Science.gov

Sample records for ac-130 aircraft supporting

  1. AC-130H Gunship Armor Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, T.E.; Landingham, R.L.

    1990-09-19

    This report covers the test methods and equipment for testing aircraft armor both hard and soft. The hard armor are the typical ceramic type while the soft armor are various types of layered composite materials. 10 figs. (JEF)

  2. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  3. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  4. Manx: Close air support aircraft preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amy, Annie; Crone, David; Hendrickson, Heidi; Willis, Randy; Silva, Vince

    1991-01-01

    The Manx is a twin engine, twin tailed, single seat close air support design proposal for the 1991 Team Student Design Competition. It blends advanced technologies into a lightweight, high performance design with the following features: High sensitivity (rugged, easily maintained, with night/adverse weather capability); Highly maneuverable (negative static margin, forward swept wing, canard, and advanced avionics result in enhanced aircraft agility); and Highly versatile (design flexibility allows the Manx to contribute to a truly integrated ground team capable of rapid deployment from forward sites).

  5. Cyclone: A close air support aircraft for tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George; Croulet, Donald; Dunn, James; Graham, Michael; Ip, Phillip; Low, Scott; Vance, Gregg; Volckaert, Eric

    1991-01-01

    To meet the threat of the battlefield of the future, the U.S. ground forces will require reliable air support. To provide this support, future aircrews demand a versatile close air support aircraft capable of delivering ordinance during the day, night, or in adverse weather with pin-point accuracy. The Cyclone aircraft meets these requirements, packing the 'punch' necessary to clear the way for effective ground operations. Possessing anti-armor, missile, and precision bombing capability, the Cyclone will counter the threat into the 21st Century. Here, it is shown that the Cyclone is a realistic, economical answer to the demand for a capable close air support aircraft.

  6. Benefits of VTOL aircraft in offshore petroleum logistics support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    The mission suitability and potential economic benefits of advanced VTOL aircraft were investigated for logistics support of petroleum operations in the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Concepts such as the tilt rotor and lift/cruise fan are promising for future operations beyond 150 miles offshore, where their high cruise efficiency provides savings in trip time, fuel consumption, and capital investment. Depending upon mission requirements, the aircraft operating costs are reduced by as much as 20 percent to 50 percent from those of current helicopters.

  7. The Guardian: Preliminary design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Jonathan; Huber, David; Mcinerney, Kelly; Mulligan, Greg; Pessin, David; Seelos, Michael

    1991-01-01

    One design is presented of a Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft. It is a canard wing, twin engine, twin vertical tail aircraft that has the capability to cruise at 520 knots. The Guardian contains state of the art flight control systems. Specific highlights of the Guardian include: (1) low cost (the acquisition cost per airplane is $13.6 million for a production of 500 airplanes); (2) low maintenance (it was designed to be easily maintainable in unprepared fields); and (3) high versatility (it can perform a wide range of missions). Along with being a CAS aircraft, it is capable of long ferry missions, battlefield interdiction, maritime attack, and combat rescue. The Guardian is capable of a maximum ferry of 3800 nm, can takeoff in a distance of 1700 ft, land in a ground roll distance of 1644 ft. It has a maximum takeoff weight of 48,753 lbs, and is capable of carrying up to 19,500 lbs of ordinance.

  8. A-2000: Close air support aircraft design team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrannanto, Paul; Lim, Don; Lucas, Evangeline; Risse, Alan; Weaver, Dave; Wikse, Steve

    1991-01-01

    The US Air Force is currently faced with the problem of providing adequate close air support for ground forces. Air response to troops engaged in combat must be rapid and devastating due to the highly fluid battle lines of the future. The A-2000 is the result of a study to design an aircraft to deliver massive fire power accurately. The low cost A-2000 incorporates: large weapons payload; excellent maneuverability; all weather and terrain following capacity; redundant systems; and high survivability.

  9. The Eliminator: A design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, Mandy; Hoang, TY; Kokolios, Alex; Selyem, Sharon; Wardell, Mark; Winterrowd, David

    1991-01-01

    The Eliminator is the answer to the need for an affordable, maintainable, survivable, high performance close air support aircraft primarily for the United States, but with possible export sales to foreign customers. The Eliminator is twin turbofan, fixed wing aircraft with high mounted canards and low mounted wings. It is designed for high subsonic cruise and an attack radius of 250 nautical miles. Primarily it would carry 20 500 pound bombs as its main ordnance , but is versatile enough to carry a variety of weapons configurations to perform several different types of missions. It carries state of the art navigation and targeting systems to deliver its payload with pinpoint precision and is designed for maximum survivability of the crew and aircraft for a safe return and quick turnaround. It can operate from fields as short as 1800 ft. with easy maintenance for dispersed operation during hostile situations. It is designed for exceptional maneuverability and could be used in a variety of roles from air-to-air operations to anti-submarine warfare and maritime patrol duties.

  10. Preliminary design of a family of three close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Darrah, Paul; Lussier, Wayne; Mills, Nikos

    1989-01-01

    A family of three Close Air Support aircraft is presented. These aircraft are designed with commonality as the main design objective to reduce the life cycle cost. The aircraft are low wing, twin-boom, pusher turbo-prop configurations. The amount of information displayed to the pilot was reduced to a minimum to greatly simplify the cockpit. The aircraft met the mission specifications and the performance and cost characteristics compared well with other CAS aircraft. The concept of a family of CAS aircraft seems viable after preliminary design.

