

    Min-Oo, Gundula; Fortin, Anny; Pitari, Giuseppina; Tam, Mifong; Stevenson, Mary M.; Gros, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Mouse strains AcB55 and AcB61 are resistant to malaria by virtue of a mutation in erythrocyte pyruvate kinase (PklrI90N). Linkage analysis in [AcB55 × A/J] F2 mice detected a second locus (Char9; logarithm of odds = 4.74) that regulates the blood-stage replication of Plasmodium chabaudi AS independently of Pklr. We characterized the 77 genes of the Char9 locus for tissue-specific expression, strain-specific alterations in gene expression, and polymorphic variants that are possibly associated with differential susceptibility. We identified Vnn1/Vnn3 as the likely candidates responsible for Char9. Vnn3/Vnn1 map within a conserved haplotype block and show expression levels that are strictly cis-regulated by this haplotype. The absence of Vnn messenger RNA expression and lack of pantetheinase protein activity in tissues are associated with susceptibility to malaria and are linked to a complex rearrangement in the Vnn3 promoter region. The A/J strain also carries a unique nonsense mutation that leads to a truncated protein. Vanin genes code for a pantetheinase involved in the production of cysteamine, a key regulator of host responses to inflammatory stimuli. Administration of cystamine in vivo partially corrects susceptibility to malaria in A/J mice, as measured by reduced blood parasitemia and decreased mortality. These studies suggest that pantetheinase is critical for the host response to malaria. PMID:17312006

  1. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2000 and 2006 studies.

    PubMed

    Haley, C A; Dargatz, D A; Bush, E J; Erdman, M M; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    2012-03-01

    Concern about Salmonella contamination of food is compounded by fear that antimicrobials traditionally used to combat the infection will become useless due to rising antibiotic resistance. Livestock, in particular swine, often are blamed for illnesses caused by Salmonella and for increasing antibiotic resistance due to use of antibiotics in pigs. As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2000 and 2006 studies, swine fecal samples were cultured for Salmonella. These samples were collected from 123 operations in 17 states in 2000 and from 135 operations in 17 states in 2006. At each operation, 50 and 60 fecal samples were collected from late finisher pig pens in 2000 and 2006, respectively. Salmonella isolates were characterized to determine serogroup and serotype and were tested for susceptibility to a panel of 17 and 15 antimicrobial drugs in 2000 and 2006, respectively. A total of 5,470 and 7,788 samples were cultured for Salmonella in 2000 and 2006, respectively. Overall, 6.2% of the samples and 34.2% of the farms were positive for Salmonella in 2000. In 2006, 7.2% of the samples and 52.6% of the farms were positive. Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5- (formerly Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen), and Salmonella Agona were the three serotypes most often recovered in both study years. The most common antimicrobial resistance pattern for Salmonella Derby in the two study years was resistance to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Most isolates were resistant to tetracycline, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin in both study years. The proportion of Salmonella isolates that were susceptible to all antimicrobials (pansusceptible) was 38.1% in 2000 and 20.4% in 2006. The proportion of Salmonella isolates that were resistant to three or more antimicrobials (multidrug resistant) was similar in 2000 and in 2006 (52.8 and 57.7%, respectively).

  2. Measuring Nematic Susceptibilities from the Elastoresistivity Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, A. T.; Shapiro, M. C.; Hlobil, Patrick; Maharaj, Akash; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Fisher, Ian

    The elastoresistivity tensor mijkl relates changes in resistivity to the strain on a material. As a fourth-rank tensor, it contains considerably more information about the material than the simpler (second-rank) resistivity tensor; in particular, certain elastoresistivity coefficients can be related to thermodynamic susceptibilities and serve as a direct probe of symmetry breaking at a phase transition. The aim of this talk is twofold. First, we enumerate how symmetry both constrains the structure of the elastoresistivity tensor into an easy-to-understand form and connects tensor elements to thermodynamic susceptibilities. In the process, we generalize previous studies of elastoresistivity to include the effects of magnetic field. Second, we describe an approach to measuring quantities in the elastoresistivity tensor with a novel transverse measurement, which is immune to relative strain offsets. These techniques are then applied to BaFe2As2 in a proof of principle measurement. This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  3. The NRAMPI, VDR and TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms in Iranian tuberculosis patients: the study on host susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Merza, Muayad; Farnia, Parissa; Anoosheh, Sabar; Varahram, Mohammed; Kazampour, Mehdi; Pajand, Omid; Saeif, Shima; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Hoffner, Sven

    2009-08-01

    The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP1), Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) have been associated in susceptibility to tuberculosis, but the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the association of NRAMP1, VDR, and TNF-á variant with development of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among Iranian patients. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at INT4, D543, 3'UTR of NRAMP1 gene, SNPs in restriction sites of BsmI, and FokI of the VDR gene and SNPs of TNF-alpha at -238,-308, -244,857,-863 positions were analyzed by PCR-RFLP among two groups of individual; patients with PTB (n=117) and healthy controls (n=60). Thereafter, the frequencies of extended haplotypes and diplotypes were estimated. No statistically significant differences were observed in allele frequencies of INT4, D543, 3'UTR of NRAMPI, FokI of VDR and TNF-alpha at -238, -244,-863 and -857 position. Although, the frequency of b allele of BsmI [ORs: 0.24 CI95% (0.07-0.67 (p=0.001)] and -308 A variant in TNF-alpha promoter region [ORs:0.26 CI95%( 0.07-0.77) (p=0.006)] were significantly more in PTB patients than healthy controls. The frequency of extended diplotypes of NRAMP [GG TGTG++GA; 0.02(0.001-0.0035)], VDR [FFBB; 0.2(0.6-0.6] and TNF-alpha [CCCCGGGGGG; 0.49(0.25-0.97)] were statistically different in patients and control subjects (p<0.05). This study confirmed the association of SNPs in BsmI (B/b + b/b) of VDR and SNPs in -308A (G/A +G/G) of TNF-alpha genes with susceptibility to tuberculosis in Iranian PTB patients. Furthermore, the extended haplotypes and diplotypes analysis can be considered as an alternative way to determine the host susceptibility to TB. PMID:20231985

  4. Characterization of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant staphylococci in the clinical setting: a multicentre study in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The staphylococci are implicated in a variety of human infections; however, many clinical microbiology laboratories in Nigeria do not identify staphylococci (in particular coagulase negative staphylococci - CNS) to the species level. Moreover, data from multi-centre assessment on antibiotic resistance and epidemiology of the staphylococci are not available in Nigeria. This study investigated 91 non-duplicate staphylococcal isolates obtained from the microbiology laboratories of eight hospitals in Nigeria during the period January to April 2010. Methods Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the VITEK 2 system, detection of resistance genes by PCR, and molecular characterization was determined by SCCmec typing, spa and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results All the isolates were susceptible to mupirocin, tigecycline, vancomycin and linezolid, but 72.5% of CNS and 82.3% of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to cotrimoxazole, while multiresistance was observed in 37 of the 40 CNS isolates. Untypeable SCCmec types (ccrC/Class A mec and ccr-negative/Class C2 mec gene complex) in two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were identified. Additionally, ccr-negative/Class A mec and ccr type 4/Class C2 mec gene complex was detected in one isolate each of S. sciuri and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The S. aureus isolates were classified into 21 spa types including two new types (t8987, t9008) among the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. Two (CC8-SCCmecnon-typeable and CC88-SCCmec IV) and four (CC8-SCCmec III/IV/V; CC30-SCCmec II/III; CC88-SCCmec IV; and ST152-SCCmecnon-typeable) MRSA clones were identified in Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria) and South-West Nigeria, respectively. The proportion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MSSA was high (44.4%) and 56.3% of these strains were associated with sequence type (ST) 152. Conclusions The identification of multiresistant mecA positive S. haemolyticus

  5. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  6. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  7. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  8. AC magnetohydrodynamic microfluidic switch

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoff, A V; Lee, A P

    2000-03-02

    A microfluidic switch has been demonstrated using an AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping mechanism in which the Lorentz force is used to pump an electrolytic solution. By integrating two AC MHD pumps into different arms of a Y-shaped fluidic circuit, flow can be switched between the two arms. This type of switch can be used to produce complex fluidic routing, which may have multiple applications in {micro}TAS.

  9. Dielectric properties and study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms by non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in Bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II) compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkari, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, the synthesis and characterization of the Bis(4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocuprate(II) compound are presented. The structure of this compound is analyzed by X-ray diffraction which confirms the formation of single phase and is in good agreement the literature. Indeed, the Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA) shows that the decomposition of the compound is observed in the range of 420-520 K. However, the differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicates the presence of a phase transition at T=363 k. Furthermore, the dielectric properties and AC conductivity were studied over a temperature range (338-413 K) and frequency range (200 Hz-5 MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopy. Dielectric measurements confirmed such thermal analyses by exhibiting the presence of an anomaly in the temperature range of 358-373 K. The complex impedance plots are analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of resistance, constant phase element (CPE) and capacitance. The activation energy values of two distinct regions are obtained from log σT vs 1000/T plot and are found to be E=1.27 eV (T<363 K) and E=1.09 eV (363 Kac conductivity, σac, has been analyzed by Jonscher's universal power law σ(ω)=σdc+Aωs. The value of s is to be temperature-dependent, which has a tendency to increase with temperature and the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling (NSPT) model is the most applicable conduction mechanism in the title compound. Complex impedance spectra of [C8H10NO]2CuCl4 at different temperatures.

  10. Discrepancies between disk diffusion and broth susceptibility studies of the activity of ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid against ticarcillin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Manian, F A; Alford, R H

    1986-01-01

    Ticarcillin and clavulanic acid in combination were tested against 40 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates resistant to ticarcillin by disk diffusion. A total of 21 isolates (53%) were susceptible to ticarcillin-clavulanate by disk diffusion, under currently recommended criteria for ticarcillin susceptibility. Macro-broth dilution tests (ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid, 2 micrograms/ml) confirmed susceptibility (MIC less than or equal to 64 micrograms/ml) of only 8 (38%) of 21 isolates. Time-kill studies of disk diffusion susceptible isolates indicated 2 log10 or greater killing of most isolates at 6 h in broth containing ticarcillin (64 micrograms/ml) combined with clavulanic acid (1, 2, 5, or 10 micrograms/ml). After 6 h, regrowth was common in all concentrations of clavulanic acid except 10 micrograms/ml. Regrowth populations were resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate by MIC determination. Poor bactericidal activity of ticarcillin-clavulanate against ticarcillin-resistant P. aeruginosa was confirmed, as most isolates did not undergo 99.9% or greater killing at 24 h in all concentrations of clavulanic acid. Serotype O-11 was our most common serotype and was associated with disk diffusion "pseudosusceptibility." Concomitant disk diffusion testing of ticarcillin-clavulanate and ticarcillin is recommended for testing the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to ticarcillin-clavulanate by disk diffusion. P. aeruginosa isolates resistant to ticarcillin should as a rule be considered also resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate, despite apparent susceptibility by disk diffusion. PMID:3092732

  11. Ozone exposure, vitamin C intake, and genetic susceptibility of asthmatic children in Mexico City: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously reported that asthmatic children with GSTM1 null genotype may be more susceptible to the acute effect of ozone on the small airways and might benefit from antioxidant supplementation. This study aims to assess the acute effect of ozone on lung function (FEF25-75) in asthmatic children according to dietary intake of vitamin C and the number of putative risk alleles in three antioxidant genes: GSTM1, GSTP1 (rs1695), and NQO1 (rs1800566). Methods 257 asthmatic children from two cohort studies conducted in Mexico City were included. Stratified linear mixed models with random intercepts and random slopes on ozone were used. Potential confounding by ethnicity was assessed. Analyses were conducted under single gene and genotype score approaches. Results The change in FEF25-75 per interquartile range (60 ppb) of ozone in persistent asthmatic children with low vitamin C intake and GSTM1 null was −91.2 ml/s (p = 0.06). Persistent asthmatic children with 4 to 6 risk alleles and low vitamin C intake showed an average decrement in FEF25-75 of 97.2 ml/s per 60 ppb of ozone (p = 0.03). In contrast in children with 1 to 3 risk alleles, acute effects of ozone on FEF25-75 did not differ by vitamin C intake. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence that asthmatic children predicted to have compromised antioxidant defense by virtue of genetic susceptibility combined with deficient antioxidant intake may be at increased risk of adverse effects of ozone on pulmonary function. PMID:23379631

  12. Study of the Effect of Lubricant Emulsion Percentage and Tool Material on Surface Roughness in Machining of EN-AC 48000 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, E.; Shahali, H.; Zarepour, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of machining parameters, namely, lubricant emulsion percentage and tool material on surface roughness has been studied in machining process of EN-AC 48000 aluminum alloy. EN-AC 48000 aluminum alloy is an important alloy in industries. Machining of this alloy is of vital importance due to built-up edge and tool wear. A L9 Taguchi standard orthogonal array has been applied as experimental design to investigate the effect of the factors and their interaction. Nine machining tests have been carried out with three random replications resulting in 27 experiments. Three type of cutting tools including coated carbide (CD1810), uncoated carbide (H10), and polycrystalline diamond (CD10) have been used in this research. Emulsion percentage of lubricant is selected at three levels including 3%, 5% and 10%. Statistical analysis has been employed to study the effect of factors and their interactions using ANOVA method. Moreover, the optimal factors level has been achieved through signal to noise ratio (S/N) analysis. Also, a regression model has been provided to predict the surface roughness. Finally, the results of the confirmation tests have been presented to verify the adequacy of the predictive model. In this research, surface quality was improved by 9% using lubricant and statistical optimization method.

  13. An Ac transposon system based on maize chromosome 4S for isolating long-distance-transposed Ac tags in the maize genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaoying; Fan, Jun; Li, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Gang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-12-01

    Transposon tagging is an important tool for gene isolation and functional studies. In maize, several transposon-tagging systems have been developed, mostly using Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) and Mutator systems. Here, we establish another Ac-based transposon system with the donor Ac tightly linked with sugary1 (su1) on maize chromosome 4S. Newly transposed Ac (tr-Acs) were detected based on a negative dosage effect, and long-distance-transposed Ac events were identified and isolated from the donor Ac by a simple backcross scheme. In this study, we identified 208 independent long-distance-transposed Ac lines. Thirty-one flanking sequences of these tr-Acs were isolated and localized in the maize genome. As found in previous studies, the tr-Acs preferentially inserted into genic sequences. The distribution of tr-Acs is not random. In our study, the tr-Acs preferentially transposed into chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 10. We discuss the preferential distribution of tr-Acs from Ac systems. Our system is complementary to two other Ac-based regional-mutagenesis systems in maize, and the combined use of these systems will achieve an even and high-density distribution of Ac elements throughout the maize genome for functional-genomics studies.

  14. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  15. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%–19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides. PMID:27187430

  16. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides. PMID:27187430

  17. A bivariate genome-wide association study identifies ADAM12 as a novel susceptibility gene for Kashin-Beck disease

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jingcan; Wang, Wenyu; Wen, Yan; Xiao, Xiao; He, Awen; Guo, Xiong; Yang, Tielin; Liu, Xiaogang; Shen, Hui; Chen, Xiangding; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic osteoarthropathy, which manifests as joint deformities and growth retardation. Only a few genetic studies of growth retardation associated with the KBD have been carried out by now. In this study, we conducted a two-stage bivariate genome-wide association study (BGWAS) of the KBD using joint deformities and body height as study phenotypes, totally involving 2,417 study subjects. Articular cartilage specimens from 8 subjects were collected for immunohistochemistry. In the BGWAS, ADAM12 gene achieved the most significant association (rs1278300 p-value = 9.25 × 10−9) with the KBD. Replication study observed significant association signal at rs1278300 (p-value = 0.007) and rs1710287 (p-value = 0.002) of ADAM12 after Bonferroni correction. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly decreased expression level of ADAM12 protein in the KBD articular cartilage (average positive chondrocyte rate = 47.59 ± 7.79%) compared to healthy articular cartilage (average positive chondrocyte rate = 64.73 ± 5.05%). Our results suggest that ADAM12 gene is a novel susceptibility gene underlying both joint destruction and growth retardation of the KBD. PMID:27545300

  18. Preliminary AMS Study in Cretaceous Igneous Rocks of Valle Chico Complex, Uruguay: Statistical Determination of Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelona, H.; Mena, M.; Sanchez-Bettucci, L.

    2009-05-01

    The Valle Chico Complex, at southeast Uruguay, is related Paraná-Etendeka Province. The study involved basaltic lavas, quarz-syenites, and rhyolitic and trachytic dikes. Samples were taken from 18 sites and the AMS of 250 specimens was analyzed. The AMS is modeled by a second order tensor K and it graphical representation is a symmetric ellipsoid. The axes relations determine parameters which describe different properties like shape, lineation, and foliation, degree of anisotropy and bulk magnetic susceptibility. Under this perspective, one lava, dike, or igneous body can be considered a mosaic of magnetic susceptibility domains (MSD). The DSM is an area with specific degree of homogeneity in the distribution of parameters values and cinematic conditions. An average tensor would weigh only one MSD, but if the site is a mosaic, subsets of specimens with similar parameters can be created. Hypothesis tests can be used to establish parameter similarities. It would be suitable considered as a MSD the subsets with statistically significant differences in at least one of its means parameters, and therefore, be treated independently. Once defined the MSDs the tensor analysis continues. The basalt-andesitic lavas present MSD with an NNW magnetic foliation, dipping 10. The K1 are sub-horizontal, oriented E-W and reprsent the magmatic flow direction. The quartz-syenites show a variable magnetic fabric or prolate ellipsoids mayor axes dispose parallel to the flow direction (10 to the SSE). Deformed syenites show N300/11 magnetic foliation, consistent with the trend of fractures. The K1 is subvertical. The MSD defined in rhyolitic dikes have magnetic foliations consistent with the structural trend. The trachytic dikes show an important indetermination in the magnetic response. However, a 62/N90 magnetic lineation was defined. The MSDs obtained are consistent with the geological structures and contribute to the knowledge of the tectonic, magmatic and kinematic events.

  19. The curved Magallanes fold and thrust belt: Tectonic insights from a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, F.; Roperch, P.; Hervé, F.; Diraison, M.; Espinoza, M.; Arriagada, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Magallanes fold and thrust belt (FTB) presents a large-scale curvature from N-S oriented structures north of 52°S to nearly E-W in Tierra del Fuego Island. We present a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study from 85 sites sampled in Cretaceous to Miocene marine sediments. Magnetic susceptibility is lower than 0.0005 SI for 76 sites and mainly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results indicate that the sedimentary fabric is preserved in the undeformed areas of Tierra del Fuego and the more external thrust sheets units, where an incipient lineation due to layer parallel shortening is recorded. Prolate AMS ellipsoids, indicating a significant tectonic imprint in the AMS fabric, are observed in the internal units of the belt. AMS results show a good correlation between the orientation of the magnetic lineation and the fold axes. However, in Península Brunswick, the AMS lineations are at ~20° counterclockwise to the strike of the fold axes. Pretectonic stable characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) were determined in seven sites. A counterclockwise rotation (21.2° ± 9.2°) is documented by ChRM data from four sites near the hinge of the belt in Península Brunswick and near Canal Whiteside while there is no evidence of rotation near the nearly E-W oriented Vicuña thrust within Tierra del Fuego. The curved shape of the Cenozoic Magallanes FTB is not related to vertical axis rotation, and thus, the Magallanes FTB can be considered as a primary arc.

  20. Microscopic and Macroscopic Studies on the Development of Puccinia hemerocallidis in Resistance and Susceptible Daylily Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection process of Puccinia hemerocallidis, the causal agent of daylily rust, and resistance responses in eight daylily cultivars were studied macroscopically and microscopically. After germination of urediniospores, appressoria formed at the tip of germ tubes and penetrated through stomatal openi...