  11. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-02-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  12. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  13. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  14. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  15. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  16. Technology Advancements Enhance Aircraft Support of Experiment Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jacques J.

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, the NASA Airborne Science Program has provided airborne platforms for space bound instrument development, for calibrating new and existing satellite systems, and for making in situ and remote sensing measurements that can only be made from aircraft. New technologies have expanded the capabilities of aircraft that are operated for these missions. Over the last several years a new technology investment portfolio has yielded improvements that produce better measurements for the airborne science communities. These new technologies include unmanned vehicles, precision trajectory control and advanced telecommunications capabilities. We will discuss some of the benefits of these new technologies and systems which aim to provide users with more precision, lower operational costs, quicker access to data, and better management of multi aircraft and multi sensor campaigns.

  17. 76 FR 16349 - Notice of Policy Regarding Civil Aircraft Operators Providing Contract Support to Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Providing Contract Support to Government Entities (Public Aircraft Operations) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provide contract support to government entities. DATES: Comments must be received before April 22, 2011... the existence of a contract between a civil operator and a government agency. The FAA considers...

  18. The design of aircraft using the decision support problem technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mistree, Farrokh; Marinopoulos, Stergios; Jackson, David M.; Shupe, Jon A.

    1988-01-01

    The Decision Support Problem Technique for unified design, manufacturing and maintenance is being developed at the Systems Design Laboratory at the University of Houston. This involves the development of a domain-independent method (and the associated software) that can be used to process domain-dependent information and thereby provide support for human judgment. In a computer assisted environment, this support is provided in the form of optimal solutions to Decision Support Problems.

  19. Design of an air traffic computer simulation system to support investigation of civil tiltrotor aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1993-01-01

    The TATSS Project's goal was to develop a design for computer software that would support the attainment of the following objectives for the air traffic simulation model: (1) Full freedom of movement for each aircraft object in the simulation model. Each aircraft object may follow any designated flight plan or flight path necessary as required by the experiment under consideration. (2) Object position precision up to +/- 3 meters vertically and +/- 15 meters horizontally. (3) Aircraft maneuvering in three space with the object position precision identified above. (4) Air traffic control operations and procedures. (5) Radar, communication, navaid, and landing aid performance. (6) Weather. (7) Ground obstructions and terrain. (8) Detection and recording of separation violations. (9) Measures of performance including deviations from flight plans, air space violations, air traffic control messages per aircraft, and traditional temporal based measures.

  20. The SnoDog: Preliminary design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbaugh, Scott; Bartel, Kent; Cavalli, J. R.; Chan, John; Chung, Jason; Dimaranan, Liza; Freese, Mike; Levitt, Rick; Soban, Dani

    1991-01-01

    U.S. military forces are presently searching for the next generation Close Air Support aircraft. The following report presents the SnoDog, a low-cost ($14.8 million) aircraft capable of operating from remote battlefields and unimproved airstrips. The configuration consists of a conventional, low aspect-ratio wing, twin booms, twin canted vertical stabilizers along with a high-mounted joined horizontal tail. A supercritical airfoil for the wing enhances aerodynamic performance, while the SnoDog's instability increases maneuverability over current close air support aircraft. Survivability was incorporated into the design by the use of a titanium tub to protect the cockpit from anti-aircraft artillery, as well as, the twin booms and retracted gear disposition. The booms aid survivability by supplying separated, redundant controls, and the landing gear are slightly exposed when retracted to enable a belly landing in emergencies. Designed to fly at Mach .76, the SnoDog is powered by two low-bypass turbofan engines. Engine accessibility and interchangeable parts make the SnoDog highly maintainable. The SnoDog is adaptable to many different missions, as it is capable of carrying advanced avionics pods, carrying external fuel tanks or refueling in-air, and carrying various types of munitions. This makes the SnoDog a multirole aircraft capable of air-to-air and air-to-ground combat. This combination of features make the SnoDog unique as a close air support aircraft, capable of meeting the U.S. military's future needs.

  1. 30 CFR 250.224 - What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must accompany...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.224 What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will... aircraft you will use to support your exploration activities. The description of vessels and...

  2. Low-speed airspeed calibration data for a single-engine research-support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A standard service airspeed system on a single engine research support airplane was calibrated by the trailing anemometer method. The effects of flaps, power, sideslip, and lag were evaluated. The factory supplied airspeed calibrations were not sufficiently accurate for high accuracy flight research applications. The trailing anemometer airspeed calibration was conducted to provide the capability to use the research support airplane to perform pace aircraft airspeed calibrations.

  3. DFRC F-16 aircraft fleet and support crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The support crew for the F-16A, the F-16XL no. 1, and the F-16 AFTI are, top row, left to right: Randy Weaver; mechanic, Susan Ligon; mechanic, Bob Garcia; Crew Chief, Rich Kelly; mechanic, Dale Edminister; Avionics Technician. Bottom row, left to right, Art Cope; mechanic, John Huffman; Avionics Technician, Jaime Garcia; Avionics Technician, Don Griffith, Avionics Tech. Co-op student. The F-16A (NASA 516), the only civil registered F-16 in existence, was transferred to Dryden from Langley, and is primarily used in engine tests and for parts. Although it is flight-worthy, it is not currently flown at Dryden. The single-seat F-16XL no. 1 (NASA 849) was most recently used in the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP) to test boundary layer pressures and distribution. Previously it had been used in a program to investigate the characteristics of sonic booms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. Data from the program will be used in the development of a high speed civilian transport. During the series of sonic boom research flights, the F-16XL was used to probe the shock waves being generated by a NASA SR-71 and record their shape and intensity. The Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 was used to develop and demonstrate technologies to improve navigation and a pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. Earlier research in the joint NASA-Air Force AFTI F-16 program demonstrated voice actuated controls, helmet-mounted sighting and integration of forward-mounted canards with the standard flight control system to achieve uncoupled flight.

  4. 30 CFR 250.224 - What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must accompany...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must accompany the EP? 250.224 Section 250.224 Mineral Resources..., barges, ice management vessels, other vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use to...

  5. Proposal for a low cost close air support aircraft for the year 2000: The Raptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerome D.; Dewitt, Ward S.; Mcdonald, Mark; Riley, John W.; Roberts, Anthony E.; Watson, Sean; Whelan, Margaret M.

    1991-01-01

    The Raptor is a proposed low cost Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft for the U.S. Military. The Raptor incorporates a 'cranked arrow' wing planform, and uses canards instead of a traditional horizontal tail. The Raptor is designed to be capable of responsive delivery of effective ordnance in close proximity to friendly ground forces during the day, night, and 'under the weather' conditions. Details are presented of the Raptor's mission, configuration, performance, stability and control, ground support, manufacturing, and overall cost to permit engineering evaluation of the proposed design. A description of the design process and analysis methods used is also provided.

  6. Aircraft engine with inter-turbine engine frame supported counter rotating low pressure turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seda, Jorge F. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor); Gliebe, Philip R. (Inventor); Szucs, Peter N. (Inventor); Brauer, John C. (Inventor); Johnson, James E. (Inventor); Moniz, Thomas (Inventor); Steinmetz, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An aircraft gas turbine engine assembly includes an inter-turbine frame axially located between high and low pressure turbines. Low pressure turbine has counter rotating low pressure inner and outer rotors with low pressure inner and outer shafts which are at least in part rotatably disposed co-axially within a high pressure rotor. Inter-turbine frame includes radially spaced apart radially outer first and inner second structural rings disposed co-axially about a centerline and connected by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. Forward and aft sump members having forward and aft central bores are fixedly joined to axially spaced apart forward and aft portions of the inter-turbine frame. Low pressure inner and outer rotors are rotatably supported by a second turbine frame bearing mounted in aft central bore of aft sump member. A mount for connecting the engine to an aircraft is located on first structural ring.

  7. Requirements for facilities and measurement techniques to support CFD development for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L., III; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    1992-01-01

    The design of a hypersonic aircraft poses unique challenges to the engineering community. Problems with duplicating flight conditions in ground based facilities have made performance predictions risky. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been proposed as an additional means of providing design data. At the present time, CFD codes are being validated based on sparse experimental data and then used to predict performance at flight conditions with generally unknown levels of uncertainty. This paper will discuss the facility and measurement techniques that are required to support CFD development for the design of hypersonic aircraft. Illustrations are given of recent success in combining experimental and direct numerical simulation in CFD model development and validation for hypersonic perfect gas flows.

  8. Medical Support for Aircraft Disaster Search and Recovery Operations at Sea: the RSN Experience.

    PubMed

    Teo, Kok Ann Colin; Chong, Tse Feng Gabriel; Liow, Min Han Lincoln; Tang, Kong Choong

    2016-06-01

    The maritime environment presents a unique set of challenges to search and recovery (SAR) operations. There is a paucity of information available to guide provision of medical support for SAR operations for aircraft disasters at sea. The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) took part in two such SAR operations in 2014 which showcased the value of a military organization in these operations. Key considerations in medical support for similar operations include the resultant casualty profile and challenges specific to the maritime environment, such as large distances of area of operations from land, variable sea states, and space limitations. Medical support planning can be approached using well-established disaster management life cycle phases of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery, which all are described in detail. This includes key areas of dedicated training and exercises, force protection, availability of air assets and chamber support, psychological care, and the forensic handling of human remains. Relevant lessons learned by RSN from the Air Asia QZ8501 search operation are also included in the description of these key areas. Teo KAC , Chong TFG , Liow MHL , Tang KC . Medical support for aircraft disaster search and recovery operations at sea: the RSN experience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(3):294-299. PMID:27018529

  9. Medical Support for Aircraft Disaster Search and Recovery Operations at Sea: the RSN Experience.

    PubMed

    Teo, Kok Ann Colin; Chong, Tse Feng Gabriel; Liow, Min Han Lincoln; Tang, Kong Choong

    2016-06-01

    The maritime environment presents a unique set of challenges to search and recovery (SAR) operations. There is a paucity of information available to guide provision of medical support for SAR operations for aircraft disasters at sea. The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) took part in two such SAR operations in 2014 which showcased the value of a military organization in these operations. Key considerations in medical support for similar operations include the resultant casualty profile and challenges specific to the maritime environment, such as large distances of area of operations from land, variable sea states, and space limitations. Medical support planning can be approached using well-established disaster management life cycle phases of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery, which all are described in detail. This includes key areas of dedicated training and exercises, force protection, availability of air assets and chamber support, psychological care, and the forensic handling of human remains. Relevant lessons learned by RSN from the Air Asia QZ8501 search operation are also included in the description of these key areas. Teo KAC , Chong TFG , Liow MHL , Tang KC . Medical support for aircraft disaster search and recovery operations at sea: the RSN experience. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(3):294-299.