  1. A Genome-Wide Association Study in American Indians Implicates DNER as a Susceptibility Locus for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Robert L.; Muller, Yunhua L.; Kobes, Sayuko; Guo, Tingwei; Bian, Li; Ossowski, Victoria; Wiedrich, Kim; Sutherland, Jeffrey; Wiedrich, Christopher; Mahkee, Darin; Huang, Ke; Abdussamad, Maryam; Traurig, Michael; Weil, E. Jennifer; Nelson, Robert G.; Bennett, Peter H.; Knowler, William C.; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J.

    2014-01-01

    Most genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in Europeans. The current study reports a GWAS for young-onset T2DM in American Indians. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study conducted in Pima Indians and included 278 cases with diabetes with onset before 25 years of age, 295 nondiabetic controls ≥45 years of age, and 267 siblings of cases or controls. Individuals were genotyped on a ∼1M single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, resulting in 453,654 SNPs with minor allele frequency >0.05. SNPs were analyzed for association in cases and controls, and a family-based association test was conducted. Tag SNPs (n = 311) were selected for 499 SNPs associated with diabetes (P < 0.0005 in case-control analyses or P < 0.0003 in family-based analyses), and these SNPs were genotyped in up to 6,834 additional Pima Indians to assess replication. Rs1861612 in DNER was associated with T2DM (odds ratio = 1.29 per copy of the T allele; P = 6.6 × 10−8, which represents genome-wide significance accounting for the number of effectively independent SNPs analyzed). Transfection studies in murine pancreatic β-cells suggested that DNER regulates expression of notch signaling pathway genes. These studies implicate DNER as a susceptibility gene for T2DM in American Indians. PMID:24101674

  2. Is correction necessary when clinically determining quantitative cerebral perfusion parameters from multi-slice dynamic susceptibility contrast MR studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salluzzi, M.; Frayne, R.; Smith, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Several groups have modified the standard singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm to produce delay-insensitive cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimates from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion studies. However, new dependences of CBF estimates on bolus arrival times and slice position in multi-slice studies have been recently recognized. These conflicting findings can be reconciled by accounting for several experimental and algorithmic factors. Using simulation and clinical studies, the non-simultaneous measurement of arterial and tissue concentration curves (relative slice position) in a multi-slice study is shown to affect time-related perfusion parameters, e.g. arterial-tissue-delay measurements. However, the current clinical impact of relative slice position on amplitude-related perfusion parameters, e.g. CBF, can be expected to be small unless any of the following conditions are present individually or in combination: (a) high concentration curve signal-to-noise ratios, (b) small tissue mean transit times, (c) narrow arterial input functions or (d) low temporal resolution of the DSC image sequence. Recent improvements in magnetic resonance (MR) technology can easily be expected to lead to scenarios where these effects become increasingly important sources of inaccuracy for all perfusion parameter estimates. We show that using Fourier interpolated (high temporal resolution) residue functions reduces the systematic error of the perfusion parameters obtained from multi-slice studies. Preliminary results associated with this paper were presented at ISMRM 12th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition, Kyoto, Japan, 2004.

  3. Genetic susceptibility to male infertility: news from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Aston, K I

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the genetic basis of male infertility has eluded researchers in spite of significant efforts to identify novel genetic causes of the disease, particularly over the past decade. Approximately half of male factor infertility cases have no known cause; however, it is likely that the majority of idiopathic male factor infertility cases have some unidentified genetic basis. Well-established genetic causes of male infertility are limited to Y chromosome microdeletions and Klinefelter's syndrome, together accounting for 10-20% of cases of severe spermatogenic failure. In addition to these, several genetic polymorphisms have been demonstrated to be significantly associated with male infertility. The discovery of new genetic associations with male infertility has been hampered by two primary factors. First, most studies are underpowered because of insufficient sample size and ethnic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Second, most studies evaluate a single gene, an approach that is very inefficient in the context of male infertility, considering that many hundreds of genes are involved in the process of testicular development and spermatogenesis. Significant recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the application of whole-genome approaches to the study of male infertility. We recently performed a pilot genome-wide association study (GWAS) for severe spermatogenic failure, and several additional male infertility GWAS have since been published. More recently, genomic microarray tools have been applied to the association of copy number variants with male infertility. These studies are beginning to shed additional light on the genetic architecture of male infertility, and whole-genome studies have proven effective in identifying novel genetic causes of the disease. This review will discuss some of the recent findings of these whole-genome studies as well as future directions for this research that will likely

  4. Density functional theory studies of actinide(III) motexafins (An-Motex2+, An = Ac, Cm, Lr). Structure, stability, and comparison with lanthanide(III) motexafins.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Li, Quansong; Moritz, Anna; Xie, Zhizhong; Dolg, Michael; Chen, Xuebo; Fang, Weihai

    2006-04-17

    Newly developed relativistic energy-consistent 5f-in-core actinide pseudopotentials and corresponding (7s6p5d1f)/[5s4p3d1f] basis sets in the segmented contraction scheme, combined with density functional theory methods, have been used to study the molecular structure and chemical properties of selected actinide(III) motexafins (An-Motex2+, An = Ac, Cm, Lr). Structure and stability are discussed, and a comparison to the lanthanide(III) motexafins (Ln-Motex2+, Ln = La, Gd, Lu) is made. The actinide element is found to reside above the mean N5 motexafin plane, and the larger the cation, the greater the observed out-of-plane displacement. It is concluded that the actinium(III), curium(III), and lawrencium(III) cations are tightly bound to the macrocyclic skeleton, yielding stable structures. However, the calculated metal-ligand gas-phase binding energy for An-Motex2+ is about 1-2 eV lower than that of Ln-Motex2+, implying a lower stability of An-Motex2+ compared to Ln-Motex2+. Results including solvent effects imply that Ac-Motex2+ is the most stable complex in aqueous solution and should be the best candidate for experimentalists to get stable actinide(III) motexafin complexes. PMID:16602805

  5. AC impedance modelling study on porous electrodes of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using an agglomerate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Hakenjos, Alex; Schumacher, Jürgen O.

    A one-dimensional model of the PEM fuel cell cathode is developed to analyse ac impedance spectra and polarisation curves. The porous gas diffusion electrode is assumed to consist of a network of dispersed catalyst (Pt/C) forming spherically shaped agglomerated zones that are filled with electrolyte. The coupled differential equation system describes: ternary gas diffusion in the backing (O2 , N2 , water vapour), Fickian diffusion and Tafel kinetics for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) inside the agglomerates, proton migration with ohmic losses and double-layer charging in the electrode. Measurements are made of a temperature-controlled fuel cell with a geometric area of 1.4 cm × 1.4 cm. Lateral homogeneity is ensured by using a high stoichiometry of λmin . The model predicts the behaviour of measured polarisation curves and impedance spectra. It is found that a better humidification of the electrode leads to a higher volumetric double-layer capacity. The catalyst layer resistance shows the same behaviour depending on the humidification as the membrane resistance. Model parameters, e.g. Tafel slope, ionic resistance and agglomerate radius are varied. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters is conducted.

  6. Evaluation of Genome Wide Association Study Associated Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci in Sub Saharan Africans

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Bentley, Amy R.; Chen, Guanjie; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Shriner, Daniel; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Okafor, Godfrey; Eghan, Benjamin; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Adeleye, Jokotade; Balogun, Williams; Elkahloun, Abdel; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Owusu, Samuel; Amoah, Albert; Acheampong, Joseph; Johnson, Thomas; Oli, Johnnie; Adebamowo, Clement; Collins, Francis; Dunston, Georgia; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) undertaken in European and Asian ancestry populations have yielded dozens of robustly associated loci. However, the genomics of T2D remains largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rates of T2D are increasing dramatically and where the environmental background is quite different than in these previous studies. Here, we evaluate 106 reported T2D GWAS loci in continental Africans. We tested each of these SNPs, and SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with these index SNPs, for an association with T2D in order to assess transferability and to fine map the loci leveraging the generally reduced LD of African genomes. The study included 1775 unrelated Africans (1035 T2D cases, 740 controls; mean age 54 years; 59% female) enrolled in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya as part of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study. All samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom PanAFR SNP array. Forty-one of the tested loci showed transferability to this African sample (p < 0.05, same direction of effect), 11 at the exact reported SNP and 30 others at SNPs in LD with the reported SNP (after adjustment for the number of tested SNPs). TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was the most significant locus in this study (p = 1.61 × 10−8). Most of the loci that showed transferability were successfully fine-mapped, i.e., localized to smaller haplotypes than in the original reports. The findings indicate that the genetic architecture of T2D in SSA is characterized by several risk loci shared with non-African ancestral populations and that data from African populations may facilitate fine mapping of risk loci. The study provides an important resource for meta-analysis of African ancestry populations and transferability of novel loci. PMID:26635871

  7. Microscopic and Macroscopic Studies of the Development of Puccinia hemerocallidis in Resistant and Susceptible Daylily Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection and colonization of eight daylily cultivars, which varied in resistance to daylily rust, by Puccinia hemerocallidis was studied macroscopically and microscopically. After germination of urediniospores, appressoria formed at the tip of germ tubes and the fungus penetrated the host through s...

  8. THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY: PROGRESS DEVELOPING METHODS APPROPRIATE FOR ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE, BIOMARKERS AND GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invited presentation: no abstract submission fee required
    Introduction abstract for Workshop.

    CONTROL ID: 56947
    CONTACT (NAME ONLY): Barbara Abbott
    Abstract Details
    PRESENTATION TYPE: Invited Presentation : Workshop
    KEYWORDS: National Childrens Study, Ri...

  9. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the national animal health monitoring system sheep 2011 study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples c...

  10. Are rabbits a suitable model to study sheep-associated malignant catarrhal in susceptible hosts?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is often a fatal syndrome affecting mainly ruminants. SA-MCF pathogenesis and vaccine studies rely solely on live animals, since OvHV-2 has not been successfully propagated in vitro. Thus, the identification...

  11. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Christina B; Theilmann, David A

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO)). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC(ac142)(REP-ac143KO) transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  12. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Theilmann, David A.

    2008-05-25

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC{sup ac142REP-ac143KO} transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription.

  13. Whole-genome association study identifies STK39 as a hypertension susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Wade, James B.; Dorff, Sarah E.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Shi, Xiaolian; Pan, Lin; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Shen, Haiqing; Kim, James D.; Subramanya, Arohan R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Parsa, Afshin; Ober, Carole C.; Welling, Paul A.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Weder, Alan B.; Cooper, Richard S.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension places a major burden on individual and public health, but the genetic basis of this complex disorder is poorly understood. We conducted a genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in Amish subjects and found strong association signals with common variants in a serine/threonine kinase gene, STK39. We confirmed this association in an independent Amish and 4 non-Amish Caucasian samples including the Diabetes Genetics Initiative, Framingham Heart Study, GenNet, and Hutterites (meta-analysis combining all studies: n = 7,125, P < 10−6). The higher BP-associated alleles have frequencies > 0.09 and were associated with increases of 3.3/1.3 mm Hg in SBP/DBP, respectively, in the Amish subjects and with smaller but consistent effects across the non-Amish studies. Cell-based functional studies showed that STK39 interacts with WNK kinases and cation-chloride cotransporters, mutations in which cause monogenic forms of BP dysregulation. We demonstrate that in vivo, STK39 is expressed in the distal nephron, where it may interact with these proteins. Although none of the associated SNPs alter protein structure, we identified and experimentally confirmed a highly conserved intronic element with allele-specific in vitro transcription activity as a functional candidate for this association. Thus, variants in STK39 may influence BP by increasing STK39 expression and consequently altering renal Na+ excretion, thus unifying rare and common BP-regulating alleles in the same physiological pathway. PMID:19114657

  14. Study of association of PAX6 polymorphisms with susceptibility to high myopia in a Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaki, Nobuyuki; Meguro, Akira; Yamane, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Masaki; Okada, Eiichi; Iijima, Yasuhito; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many studies have investigated the relationship of paired box 6 (PAX6) gene polymorphisms with the risk of high myopia, but the results across studies remain inconsistent and ambiguous. In the present work, we investigated whether PAX6 polymorphisms are associated with high myopia in a Japanese population. Methods A total of 1,585 Japanese patients with high myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] <−9.00 diopters [D]) and 1,011 Japanese healthy controls (SE≥−1.00 D) were recruited. To compare genotype frequencies between cases and controls, we genotyped five single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAX6 gene that are reportedly associated with high/extreme myopia: rs662702, rs3026393, rs644242, rs3026390, and rs667773. Results For rs662702, rs644242, and rs667773, odds ratios (ORs) for their risk alleles tended to increase with the progression of SE and axial length in the additive and recessive models. Of these, rs644242 had the highest OR (2.56) in patients with SE<−15 D in both eyes in the recessive model. On the other hand, for rs3026393 and rs3026390, the ORs for their risk alleles tended to increase according to the progression of SE and axial length in the dominant model. Of the two, rs3026393 had the highest OR (2.32) in patients with SE<−15 D in both eyes in the dominant model. However, no significant associations were identified in this study. Conclusion We found that these PAX6 single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of extreme myopia. Although the results, which are in agreement with some previous studies, did not reach statistical significance, PAX6 single nucleotide polymorphisms may be important risk factors for the development of extreme myopia. Further genetic studies with larger sample sizes and taking into account the degree of myopia are needed to clarify the contribution of PAX6 variants in myopia development. PMID:26604670

  15. Fiber - Optic Devices as Temperature Sensors for Temperature Measurements in AC Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Lafrance, Joseph; Sala, Anca

    2007-10-01

    We report on the investigation of several fiber-optic devices as potential sensors for temperature measurements in AC magnetic fields. Common temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, thermistors or diodes, will create random and/or systematic errors when placed in a magnetic field. A DC magnetic field is susceptible to create a systematic offset to the measurement, while in an AC magnetic field of variable frequency random errors which cannot be corrected for can also be introduced. Fiber-Bragg-gratings and thin film filters have an inherent temperature dependence. Detrimental for their primary applications, the same dependence allows one to use such devices as temperature sensors. In an AC magnetic field, they present the advantage of being immune to electromagnetic interference. Moreover, for fiber-Bragg-gratings, the shape factor and small mass of the bare-fiber device make it convenient for temperature measurements on small samples. We studied several thin-film filters and fiber-Bragg-gratings and compared their temperature measurement capabilities in AC magnetic fields of 0 to 150 Gauss, 0 to 20 KHz to the results provided by off-the-shelf thermocouples and thermistor-based temperature measurement systems.

  16. A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Nathaniel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Malats, Nuria; Wu, Xifeng; Figueroa, Jonine; Real, Francisco X; Van Den Berg, David; Matullo, Giuseppe; Baris, Dalsu; Thun, Michael; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vineis, Paolo; De Vivo, Immaculata; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Rafnar, Thorunn; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Kiltie, Anne E; Cussenot, Olivier; Golka, Klaus; Kumar, Rajiv; Taylor, Jack A; Mayordomo, Jose I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Zhaoming; Fu, Yi-Ping; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Burdette, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Schned, Alan; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Eric J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cortessis, Victoria K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Pike, Malcolm C; Stern, Mariana C; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hunter, David; McGrath, Monica; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan; Chen, Meng; Yang, Hushan; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Makkinje, Remco R; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Stefansson, Kari; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Panico, Salvatore; Navarro, Carmen; Allen, Naomi E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Canzian, Federico; Ljungberg, Borje; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bishop, David T; Teo, Mark T W; Knowles, Margaret A; Guarrera, Simonetta; Polidoro, Silvia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Dietrich, Holger; Fletcher, Tony; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bolick, Sophia C E; Godfrey, Ashley; Xu, Zongli; Sanz-Velez, José I; García-Prats, María D; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Porru, Stefano; Benhamou, Simone; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 589,299 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,532 cases and 5,120 controls of European descent (5 studies) followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,381 cases and 48,275 controls (16 studies). In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1; rs1014971, (P=8×10−12) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1; rs8102137 (P=2×10−11) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1; and rs11892031 (P=1×10−7) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previous GWAS associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P=4×10−11) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P=4×10−11), as well as demonstrated smoking interactions with both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into mechanisms of carcinogenesis. PMID:20972438

  17. Susceptibility variants for obesity and colorectal cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort and PAGE studies.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Caberto, Christian; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Cheng, Iona; Park, Sungshim Lani; Stram, Daniel O; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-09-15

    Obesity is a leading contributor to colorectal cancer risk. We investigated whether the risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist size are associated with colorectal cancer risk, independently of the effect of obesity phenotype due to a shared etiology. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 loci (BDNF, FAIM2, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, LYPLAL1, MC4R, MSRA, MTCH2, NEGR1, NRXN3, SEC16B, SH2B1, TFAP2B and TMEM18) were genotyped in a case-control study of 2,033 colorectal cancer cases and 9,640 controls nested within the multiethnic cohort study, as part of the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology consortium. Risk alleles for two obesity SNPs were associated with colorectal cancer risk--KCTD15 rs29941 [odds ratio (OR) for C allele = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; p = 0.01] and MC4R rs17782313 (OR for C allele = 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.22; p = 0.02). These associations were independent of the effect of BMI. However, none of the results remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. No heterogeneity was observed across race/ethnic groups. Our findings suggest that the obesity risk variants are not likely to affect the risk of colorectal cancer substantially.

  18. Consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries may reduce urinary tract infection incidence in susceptible women – a modified observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections, and over 50% of women will have a UTI during their lifetimes. Antibiotics are used for prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs but can lead to emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate nutritional strategies for prevention of UTIs. Cranberry juices and supplements have been used for UTI prophylaxis, but with variable efficacy. Because dried cranberries may contain a different spectrum of polyphenolics than juice, consuming berries may or may not be more beneficial than juice in decreasing the incidence of UTIs in susceptible women. The primary objectives of this study were to determine if consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries (SDC) decreases recurrent UTIs and whether this intervention would alter the heterogeneity, virulence factor (VF) profiles, or numbers of intestinal E. coli. Methods Twenty women with recurrent UTIs were enrolled in the trial and consumed one serving of SDC daily for two weeks. Clinical efficacy was determined by two criteria, a decrease in the six-month UTI rates pre- and post-consumption and increased time until the first UTI since beginning the study. Strain heterogeneity and virulence factor profiles of intestinal E. coli isolated from rectal swabs were determined by DNA fingerprinting and muliplex PCR, respectively. The numbers of intestinal E. coli eluted from rectal swabs pre- and post-consumption were also quantified. Results Over one-half of the patients did not experience a UTI within six months of SDC consumption, and the mean UTI rate per six months decreased significantly. Kaplan-Meier analysis of infection incidence in women consuming SDC compared to patients in a previous control group showed a significant reduction in time until first UTI within six months. The heterogeneity, VF profiles, and prevalence of intestinal E. coli strains were not significantly different after cranberry consumption

  19. The role of method of production and resolution of the DEM on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment - Ubaye Valley, French Alps case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögel, Romy; Marchesini, Ivan; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment forms the basis of any hazard mapping, which is one of the essential parts of quantitative risk mapping. For the same study area, different susceptibility maps can be achieved depending on the type of susceptibility mapping methods, mapping unit, and scale. In the Ubaye Valley (South French Alps), we investigate the effect of resolution and method of production of the DEM to delineate slope units for landslide susceptibility mapping method. Slope units delineation has been processed using multiple combinations of circular variance and minimum area size values, which are the input parameters for a new software for terrain partitioning. We rely on this method taking into account homogeneity of aspect direction inside each unit and inhomogeneity between different units. We computed slope units delineation for 5, 10 and 25 meters resolution DEM, and investigate statistical distributions of morphometric variables within the different polygons. Then, for each different slope units partitioning, we calibrated a landslide susceptibility model, considering landslide bodies and scarps as a dependent variable (binary response). This work aims to analyse the role of DEM resolution on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment. Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic is investigated for the susceptibility model calculations. In addition, we analysed further the performance of the Logistic Regression Model by looking at the percentage of significant variable in the statistical analyses. Results show that smaller slope units have a better chance of containing a smaller number of thematic and morphometric variables, allowing for an easier classification. Reliability of the models according to the DEM resolution considered as well as scarp area and landslides bodies presence/absence as dependent variable are discussed.