  10. Downscaling of Aircraft-, Landsat-, and MODIS-based Land Surface Temperature Images with Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, W.; Gowda, P. H.; Oommen, T.; Howell, T. A.; Hernandez, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) images are required to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) at a field scale for irrigation scheduling purposes. Satellite sensors such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can offer images at several spectral bandwidths including visible, near-infrared (NIR), shortwave-infrared, and thermal-infrared (TIR). The TIR images usually have coarser spatial resolutions than those from non-thermal infrared bands. Due to this technical constraint of the satellite sensors on these platforms, image downscaling has been proposed in the field of ET remote sensing. This paper explores the potential of the Support Vector Machines (SVM) to perform downscaling of LST images derived from aircraft (4 m spatial resolution), TM (120 m), and MODIS (1000 m) using normalized difference vegetation index images derived from simultaneously acquired high resolution visible and NIR data (1 m for aircraft, 30 m for TM, and 250 m for MODIS). The SVM is a new generation machine learning algorithm that has found a wide application in the field of pattern recognition and time series analysis. The SVM would be ideally suited for downscaling problems due to its generalization ability in capturing non-linear regression relationship between the predictand and the multiple predictors. Remote sensing data acquired over the Texas High Plains during the 2008 summer growing season will be used in this study. Accuracy assessment of the downscaled 1, 30, and 250 m LST images will be made by comparing them with LST data measured with infrared thermometers at a small spatial scale, upscaled 30 m aircraft-based LST images, and upscaled 250 m TM-based LST images, respectively.

  11. Supporting statement for community study of human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Deloach, R.; Stephens, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A study plan for quantifying the relationship between human annoyance and the noise level of individual aircraft events is studied. The validity of various noise descriptors or noise metrics for quantifying aircraft noise levels are assessed.

  12. Design of an air traffic computer simulation system to support investigation of civil tiltrotor aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1992-01-01

    This research project addresses the need to provide an efficient and safe mechanism to investigate the effects and requirements of the tiltrotor aircraft's commercial operations on air transportation infrastructures, particularly air traffic control. The mechanism of choice is computer simulation. Unfortunately, the fundamental paradigms of the current air traffic control simulation models do not directly support the broad range of operational options and environments necessary to study tiltrotor operations. Modification of current air traffic simulation models to meet these requirements does not appear viable given the range and complexity of issues needing resolution. As a result, the investigation of systemic, infrastructure issues surrounding the effects of tiltrotor commercial operations requires new approaches to simulation modeling. These models should be based on perspectives and ideas closer to those associated with tiltrotor air traffic operations.

  13. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Miller, Eric J.; Hudson, Larry D.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Neufeld, David C.; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain-gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three airbags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead-weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 lb. Twenty-six load cases were applied with the aircraft resting on its landing gear, and 16 load cases were performed with the aircraft supported by the nose gear and three airbags around the center of gravity. Maximum wing tip deflection reached 17 inches. An assortment of 2, 3, 4, and 5 strain-gage load equations were derived and evaluated against independent check cases. The better load equations had root mean square errors less than 1 percent. Test techniques and lessons learned are discussed.

  14. 30 CFR 550.257 - What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What information on the support vessels... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND..., tug boats, barges, ice management vessels, other vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will...

  15. 30 CFR 550.257 - What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What information on the support vessels... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND..., tug boats, barges, ice management vessels, other vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will...

  16. 30 CFR 550.257 - What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What information on the support vessels... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND..., tug boats, barges, ice management vessels, other vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will...

  17. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William; Miller, Eric; Hudson, Larry; Holguin, Andrew; Neufeld, David; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and its results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three air bags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 pounds.

  18. The NASA-Langley Wake Vortex Modelling Effort in Support of an Operational Aircraft Spacing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    1998-01-01

    Two numerical modelling efforts, one using a large eddy simulation model and the other a numerical weather prediction model, are underway in support of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity program. The large-eddy simulation model (LES) has a meteorological framework and permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, humidity, and atmospheric turbulence. Results from the numerical simulations are being used to assist in the development of algorithms for an operational wake-vortex aircraft spacing system. A mesoscale weather forecast model is being adapted for providing operational forecast of winds, temperature, and turbulence parameters to be used in the terminal area. This paper describes the goals and modelling approach, as well as achievements obtained to date. Simulation results will be presented from the LES model for both two and three dimensions. The 2-D model is found to be generally valid for studying wake vortex transport, while the 3-D approach is necessary for realistic treatment of decay via interaction of wake vortices and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Meteorology is shown to have an important affect on vortex transport and decay. Presented are results showing that wake vortex transport is unaffected by uniform fog or rain, but wake vortex transport can be strongly affected by nonlinear vertical change in the ambient crosswind. Both simulation and observations show that atmospheric vortices decay from the outside with minimal expansion of the core. Vortex decay and the onset three-dimensional instabilities are found to be enhanced by the presence of ambient turbulence.

  19. Variable Geometry Aircraft Wing Supported by Struts And/Or Trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E. (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an aircraft having variable airframe geometry for accommodating efficient flight. The aircraft includes an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, and a brace operably connected between said oblique wing and said fuselage. The present invention also provides an aircraft having an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, a propulsion system pivotally connected with said oblique wing, and a brace operably connected between said propulsion system and said fuselage.

  20. Data development technical support document for the aircraft crash risk analysis methodology (ACRAM) standard

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Glaser, R.E.; Mensing, R.W.; Lin, T.; Haley, T.A.; Barto, A.B.; Stutzke, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    The Aircraft Crash Risk Analysis Methodology (ACRAM) Panel has been formed by the US Department of Energy Office of Defense Programs (DOE/DP) for the purpose of developing a standard methodology for determining the risk from aircraft crashes onto DOE ground facilities. In order to accomplish this goal, the ACRAM panel has been divided into four teams, the data development team, the model evaluation team, the structural analysis team, and the consequence team. Each team, consisting of at least one member of the ACRAM plus additional DOE and DOE contractor personnel, specializes in the development of the methodology assigned to that team. This report documents the work performed by the data development team and provides the technical basis for the data used by the ACRAM Standard for determining the aircraft crash frequency. This report should be used to provide the generic data needed to calculate the aircraft crash frequency into the facility under consideration as part of the process for determining the aircraft crash risk to ground facilities as given by the DOE Standard Aircraft Crash Risk Assessment Methodology (ACRAM). Some broad guidance is presented on how to obtain the needed site-specific and facility specific data but this data is not provided by this document.

  1. Using Hyperspectral Aircraft Remote Sensing to Support Ecosystems Services Research in New England Lakes and Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. J.; Milstead, B.; Walker, H.; Worthy, D.; Szykman, J.; Wusk, M.; Kagey, L.; Howell, C.; Snook, H.; Drueke, C.

    2010-12-01

    Northeastern lakes and ponds provide important ecosystem services to New England residents and visitors. These include the provisioning of abundant, clean water for consumption, agriculture, and industry as well as cultural services (recreation, aesthetics, and wilderness experiences) which enhance local economies and quality of life. Less understood, but equally important, are the roles that these lakes play in protecting all life through supportive services such as nutrient cycling. Nitrogen and phosphorus have a direct impact on the condition of fresh water lakes. Excesses of these nutrients can lead to eutrophication, toxic cyanobacteria blooms, decreased biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem function leading to a reduction in the availability and delivery of ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlated with changes in the potential to provide cultural ecosystem services. Using a NASA Cessna 206 aircraft, hyperspectral data were collected during late summer 2009 from 55 lakes in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island over a 2 day period. From the spectral data, algorithms were created which estimated concentrations of chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and colored dissolved organic matter. The remotely sensed estimates were supplemented by in situ chlorophyll a, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and lake color data from 43 lakes sampled by field crews from the New England states. The purpose of this research is to understand how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlate with changes in availability of cultural ecosystem services in the surveyed lakes. This dataset will be combined with information from the EPA National Lake Survey (2007), the EPA New England Lakes and Ponds Survey (2008) and the USGS SPARROW model to explore the association between lake condition and the provisioning of ecosystem

  2. CO2, NOx, and particle emissions from aircraft and support activities at a regional airport.

    PubMed

    Klapmeyer, Michael E; Marr, Linsey C

    2012-10-16

    The goal of this research was to quantify emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particle number, and black carbon (BC) from in-use aircraft and related activity at a regional airport. Pollutant concentrations were measured adjacent to the airfield and passenger terminal at the Roanoke Regional Airport in Virginia. Observed NO(x) emission indices (EIs) for jet-powered, commuter aircraft were generally lower than those contained in the International Civil Aviation Organization databank for both taxi (same as idle) and takeoff engine settings. NO(x) EIs ranged from 1.9 to 3.7 g (kg fuel)(-1) across five types of aircraft during taxiing, whereas EIs were consistently higher, 8.8-20.6 g (kg fuel)(-1), during takeoff. Particle number EIs ranged from 1.4 × 10(16) to 7.1 × 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) and were slightly higher in taxi mode than in takeoff mode for four of the five types of aircraft. Diurnal patterns in CO(2) and NO(x) concentrations were influenced mainly by atmospheric conditions, while patterns in particle number concentrations were attributable mainly to patterns in aircraft activity. CO(2) and NO(x) fluxes measured by eddy covariance were higher at the terminal than at the airfield and were lower than found in urban areas.

  3. 77 FR 48969 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps Basing of MV-22 and H-1 Aircraft in Support of III...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Support of III Marine Expeditionary Force Elements in Hawaii AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... Expeditionary Force elements in Hawaii. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The tiltrotor MV-22 Osprey aircraft...

  4. Modeling of the Mode S tracking system in support of aircraft safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report collects, documents, and models data relating the expected accuracies of tracking variables to be obtained from the FAA's Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar system. The data include measured range and azimuth to the tracked aircraft plus the encoded altitude transmitted via the Mode S data link. A brief summary is made of the Mode S system status and its potential applications for aircraft safety improvement including accident analysis. FAA flight test results are presented demonstrating Mode S range and azimuth accuracy and error characteristics and comparing Mode S to the current ATCRBS radar tracking system. Data are also presented that describe the expected accuracy and error characteristics of encoded altitude. These data are used to formulate mathematical error models of the Mode S variables and encoded altitude. A brief analytical assessment is made of the real-time tracking accuracy available from using Mode S and how it could be improved with down-linked velocity.