  20. Breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk: a Collaborative Endometrial Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shahana; O’Mara, Tracy A.; Ferguson, Kaltin; Lambrechts, Diether; Garcia-Dios, Diego A.; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Howarth, Kimberley; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; Tomlinson, Ian; Yang, Hannah P.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Strom, Brian L.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11 928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21965274

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Li, Ni; Weinhold, Niels; Försti, Asta; Ali, Mina; van Duin, Mark; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Johnson, David C.; Chen, Bowang; Halvarsson, Britt-Marie; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Kuiper, Rowan; Stephens, Owen W.; Bertsch, Uta; Broderick, Peter; Campo, Chiara; Einsele, Hermann; Gregory, Walter A.; Gullberg, Urban; Henrion, Marc; Hillengass, Jens; Hoffmann, Per; Jackson, Graham H.; Johnsson, Ellinor; Jöud, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurður Y.; Lenhoff, Stig; Lenive, Oleg; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Migliorini, Gabriele; Nahi, Hareth; Nelander, Sven; Nickel, Jolanta; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Ross, Fiona M.; da Silva Filho, Miguel Inacio; Swaminathan, Bhairavi; Thomsen, Hauke; Turesson, Ingemar; Vangsted, Annette; Vogel, Ulla; Waage, Anders; Walker, Brian A.; Wihlborg, Anna-Karin; Broyl, Annemiek; Davies, Faith E.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Langer, Christian; Hansson, Markus; Kaiser, Martin; Sonneveld, Pieter; Stefansson, Kari; Morgan, Gareth J.; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hemminki, Kari; Nilsson, Björn; Houlston, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P=1.31 × 10−8), 6q21 (rs9372120, P=9.09 × 10−15), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P=9.71 × 10−9), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P=4.20 × 10−11), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P=1.72 × 10−13), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P=1.77 × 10−8), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P=5.00 × 10−12) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P=1.36 × 10−13), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development. PMID:27363682

  2. Aspartame and seizure susceptibility: results of a clinical study in reportedly sensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Rowan, A J; Shaywitz, B A; Tuchman, L; French, J A; Luciano, D; Sullivan, C M

    1995-03-01

    The high intensity sweetener aspartame has been implicated anecdotally in seizure provocation. This possibility was investigated with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. After an extensive search, 18 individuals (16 adults and 2 children) who had seizures allegedly related to aspartame consumption were admitted to adult or pediatric epilepsy monitoring units where their EEG was monitored continuously for 5 days. Aspartame (50 mg/kg) or identically enpackaged placebo was administered in divided doses at 0800, 1000, and 1200 h on study days 2 and 4. All meals were uniformly standardized on treatment days. No clinical seizures or other adverse experiences were observed after aspartame ingestion. Mean plasma phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations increased significantly after aspartame ingestion (83.6 microM) as compared with placebo (52.3 microM). Results suggest that aspartame, in acute dosage of approximately 50 mg/kg, is no more likely than placebo to cause seizures in individuals who reported that their seizures were provoked by aspartame consumption.

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Li, Ni; Weinhold, Niels; Försti, Asta; Ali, Mina; van Duin, Mark; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Johnson, David C; Chen, Bowang; Halvarsson, Britt-Marie; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Kuiper, Rowan; Stephens, Owen W; Bertsch, Uta; Broderick, Peter; Campo, Chiara; Einsele, Hermann; Gregory, Walter A; Gullberg, Urban; Henrion, Marc; Hillengass, Jens; Hoffmann, Per; Jackson, Graham H; Johnsson, Ellinor; Jöud, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurður Y; Lenhoff, Stig; Lenive, Oleg; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Migliorini, Gabriele; Nahi, Hareth; Nelander, Sven; Nickel, Jolanta; Nöthen, Markus M; Rafnar, Thorunn; Ross, Fiona M; da Silva Filho, Miguel Inacio; Swaminathan, Bhairavi; Thomsen, Hauke; Turesson, Ingemar; Vangsted, Annette; Vogel, Ulla; Waage, Anders; Walker, Brian A; Wihlborg, Anna-Karin; Broyl, Annemiek; Davies, Faith E; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Langer, Christian; Hansson, Markus; Kaiser, Martin; Sonneveld, Pieter; Stefansson, Kari; Morgan, Gareth J; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hemminki, Kari; Nilsson, Björn; Houlston, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P=1.31 × 10(-8)), 6q21 (rs9372120, P=9.09 × 10(-15)), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P=9.71 × 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P=4.20 × 10(-11)), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P=1.72 × 10(-13)), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P=1.77 × 10(-8)), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P=5.00 × 10(-12)) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P=1.36 × 10(-13)), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development.

  4. Muscle Quality and Myosteatosis: Novel Associations With Mortality Risk: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Ilse; Murphy, Rachel A; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Launer, Lenore; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jonsson, Palmi V; Lang, Thomas F; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-01-01

    Muscle composition may affect mortality risk, but prior studies have been limited to specific samples or less precise determination of muscle composition. We evaluated associations of thigh muscle composition, determined using computed tomography imaging, and knee extension strength with mortality risk among 4,824 participants aged 76.4 (standard deviation (SD), 5.5) years from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study (2002-2006). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios. After 8.8 years of follow-up, there were 1,942 deaths. For men, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 11% and 22%. Each SD-increment increase in intermuscular adipose tissue and intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with higher mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.22) and HR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.30), respectively). For women, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 12% and 19%. Greater intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with an 8% higher mortality risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16). This study shows that muscle composition is associated with mortality risk. These results also show the importance of improving muscle strength and area and lowering muscle adipose tissue infiltration.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study for Type 2 Diabetes in Indians Identifies a New Susceptibility Locus at 2q21

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Rubina; Chauhan, Ganesh; Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Mahajan, Anubha; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaur, Ismeet; Bandesh, Khushdeep; Singh, Tejbir; Mathai, Benan John; Pandey, Yogesh; Chidambaram, Manickam; Sharma, Amitabh; Chavali, Sreenivas; Sengupta, Shantanu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Aggarwal, Sanjay K.; Ghosh, Saurabh; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Srinath, Reddy K.; Saxena, Madhukar; Banerjee, Monisha; Mathur, Sandeep; Bhansali, Anil; Shah, Viral N.; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Marwaha, Raman K.; Basu, Analabha; Scaria, Vinod; McCarthy, Mark I.; Venkatesan, Radha; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2013-01-01

    Indians undergoing socioeconomic and lifestyle transitions will be maximally affected by epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of T2D in 12,535 Indians, a less explored but high-risk group. We identified a new type 2 diabetes–associated locus at 2q21, with the lead signal being rs6723108 (odds ratio 1.31; P = 3.32 × 10−9). Imputation analysis refined the signal to rs998451 (odds ratio 1.56; P = 6.3 × 10−12) within TMEM163 that encodes a probable vesicular transporter in nerve terminals. TMEM163 variants also showed association with decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, indicating a plausible effect through impaired insulin secretion. The 2q21 region also harbors RAB3GAP1 and ACMSD; those are involved in neurologic disorders. Forty-nine of 56 previously reported signals showed consistency in direction with similar effect sizes in Indians and previous studies, and 25 of them were also associated (P < 0.05). Known loci and the newly identified 2q21 locus altogether explained 7.65% variance in the risk of T2D in Indians. Our study suggests that common susceptibility variants for T2D are largely the same across populations, but also reveals a population-specific locus and provides further insights into genetic architecture and etiology of T2D. PMID:23209189

  6. Association of PDE4B Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanguo; Cheng, Dejun; Zhang, Chaofeng; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Zhiying; Wang, Juan; Shi, Yuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background The PDE4B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia risk. However, current findings are ambiguous or even conflicting. To better facilitate the understanding the genetic role played by PDE4B in susceptibility to schizophrenia, we collected currently available data and conducted this meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive electronic literature searching of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library was performed. The association between PDE4B SNPs and schizophrenia was evaluated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under allelic, dominant and recessive genetic models. The random effects model was utilized when high between-study heterogeneity (I2 > 50%) existed, otherwise the fixed effects model was used. Results Five studies comprising 2376 schizophrenia patients and 3093 controls were finally included for meta-analysis. The rs1040716 was statistically significantly associated with schizophrenia risk in Asian and Caucasian populations under dominant model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76–0.99, P = 0.04). The rs2180335 was significantly related with schizophrenia risk in Asian populations under allelic (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72–0.93, P = 0.003) and dominant (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64–0.88, P < 0.001) models. A significant association was also observed between rs4320761 and schizophrenia in Asian populations under allelic model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75–1.00, P = 0.048). In addition, a strong association tendency was found between rs6588190 and schizophrenia in Asian populations under allelic model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76–1.00, P = 0.055). Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that PDE4B SNPs are genetically associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, due to limited sample size, more large-scale, multi-racial association studies are needed to further clarify the genetic association between various PDE4B variants and schizophrenia. PMID:26756575

  7. Tevatron AC dipole system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  8. AC-3 audio coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  9. A.C. Susceptometry Utilizing GMR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Daniel; Shivaram, Bellave

    2001-11-01

    Superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) magnetometers remain as the most sensitive instruments to measure magnetic properties. However, the ready availability and rapid improvements in the sensitivity of magnetic field sensors based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect combined with their low cost and ability to operate at room temperature opens up opportunities to exploit these new devices where the utmost sensitivity of SQUID based detection is not needed. In this article we present one such application of GMR sensors and demonstrate how they can enhance the signals obtained in a simple a.c. magnetic susceptibility apparatus.

  10. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  11. Level structure and reflection asymmetric shape in sup 223 Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P. )

    1990-07-20

    Mass separated sources of {sup 227}Pa (separated as PaF{sub 4}{sup +} ions) were used to study the level structure of {sup 223}Ac following alpha decay. The levels in {sup 223}Ac are interpreted as K = 5/2{sup {plus minus}} parity doublet bands which occur naturally in reflection asymmetric models and the multiphonon octupole model. The anomalous structure of the K = 3/2{sup {minus}} band is explained in terms of Coriolis coupling. The low lying parity doublet bands in {sup 223}Ac, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 227}Ac are compared and contrasted.

  12. Use of AC Impedance Analysis to Study Membrane Changes Related to Acid Secretion in Amphibian Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Chris; Machen, Terry E.; Diamond, Jared M.

    1983-01-01

    We have applied transepithelial AC impedance techniques to gastric mucosa to reconcile ultrastructural and electrophysiological findings about gastric acid secretion and the mucosal barrier. By fitting impedance data measured at different HCl secretion rates to equivalent circuit models, we extracted capacitances and resistances (as measures of membrane area and ionic conductance, respectively) for the apical and basolateral membranes. The impedance measurements were found to be incompatible with earlier equivalent circuit models that modeled membrane electrical properties as lumped circuits based on one or two cell types. A distributed circuit model was developed that assumed only one dominant electrical pathway (i.e., one cell type), but that incorporated electrical effects arising from long and narrow membrane-lined structures present in the epithelium (e.g., gastric crypts, tubulovesicles, lateral intercellular spaces). This morphologically based model was found to represent the measured data accurately, and to yield values for membrane capacitances consistent with morphometric measurements of membrane areas. The main physiological conclusions from this analysis were as follows: (a) The dominant transepithelial current pathway may reside in the oxyntic cells. (b) The transepithelial conductance increase associated with the onset of acid secretion is entirely due to increased conductance of the apical membrane. This is in turn due entirely to increased area of this membrane, resulting from incorporation of tubulovesicular membrane. (c) When membrane conductances are normalized to actual membrane area by use of membrane capacitances, it turns out that acid secretion is not associated with a change in specific ionic conductance (change in conductance per unit area) at either the apical or basolateral membrane. (d) The puzzlingly low value of transepithelial resistance (≤400 Ω-cm2) arises because there are hundreds or thousands of square centimeters of actual

  13. Early Medication Nonadherence After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Insights into Actionable Opportunities from the TRANSLATE-ACS Study

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Robin; Peterson, Eric D.; Honeycutt, Emily; Chin, Chee Tang; Effron, Mark B.; Zettler, Marjorie; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Henry, Timothy D.; Wang, Tracy Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to prescribed evidence-based medications after acute myocardial infarction (MI) can contribute to worse outcomes and higher costs. We sought to better understand the modifiable factors contributing to early nonadherence of evidence-based medications after acute MI. Methods and Results We assessed 7,425 acute MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at 216 United States hospitals participating in TRANSLATE-ACS between 04/2010–05/2012. Using the validated Morisky instrument to assess cardiovascular medication adherence at 6 weeks post-MI, we stratified patients into self-reported high (score 8), moderate (score 6–7), and low (score <6) adherence groups. Moderate and low adherence was reported in 25% and 4% of patients, respectively. One-third of low adherence patients described missing doses of antiplatelet therapy at least twice a week after PCI. Signs of depression and patient-reported financial hardship due to medication expenses were independently associated with a higher likelihood of medication nonadherence. Patients were more likely to be adherent at 6 weeks if they had follow-up appointments made prior to discharge and had a provider explain potential side effects of their medications. Lower medication adherence may be associated with a higher risk of 3-month death/readmission (adjusted HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98, 1.87) although this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Even early after MI, a substantial proportion of patients report suboptimal adherence to prescribed medications. Tailored patient education and pre-discharge planning may represent actionable opportunities to optimize patient adherence and clinical outcomes. Clinical Trial Registry Information clinical trial #NCT01088503; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01088503 PMID:26038524

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies five new susceptibility loci for primary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Khor, Chiea Chuen; Do, Tan; Jia, Hongyan; Nakano, Masakazu; George, Ronnie; Abu-Amero, Khaled; Duvesh, Roopam; Chen, Li Jia; Li, Zheng; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Qiao, Chunyan; Wong, Hon-Tym; Sakai, Hiroshi; Barbosa de Melo, Mônica; Lee, Mei-Chin; Chan, Anita S; Azhany, Yaakub; Dao, Thi Lam Huong; Ikeda, Yoko; Perez-Grossmann, Rodolfo A; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Day, Alexander C; Jonas, Jost B; Tam, Pancy O S; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ayub, Humaira; Akhtar, Farah; Micheal, Shazia; Chew, Paul T K; Aljasim, Leyla A; Dada, Tanuj; Luu, Tam Thi; Awadalla, Mona S; Kitnarong, Naris; Wanichwecharungruang, Boonsong; Aung, Yee Yee; Mohamed-Noor, Jelinar; Vijayan, Saravanan; Sarangapani, Sripriya; Husain, Rahat; Jap, Aliza; Baskaran, Mani; Goh, David; Su, Daniel H; Wang, Huaizhou; Yong, Vernon K; Yip, Leonard W; Trinh, Tuyet Bach; Makornwattana, Manchima; Nguyen, Thanh Thu; Leuenberger, Edgar U; Park, Ki-Ho; Wiyogo, Widya Artini; Kumar, Rajesh S; Tello, Celso; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Thapa, Suman S; Pathanapitoon, Kessara; Salmon, John F; Sohn, Yong Ho; Fea, Antonio; Ozaki, Mineo; Lai, Jimmy S M; Tantisevi, Visanee; Khaing, Chaw Chaw; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Nakano, Satoko; Kim, Chan-Yun; Tang, Guangxian; Fan, Sujie; Wu, Renyi; Meng, Hailin; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Giang; Tran, Tien Dat; Ueno, Morio; Martinez, Jose Maria; Ramli, Norlina; Aung, Yin Mon; Reyes, Rigo Daniel; Vernon, Stephen A; Fang, Seng Kheong; Xie, Zhicheng; Chen, Xiao Yin; Foo, Jia Nee; Sim, Kar Seng; Wong, Tina T; Quek, Desmond T; Venkatesh, Rengaraj; Kavitha, Srinivasan; Krishnadas, Subbiah R; Soumittra, Nagaswamy; Shantha, Balekudaru; Lim, Boon-Ang; Ogle, Jeanne; de Vasconcellos, José P C; Costa, Vital P; Abe, Ricardo Y; de Souza, Bruno B; Sng, Chelvin C; Aquino, Maria C; Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Fong, Guillermo Barreto; Tamanaja, Vania Castro; Fujita, Ricardo; Jiang, Yuzhen; Waseem, Naushin; Low, Sancy; Pham, Huan Nguyen; Al-Shahwan, Sami; Craven, E Randy; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Dada, Rrima; Mohanty, Kuldeep; Faiq, Muneeb A; Hewitt, Alex W; Burdon, Kathryn P; Gan, Eng Hui; Prutthipongsit, Anuwat; Patthanathamrongkasem, Thipnapa; Catacutan, Mary Ann T; Felarca, Irene R; Liao, Chona S; Rusmayani, Emma; Istiantoro, Vira Wardhana; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Lavia, Carlo; Rojanapongpun, Prin; Mangkornkanokpong, Lerprat; Chansangpetch, Sunee; Chan, Jonathan C H; Choy, Bonnie N K; Shum, Jennifer W H; Than, Hlaing May; Oo, Khin Thida; Han, Aye Thi; Yong, Victor H; Ng, Xiao-Yu; Goh, Shuang Ru; Chong, Yaan Fun; Hibberd, Martin L; Seielstad, Mark; Png, Eileen; Dunstan, Sarah J; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Bei, Jinxin; Zeng, Yi Xin; Karkey, Abhilasha; Basnyat, Buddha; Pasutto, Francesca; Paoli, Daniela; Frezzotti, Paolo; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Fingert, John H; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Lim, Soon Thye; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Park, Kyu Hyung; Ahn, Jeeyun; Boland, Greet; Snippe, Harm; Stead, Richard; Quino, Raquel; Zaw, Su Nyunt; Lukasik, Urszula; Shetty, Rohit; Zahari, Mimiwati; Bae, Hyoung Won; Oo, Nay Lin; Kubota, Toshiaki; Manassakorn, Anita; Ho, Wing Lau; Dallorto, Laura; Hwang, Young Hoon; Kiire, Christine A; Kuroda, Masako; Djamal, Zeiras Eka; Peregrino, Jovell Ian M; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Hoan, Tung S; Srisamran, Nuttamon; Sandragasu, Thayanithi; Set, Saw Htoo; Doan, Vi Huyen; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Ho, Ching-Lin; Tan, Donald T; Sihota, Ramanjit; Loon, Seng-Chee; Mori, Kazuhiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Hollander, Anneke I den; Qamar, Raheel; Wang, Ya-Xing; Teo, Yik Y; Tai, E-Shyong; Hartleben-Matkin, Curt; Lozano-Giral, David; Saw, Seang Mei; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zenteno, Juan C; Pang, Chi Pui; Bui, Huong T T; Hee, Owen; Craig, Jamie E; Edward, Deepak P; Yonahara, Michiko; Neto, Jamil Miguel; Guevara-Fujita, Maria L; Xu, Liang; Ritch, Robert; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin; Wong, Tien Y; Al-Obeidan, Saleh; Do, Nhu Hon; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Tham, Clement C; Foster, Paul J; Vijaya, Lingam; Tashiro, Kei; Vithana, Eranga N; Wang, Ningli; Aung, Tin

    2016-05-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) followed by replication in a combined total of 10,503 PACG cases and 29,567 controls drawn from 24 countries across Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America. We observed significant evidence of disease association at five new genetic loci upon meta-analysis of all patient collections. These loci are at EPDR1 rs3816415 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, P = 5.94 × 10(-15)), CHAT rs1258267 (OR = 1.22, P = 2.85 × 10(-16)), GLIS3 rs736893 (OR = 1.18, P = 1.43 × 10(-14)), FERMT2 rs7494379 (OR = 1.14, P = 3.43 × 10(-11)), and DPM2-FAM102A rs3739821 (OR = 1.15, P = 8.32 × 10(-12)). We also confirmed significant association at three previously described loci (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each sentinel SNP at PLEKHA7, COL11A1, and PCMTD1-ST18), providing new insights into the biology of PACG. PMID:27064256