  5. A.I.-based real-time support for high performance aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) based software and hardware concepts are applied to the handling system malfunctions during flight tests. A representation of malfunction procedure logic using Boolean normal forms are presented. The representation facilitates the automation of malfunction procedures and provides easy testing for the embedded rules. It also forms a potential basis for a parallel implementation in logic hardware. The extraction of logic control rules, from dynamic simulation and their adaptive revision after partial failure are examined. It uses a simplified 2-dimensional aircraft model with a controller that adaptively extracts control rules for directional thrust that satisfies a navigational goal without exceeding pre-established position and velocity limits. Failure recovery (rule adjusting) is examined after partial actuator failure. While this experiment was performed with primitive aircraft and mission models, it illustrates an important paradigm and provided complexity extrapolations for the proposed extraction of expertise from simulation, as discussed. The use of relaxation and inexact reasoning in expert systems was also investigated.

  6. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  7. Monitoring California's forage resource using ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carneggie, D. M.; Degloria, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    NASA's Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) launched July 23, 1972, offers for the first time the unique capabilities for regional monitoring of forage plant conditions. The repetitive coverage every 18 days, the synoptic view and the real-time recovery of the imagery for immediate analysis, combine to make the ERTS satellite a valuable tool for improving the evaluation of our rangeland resources. Studies presently underway at the University of California, Berkeley (sponsored jointly by NASA and the Bureau of Land Management), seek to determine if imagery obtained from high altitude aircraft and spacecraft (ERTS) can provide: (1) a means for monitoring the growth and development of annual and perennial range plants in California, and for determining the time and the rate of initial plant growth (germination) and terminal plant growth (maturation and senescence); (2) a means for determining or predicting the relative amount of forage that is produced; and (3) a means for mapping rangeland areas having different forage producing capabilities.

  8. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California based on ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Thorley, G. A.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, V. R.; Wildman, W. E.; Huntington, G. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Results of an integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data are presented. Areas of investigation cover (1) regional agricultural surveys; (2) solving water resource management problems; (3) resource management in Northern California using ERTS-1 data; (4) analysis of river meanders; (5) assessment and monitoring change in west side of the San Joaquin Valley and central coastal zone of state; (6) assessment and monitoring of changes in Southern California environment; (7) digital handling and processing of ERTS-1 data; (8) use of ERTS-1 data in educational and applied research programs of the Agricultural Extension Service; and (9) identification, classification, and mapping of salt affected soils.

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.205 - When we use our aircraft to support other executive agencies, must we recover the operating costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When we use our aircraft to support other executive agencies, must we recover the operating costs? 102-33.205 Section 102-33.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  10. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  11. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication: A Fabrication Process that Revolutionizes Aircraft Structural Designs and Spacecraft Supportability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The technological inception and challenges, as well as current applications of the electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process are outlined. The process was motivated by the need for a new metals technology that would be cost-effective, enable the production of new alloys and that would could be used for efficient, lightweight structures. EBF3 is a rapid metal fabrication, layer-additive process that uses no molds or tools and which yields properties equivalent to wrought. The benefits of EBF3 include it near-net shape which minimizes scrap and reduces part count; efficiency in design which allows for lighter weight and enhanced performance; and, its "green" manufacturing process which yields minimal waste products. EBF3 also has a high tensile strength, while a structural test comparison found that EBF3 panels performed 5% lower than machined panels. Technical challenges in the EBF3 process include a need for process control monitoring and an improvement in localized heat response. Currently, the EBF3 process can be used to add details onto forgings and to construct and form complex shapes. However, it has potential uses in a variety of industries including aerospace, automotive, sporting goods and medical implant devices. The novel structural design capabilities of EBF3 have the ability to yield curved stiffeners which may be optimized for performance, low weight, low noise and damage tolerance applications. EBF3 has also demonstrated its usefulness in 0-gravity environments for supportability in space applications.

  12. Supporting the Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems(UAS) for Global Science Observations in Civil and Segregated Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulac, B. L.; Reider. K/

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are growing more popular within the earth science community as a way to augment measurements currently made with manned aircraft. UAS arc uniquely suited for applications that require long dwell times and/or in locations that are generally too dangerous for manned aircraft. Environmental monitoring in areas like the Arctic or obtaining data within a hurricane are just a couple of examples of many applications to which UAS are ideally suited. However, UAS are not without their challenges. Most unmanned aircraft are unable to meet current airspace regulations that are in place for manned aircraft, and specific airspace standards and regulations for unmanned aircraft do not exist. As a result, gaining access to civil airspace for flights is very difficult around the world. Under Term of Reference 48 within the ISPRS Commission 1, WGI/I: Standardization of Aircraft Interfaces, efforts have been made to understand and quantify the current state of UAS airspace access on a global scale. The results of these efforts will be presented along with examples of successful science missions that have been conducted internationally during the past year.

  13. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  14. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  15. 41 CFR 102-33.205 - When we use our aircraft to support other executive agencies, must we recover the operating costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting for the Cost of Government Aircraft § 102-33.205 When we use our... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When we use our aircraft....205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  16. Aircraft Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Captured in this scene is a series of aircraft contrails in a high traffic region over the northern Gulf of Mexico (27.0N, 85.5W). Contrails are caused by the hot engine exhaust of high flying aircraft interacting with moisture in the cold upper atmosphere and are common occurrances of high flying aircraft.