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies five new susceptibility loci for primary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Khor, Chiea Chuen; Do, Tan; Jia, Hongyan; Nakano, Masakazu; George, Ronnie; Abu-Amero, Khaled; Duvesh, Roopam; Chen, Li Jia; Li, Zheng; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Qiao, Chunyan; Wong, Hon-Tym; Sakai, Hiroshi; Barbosa de Melo, Mônica; Lee, Mei-Chin; Chan, Anita S; Azhany, Yaakub; Dao, Thi Lam Huong; Ikeda, Yoko; Perez-Grossmann, Rodolfo A; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Day, Alexander C; Jonas, Jost B; Tam, Pancy O S; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ayub, Humaira; Akhtar, Farah; Micheal, Shazia; Chew, Paul T K; Aljasim, Leyla A; Dada, Tanuj; Luu, Tam Thi; Awadalla, Mona S; Kitnarong, Naris; Wanichwecharungruang, Boonsong; Aung, Yee Yee; Mohamed-Noor, Jelinar; Vijayan, Saravanan; Sarangapani, Sripriya; Husain, Rahat; Jap, Aliza; Baskaran, Mani; Goh, David; Su, Daniel H; Wang, Huaizhou; Yong, Vernon K; Yip, Leonard W; Trinh, Tuyet Bach; Makornwattana, Manchima; Nguyen, Thanh Thu; Leuenberger, Edgar U; Park, Ki-Ho; Wiyogo, Widya Artini; Kumar, Rajesh S; Tello, Celso; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Thapa, Suman S; Pathanapitoon, Kessara; Salmon, John F; Sohn, Yong Ho; Fea, Antonio; Ozaki, Mineo; Lai, Jimmy S M; Tantisevi, Visanee; Khaing, Chaw Chaw; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Nakano, Satoko; Kim, Chan-Yun; Tang, Guangxian; Fan, Sujie; Wu, Renyi; Meng, Hailin; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Giang; Tran, Tien Dat; Ueno, Morio; Martinez, Jose Maria; Ramli, Norlina; Aung, Yin Mon; Reyes, Rigo Daniel; Vernon, Stephen A; Fang, Seng Kheong; Xie, Zhicheng; Chen, Xiao Yin; Foo, Jia Nee; Sim, Kar Seng; Wong, Tina T; Quek, Desmond T; Venkatesh, Rengaraj; Kavitha, Srinivasan; Krishnadas, Subbiah R; Soumittra, Nagaswamy; Shantha, Balekudaru; Lim, Boon-Ang; Ogle, Jeanne; de Vasconcellos, José P C; Costa, Vital P; Abe, Ricardo Y; de Souza, Bruno B; Sng, Chelvin C; Aquino, Maria C; Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Fong, Guillermo Barreto; Tamanaja, Vania Castro; Fujita, Ricardo; Jiang, Yuzhen; Waseem, Naushin; Low, Sancy; Pham, Huan Nguyen; Al-Shahwan, Sami; Craven, E Randy; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Dada, Rrima; Mohanty, Kuldeep; Faiq, Muneeb A; Hewitt, Alex W; Burdon, Kathryn P; Gan, Eng Hui; Prutthipongsit, Anuwat; Patthanathamrongkasem, Thipnapa; Catacutan, Mary Ann T; Felarca, Irene R; Liao, Chona S; Rusmayani, Emma; Istiantoro, Vira Wardhana; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Lavia, Carlo; Rojanapongpun, Prin; Mangkornkanokpong, Lerprat; Chansangpetch, Sunee; Chan, Jonathan C H; Choy, Bonnie N K; Shum, Jennifer W H; Than, Hlaing May; Oo, Khin Thida; Han, Aye Thi; Yong, Victor H; Ng, Xiao-Yu; Goh, Shuang Ru; Chong, Yaan Fun; Hibberd, Martin L; Seielstad, Mark; Png, Eileen; Dunstan, Sarah J; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Bei, Jinxin; Zeng, Yi Xin; Karkey, Abhilasha; Basnyat, Buddha; Pasutto, Francesca; Paoli, Daniela; Frezzotti, Paolo; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Fingert, John H; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Lim, Soon Thye; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Park, Kyu Hyung; Ahn, Jeeyun; Boland, Greet; Snippe, Harm; Stead, Richard; Quino, Raquel; Zaw, Su Nyunt; Lukasik, Urszula; Shetty, Rohit; Zahari, Mimiwati; Bae, Hyoung Won; Oo, Nay Lin; Kubota, Toshiaki; Manassakorn, Anita; Ho, Wing Lau; Dallorto, Laura; Hwang, Young Hoon; Kiire, Christine A; Kuroda, Masako; Djamal, Zeiras Eka; Peregrino, Jovell Ian M; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Hoan, Tung S; Srisamran, Nuttamon; Sandragasu, Thayanithi; Set, Saw Htoo; Doan, Vi Huyen; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Ho, Ching-Lin; Tan, Donald T; Sihota, Ramanjit; Loon, Seng-Chee; Mori, Kazuhiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Hollander, Anneke I den; Qamar, Raheel; Wang, Ya-Xing; Teo, Yik Y; Tai, E-Shyong; Hartleben-Matkin, Curt; Lozano-Giral, David; Saw, Seang Mei; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zenteno, Juan C; Pang, Chi Pui; Bui, Huong T T; Hee, Owen; Craig, Jamie E; Edward, Deepak P; Yonahara, Michiko; Neto, Jamil Miguel; Guevara-Fujita, Maria L; Xu, Liang; Ritch, Robert; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin; Wong, Tien Y; Al-Obeidan, Saleh; Do, Nhu Hon; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Tham, Clement C; Foster, Paul J; Vijaya, Lingam; Tashiro, Kei; Vithana, Eranga N; Wang, Ningli; Aung, Tin

    2016-05-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) followed by replication in a combined total of 10,503 PACG cases and 29,567 controls drawn from 24 countries across Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America. We observed significant evidence of disease association at five new genetic loci upon meta-analysis of all patient collections. These loci are at EPDR1 rs3816415 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, P = 5.94 × 10(-15)), CHAT rs1258267 (OR = 1.22, P = 2.85 × 10(-16)), GLIS3 rs736893 (OR = 1.18, P = 1.43 × 10(-14)), FERMT2 rs7494379 (OR = 1.14, P = 3.43 × 10(-11)), and DPM2-FAM102A rs3739821 (OR = 1.15, P = 8.32 × 10(-12)). We also confirmed significant association at three previously described loci (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each sentinel SNP at PLEKHA7, COL11A1, and PCMTD1-ST18), providing new insights into the biology of PACG.

  16. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies L3MBTL4 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Hu, Cheng; Bao, Minghui; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tan, Xuerui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Yequn; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Shuohua; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Jia, Weiping; Wang, Xingyu; Yang, Xinchun; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health burden and a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although its heritability has been documented previously, contributing loci identified to date account for only a small fraction of blood pressure (BP) variation, which strongly suggests the existence of undiscovered variants. To identify novel variants, we conducted a three staged genetic study in 21,990 hypertensive cases and normotensive controls. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at three new genes (L3MBTL4 rs403814, Pmeta = 6.128 × 10−9; LOC729251, and TCEANC) and seven SNPs at five previously reported genes were identified as being significantly associated with hypertension. Through functional analysis, we found that L3MBTL4 is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and up-regulated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rats with ubiquitous over-expression of L3MBTL4 exhibited significantly elevated BP, increased thickness of the vascular media layer and cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, L3MBTL4 over-expression could lead to down-regulation of latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 1 (LTBP1), and phosphorylation activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is known to trigger the pathological progression of vascular remodeling and BP elevation. These findings pinpointed L3MBTL4 as a critical contributor to the development and progression of hypertension and uncovers a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27480026

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant isolates identifies genes associated with colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Park, Y K; Lee, J-Y; Ko, K S

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is concerning, as colistin is often regarded as the last option for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii infections. Using mRNA sequencing, we compared whole transcriptomes of colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant A. baumannii strains, with the aim of identifying genes involved in colistin resistance. A clinical colistin-susceptible strain (06AC-179) and a colistin-resistant strain (07AC-052) were analysed in this study. In addition, a colistin-resistant mutant (06AC-179-R1) derived from 06AC-179 was also included in this study. High throughput mRNA sequencing was performed with an Illumina HiSeq TM 2000. In total, six genes were identified as associated with colistin resistance in A. baumannii. These six genes encode PmrAB two-component regulatory enzymes, PmrC (a lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase), a glycosyltransferase, a poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase, and a putative membrane protein. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry revealed that all three colistin-resistant strains used in this study had modified lipid A structure by addition of phosphoethanolamine. As genes found in our results are all associated with either lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis or electrostatic changes in the bacterial cell membrane, lipopolysaccharide modification might be one of the principal modes of acquisition of colistin resistance in some A. baumannii strains.

  18. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  19. Exploiting the Temperature/Concentration Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility to Control Convection in Fundamental Studies of Solidification Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. W.; Xu, Dong; Jones, W. Kinzy, Jr.; Szofran, Frank R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this new research project is to demonstrate by experiment, supplemented by mathematical modeling and physical property measurement, that the effects of buoyancy driven convection can be largely eliminated in ground-based experiments, and further reduced in flight, by applying a new technique. That technique exploits the dependence of magnetic susceptibility on composition or temperature. It is emphasized at the outset that the phenomenon to be exploited is fundamentally and practically different from the magnetic damping of convection in conducting liquids that has been the subject of much prior research. The concept suggesting this research is that all materials, even non-conductors, when placed in a magnetic field gradient, experience a force. Of particular interest here are paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials, classes which embrace the "model alloys", such as succinonitrile-acetone, that have been used by others investigating the fundamentals of solidification. Such alloys will exhibit a dependence of susceptibility on composition. The consequence is that, with a properly oriented field (gradient) a force will arise that can be made to be equal to, but opposite, the buoyancy force arising from concentration (or temperature) gradients. In this way convection can be stilled. The role of convection in determining the microstructure, and thereby properties, of materials is well known. Elimination of that convection has both scientific and technological consequences. Our knowledge of diffusive phenomena in solidification, phenomena normally hidden by the dominance of convection, is enhanced if we can study solidification of quiescent liquids. Furthermore, the microstructure, microchemistry and properties of materials (thereby practical value) are affected by the convection occurring during their solidification. Hitherto the method of choice for elimination of convection has been experimentation in microgravity. However, even in low Earth orbit

  20. Resistance of Trichoplusia ni to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac is independent of alteration of the cadherin-like receptor for Cry toxins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Tiewsiri, Kasorn; Kain, Wendy; Huang, Lihua; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of binding sites for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in insect midgut is the major mechanism of high-level resistance to Bt toxins in insects. The midgut cadherin is known to be a major binding protein for Bt Cry1A toxins and linkage of Bt-resistance to cadherin gene mutations has been identified in lepidopterans. The resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac evolved in greenhouse populations of Trichoplusia ni has been identified to be associated with the down-regulation of an aminopeptidase N (APN1) gene by a trans-regulatory mechanism and the resistance gene has been mapped to the locus of an ABC transporter (ABCC2) gene. However, whether cadherin is also involved with Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni requires to be understood. Here we report that the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni is independent of alteration of the cadherin. The T. ni cadherin cDNA was cloned and the cadherin sequence showed characteristic features known to cadherins from Lepidoptera. Various T. ni cadherin gene alleles were identified and genetic linkage analysis of the cadherin alleles with Cry1Ac-resistance showed no association of the cadherin gene with the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni. Analysis of cadherin transcripts showed no quantitative difference between the susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni larvae. Quantitative proteomic analysis of midgut BBMV proteins by iTRAQ-2D-LC-MS/MS determined that there was no quantitative difference in cadherin content between the susceptible and the resistant larvae and the cadherin only accounted for 0.0014% (mol%) of the midgut BBMV proteins, which is 1/300 of APN1 in molar ratio. The cadherin from both the susceptible and resistant larvae showed as a 200-kDa Cry1Ac-binding protein by toxin overlay binding analysis, and nano-LC-MS/MS analysis of the 200-kDa cadherin determined that there is no quantitative difference between the susceptible and resistant larvae. Results from this study indicate that the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni is independent of cadherin

  1. A Preliminary Study of Genetic Factors That Influence Susceptibility to Bovine Tuberculosis in the British Cattle Herd

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Erin E.; Hoffman, Joseph I.; Green, Laura E.; Medley, Graham F.; Amos, William

    2011-01-01

    Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to Mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis have been reported in several species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) impacts greatly the UK cattle industry, yet genetic predispositions have yet to be identified. We therefore used a candidate gene approach to study 384 cattle of which 160 had reacted positively to an antigenic skin test (‘reactors’). Our approach was unusual in that it used microsatellite markers, embraced high breed diversity and focused particularly on detecting genes showing heterozygote advantage, a mode of action often overlooked in SNP-based studies. A panel of neutral markers was used to control for population substructure and using a general linear model-based approach we were also able to control for age. We found that substructure was surprisingly weak and identified two genomic regions that were strongly associated with reactor status, identified by markers INRA111 and BMS2753. In general the strength of association detected tended to vary depending on whether age was included in the model. At INRA111 a single genotype appears strongly protective with an overall odds ratio of 2.2, the effect being consistent across nine diverse breeds. Our results suggest that breeding strategies could be devised that would appreciably increase genetic resistance of cattle to bTB (strictly, reduce the frequency of incidence of reactors) with implications for the current debate concerning badger-culling. PMID:21533277

  2. Genetic Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: Follow-Up of Findings from Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Kevin J.; Johnson, Matthew E.; Xia, Qianghua; Grant, Struan F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying genetic variations influencing various complex diseases is one of the major challenges currently facing clinical genetic research. Although these variations are often difficult to uncover, approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been successful at finding statistically significant associations between specific genomic loci and disease susceptibility. GWAS has been especially successful in elucidating genetic variants that influence type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity/body mass index (BMI). Specifically, several GWASs have confirmed that a variant in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) confers risk for T2D, while a variant in fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) confers risk for obesity/BMI; indeed both of these signals are considered the most statistically associated loci discovered for these respective traits to date. The discovery of these two key loci in this context has been invaluable for providing novel insight into mechanisms of heritability and disease pathogenesis. As follow-up studies of TCF7L2 and FTO have typically lead the way in how to follow up a GWAS discovery, we outline what has been learned from such investigations and how they have implications for the myriad of other loci that have been subsequently reported in this disease context. PMID:24719615

  3. Actinide sulfides in the gas phase: experimental and theoretical studies of the thermochemistry of AnS (An = Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudia C L; Marsden, Colin J; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K

    2011-07-28

    The gas-phase thermochemistry of actinide monosulfides, AnS, was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the reactivity of An(+) and AnO(+) (An = Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm) with CS(2) and COS, as well as the reactivity of the produced AnS(+) with oxidants (COS, CO(2), CH(2)O and NO). From these experiments, An(+)-S bond dissociation energies could be bracketed. Density functional theory studies of the energetics of neutral and monocationic AnS (An = Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm) provided values for bond dissociation energies and ionization energies; the computed energetics of neutral and monocationic AnO were also obtained for comparison. The theoretical data, together with comparisons with known An(+)-O bond dissociation energies and M(+)-S and M(+)-O dissociation energies for the early transition metals, allowed for the refining of the An(+)-S bond dissociation energy ranges obtained from experiment. Examination of the reactivity of AnS(+) with dienes, coupled to comparisons with reactivities of the AnO(+) analogues, systematic considerations and the theoretical results, allowed for the estimation of the ionization energies of the AnS; the bond dissociation energies of neutral AnS were consequently derived. Estimates for the case of AcS were also made, based on correlations of the data for the other An and the electronic energetics of neutral and ionic An. The nature of the bonding in the elementary molecular actinide chalcogenides (oxides and sulfides) is discussed, based on both the experimental data and the computed electronic structures. DFT calculations of ionization energies for the actinide atoms and the diatomic sulfides and oxides are relatively reliable, but the calculation of bond dissociation energies is not uniformly satisfactory, either with DFT or CCSD(T). A key conclusion from both the experimental and theoretical results is that the 5f electrons do not

  4. Actinide sulfides in the gas phase: experimental and theoretical studies of the thermochemistry of AnS (An = Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudia C L; Marsden, Colin J; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K

    2011-07-28

    The gas-phase thermochemistry of actinide monosulfides, AnS, was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the reactivity of An(+) and AnO(+) (An = Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm) with CS(2) and COS, as well as the reactivity of the produced AnS(+) with oxidants (COS, CO(2), CH(2)O and NO). From these experiments, An(+)-S bond dissociation energies could be bracketed. Density functional theory studies of the energetics of neutral and monocationic AnS (An = Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm) provided values for bond dissociation energies and ionization energies; the computed energetics of neutral and monocationic AnO were also obtained for comparison. The theoretical data, together with comparisons with known An(+)-O bond dissociation energies and M(+)-S and M(+)-O dissociation energies for the early transition metals, allowed for the refining of the An(+)-S bond dissociation energy ranges obtained from experiment. Examination of the reactivity of AnS(+) with dienes, coupled to comparisons with reactivities of the AnO(+) analogues, systematic considerations and the theoretical results, allowed for the estimation of the ionization energies of the AnS; the bond dissociation energies of neutral AnS were consequently derived. Estimates for the case of AcS were also made, based on correlations of the data for the other An and the electronic energetics of neutral and ionic An. The nature of the bonding in the elementary molecular actinide chalcogenides (oxides and sulfides) is discussed, based on both the experimental data and the computed electronic structures. DFT calculations of ionization energies for the actinide atoms and the diatomic sulfides and oxides are relatively reliable, but the calculation of bond dissociation energies is not uniformly satisfactory, either with DFT or CCSD(T). A key conclusion from both the experimental and theoretical results is that the 5f electrons do not

  5. The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Allignol, Arthur; Beyersmann, Jan; Graves, Nicholas; Schumacher, Martin; Meyer, Rodolphe; Tacconelli, Evelina; De Angelis, Giulia; Farina, Claudio; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bertrand, Xavier; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Edgeworth, Jonathan; Tosas, Olga; Martinez, Jose A; Ayala-Blanco, M Pilar; Pan, Angelo; Zoncada, Alessia; Marwick, Charis A; Nathwani, Dilip; Seifert, Harald; Hos, Nina; Hagel, Stefan; Pletz, Mathias; Harbarth, Stephan

    2016-08-18

    We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-2.42, HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.49-2.20 and HR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.66-3.51, respectively) and prolonged LOS (9.3 days; 95% CI: 9.2-9.4, 11.5 days; 95% CI: 11.5-11.6 and 13.3 days; 95% CI: 13.2-13.4, respectively). BSI with third-generation cephalosporin-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (3GCSE) significantly increased LOS (5.9 days; 95% CI: 5.8-5.9) but not hazard of death (1.16; 95% CI: 0.98-1.36). 3GCRE significantly increased the hazard of death (1.63; 95% CI: 1.13-2.35), excess LOS (4.9 days; 95% CI: 1.1-8.7) and cost compared with susceptible strains, whereas meticillin resistance did not. The annual cost of 3GCRE BSI was higher than of MRSA BSI. While BSI with S. aureus had greater impact on mortality, excess LOS and cost than Enterobacteriaceae per infection, the impact of antimicrobial resistance was greater for Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27562950

  6. The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Allignol, Arthur; Beyersmann, Jan; Graves, Nicholas; Schumacher, Martin; Meyer, Rodolphe; Tacconelli, Evelina; De Angelis, Giulia; Farina, Claudio; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bertrand, Xavier; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Edgeworth, Jonathan; Tosas, Olga; Martinez, Jose A; Ayala-Blanco, M Pilar; Pan, Angelo; Zoncada, Alessia; Marwick, Charis A; Nathwani, Dilip; Seifert, Harald; Hos, Nina; Hagel, Stefan; Pletz, Mathias; Harbarth, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34–2.42, HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.49–2.20 and HR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.66–3.51, respectively) and prolonged LOS (9.3 days; 95% CI: 9.2–9.4, 11.5 days; 95% CI: 11.5–11.6 and 13.3 days; 95% CI: 13.2–13.4, respectively). BSI with third-generation cephalosporin-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (3GCSE) significantly increased LOS (5.9 days; 95% CI: 5.8–5.9) but not hazard of death (1.16; 95% CI: 0.98–1.36). 3GCRE significantly increased the hazard of death (1.63; 95% CI: 1.13–2.35), excess LOS (4.9 days; 95% CI: 1.1–8.7) and cost compared with susceptible strains, whereas meticillin resistance did not. The annual cost of 3GCRE BSI was higher than of MRSA BSI. While BSI with S. aureus had greater impact on mortality, excess LOS and cost than Enterobacteriaceae per infection, the impact of antimicrobial resistance was greater for Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27562950

  7. Deletion of AcMNPV ac146 eliminates the production of budded virus.

    PubMed

    Dickison, Virginia L; Willis, Leslie G; Sokal, Nadia R; Theilmann, David A

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac146 is a highly conserved gene in the Alpha- and Betabaculovirus genera that has an unknown function. Northern blot analysis and transcript mapping showed that ac146 is transcribed at late times post infection as a 1.2 kb mRNA. To determine the role of ac146 in the baculovirus life cycle ac146 knock out viruses were constructed. Transfection and plaque assays showed that all the ac146 deletions produced a single cell phenotype indicating that no infectious budded virus (BV) was produced, however occlusion bodies were formed. The lack of BV production was confirmed by viral titration utilizing both qPCR and TCID₅₀. Analysis of BV and occlusion derived virus (ODV) revealed that AC146 is associated with both forms of the virus and is modified specifically in ODV. This study therefore demonstrates that AC146 is a late virion associated protein and is essential for the viral life cycle.