  17. Scientific Infrastructure To Support Manned And Unmanned Aircraft, Tethered Balloons, And Related Aerial Activities At Doe Arm Facilities On The North Slope Of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facilities, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. DOE has recently invested in improvements to facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska. A new ground facility, the Third ARM Mobile Facility, was installed at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons were used to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. A new Special Use Airspace was granted to DOE in 2015 to support science missions in international airspace in the Arctic. Warning Area W-220 is managed by Sandia National Laboratories for DOE Office of Science/BER. W-220 was successfully used for the first time in July 2015 in conjunction with Restricted Area R-2204 and a connecting Altitude Reservation Corridor (ALTRV) to permit unmanned aircraft to operate north of Oliktok Point. Small unmanned aircraft (DataHawks) and tethered balloons were flown at Oliktok during the summer and fall of 2015. This poster will discuss how principal investigators may apply for use of these Special Use Airspaces, acquire data from the Third ARM Mobile Facility, or bring their own instrumentation for deployment at Oliktok Point, Alaska. The printed poster will include the standard DOE funding statement.

  18. Certification of a Modified Research Public Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsyth, T. J.; Reynolds, R. S.; Mountz, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has several aircraft that have been modified to conduct aeronautical and scientific research. NASA's purpose is to provide research to improve safety of flight and support scientific research for Mission to Planet Earth. Our research and platform aircraft have been modified to fit the needs of the scientific and research programs. Because NASA's aircraft have been modified and operated as public aircraft, certification of airworthiness on many are not current. Some of our aircraft are military aircraft and were never certificated. This paper discusses the process of bringing a modified B200 King Air aircraft certification current to meet Federal Aviation Regulations.

  19. Evaluation of isoprene oxidation schemes in TM5 with aircraft observations over tropical forests: support for experimental isomerization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luijten-van Geel, Marly; Boersma, Folkert; Williams, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Emissions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) significantly affect the composition of the troposphere. Isoprene is considered to be the most important BVOC leading to ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation, which influence air quality, human health, and climate. Isoprene emissions are typically dominant in remote highly vegetated regions, where ground-based monitoring networks are often sparse. Our understanding of isoprene emissions is limited, and global annual isoprene emissions vary between 200TgC and 750TgC. A major oxidation product is formaldehyde (HCHO), which can be retrieved using satellites such as OMI, allowing top-down constraints on the global emission totals and the magnitude of regional seasonal cycles. The quality of the emission estimates critically depends on the isoprene oxidation scheme that is employed. In this study we implement recently proposed isoprene oxidation mechanisms, the Epoxide Formation Mechanism (EFM) and the Leuven Isoprene Mechanism (LIM) as well as the updates proposed by Crounse et al. [2011], Silva et al. [2010] (LIM-CS) and Fuchs et al. [2013] (LIM-J) into the global 3-D chemistry transport model TM5 over South America and West Africa. Independent validation of the performance of each oxidation scheme in TM5 is made against aircraft observations from two campaigns conducted over tropical forests (GABRIEL and AMMA). To our knowledge, this is the first time that the Fuchs-updates to the LIM-scheme have been implemented and tested in a global CTM. Our findings show that, compared to the theoretical LIM and EFM schemes, the adjustments by Fuchs et al. [2013] result in a better agreement with the aircraft measurements of OH, HCHO and isoprene, and improve the model performance. We compare the effective yield of HCHO from isoprene oxidation using the different oxidation schemes, and find that there is a variability of up to 40% depending on which oxidation scheme is applied, with important consequences for top

  20. A timer inventory based upon manual and automated analysis of ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data using multistage probability sampling. [Plumas National Forest, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M.; Jaakkola, S.

    1974-01-01

    A quasi-operational study demonstrating that a timber inventory based on manual and automated analysis of ERTS-1, supporting aircraft data and ground data was made using multistage sampling techniques. The inventory proved to be a timely, cost effective alternative to conventional timber inventory techniques. The timber volume on the Quincy Ranger District of the Plumas National Forest was estimated to be 2.44 billion board feet with a sampling error of 8.2 percent. Costs per acre for the inventory procedure at 1.1 cent/acre compared favorably with the costs of a conventional inventory at 25 cents/acre. A point-by-point comparison of CALSCAN-classified ERTS data with human-interpreted low altitude photo plots indicated no significant differences in the overall classification accuracies.

  1. Tracking air-dropped drogues and dyes from aircraft in support of ERTS-1 circulation studies. [Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Wang, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. For two years ERTS-1 has been employed to investigate current circulation patterns in Delaware Bay under different tidal, flow, and wind conditions. Since sufficient numbers of current meters and boats are not available, air-droppable drogues and dye packs have been developed and tested. The drogues consist of a styrofoam float and a line to which is attached a stainless steel biplane. The length of the line determines at what depth currents will be monitored. The floats are color coded to distinguish their movement and mark the depth of the biplanes. Simultaneously floating and anchored dye packs of fluorescein dye have been deployed from aircraft. The movement of the dye and drogues is tracked by sequential aerial photography, using fixed markers on shore or on buoys as reference points to calibrate the scale and direction of drogue movement. The current data obtained by this technique is then used to annotate current circulation maps derived from ERTS-1 imagery.

  2. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  3. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  4. The Ultra Light Aircraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for grant NAG1-345 is presented. Recently, the bulk of the work that the grant has supported has been in the areas of ride quality and the structural analysis and testing of ultralight aircraft. The ride quality work ended in May 1989. Hence, the papers presented in this final report are concerned with ultralight aircraft.