  8. Study of the effect of the midgut bacterial flora of Culex quinquefasciatus on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Mourya, D T; Gokhale, M D; Pidiyar, V; Barde, P V; Patole, M; Mishra, A C; Shouche, Y

    2002-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected from the field and microbial flora was isolated from their midgut. Isolates belonging to 13 different genera were obtained. Four most abundant isolates viz. Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacterjunii, Staphylococcus epidermis and Aeromonas culicicola were used to study their effect on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Incorporation of individual isolates in the mosquito bloodmeal resulted in an increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to the virus. However, only the effects of Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacterjunii could be statistically evaluated but they were found insignificant. PMID:12693864

  9. Real-World Experience with Echinocandin MICs against Candida Species in a Multicenter Study of Hospitals That Routinely Perform Susceptibility Testing of Bloodstream Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M. Hong; Shoham, Shmuel; Vazquez, Jose A.; Morris, Arthur J.; Pasculle, William A.; Kubin, Christine J.; Klinker, Kenneth P.; Carver, Peggy L.; Hanson, Kimberly E.; Chen, Sharon; Lam, Simon W.; Potoski, Brian A.; Clarke, Lloyd G.; Shields, Ryan K.; Clancy, Cornelius J.

    2014-01-01

    Reference broth microdilution methods of Candida echinocandin susceptibility testing are limited by interlaboratory variability in caspofungin MICs. Recently revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint MICs for echinocandin nonsusceptibility may not be valid for commercial tests employed in hospital laboratories. Indeed, there are limited echinocandin susceptibility testing data from hospital laboratories. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of 9 U.S., Australian, and New Zealand hospitals that routinely tested Candida bloodstream isolates for echinocandin susceptibility from 2005 to 2013. Eight hospitals used Sensititre YeastOne assays. The Candida spp. were C. albicans (n = 1,067), C. glabrata (n = 911), C. parapsilosis (n = 476), C. tropicalis (n = 185), C. krusei (n = 104), and others (n = 154). Resistance and intermediate rates were ≤1.4% and ≤3%, respectively, for each echinocandin against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Resistance rates among C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates were ≤7.5% and ≤5.6%, respectively. Caspofungin intermediate rates among C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates were 17.8% and 46.5%, respectively, compared to ≤4.3% and ≤4.4% for other echinocandins. Using CLSI breakpoints, 18% and 19% of C. glabrata isolates were anidulafungin susceptible/caspofungin nonsusceptible and micafungin susceptible/caspofungin nonsusceptible, respectively; similar discrepancies were observed for 38% and 39% of C. krusei isolates. If only YeastOne data were considered, interhospital modal MIC variability was low (within 2 doubling dilutions for each agent). In conclusion, YeastOne assays employed in hospitals may reduce the interlaboratory variability in caspofungin MICs against Candida species that are observed between reference laboratories using CLSI broth microdilution methods. The significance of classifying isolates as caspofungin intermediate and anidulafungin/micafungin susceptible will

  10. Tevatron optics measurements using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to study beam optics of hadron synchrotrons. It can produce sustained large amplitude oscillations with virtually no emittance growth. A vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is recently implemented and a maximum oscillation amplitude of 2{sigma} (4{sigma}) at 980 GeV (150 GeV) is achieved [1]. When such large oscillations are measured with the BPM system of the Tevatron (20 {micro}m resolution), not only linear but even nonlinear optics can be directly measured. This paper shows how to measure {beta} function using an AC dipole and the result is compared to the other measurement. The paper also shows a test to detect optics changes when small changes are made in the Tevatron. Since an AC dipole is nondestructive, it allows frequent measurements of the optics which is necessary for such an test.

  11. The AC-120: The advanced commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, David; Griffin, Ernest; Mendoza, Saul; Nguyen, Son; Pickett, Tim; Noernberg, Clemm

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this design was to fulfill a need for a new airplane to replace the aging 100 to 150 passenger, 1500 nautical mile range aircraft such as the Douglas DC9 and Boeing 737-100 airplanes. After researching the future aircraft market, conducting extensive trade studies, and analysis on different configurations, the AC-120 Advanced Commercial Transport final design was achieved. The AC-120's main design features include the incorporation of a three lifting surface configuration which is powered by two turboprop engines. The AC-120 is an economically sensitive aircraft which meets the new FM Stage Three noise requirements, and has lower NO(x) emissions than current turbofan powered airplanes. The AC-120 also improves on its contemporaries in passenger comfort, manufacturing, and operating cost.

  12. A Comparative Study on AC Conductivity and Dielectric Behavior of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Polyaniline Coated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Filled High Density Polyethylene-Carbon Black Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh, P.; Renukappa, N. M.; Siddaramaiah; Lee, J. H.; Jeevananda, T.

    2010-10-04

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on AC conductivity and dielectric behavior of carbon black reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE-CB) and HDPE-CB filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-CB-HDPE) and Polyaniline (PAni) coated MWNTs-CB-HDPE nanocomposites. The electrical properties such as dielectric constant ({epsilon}'), dissipation factor (tan {delta}) and AC conductivity ({sigma}{sub ac}) of nanocomposites have been measured with reference to the weight fraction (0.5 and 1 wt% MWNTs), frequency (75 KHz-30 MHz), temperature (25-90 deg. C) and sea water ageing. The experimental results showed that the increased AC conductivity and dielectric constant of the nanocomposites were influenced by PAni coated MWNTs in HDPE-CB nanocomposites. The value of dielectric constant and tan {delta} decreased with increasing frequency. Further more, above 5 MHz the AC conductivity increases drastically whereas significant effect on tan {delta} was observed in less than 1 MHz.

  13. Field and laboratory studies on the impact of two Bt rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongmo; Huang, Jiacheng; Hu, Huawei; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2013-06-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice expressing Bt toxins is at the edge of commercial release in China. However, little information is available concerning the impact of Bt rice on aquatic organisms which are abundant in paddy field. A two-year study was conducted to assess the effects of two GM rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac (Bt rice) on three groups of zooplankton, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in field conditions. Multi-factor ANOVA revealed that the population densities of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in paddy field varied significantly between years and rice developmental stages, but did not differ significantly between Bt and non-Bt rice treatments. In all the field investigations, only one significant difference was found on copepods in the tillering stage of 2009, but the difference was not related to the presence of the Cry toxin. Under open-air conditions, we simulated the farming practice of straw mulch, using Bt rice straw as a food source for the water flea Daphnia hyalina. After one and two months of culture, the density of D. hyalina did not differ between Bt rice treatments and non-Bt rice treatments. A laboratory experiment found that purified Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac had no toxic effect on D. hyalina even in the treatment in which the Bt toxin concentration was as high as 2500ng/ml. Those above results indicate that the two Bt rice lines have no negative effect on the three groups of zooplankton. However, further studies are needed to compare the effects of Bt rice and non-Bt rice on the paddy zooplankton community in the context of integrated pest management which includes the use of pesticides. PMID:23523003

  14. Laboratory bioassay studies to determine methoprene susceptibility in a natural population of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus from the Florida keys.

    PubMed

    Floore, Omas G; Smith, John P; Shaffer, Kenneth R; Schreiber, Eric T

    2002-06-01

    Larvae of Florida Keys Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus collected from No Name Key were colonized and evaluated against technical S-methoprene in laboratory beaker tests. Glassware was treated with a silanizing reagent before testing to prevent methoprene attachment to the glassware. The No Name Key strain was compared with a susceptible laboratory strain of Oc. taeniorhynchus. Five serial dilutions (0.0100, 0.0050, 0.0010, 0.0005, and 0.0001 microg/ml) and an untreated control were evaluated. Tests were conducted in water baths with a constant water temperature of 27+/-1 degrees C and 250 ml of 3 per thousand salt water. Twenty-five late 3rd-stage larvae were placed in each beaker. Bioassay samples were analyzed by probit analysis and the median lethal concentration (LC50), 90% lethal concentration (LC90), and 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values; confidence limits; chi2 value; slope; and standard error were determined. The Florida Keys No Name Key strain exhibited no significant differences at the LC50, LC90, and LC95 levels from the laboratory strain in these studies.

  15. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N.; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Knowles, Margaret A.; de Verdier, Petra J.; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I.; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Hengstler, Jan G.; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Veldink, Jan H.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E.; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2011-01-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10−11. SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the ‘urogenous contact hypothesis’ that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC. PMID:21750109

  16. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H; Knowles, Margaret A; de Verdier, Petra J; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D; Hengstler, Jan G; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H; Ophoff, Roel A; Veldink, Jan H; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2011-11-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10(-11). SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the 'urogenous contact hypothesis' that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC.

  17. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  18. Sinkhole susceptibility mapping using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and magnitude-frequency relationships: A case study in Hamadan province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Kamal; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Mohseni, Hassan; Raeisi, Ezzat; Taheri, Milad

    2015-04-01

    Since 1989, an increasing number of sinkhole occurrences have been reported in the Kabudar Ahang and Razan-Qahavand subcatchments (KRQ) of Hamadan province, western Iran. The sinkhole-related subsidence phenomenon poses a significant threat for people and human structures, including sensitive facilities like the Hamadan Power Plant. Groundwater over-exploitation from the thick alluvial cover and the underlying cavernous limestone has been identified as the main factor involved in sinkhole development. A sinkhole susceptibility model was produced in a GIS environment applying the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach and considering a selection of eight factors, each categorized into five classes: distance to faults (DF), water level decline (WLD), groundwater exploitation (GE), penetration of deep wells into karst bedrock (PKA), distance to deep wells (DDW), groundwater alkalinity (GA), bedrock lithology (BL), and alluvium thickness (AT). Relative weights were preliminarily assigned to each factor and to their different classes through systematic pairwise comparisons based on expert judgment. The resulting sinkhole susceptibility index (SSI) values were then classified into four susceptibility classes: low, moderate, high and very high susceptibility. Subsequently, the model was refined through a trial and error process involving changes in the relative weights and iterative evaluation of the prediction capability. Independent evaluation of the final model indicates that 55% and 45% of the subsidence events fall within the very high and high, susceptibility zones, respectively. The results of this study show that AHP can be a useful approach for susceptibility assessment if data on the main controlling factors have sufficient accuracy and spatial coverage. The limitations of the model are partly related to the difficulty of gathering data on some important geological factors, due to their hidden nature. The magnitude and frequency relationship constructed

  19. Genome-wide association study for type 2 diabetes in Indians identifies a new susceptibility locus at 2q21.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rubina; Chauhan, Ganesh; Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Mahajan, Anubha; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaur, Ismeet; Bandesh, Khushdeep; Singh, Tejbir; Mathai, Benan John; Pandey, Yogesh; Chidambaram, Manickam; Sharma, Amitabh; Chavali, Sreenivas; Sengupta, Shantanu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Aggarwal, Sanjay K; Ghosh, Saurabh; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Srinath, Reddy K; Saxena, Madhukar; Banerjee, Monisha; Mathur, Sandeep; Bhansali, Anil; Shah, Viral N; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Marwaha, Raman K; Basu, Analabha; Scaria, Vinod; McCarthy, Mark I; Venkatesan, Radha; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2013-03-01

    Indians undergoing socioeconomic and lifestyle transitions will be maximally affected by epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of T2D in 12,535 Indians, a less explored but high-risk group. We identified a new type 2 diabetes-associated locus at 2q21, with the lead signal being rs6723108 (odds ratio 1.31; P = 3.32 × 10⁻⁹). Imputation analysis refined the signal to rs998451 (odds ratio 1.56; P = 6.3 × 10⁻¹²) within TMEM163 that encodes a probable vesicular transporter in nerve terminals. TMEM163 variants also showed association with decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, indicating a plausible effect through impaired insulin secretion. The 2q21 region also harbors RAB3GAP1 and ACMSD; those are involved in neurologic disorders. Forty-nine of 56 previously reported signals showed consistency in direction with similar effect sizes in Indians and previous studies, and 25 of them were also associated (P < 0.05). Known loci and the newly identified 2q21 locus altogether explained 7.65% variance in the risk of T2D in Indians. Our study suggests that common susceptibility variants for T2D are largely the same across populations, but also reveals a population-specific locus and provides further insights into genetic architecture and etiology of T2D. PMID:23209189

  20. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to ivermectin (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg) in field studies in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Ruivo, Maycon Araújo; Colli, Marcos Henrique Alcantara; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro Massamitsu; da Costa, Alvimar José; De Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2015-01-30

    The present study aimed to determine the susceptibility of 17 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations, originating in the Southeast and Southern regions of Brazil, to different ivermectin concentrations (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg), administered through subcutaneous or topical (pour-on) routes. R. (B.) microplus populations from the states of Minas Gerais (seven populations), São Paulo (seven populations) and Paraná (three populations) were chosen for the tests. The selected cattle were allocated to treatment groups on day 0, and block formation was based on the arithmetic mean of female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm long) counted on three consecutive days (-3, -2 and -1). To evaluate the therapeutic and residual efficacies of these formulations, tick counts (females ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 mm long) were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, and continued on a weekly basis thereafter until the end of each experiment. The results obtained throughout this study, utilizing field efficacy studies, allowed us to conclude that the resistance of R. (B.) microplus against 200 and 500 μg/kg ivermectin is widely disseminated because all tick populations that had contact with these specific concentrations were diagnosed as resistant. However, it is possible to infer that R. (B.) microplus resistance against 630 μg/kg ivermectin was also widespread, diagnosed at six of ten analyzed properties. Resistance of these ectoparasites to 630 μg/kg ivermectin is most likely emerging in three other populations of R. (B.) microplus. Strategies of resistance management need to be quickly determined to keep the selection pressure at a minimum level in Brazil. PMID:25576441

  1. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  2. Crystal structure, NMR study, dielectric relaxation and AC conductivity of a new compound [Cd3(SCN)2Br6(C2H9N2)2]n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, K.; Kamoun, S.; Ayedi, H. Ferid; Arous, M.

    2013-11-01

    The crystal structure, the 13C NMR spectroscopy and the complex impedance have been carried out on [Cd3(SCN)2Br6(C2H9N2)2]n. Crystal structure shows a 2D polymeric network built up of two crystallographically independent cadmium atoms with two different octahedral coordinations. This compound exhibits a phase transition at (T=355±2 K) which has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-rays powder diffraction, AC conductivity and dielectric measurements. Examination of 13C CP/MAS line shapes shows indirect spin-spin coupling (14N and 13C) with a dipolar coupling constant of 1339 Hz. The AC conductivity of this compound has been carried out in the temperature range 325-376 K and the frequency range from 10-2 Hz to 10 MHz. The impedance data were well fitted to two equivalent electrical circuits. The results of the modulus study reveal the presence of two distinct relaxation processes. One, at low frequency side, is thermally activated due to the ionic conduction of the crystal and the other, at higher frequency side, gradually disappears when temperature reaches 355 K which is attributed to the localized dipoles in the crystal. Moreover, the temperature dependence of DC-conductivity in both phases follows the Arrhenius law and the frequency dependence of σ(ω,T) follows Jonscher's universal law. The near values of activation energies obtained from the conductivity data and impedance confirm that the transport is through the ion hopping mechanism.

  3. Cognitive Factors in Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert D.; Field, Peter B.

    1971-01-01

    This research explored the influence of cognitive variables on susceptibility to hypnosis. The three variables of concern in the present study are automatization, attention, and body experience. The results are summarized. (Author)

  4. A new strategy for studying in vitro the drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of human hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Durantel, David; Carrouée-Durantel, Sandra; Werle-Lapostolle, Bettina; Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Pichoud, Christian; Trépo, Christian; Zoulim, Fabien

    2004-10-01

    Resistance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to antivirals has become a major clinical problem. Our objective was to develop a new method for the cloning of naturally occurring HBV genomes and a phenotypic assay capable of assessing HBV drug susceptibility and DNA synthesis capacity in vitro. Viral DNA was extracted from sera and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and amplicons were cloned into vectors that enable, after cell transfection, the initiation of the intracellular HBV replication cycle. Single or multiple clones were used to transfect Huh7 cells. The viral DNA synthesis capacity and drug susceptibility were determined by measuring the level of intracellular DNA intermediate, synthesized in absence or presence of antiviral, using Southern blot analysis. We have developed, calibrated, then used this phenotypic assay to determine the drug susceptibility of HBV quasispecies isolated throughout the course of therapy from patients selected according to their mutation profile. A multiclonal and longitudinal analysis enabled us to measure the variation of drug susceptibility of different viral quasispecies by comparison of IC(50)/IC(90)s with standards. The presence of famciclovir- or lamivudine-induced mutations in the viral population caused a change in viral DNA synthesis capacity and drug susceptibility in vitro, demonstrating the clinical relevance of the assay. In conclusion, our phenotypic assay enables the in vitro characterization of DNA synthesis capacity and drug susceptibility of HBV quasispecies isolated from patients. This assay should allow a better monitoring of patients undergoing antiviral therapy, as well as the screening of novel drugs on emerging resistant strains. PMID:15382118

  5. Theory of Orbital Susceptibility on Excitonic Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Masao

    2016-09-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the orbital susceptibility of an excitonic insulator on the basis of a two-band model. It is shown that a drastic change (an anomalous enhancement) in susceptibility as a function of temperature occurs owing to the occurrence of additional orbital susceptibility due to the excitonic gap. We calculate explicitly the temperature dependence of orbital susceptibility for a model of Ta2NiSe5, and show that the result is consistent with experimental results.

  6. A multidisciplinary study on the Xiangshan uranium-bearing caldera structure: evidences from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangrong; Guo, Fusheng; Wu, Changzhi

    2016-04-01

    As the world's third largest volcanic type uranium ore field, Xiangshan volcanic basin attracted scientific research as well as large amount of industry investment. Gradually, it came to reach a consensus that a "three-storeyed type" model: under the uranium mineralized volcanic rocks, there were still Pb-Zn and Ag. However, these research results and drill cores also brought hot debates which focus on the locations of volcanic calderas because researchers believed it related to the pathways of U-Pb-Zn-Ag-bearing fluid. Here we report the first systematic study of paleoflow of the two main uranium-bearing wall rocks, aiming to find the volcanic vents. This study integrates results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and magnetotelluric sounding (MT) in addition field geological observation. It shows that (1) rhyodacite and porphyritic lava are the main wall rock of uranium ore, which outcrop about 350km2 covering 80% of the Xiangshan basin; (2) magnetite and hematite are the main magnetic minerals; (3) the rhyodacite developed in the North-West-most of Xiangshan basin illustrated North-East magnetic lineation with low-angle-foliation, and those rhyodacite located a few kilometers to the East of the previews one displayed progressively North-West magnetic foliation with barely horizontal foliation. It indicated probably all these rhyodacite flowed from the South; (4) whereas to the porphyritic lava, it shows variable magnetic lineation around the basin, which may suggest five volcanic calderas. It is noteworthy that the AMS results are consistent with fielded lineation observation and MT; (4) finally, a gravity modeling has been conducted and the result shows that the bodies of rhyodacite and porphyritic lava are laccolithic with relative thick center that may interpret as feeder of magma.

  7. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 1q22 as a susceptibility locus for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Woo, Daniel; Falcone, Guido J; Devan, William J; Brown, W Mark; Biffi, Alessandro; Howard, Timothy D; Anderson, Christopher D; Brouwers, H Bart; Valant, Valerie; Battey, Thomas W K; Radmanesh, Farid; Raffeld, Miriam R; Baedorf-Kassis, Sylvia; Deka, Ranjan; Woo, Jessica G; Martin, Lisa J; Haverbusch, Mary; Moomaw, Charles J; Sun, Guangyun; Broderick, Joseph P; Flaherty, Matthew L; Martini, Sharyl R; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Kissela, Brett; Comeau, Mary E; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M; Schmidt, Helena; Freudenberger, Paul; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Hansen, Björn M; Norrving, Bo; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Elosua, Roberto; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Soriano, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume; Kraft, Peter; Ayres, Alison M; Schwab, Kristin; McCauley, Jacob L; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Rost, Natalia S; Goldstein, Joshua N; Viswanathan, Anand; Stögerer, Eva-Maria; Tirschwell, David L; Selim, Magdy; Brown, Devin L; Silliman, Scott L; Worrall, Bradford B; Meschia, James F; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Delgado, Pilar; Malik, Rainer; Dichgans, Martin; Greenberg, Steven M; Rothwell, Peter M; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Langefeld, Carl D; Rosand, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the stroke subtype with the worst prognosis and has no established acute treatment. ICH is classified as lobar or nonlobar based on the location of ruptured blood vessels within the brain. These different locations also signal different underlying vascular pathologies. Heritability estimates indicate a substantial genetic contribution to risk of ICH in both locations. We report a genome-wide association study of this condition that meta-analyzed data from six studies that enrolled individuals of European ancestry. Case subjects were ascertained by neurologists blinded to genotype data and classified as lobar or nonlobar based on brain computed tomography. ICH-free control subjects were sampled from ambulatory clinics or random digit dialing. Replication of signals identified in the discovery cohort with p < 1 × 10(-6) was pursued in an independent multiethnic sample utilizing both direct and genome-wide genotyping. The discovery phase included a case cohort of 1,545 individuals (664 lobar and 881 nonlobar cases) and a control cohort of 1,481 individuals and identified two susceptibility loci: for lobar ICH, chromosomal region 12q21.1 (rs11179580, odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, p = 7.0 × 10(-8)); and for nonlobar ICH, chromosomal region 1q22 (rs2984613, OR = 1.44, p = 1.6 × 10(-8)). The replication included a case cohort of 1,681 individuals (484 lobar and 1,194 nonlobar cases) and a control cohort of 2,261 individuals and corroborated the association for 1q22 (p = 6.5 × 10(-4); meta-analysis p = 2.2 × 10(-10)) but not for 12q21.1 (p = 0.55; meta-analysis p = 2.6 × 10(-5)). These results demonstrate biological heterogeneity across ICH subtypes and highlight the importance of ascertaining ICH cases accordingly. PMID:24656865

  8. Exploration of risk taking behaviors and perceived susceptibility of colorectal cancer among Malaysian adults: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceived susceptibility to an illness has been shown to affect Health-risk behavior. The objective of the present study was to determine the risk taking behaviors and the demographic predictors of perceived susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a population-based sample. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 305 Malaysian adults in six major districts, selected from urban, semi-urban, and rural settings in one state in Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study. It was comprised of socio-demographics, risk-taking behaviors, and validated domains of the Health Belief Model (HBM). Results The mean (± SD) age of the respondents was 34.5 (± 9.6) and the majority (59.0%) of them were 30 years or older. Almost 20.7% of the respondents felt they were susceptible to colorectal cancer. Self-reported perceived susceptibility mirrored unsatisfactory screening behaviors owing to the lack of doctors’ recommendation, ignorance of screening modalities, procrastination, and the perception that screening was unnecessary. Factors significantly associated with perceived susceptibility to colorectal cancer were gender (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.3), age (OR = 2. 2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0), ethnicity (OR = 0. 3, 95% CI 0.2-0.6), family history of colorectal cancer (OR = 3. 2, 95% CI 1.4-7.4) and alcohol intake (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 2.1-7.5). Conclusion The present study revealed that screening behavior among respondents was unsatisfactory. Hence, awareness of the importance of screening to prevent colorectal cancers is imperative. PMID:24093502

  9. Strategic assessment of near coastal waters: Northeast case study. Chapter 3. Susceptibility and concentration status of northeast estuaries to nutrient discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Warsh, C.; Tolson, J.P.; Klein, C.J.; Orlando, S.P.; Alexander, C.

    1988-07-01

    The study is an assessment of the susceptibility and status of 17 Northeast estuaries to nutrient-related pollution problems. It is the final version of one of seven chapters in the Case Study and one of two chapters that will be completed. It first presents background information on the problems of nutrient overenrichment in estuaries followed by a screening analysis of the susceptibility and status of estuaries to nutrient discharges and sections on nutrient sources and discharge estimation methods. The final section is an overview of the region based on simple comparisons of discharge estimates across estuaries in the region. Appendix A contains one-page summaries for each estuary that include information on significant physical and hydrologic features, susceptibility and pollutant status, nutrient discharge estimates, and a narrative to assist the reader interpret the data. Summary estimates of particular interest are the changes in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs that would significantly alter the pollutant status of each estuary. Four additional appendices contain more detailed breakdowns of nutrient discharges by season and by source, an evaluation of the quality of the discharge estimates, and the method for determining an estuary's nutrient concentration status and susceptibility to nutrient-related pollution problems.

  10. Exploratory data analysis as an alternative to automated variable selection in statistical susceptibility modeling. A case study for the Flysch Zone (Lower Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Stefan; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Statistical susceptibility modeling presents a widespread method to identify landslide prone areas. Since these quantitative methods are highly dependent on the quality of the input data, an appropriate selection of variables is essential. In this study a comprehensive spatial analysis of slope conditions, where landslides occurred in the rhenodanubian Flysch Zone of Lower Austria (a province in Austria), was performed to identify the most important factors which may lead to landslides in the study area. Analyses were conducted using two landslide inventories to demonstrate the impact of different dependent variables on the results. The ALS-Inventory was generated purposely for susceptibility modeling using a high resolution airborne laser scanning digital terrain model (ALS DTM) in a previous study. The building ground register (BGR) obtained by the Geological Survey of Lower Austria represents the damaging events of landslides in Lower Austria. The results reveal the relationships between the spatial occurrence of landslides and its preparatory factors for the respective inventory. Based on this information explanatory variables were selected. Only variables providing an explanation for the spatial distribution of landslides (for the respective spatial resolution of input data) were considered. Thus the limitations of input data were uncovered and taken into account in the statistical modeling. Although the study area is highly affected by human impact, the interpretation of the results lead to the exclusion of all land use - variables from subsequent modeling. In fact it was discovered that an inclusion of the land cover variables leads to unrealistic susceptibility values. The explanatory data analyses lead to the selection of six variables for the ALS-inventory and five variables for the BGR out of 19 independent variables. For the susceptibility modeling two statistical approaches, namely multivariate logistic regression analysis and a bivariate index

  11. Cry toxin mode of action in susceptible and resistant Heliothis virescens larvae.

    PubMed

    Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Adang, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Many pest insect species are effectively controlled by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins delivered in plants and biopesticides. Since the insect midgut epithelium contains receptors and other molecules that determine Bt toxicity, characterization of these molecules is necessary for sustained usage of Bt toxins. Studies of Bt susceptible and resistant strains of Heliothis virescens have provided insights into resistance mechanisms and toxin receptors. For example, the first gene identified as involved in high levels of Cry1Ac resistance in H. virescens encodes a cadherin-like protein, a functional Cry1A receptor in Lepidoptera. This manuscript discusses the most updated information on the mode of action of Cry1A toxins obtained from the characterization of resistant mechanisms in H. virescens strains. Our studies are focused on biochemical and molecular comparison of a susceptible and three resistant H. virescens strains to identify alterations that correlate with toxin resistance. Following this approach we have been able to identify an alkaline phosphatase (HvALP) as a potential receptor and tested the utility of this protein as a marker for resistance to Cry1Ac. Comparison of brush border proteomes from susceptible and resistant larvae has allowed us to identify additional molecules directly involved in the toxicity process. PMID:16797583

  12. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  13. A genome-wide association study identifies a susceptibility locus to clinically aggressive neuroblastoma at 6p22

    PubMed Central

    Maris, John M.; Mosse, Yael P.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Hou, Cuiping; Monni, Stefano; Scott, Richard H.; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Attiyeh, Edward F.; Diskin, Sharon J.; Laudenslager, Marci; Winter, Cynthia; Cole, Kristina; Glessner, Joseph T.; Kim, Cecilia; Frackelton, Edward C.; Casalunovo, Tracy; Eckert, Andrew W.; Capasso, Mario; Rappaport, Eric F.; McConville, Carmel; London, Wendy B.; Seeger, Robert C.; Rahman, Nazneen; Devoto, Marcella; Grant, Struan F. A.; Li, Hongzhe; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2008-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is a malignancy of the developing sympathetic nervous system that most commonly affects young children and is often lethal. The etiology of this embryonal cancer is not known. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study by first genotyping 1,032 neuroblastoma patients and 2,043 controls of European descent using the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip. Three independent groups of neuroblastoma cases (N=720) and controls (N=2128) were then genotyped to replicate significant associations. Results We observed highly significant association between neuroblastoma and the common minor alleles of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a 94.2 kilobase (Kb) linkage disequilibrium block at chromosome band 6p22 containing the predicted genes FLJ22536 and FLJ44180 (P-value range = 1.71×10-9-7.01×10-10; allelic odds ratio range 1.39-1.40). Homozygosity for the at-risk G allele of the most significantly associated SNP, rs6939340, resulted in an increased likelihood of developing neuroblastoma of 1.97 (95% CI 1.58-2.44). Subsequent genotyping of these 6p22 SNPs in the three independent case series confirmed our observation of association (P=9.33×10-15 at rs6939340 for joint analysis). Furthermore, neuroblastoma patients homozygous for the risk alleles at 6p22 were more likely to develop metastatic (Stage 4) disease (P=0.02), show amplification of the MYCN oncogene in the tumor cells (P=0.006), and to have disease relapse (P=0.01). Conclusion Common genetic variation at chromosome band 6p22 is associated with susceptibility to neuroblastoma. PMID:18463370

  14. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-07-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain.

  15. The application of magnetic susceptibility and grain-size in a lithostratigraphic study of Middle to Late Pleistocene lacustrine sediments near Summer Lake Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Erbes, D.B.; Negrini, R.M. . Dept. of Physics and Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Positive results have been attained using volume magnetic susceptibility and sedimentological data for intrabasinal correlation of outcrop and core from a Great Basin style lacustrine sequence. The known sedimentary record from Pluvial Lke Chewaucan in south-central Oregon contains more than 70 laterally continuous and distinct tephra layers which enable high resolution intrabasinal correlation of outcrop and core. This phenomenon has allowed us to test the effectiveness of magnetic volume susceptibility data and sedimentological records as correlation tools. Preliminary results from this study indicate that magnetic susceptibility records can be correlated throughout the entire sampled interval to within a few cm of stratigraphic depth between exposures separated by one kilometer. Similar results have been obtained correlating laterally distinct sands, pebble lags, and carbonate layers. Grain-size data is currently being collected via standard pipette and Sedigraph methods to investigate its relationship to these correlations. The authors will also compare the magnetic susceptibility and sedimentological data with high resolution paleoenvironmental and paleosalinity records now available for the Lake Chewaucan sequence.

  16. U.S.-Based National Sentinel Surveillance Study for the Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrheal Isolates and Their Susceptibility to Fidaxomicin

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, L. A.; Jacobus, N. V.; Thorpe, C.; Stone, S.; Jenkins, S. G.; Goldstein, E. J. C.; Patel, R.; Forbes, B. A.; Mirrett, S.; Johnson, S.; Gerding, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 a surveillance study for the susceptibility to fidaxomicin and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile isolates in the United States was undertaken in seven geographically dispersed medical centers. This report encompasses baseline surveillance in 2011 and 2012 on 925 isolates. A convenience sample of C. difficile isolates or toxin positive stools from patients were referred to a central laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar dilution (CLSI M11-A8). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Food and Drug Administration, or European Union of Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints were applied where applicable. Toxin gene profiles were characterized by multiplex PCR on each isolate. A random sample of 322 strains, stratified by institution, underwent restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). The fidaxomicin MIC90 was 0.5 μg/ml for all isolates regardless of REA type or toxin gene profile, and all isolates were inhibited at ≤1.0 μg/ml. By REA typing, BI strains represented 25.5% of the isolates. The toxin gene profile of tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA/B positive with a tcdC 18-bp deletion correlated with BI REA group. Moxifloxacin and clindamycin resistance was increased among either BI or binary toxin-positive isolates. Metronidazole and vancomycin showed reduced susceptibility (EUCAST criteria) in these isolates. Geographic variations in susceptibility, REA group and binary toxin gene presence were observed. Fidaxomicin activity against C. difficile isolated in a national surveillance study did not change more than 1 year after licensure. This analysis provides baseline results for future comparisons. PMID:26239985

  17. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies TNFSF15 and POU2AF1 as Susceptibility Loci for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Minoru; Nishida, Nao; Kawashima, Minae; Aiba, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yasunami, Michio; Nakamura, Hitomi; Komori, Atsumasai; Nakamuta, Makoto; Zeniya, Mikio; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Ohira, Hiromasa; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Onji, Morikazu; Kaneko, Shuichi; Honda, Masao; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Ichida, Takafumi; Takikawa, Hajime; Seike, Masataka; Umemura, Takeji; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Yamashiki, Noriyo; Tamura, Sumito; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Mori, Akira; Yagi, Shintaro; Shirabe, Ken; Taketomi, Akinobu; Arai, Kuniaki; Monoe, Kyoko; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taniai, Makiko; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori; Yoshizawa, Kaname; Joshita, Satoru; Shimoda, Shinji; Honda, Koichi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Hirano, Katsuji; Takeyama, Yasuaki; Harada, Kenichi; Migita, Kiyoshi; Ito, Masahiro; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Nobuyoshi; Ota, Hajime; Komatsu, Tatsuji; Saoshiro, Takeo; Ishida, Jinya; Kouno, Hirotsugu; Kouno, Hirotaka; Yagura, Michiyasu; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Muro, Toyokichi; Masaki, Naohiko; Hirata, Keiichi; Watanabe, Yukio; Nakamura, Yoko; Shimada, Masaaki; Hirashima, Noboru; Komeda, Toshiki; Sugi, Kazuhiro; Koga, Michiaki; Ario, Keisuke; Takesaki, Eiichi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Uemoto, Shinji; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Mizokami, Masashi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Ishibashi, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    For the identification of susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in 963 Japanese individuals (487 PBC cases and 476 healthy controls) and in a subsequent replication study that included 1,402 other Japanese individuals (787 cases and 615 controls). In addition to the most significant susceptibility region, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), we identified two significant susceptibility loci, TNFSF15 (rs4979462) and POU2AF1 (rs4938534) (combined odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, p = 2.84 × 10−14 for rs4979462, and combined OR = 1.39, p = 2.38 × 10−8 for rs4938534). Among 21 non-HLA susceptibility loci for PBC identified in GWASs of individuals of European descent, three loci (IL7R, IKZF3, and CD80) showed significant associations (combined p = 3.66 × 10−8, 3.66 × 10−9, and 3.04 × 10−9, respectively) and STAT4 and NFKB1 loci showed suggestive association with PBC (combined p = 1.11 × 10−6 and 1.42 × 10−7, respectively) in the Japanese population. These observations indicated the existence of ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility loci to PBC and the importance of TNF signaling and B cell differentiation for the development of PBC in individuals of European descent and Japanese individuals. PMID:23000144

  18. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  19. Simwe model application on susceptibility analysis to linear erosion: a case study in Alto Douro wine region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Joana; Bateira, Carlos; Soares, Laura; Faria, Ana; Moura, Rui; Gonçalves, José

    2016-04-01

    The wine production in Alto Douro Wine Region - one of the world's oldest regulated and demarcated wine region - is based on a slope system organized in agricultural terraces once supported exclusively by dry stone walls. It has been undergoing the necessary changes for the introduction of technological innovations partially associated to the mechanization of vineyards work. In this sense, different forms of terrain framing have been implemented, namely the substitution of stone walls by earth embankments. This evolution raises a group of problems related to the hydric soil erosion and landscape preservation, since Alto Douro Wine Region is classified as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. The study area is mostly occupied by vineyards planted in the agriculture terraces without continuous vegetation, the flow proceeds superficially influenced by the weak infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, because of this conditioning factor the erosive features present non-significant depth, and the length thereof is limited essentially by the slope of the land, where was registered 64 gullies and 78 rills This paper focuses on the evaluation of susceptibility to linear erosion, through the application of SIMWE (SIMulated Water Erosion), (Mitas and Mitasova, 1998), using a digital elevation model, with pixel of one square meter of spatial resolution, created through detail aerial photographs, (side pixel of 50 cm), submitted to automatic stereo-correlation procedures in Agisoft PhotoScan software. The results provided by the model are compared with hydrological characteristics of the soil, (infiltration capacity, and hydraulic conductivity), soil texture, and soil structure parameters (identified by electrical resistivity measurement) where obtained from field monitoring. This approach demonstrates an association between the spatial distribution of erosive features with high values of soil saturation, and reduced water discharge (10-110 cm3/s), that are

  20. A genome-wide association study follow-up suggests a possible role for PPARG in systemic sclerosis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) comprising a French cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) reported several non-HLA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a nominal association in the discovery phase. We aimed to identify previously overlooked susceptibility variants by using a follow-up strategy. Methods Sixty-six non-HLA SNPs showing a P value <10-4 in the discovery phase of the French SSc GWAS were analyzed in the first step of this study, performing a meta-analysis that combined data from the two published SSc GWASs. A total of 2,921 SSc patients and 6,963 healthy controls were included in this first phase. Two SNPs, PPARG rs310746 and CHRNA9 rs6832151, were selected for genotyping in the replication cohort (1,068 SSc patients and 6,762 healthy controls) based on the results of the first step. Genotyping was performed by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results We observed nominal associations for both PPARG rs310746 (PMH = 1.90 × 10-6, OR, 1.28) and CHRNA9 rs6832151 (PMH = 4.30 × 10-6, OR, 1.17) genetic variants with SSc in the first step of our study. In the replication phase, we observed a trend of association for PPARG rs310746 (P value = 0.066; OR, 1.17). The combined overall Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study revealed that PPARG rs310746 remained associated with SSc with a nominal non-genome-wide significant P value (PMH = 5.00 × 10-7; OR, 1.25). No evidence of association was observed for CHRNA9 rs6832151 either in the replication phase or in the overall pooled analysis. Conclusion Our results suggest a role of PPARG gene in the development of SSc. PMID:24401602

  1. Orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Koudai; Ohta, Yukinori

    2016-08-01

    We study the orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase using the mean-field approximation for a two-band model defined on a square lattice. We find that, in semiconductors, the excitonic condensation acquires a finite diamagnetic susceptibility due to spontaneous hybridization between the valence and the conduction bands, whereas in semimetals, the diamagnetic susceptibility in the normal phase is suppressed by the excitonic condensation. We also study the orbital diamagnetic and Pauli paramagnetic susceptibilities of Ta2NiSe5 using a two-dimensional three-band model and find that the calculated temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  2. Genetic and Biochemical Approach for Characterization of Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ac in a Field Population of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Sayyed, Ali H.; Haward, Robert; Herrero, Salvador; Ferré, Juan; Wright, Denis J.

    2000-01-01

    Four subpopulations of a Plutella xylostella (L.) strain from Malaysia (F4 to F8) were selected with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac, respectively, while a fifth subpopulation was left as unselected (UNSEL-MEL). Bioassays at F9 found that selection with Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai gave resistance ratios of >95, 10, 7, and 3, respectively, compared with UNSEL-MEL (>10,500, 500, >100, and 26, respectively, compared with a susceptible population, ROTH). Resistance to Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai in UNSEL-MEL declined significantly by F9. The Cry1Ac-selected population showed very little cross-resistance to Cry1Ab, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (5-, 1-, and 4-fold compared with UNSEL-MEL), whereas the Cry1Ab-, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki-, and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai-selected populations showed high cross-resistance to Cry1Ac (60-, 100-, and 70-fold). The Cry1Ac-selected population was reselected (F9 to F13) to give a resistance ratio of >2,400 compared with UNSEL-MEL. Binding studies with 125I-labeled Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac revealed complete lack of binding to brush border membrane vesicles prepared from Cry1Ac-selected larvae (F15). Binding was also reduced, although less drastically, in the revertant population, which indicates that a modification in the common binding site of these two toxins was involved in the resistance mechanism in the original population. Reciprocal genetic crosses between Cry1Ac-reselected and ROTH insects indicated that resistance was autosomal and showed incomplete dominance. At the highest dose of Cry1Ac tested, resistance was recessive while at the lowest dose it was almost completely dominant. The F2 progeny from a backcross of F1 progeny with ROTH was tested with a concentration of Cry1Ac which would kill

  3. Polymorphisms of IFN-γ (+874A/T) and IL-12 (+1188A/C) in tuberculosis patients and their household contacts in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Thada, Shruthi; Ponnana, Meenakshi; Sivangala, Ramya; Joshi, Lavanya; Alasandagutti, Madhavilatha; Ansari, Mohd Soheb Sadat; Schumann, Ralf R; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi; Gaddam, Sumanlatha

    2016-07-01

    Several cytokine gene variants have shown to be associated with host susceptibility to infectious diseases including tuberculosis (TB). High rates of transmission were identified within household members of TB patients. In this study, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of IFN-γ +874A/T and IL-12 +1188A/C affect susceptibility to TB. Genomic DNA from patients with active disease, their household contacts HHC and healthy controls HC was genotyped for IFN-γ +874A/T and IL-12 +1188A/C SNPs by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). IFN-γ +874 AA and AT genotypes were significantly with different frequencies in patients and total HHC as compared to HC (p<0.0001). In patients IL-12 +1188 AC and CC genotypes were associated with TB (p<0.003, p<0.008). In total HHC AC, CC genotypes and both alleles (A&C) were significantly different as compared to HC (p<0.004, p<0.001, p<0.034) and the same result was obtained when HHC were stratified into related (p<0.02, p<0.001) and unrelated (p<0.009, p<0.017) individuals. Allelic frequencies, however, were significant only in related contacts (p<0.021). Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction method (GMDR) testing revealed high risk combinations of several genotypes in IFN-γ & IL-12 genes. Our findings suggest an important role of genetic variations of IFN-γ and IL-12 for susceptibility to TB. PMID:27108964

  4. The Association between OGG1 Ser326Cys Polymorphism and Lung Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 27 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Jun; Jin, Zhen-Xiao; Zhao, Yu-Hong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Yu, Shi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have investigated association of OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism with lung cancer susceptibility; however, the findings are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis based on 27 publications encompass 9663 cases and 11348 controls to comprehensively evaluate such associations. Methods We searched publications from MEDLINE and EMBASE which were assessing the associations between OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and lung cancer risk. We calculated pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using either fixed-effects or random-effects model. We used genotype based mRNA expression data from HapMap for SNP rs1052133 in normal cell lines among 270 subjects with four different ethnicities. Results The results showed that individuals carrying the Cys/Cys genotype did not have significantly increased risk for lung cancer (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.98–1.36) when compared with the Ser/Ser genotype; similarly, no significant association was found in recessive, dominant or heterozygous co-dominant model (Ser/Cys vs. Cys/Cys). However, markedly increased risks were found in relatively large sample size (Ser/Ser vs. Cys/Cys: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.13–1.48, and recessive model: OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.07–1.32). As to histological types, we found the Cys/Cys was associated with adenocarcinoma risk (Ser/Ser vs. Cys/Cys: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.12–1.56; Ser/Cys vs. Cys/Cys: OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04–1.37, and recessive model OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08–1.40). No significant difference of OGG1 mRNA expression was found among genotypes between different ethnicities. Conclusions Despite some limitations, this meta-analysis established solid statistical evidence for an association between the OGG1 Cys/Cys genotype and lung cancer risk, particularly for studies with large sample size and adenocarcinoma, but this association warrants additional validation in larger and well designed studies. PMID

  5. Breast cancer risk associated with genotype polymorphism of the catechol estrogen-metabolizing genes: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ting-Chih; Chen, Shou-Tung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Fu, Yi-Ping; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Wu, Pei-Ei; Shen, Chen-Yang

    2005-01-20

    Estrogen has been suggested to trigger breast cancer development via an initiating mechanism involving its metabolite, catechol estrogen (CE). To examine this hypothesis, we carried out a multigenic case-control study of 469 incident breast cancer patients and 740 healthy controls to define the role of important genes involved in the different metabolic steps that protect against the potentially harmful effects of CE metabolism. We studied the 3 genes involved in CE detoxification by conjugation reactions involving methylation (catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT), sulfation (sulfotransferase 1A1, SULT1A1), or glucuronidation (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, UGT1A1), one (manganese superoxide dismutase, MnSOD) involved in protection against reactive oxidative species-mediated oxidation during the conversion of CE-semiquinone (CE-SQ) to CE-quinone (CE-Q), and 2 of the glutathione S-transferase superfamily, GSTM1 and GSTT1, involved in CE-Q metabolism. Support for this hypothesis came from the observations that (i) there was a trend toward an increased risk of breast cancer in women harboring a greater number of putative high-risk genotypes of these genes (p < 0.05); (ii) this association was stronger and more significant in those women who were more susceptible to estrogen [no history of pregnancy or older (> or =26 years) at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP)]; and (iii) the risks associated with having one or more high-risk genotypes were not the same in women having experienced different menarche-to-FFTP intervals, being more significant in women having been exposed to estrogen for a longer period (> or =12 years) before FFTP. Furthermore, because CE-Q can attack DNA, leading to the formation of double-strand breaks (DSB), we examined whether the relationship between cancer risk and the genotypic polymorphism of CE-metabolizing genes was modified by the genotypes of DSB repair genes, and found that a joint effect of CE-metabolizing genes and one of the two DSB

  6. Replication Study in a Japanese Population of Six Susceptibility Loci for Type 2 Diabetes Originally Identified by a Transethnic Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Matsuba, Ren; Imamura, Minako; Tanaka, Yasushi; Iwata, Minoru; Hirose, Hiroshi; Kaku, Kohei; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Watada, Hirotaka; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Maeda, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Aim We performed a replication study in a Japanese population to evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes and six susceptibility loci (TMEM154, SSR1, FAF1, POU5F1, ARL15, and MPHOSPH9) originally identified by a transethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 2014. Methods We genotyped 7,620 Japanese participants (5,817 type 2 diabetes patients and 1,803 controls) for each of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction invader assay. The association of each SNP locus with the disease was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the six SNPs examined in this study, four (rs6813195 near TMEM154, rs17106184 in FAF1, rs3130501 in POU5F1 and rs4275659 near MPHOSPH9) had the same direction of effect as in the original reports, but two (rs9505118 in SSR1 and rs702634 in ARL15) had the opposite direction of effect. Among these loci, rs3130501 and rs4275659 were nominally associated with type 2 diabetes (rs3130501; p = 0.017, odds ratio [OR] = 1.113, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.019–1.215, rs4275659; p = 0.012, OR = 1.127, 95% CI 1.026–1.238, adjusted for sex, age and body mass index), but we did not observe a significant association with type 2 diabetes for any of the six evaluated SNP loci in our Japanese population. Conclusions Our results indicate that effects of the six SNP loci identified in the transethnic GWAS meta-analysis are not major among the Japanese, although SNPs in POU5F1 and MPHOSPH9 loci may have some effect on susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in this population. PMID:27115357

  7. CMP-Neu5Ac Hydroxylase Null Mice as a Model for Studying Metabolic Disorders Caused by the Evolutionary Loss of Neu5Gc in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Seo, Han Geuk; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the modification/turnover of gene products that are altered in humans due to evolutionary loss of Neu5Gc. CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase- (Cmah-) deficient mice show the infiltration of Kupffer cells within liver sinusoids, whereas body and liver weight develop normally. Pathway analysis by use of Illumina MouseRef-8 v2 Expression BeadChip provided evidence that a number of biological pathways, including the glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathways, as well as glycogen metabolism-related gene expression, were significantly upregulated in Cmah-null mice. The intracellular glucose supply in Cmah-null mice resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the advanced glycation end products accumulation that could further induce oxidative stress. Finally, low sirtuin-1 and sirtuin-3 gene expressions due to higher NADH/NAD in Cmah-null mice decreased Foxo-1 and MnSOD gene expression, suggesting that oxidative stress may result in mitochondrial dysfunction in Cmah-null mouse. The present study suggests that mice with CMAH deficiency can be taken as an important model for studying metabolic disorders in humans. PMID:26558285

  8. A methodological approach to assess beach-dune system susceptibility to erosion. Cases studies from Valdelagrana spit (Spain) and Campomarino beach (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Angela; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Gracia, Javier F.; Anfuso, Giorgio; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-04-01

    considered by taking into account the medium term evolution (approx. 30 years) of the dune toe and dune vegetation cover. The proposed methodology was tested for two coastal sectors with different physiographic and marine conditions and different land use characteristics: the Valdelagrana beach and the Campomarino beach that are respectively located in the eastern part of the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain) and in the southern part of the Molise coastal stretch (Italy). Preliminary results show that the methodology allows identifying within the studied coastal sectors coast stretches with different degree of susceptibility. It is furthermore very advantageous as it requires parameters mostly already available through photo-interpretation, therefore it is easy to apply without requiring field surveys as do many other index-based methods.

  9. A comparative study of frequency ratio, weights of evidence and logistic regression methods for landslide susceptibility mapping: Sultan Mountains, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Adnan; Altural, Tolga

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated and compared landslide susceptibility maps produced with three different methods, frequency ratio, weights of evidence, and logistic regression, by using validation datasets. The field surveys performed as part of this investigation mapped the locations of 90 landslides that had been identified in the Sultan Mountains of south-western Turkey. The landslide influence parameters used for this study are geology, relative permeability, land use/land cover, precipitation, elevation, slope, aspect, total curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, wetness index, stream power index, sediment transportation capacity index, distance to drainage, distance to fault, drainage density, fault density, and spring density maps. The relationships between landslide distributions and these parameters were analysed using the three methods, and the results of these methods were then used to calculate the landslide susceptibility of the entire study area. The accuracy of the final landslide susceptibility maps was evaluated based on the landslides observed during the fieldwork, and the accuracy of the models was evaluated by calculating each model's relative operating characteristic curve. The predictive capability of each model was determined from the area under the relative operating characteristic curve and the areas under the curves obtained using the frequency ratio, logistic regression, and weights of evidence methods are 0.976, 0.952, and 0.937, respectively. These results indicate that the frequency ratio and weights of evidence models are relatively good estimators of landslide susceptibility in the study area. Specifically, the results of the correlation analysis show a high correlation between the frequency ratio and weights of evidence results, and the frequency ratio and logistic regression methods exhibit correlation coefficients of 0.771 and 0.727, respectively. The frequency ratio model is simple, and its input, calculation and output processes are

  10. Functional validation of cadherin as a receptor of Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Haonan; Wang, Huidong; Zhao, Shan; Zuo, Yayun; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong

    2016-09-01

    Cadherins have been identified as receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins in several lepidopteran insects including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Disruption of the cadherin gene HaCad has been genetically linked to resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in H. armigera. By using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9), HaCad from the Cry1Ac-susceptible SCD strain of H. armigera was successfully knocked out. A single positive CRISPR event with a frame shift deletion of 4 nucleotides was identified and made homozygous to create a knockout line named SCD-Cad. Western blotting confirmed that HaCad was no longer expressed in the SCD-Cad line while an intact HaCad of 210 kDa was present in the parental SCD strain. Insecticide bioassays were used to show that SCD-Cad exhibited 549-fold resistance to Cry1Ac compared with SCD, but no significant change in susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Our results not only provide strong reverse genetics evidence for HaCad as a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but also demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 technique can act as a powerful and efficient genome editing tool to study gene function in a global agricultural pest, H. armigera.

  11. Functional validation of cadherin as a receptor of Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Haonan; Wang, Huidong; Zhao, Shan; Zuo, Yayun; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong

    2016-09-01

    Cadherins have been identified as receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins in several lepidopteran insects including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Disruption of the cadherin gene HaCad has been genetically linked to resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in H. armigera. By using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9), HaCad from the Cry1Ac-susceptible SCD strain of H. armigera was successfully knocked out. A single positive CRISPR event with a frame shift deletion of 4 nucleotides was identified and made homozygous to create a knockout line named SCD-Cad. Western blotting confirmed that HaCad was no longer expressed in the SCD-Cad line while an intact HaCad of 210 kDa was present in the parental SCD strain. Insecticide bioassays were used to show that SCD-Cad exhibited 549-fold resistance to Cry1Ac compared with SCD, but no significant change in susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Our results not only provide strong reverse genetics evidence for HaCad as a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but also demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 technique can act as a powerful and efficient genome editing tool to study gene function in a global agricultural pest, H. armigera. PMID:27343383

  12. Meta-analysis of Genome-wide Association Studies Identifies 1q22 as a Susceptibility Locus for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Daniel; Falcone, Guido J.; Devan, William J.; Brown, W. Mark; Biffi, Alessandro; Howard, Timothy D.; Anderson, Christopher D.; Brouwers, H. Bart; Valant, Valerie; Battey, Thomas W.K.; Radmanesh, Farid; Raffeld, Miriam R.; Baedorf-Kassis, Sylvia; Deka, Ranjan; Woo, Jessica G.; Martin, Lisa J.; Haverbusch, Mary; Moomaw, Charles J.; Sun, Guangyun; Broderick, Joseph P.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Martini, Sharyl R.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Kissela, Brett; Comeau, Mary E.; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M.; Schmidt, Helena; Freudenberger, Paul; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Hansen, Björn M.; Norrving, Bo; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Elosua, Roberto; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Soriano, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume; Kraft, Peter; Ayres, Alison M.; Schwab, Kristin; McCauley, Jacob L.; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Rost, Natalia S.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Viswanathan, Anand; Stögerer, Eva-Maria; Tirschwell, David L.; Selim, Magdy; Brown, Devin L.; Silliman, Scott L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Meschia, James F.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Delgado, Pilar; Malik, Rainer; Dichgans, Martin; Greenberg, Steven M.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosand, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the stroke subtype with the worst prognosis and has no established acute treatment. ICH is classified as lobar or nonlobar based on the location of ruptured blood vessels within the brain. These different locations also signal different underlying vascular pathologies. Heritability estimates indicate a substantial genetic contribution to risk of ICH in both locations. We report a genome-wide association study of this condition that meta-analyzed data from six studies that enrolled individuals of European ancestry. Case subjects were ascertained by neurologists blinded to genotype data and classified as lobar or nonlobar based on brain computed tomography. ICH-free control subjects were sampled from ambulatory clinics or random digit dialing. Replication of signals identified in the discovery cohort with p < 1 × 10−6 was pursued in an independent multiethnic sample utilizing both direct and genome-wide genotyping. The discovery phase included a case cohort of 1,545 individuals (664 lobar and 881 nonlobar cases) and a control cohort of 1,481 individuals and identified two susceptibility loci: for lobar ICH, chromosomal region 12q21.1 (rs11179580, odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, p = 7.0 × 10−8); and for nonlobar ICH, chromosomal region 1q22 (rs2984613, OR = 1.44, p = 1.6 × 10−8). The replication included a case cohort of 1,681 individuals (484 lobar and 1,194 nonlobar cases) and a control cohort of 2,261 individuals and corroborated the association for 1q22 (p = 6.5 × 10−4; meta-analysis p = 2.2 × 10−10) but not for 12q21.1 (p = 0.55; meta-analysis p = 2.6 × 10−5). These results demonstrate biological heterogeneity across ICH subtypes and highlight the importance of ascertaining ICH cases accordingly. PMID:24656865

  13. Tuberculosis in Sudan: a study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain genotype and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sudan is a large country with a diverse population and history of civil conflict. Poverty levels are high with a gross national income per capita of less than two thousand dollars. The country has a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) with an estimated 50,000 incident cases during 2009, when the estimated prevalence was 209 cases per 100,000 of the population. Few studies have been undertaken on TB in Sudan and the prevalence of drug resistant disease is not known. Methods In this study Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 235 patients attending three treatment centers in Sudan were screened for susceptibility to isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin by the proportion method on Lowenstein Jensen media. 232 isolates were also genotyped by spoligotyping. Demographic details of patients were recorded using a structured questionnaire. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the associations between drug resistance with risk ratios computed for a set of risk factors (gender, age, case status - new or relapse, geographic origin of the patient, spoligotype, number of people per room, marital status and type of housing). Results Multi drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), being resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid, was found in 5% (95% CI: 2,8) of new cases and 24% (95% CI: 14,34) of previously treated patients. Drug resistance was associated with previous treatment with risk ratios of 3.51 (95% CI: 2.69-4.60; p < 0.001) for resistance to any drug and 5.23 (95% CI: 2.30-11.90; p < 0.001) for MDR-TB. Resistance was also associated with the geographic region of origin of the patient, being most frequently observed in patients from the Northern region and least in the Eastern region with risk ratios of 7.43 (95%CI:3.42,16.18; p: < 0.001) and 14.09 (95%CI:1.80,110.53; p:0.026) for resistance to any drug and MDR-TB. The major genotype observed was of the Central Asia spoligotype family (CAS1_Delhi), representing 49% of the 232 isolates

  14. Interspecies and interstrain studies on the increased susceptibility to metrazol-induced convulsions in animals given aspartame.

    PubMed

    Diomede, L; Romano, M; Guiso, G; Caccia, S; Nava, S; Salmona, M

    1991-02-01

    The ability of aspartame (APM) to increase the susceptibility to metrazol-induced convulsions was studied in two strains of mice (CD1 and DBA/2J) and in guinea-pigs. Rats were included as known positive controls. Plasma and brain levels of phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) were measured in CD1 mice and guinea-pigs at various intervals after a dose of 1 g APM/kg body weight (administered orally to mice and ip to guinea-pigs). In mice, peak levels of Phe and Tyr were observed in plasma after 30 min and in brain after 60 min. In guinea-pigs peak plasma levels of Phe and Tyr occurred 30 min after treatment. Phe was at a maximum in guinea-pig brain after 30 min, while Tyr levels reached a peak at 120 min. In further experiments Phe and Tyr levels were measured 1 hr after APM doses of 0.5, 0.75 or 1 g/kg. In CD1 mice, plasma Phe and Tyr levels were increased significantly only at the highest dose, whereas in brain, Tyr concentrations were significantly increased by 0.75 or 1 g APM/kg and Phe was significantly increased by all three doses. In the guinea-pig, plasma Phe and Tyr were increased significantly only by 1 g APM/kg and in brain this dose significantly raised only the Phe levels. Monoamine and metabolite levels were determined in the brain striata of CD1 and DBA/2J mice 1 hr after the oral administration of 1 or 2 g APM/kg body weight; no differences from control values were found in either strain. The studies of potentiation of metrazol-induced convulsions showed that APM, at doses of up to 2 g/kg body weight, had no such effect in mice or guinea-pigs. In contrast, as expected, the potentiation was significant in the rat at 1 g/kg.

  15. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Chida, Natasha; Ansari, Zara; Hussain, Hamidah; Jaswal, Maria; Symes, Stephen; Khan, Aamir J.; Mohammed, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy. Methods In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013. Results Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2%) defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04–1.71), being 35–59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14–2.08), or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.88) were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35–59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10–2.03) or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12–2.77) were associated with default. Conclusions In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative

  16. Mitochondrial 5178A/C genotype is associated with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mukae, Shuji; Aoki, Shuichi; Itoh, Seiji; Sato, Ryuji; Nishio, Kazuaki; Iwata, Toshiki; Katagiri, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism of mitochondrial 5178A/C, causing a Met to Leu replacement within the NADH dehydrogenase subunit, is reported to be associated with longevity. The purpose of the present study was to assess the contribution of mitochondrial polymorphisms, particularly the 5178A/C genotype, to the susceptibility to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a Japanese study population. There were 4 groups: 150 patients with AMI, 150 with essential hypertension, 100 with diabetes mellitus, and 150 subjects matched for age and sex who served as the control group. Mitochondrial 5178A/C was detected by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The allelic frequency of 5178C was significantly higher in the AMI group than in the control group, and this difference was more marked in younger patients. There were differences in allelic frequencies among the essential hypertension group, diabetes mellitus group and control group, but a higher frequency of the C allele was seen in the AMI group compared with the essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus groups. This particular polymorphism was found to be associated with development of AMI, especially in younger patients and constitutes a new risk factor for AMI. PMID:12520145

  17. Collapse susceptibility map in abandoned mining areas by microgravity survey: A case study in Candado hill (Málaga, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; González-Castillo, L.; Azañón, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    The presence of disused gypsum mine galleries in Candado hill (Málaga, southern Spain) has caused constructions at the western end of the hill to collapse. The mine, which closed in the 1960s, is disconnected from the surface. Therefore, the precise dimensions and position of the galleries are unknown, making it essential to undertake a thorough microgravity study to assess the collapse susceptibility of the area. On the one hand, we analyze the accuracy of the terrain correction and Bouguer anomaly calculation, varying density values. This study shows that higher density values produce more pronounced residual minima corresponding to the mine galleries. On the other hand, the approximate mine gallery positions and dimensions were derived through forward modelling, then correlated with the gravity residual anomalies produced in the hill. Altogether, these results can be presented as a collapse susceptibility map relating the areas containing mine galleries with shallow voids on the hill.

  18. Interleukin-1α -899 (+4845) C→T polymorphism is not associated with aggressive periodontitis susceptibility: A meta-analysis based on 19 case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WAN-FEN; SHI, JUN; CHEN, SHAO-JUAN; NIU, YU-MING; ZENG, XIAN-TAO

    2014-01-01

    A number of published studies investigated the association between interleukin-1α (IL-1α) −899 (+4845) C→T polymorphism and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis (AgP). However, the results from different studies are controversial. This study was conducted to further investigate the association between IL-1α −899 (+4845) C→T polymorphism and AgP using a meta-analysis. A search was conducted through PubMed up to May 1, 2013 and a total of 19 relevant case-control studies were identified. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that IL-1α −899 (+4845) C→T polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to AgP under allele T vs. C [odds ratio (OR)=1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.14, P=0.98; I2=28.86%] or allele A vs. C comparison (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.85–1.14, P=0.85; I2=33.66%). The subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, source of controls and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) also revealed no such association. There existed a weak publication bias (Egger’s test P=0.02). In conclusion, based on the currently available evidence, there is no association between IL-1α −899 (+4845) C→T polymorphism and susceptibility to AgP. PMID:24748978

  19. A comparative study on the predictive ability of the decision tree, support vector machine and neuro-fuzzy models in landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the prediction performances of three different approaches such as decision tree (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for landslide susceptibility mapping at Penang Hill area, Malaysia. The necessary input parameters for the landslide susceptibility assessments were obtained from various sources. At first, landslide locations were identified by aerial photographs and field surveys and a total of 113 landslide locations were constructed. The study area contains 340,608 pixels while total 8403 pixels include landslides. The landslide inventory was randomly partitioned into two subsets: (1) part 1 that contains 50% (4000 landslide grid cells) was used in the training phase of the models; (2) part 2 is a validation dataset 50% (4000 landslide grid cells) for validation of three models and to confirm its accuracy. The digitally processed images of input parameters were combined in GIS. Finally, landslide susceptibility maps were produced, and the performances were assessed and discussed. Total fifteen landslide susceptibility maps were produced using DT, SVM and ANFIS based models, and the resultant maps were validated using the landslide locations. Prediction performances of these maps were checked by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) by using both success rate curve and prediction rate curve. The validation results showed that, area under the ROC curve for the fifteen models produced using DT, SVM and ANFIS varied from 0.8204 to 0.9421 for success rate curve and 0.7580 to 0.8307 for prediction rate curves, respectively. Moreover, the prediction curves revealed that model 5 of DT has slightly higher prediction performance (83.07), whereas the success rate showed that model 5 of ANFIS has better prediction (94.21) capability among all models. The results of this study showed that landslide susceptibility mapping in the Penang Hill area using the three approaches (e

  20. ac electroosmosis in rectangular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Michele; Accoto, Dino; Dario, Paolo

    2005-11-22

    Motivated by the growing interest in ac electroosmosis as a reliable no moving parts strategy to control fluid motion in microfluidic devices for biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip, we study transient and steady-state electrokinetic phenomena (electroosmosis and streaming currents) in infinitely extended rectangular charged microchannels. With the aid of Fourier series and Laplace transforms we provide a general formal solution of the problem, which is used to study the time-dependent response to sudden ac applied voltage differences in case of finite electric double layer. The Debye-Huckel approximation has been adopted to allow for an algebraic solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann problem in Fourier space. We obtain the expressions of flow velocity profiles, flow rates, streaming currents, as well as expressions of the complex hydraulic and electrokinetic conductances. We analyze in detail the dependence of the electrokinetic conductance on the extension of linear dimensions relative to the Debye length, with an eye on finite electric double layer effects. PMID:16351310

  1. Meat industry wastewater: microbiological quality and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli and Salmonella sp. isolates, case study in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stošić, Milena; Čučak, Dragana; Kovačević, Srđan; Perović, Marija; Radonić, Jelena; Turk Sekulić, Maja; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana; Radnović, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from meat processing industries is a fusion of compounds with a high load of organic matter, and pathogen microorganisms like Escherichia coli, and Salmonella sp. The aim of this research was to determine microbiological characteristics of the wastewater discharged from the meat processing industry in order to get a more detailed insight into meat industry wastewater pollution, and to evaluate the resistance of bacterial strains E. coli and Salmonella sp. to antibiotics. The evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on 37 strains of E. coli and eight strains of Salmonella sp. to nine different antibiotics. The number of faecal pollution indicators was very high in all samples. From a total of 37 strains of E. coli, a moderate degree of resistance was shown to tetracycline (37.83%); a low degree of resistance to ampicillin (21.62%), streptomycin (24.32%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol (18.92%) and nalidixic acid (16.22%); and very low to: chloramphenicol (13.51%), ciprofloxacin (2.7%), gentamicin and cefotaxime (0.0%). The results for eight strains of Salmonella sp. show that all eight isolates had some degree of susceptibility to nine tested antimicrobial agents and six strains were fully susceptible to all tested antibiotics.

  2. Varicella susceptibility and validity of history among U.S. Coast Guard recruits: an outbreak-based study.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Laura; Fajardo, Mario; Seward, Jane; Ludwig, Sharon; Johnson, Joyce; Wharton, Melinda

    2003-05-01

    During a varicella outbreak among U.S. Coast Guard recruits, we examined varicella susceptibility serologically and evaluated validity of disease history. Recruits completed a questionnaire to obtain information on demographics, history of varicella disease, and varicella vaccination. Serological testing for varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin G antibodies was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Among 513 recruits, 21 (4.1%) were seronegative to varicella-zoster virus. Recruits born in Puerto Rico were more likely than recruits born in the U.S. states to be susceptible (prevalence ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.4%, 13.1%). A positive disease history was highly predictive of positive serology (99.1%); however, 73% of those with a negative or uncertain history were also immune. Four (19%) susceptible recruits reported a positive varicella history. Although immunity among recruits was high, varicella outbreaks may occur in closed adult settings due to the high risks of exposure and transmission. Varicella vaccination can prevent these costly, disruptive outbreaks.

  3. Meat industry wastewater: microbiological quality and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli and Salmonella sp. isolates, case study in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stošić, Milena; Čučak, Dragana; Kovačević, Srđan; Perović, Marija; Radonić, Jelena; Turk Sekulić, Maja; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana; Radnović, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from meat processing industries is a fusion of compounds with a high load of organic matter, and pathogen microorganisms like Escherichia coli, and Salmonella sp. The aim of this research was to determine microbiological characteristics of the wastewater discharged from the meat processing industry in order to get a more detailed insight into meat industry wastewater pollution, and to evaluate the resistance of bacterial strains E. coli and Salmonella sp. to antibiotics. The evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on 37 strains of E. coli and eight strains of Salmonella sp. to nine different antibiotics. The number of faecal pollution indicators was very high in all samples. From a total of 37 strains of E. coli, a moderate degree of resistance was shown to tetracycline (37.83%); a low degree of resistance to ampicillin (21.62%), streptomycin (24.32%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol (18.92%) and nalidixic acid (16.22%); and very low to: chloramphenicol (13.51%), ciprofloxacin (2.7%), gentamicin and cefotaxime (0.0%). The results for eight strains of Salmonella sp. show that all eight isolates had some degree of susceptibility to nine tested antimicrobial agents and six strains were fully susceptible to all tested antibiotics. PMID:27191574

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility and beta-lactamase production of selected gram-negative bacilli from two Croatian hospitals: MYSTIC study results.

    PubMed

    Bedenic, B; Goic-Barisic, I; Budimir, A; Tonkic, M; Mihajkevic, L J; Novak, A; Sviben, M; Plecko, V; Punda-Polic, V; Kalenic, S

    2010-06-01

    The meropenem yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) programme is a global, longitudinal resistance surveillance network that monitors the activity of meropenem and compares its activity with other broadspectrum antimicrobial agents. We now report the antimicrobial efficacy of meropenem compared to other broad-spectrum agents within the selective Gram-negative pathogen groups from two Croatian Hospitals investigated between 2002-2007. A total of 1510 Gram-negative pathogens were tested and the minimum-inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI.There was no resistance to either imipenem or meropenem observed for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in both medical centers. High resistance rates of K. pneumoniae to ceftazidime (18%), cefepime (17%) and gentamicin (39%) are raising concern. Acinetobacter baumannii turned out to be the most resistant Gram-negative bacteria with 81% resistant to ceftazidime, 73% to cefepime, 69% to gentamicin and 71% to ciprofloxacin. Almost 20% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were resistant to imipenem, 13% to meropenem, 69% to gentamicin and 38% to ciprofloxacin.The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in E. coli was 10% and in K. pneumoniae 49%. PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of SHV-5 in nine E. coli strains and additional tem-1 beta-lactamase five strains. Five K. pneumoniae strains were positive for bla(SHV-5 )gene. Eight ESBL positive Enterobacter spp. strains were found to produce tem and CtX-m beta-lactamases. Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases were not found among K. pneumoniae, E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Three A. baumannii strains from Zagreb University Center were identified by multiplex PCR as OXA-58 like producers. Six A. baumannii strains from Split University Center were found to possess an ISAba1 insertion sequence upstream of bla(OXA-51 )gene. According to our results

  5. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and Sedimentary Fabric Studies of Phreatomagmatic Surge Deposits, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, NE Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newkirk, T. T.

    2005-12-01

    The Hopi Buttes volcanic field is a group of late Mio-Pliocene volcanic vents characterized by hydrovolcanic features. The volcanism at the Hopi Buttes produced ~300 maar and diatreme volcanic landforms scattered within an area of 50km in diameter. The maars in the area formed from phreatomagmatic explosions involving the interaction of the rapidly ascending monchiquitic/nephelinitic magmas and liquefied lower Bidahochi sediments, and groundwater. Phreatomagmatic eruptions produce a spectrum of pyroclastic density currents (i.e. "pyroclastic flows" or "pyroclastic surges/hydrovolcanic surges"). The direct products of these violent eruptive events are dilute gravity driven gas charged pyroclastic density currents. Which, over distances gain and/or lose competency due to a decreasing energy budget and/or paleotopographic control. Paleotopographic reconstructions of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field reveal a sub-horizontal playa type environment. This affords the opportunity to study individual surge deposits on the micro- to macroscopic scales to determine the emplacement dynamics of individual eruptive events without the complications of paleotopographic interference. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary fabric analysis has been used to examine the micro- to macroscopic fabrics of individual surge deposits at proximal, medial, and distal locations from the eruptive vent. These techniques give insight on the flow and depositional processes of the transient hydrovolcanic surges. Data shows a distinct correlation of microscopic AMS fabric changes to macroscopic sedimentary facies changes. At the proximal-medial interface ~150-200m AMS fabrics turn from chaotic/lack of orientation to a lineated fabric long axis perpendicular to flow direction. This fabric is interpreted to be transitional debulking interface from a highly concentrated rapid depositional flow to a more dilute transient flow, thus allowing the internal sorting and individual particles to

  6. Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility of Yeast Isolates Causing Fungemia Collected in a Population-Based Study in Spain in 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Guinea, Jesús; Zaragoza, Óscar; Escribano, Pilar; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella; Pemán, Javier; Sánchez-Reus, Ferrán

    2014-01-01

    We report the molecular identifications and antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates causing fungemia collected in the CANDIPOP population-based study conducted in 29 Spanish hospitals. A total of 781 isolates (from 767 patients, 14 of them having mixed fungemia) were collected. The species found most frequently were Candida albicans (44.6%), Candida parapsilosis (24.5%), Candida glabrata (13.2%), Candida tropicalis (7.6%), Candida krusei (1.9%), Candida guilliermondii (1.7%), and Candida lusitaniae (1.3%). Other Candida and non-Candida species accounted for approximately 5% of the isolates. The presence of cryptic species was low. Compared to findings of previous studies conducted in Spain, the frequency of C. glabrata has increased. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by using EUCAST and CLSI M27-A3 reference procedures; the two methods were comparable. The rate of fluconazole-susceptible isolates was 80%, which appears to be a decrease compared to findings of previous studies, explained mainly by the higher frequency of C. glabrata. Using the species-specific breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values, the rate of voriconazole and posaconazole in vitro resistance was low (<2%). In the case of C. tropicalis, using the EUCAST procedure, the rate of azole resistance was around 20%. There was a correlation between the previous use of azoles and the presence of fluconazole-resistant isolates. Resistance to echinocandins was very rare (2%), and resistance to amphotericin B also was very uncommon. The sequencing of the hot spot (HS) regions from FKS1 or FKS2 genes in echinocandin-resistant isolates revealed previously described point mutations. The decrease in the susceptibility to fluconazole in Spanish isolates should be closely monitored in future studies. PMID:24366741

  7. Micelles driven magnetite (Fe3O4) hollow spheres and a study on AC magnetic properties for hyperthermia application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Madhuri Mandal; Dey, Chaitali; Bandyopadhyay, Ayan; Sarkar, Debasish; Ahir, Manisha

    2016-11-01

    Here we have discussed about designing the magnetic particles for hyperthermia therapy and done some studies in this direction. We have used oleylamine micelles as template to synthesize hollow-nanospheres (HNS) of magnetite by solvo-thermal technique. We have shown that oleylamine plays an important role to generate hollow particles. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements like SEM and TEM was performed to confirm the shape and size of hollow sphere particles. The detail magnetic measurements give an idea about the application of these HNS for magnetic heating in hyperthermia therapy. In vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal that tolerable dose rate for these particles can be significantly high and particles are non-toxic in nature. Being hollow in structure and magnetic in nature such materials will also be useful in other application fields like in drug delivery, drug release, arsenic and heavy metal removal by adsorption technique, magnetic separation etc.

  8. Whole-genome sequencing for prediction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility and resistance: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Timothy M; Kohl, Thomas A; Omar, Shaheed V; Hedge, Jessica; Del Ojo Elias, Carlos; Bradley, Phelim; Iqbal, Zamin; Feuerriegel, Silke; Niehaus, Katherine E; Wilson, Daniel J; Clifton, David A; Kapatai, Georgia; Ip, Camilla L C; Bowden, Rory; Drobniewski, Francis A; Allix-Béguec, Caroline; Gaudin, Cyril; Parkhill, Julian; Diel, Roland; Supply, Philip; Crook, Derrick W; Smith, E Grace; Walker, A Sarah; Ismail, Nazir; Niemann, Stefan; Peto, Tim E A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Diagnosing drug-resistance remains an obstacle to the elimination of tuberculosis. Phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing is slow and expensive, and commercial genotypic assays screen only common resistance-determining mutations. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterise common and rare mutations predicting drug resistance, or consistency with susceptibility, for all first-line and second-line drugs for tuberculosis. Methods Between Sept 1, 2010, and Dec 1, 2013, we sequenced a training set of 2099 Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes. For 23 candidate genes identified from the drug-resistance scientific literature, we algorithmically characterised genetic mutations as not conferring resistance (benign), resistance determinants, or uncharacterised. We then assessed the ability of these characterisations to predict phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing for an independent validation set of 1552 genomes. We sought mutations under similar selection pressure to those characterised as resistance determinants outside candidate genes to account for residual phenotypic resistance. Findings We characterised 120 training-set mutations as resistance determining, and 772 as benign. With these mutations, we could predict 89·2% of the validation-set phenotypes with a mean 92·3% sensitivity (95% CI 90·7–93·7) and 98·4% specificity (98·1–98·7). 10·8% of validation-set phenotypes could not be predicted because uncharacterised mutations were present. With an in-silico comparison, characterised resistance determinants had higher sensitivity than the mutations from three line-probe assays (85·1% vs 81·6%). No additional resistance determinants were identified among mutations under selection pressure in non-candidate genes. Interpretation A broad catalogue of genetic mutations enable data from whole-genome sequencing to be used clinically to predict drug resistance, drug susceptibility, or to identify drug phenotypes that cannot yet be genetically

  9. Flux-motion related ac losses in high Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. Y.

    1993-03-01

    The ac losses of high-temperature superconductors in the flux-depinned mixed-state have been treated using the classical magnetic diffusion equation in conjunction with various models of flux-motion. With the imaginary part representing the ac losses, the field- and frequency-dependent ac susceptibilities were investigated. The imaginary component was found to obey a scaling rule with a characteristic frequency, estimated to be about 10 exp 5-10 exp 9 Hz, that depended on the sample size and normal state resistivity. This frequency range agrees with earlier experimental results, which could not be accounted for previously based upon the notion of thermally activated hopping of vortices. The frequency scaling behaviors using flux-creep and flux-flow models are presented.

  10. Numerical Study for the Three-Dimensional Rayleigh Taylor Instability through the TVD/AC Scheme and Parallel Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. L.; Jin, B. X.; Glimm, J.

    1996-07-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is a gravity driven instability of a contact surface between fluids of different densities. The growth of this instability is sensitive to numerical or physical mass diffusion. For this reason, high resolution of the contact discontinuity is particularly important. In this paper, we address this problem using a second-order TVD finite difference scheme with artificial compression. We describe our numerical simulations of the 3D Rayleigh-Taylor instability using this scheme. The numerical solutions are compared to (a) the exact 2D solution in the linear regime and (b) numerical solutions using the TVD scheme and the front tracking method. The computational program is used to study the evolution of a single bubble and 3D bubble merger, i.e., the nonlinear evolution of a single