  5. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  6. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  7. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  8. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  9. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  10. NASA's aircraft icing analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA ongoing efforts to develop an aircraft icing analysis capability is presented. Discussions are included of the overall and long term objectives of the program as well as current capabilities and limitations of the various computer codes being developed. Descriptions are given of codes being developed to analyze two- and three-dimensional trajectories of water droplets, airfoil ice accretion, aerodynamic performance degradation of components and complete aircraft configurations, electrothermal deicer, fluid freezing point depressant antideicer and electro-impulse deicer. The need for bench mark and verification data to support the code development is also discussed, and selected results of experimental programs are presented.

  11. NASA's Aircraft Icing Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA ongoing efforts to develop an aircraft icing analysis capability is presented. Discussions are included of the overall and long term objectives of the program as well as current capabilities and limitations of the various computer codes being developed. Descriptions are given of codes being developed to analyze two and three dimensional trajectories of water droplets, airfoil ice accretion, aerodynamic performance degradation of components and complete aircraft configurations, electrothermal deicer, fluid freezing point depressant antideicer and electro-impulse deicer. The need for bench mark and verification data to support the code development is also discussed, and selected results of experimental programs are presented.

  12. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  13. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  14. Advanced Aircraft Structures program: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juergen; Schroeder, H. W.; Dittrich, Kay W.; Bauer, E. J.; Zippold, H.

    1999-07-01

    Requirements of future military aircraft structures are constantly increasing with advancing technological progress. While performance is still the main focus, costs have become a major issue in military aircraft procurement.In order to efficiently support its technological base oriented on the future demands of the market Daimler Chrysler Aerospace/Military Aircraft Division has inaugurated the Advanced Aircraft Structures Program, a collaborative research effort together with the German Aerospace Center and Daimler Chrysler Research and Technology, the corporate research division of Daimler Benz. The two key technologies to be pursued within the framework of this program are cost- effective composite structures and smart materials. This paper will give an overview of the Advanced Aircraft Structures Program with particular emphasis on smart structures technology as applied to active vibration damping, vibration isolation of equipment and composite health monitoring.

  15. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  16. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  17. Environmental protection agency aircraft emissions standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittredge, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from aircraft were investigated in order to determine: (1) the extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States; and (2) the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions. The basic information supporting the need for aircraft emissions standards is summarized. The EPA ambient air quality standards are presented. Only the primary (health related) standards are shown. Of the six pollutants, only the first three, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides, are influenced significantly by aircraft.

  18. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  19. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  20. Trends in aircraft noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Conrad, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Flight vehicles are characterized according to their manner of operation and type of propulsion system; and their associated sources of noise are identified. Available noise reduction technology as it relates to engine cycle design and to powerplant component design is summarized. Such components as exhaust jets, fans, propellers, rotors, blown flaps, and reciprocating-engine exhausts are discussed, along with their noise reduction potentials. Significant aircraft noise reductions are noted to have been accomplished by the application of available technology in support of noise certification rules. Further noise reductions to meet more stringent future noise regulations will require substantial additional technology developments. Improved analytical prediction methods, and well-controlled validation experiments supported by advanced-design aeroacoustic facilities, are required as a basis for an effective integrated systems approach to aircraft noise control.

  1. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

  2. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1975-01-01

    A brief exploratory flight program was conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate the vortex wake hazard of a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The study was made by flying an instrumented Cessna 210 aircraft into the wake of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft at separation distances from 1 to 4 n.mi. Characteristics of the wake were evaluated in terms of the magnitude of the upset of the probing aircraft. Results indicated that within 1 n.mi. separation the wake could cause rolling moments in excess of roll control power and yawing moments equivalent to rudder control power of the probe aircraft. Subjective evaluations by the pilots of the Cessna 210 aircraft, supported by response measurements, indicated that the upset caused by the wake of the STOL aircraft was comparable to that of a DC-9 in the landing configuration.

  3. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  4. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  5. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  6. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  7. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  8. Very Light Aircraft: Revitalization through Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zyskowski, Michael K.

    1995-01-01

    As the future of the general aviation industry seems to be improving, a cultural paradigm shift may be imminent with the implementation of an advanced, revolutionary transportation system within the United States. By observing the support of government and industry for this idea, near and long term effects must be addressed if this change is going to occur. The high certification costs associated with general aviation aircraft must be reduced without compromising safety if a new transportation system is to be developed in the future. With the advent of new, streamlined rules recently issued for the certification of small aircraft, it seems as though new opportunities are now available to the general aviation industry. Not only will immediate benefits be realized with increased sales of certified small aircraft, but there would now be a way of introducing the advanced concepts of future aircraft at varying degrees of technology and cost as options to the customer.

  9. Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

  10. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  11. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  12. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  13. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  14. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  15. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  16. Improving transient analysis technology for aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R. J.; Chargin, Mladen

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft dynamic analyses are demanding of computer simulation capabilities. The modeling complexities of semi-monocoque construction, irregular geometry, high-performance materials, and high-accuracy analysis are present. At issue are the safety of the passengers and the integrity of the structure for a wide variety of flight-operating and emergency conditions. The technology which supports engineering of aircraft structures using computer simulation is examined. Available computer support is briefly described and improvement of accuracy and efficiency are recommended. Improved accuracy of simulation will lead to a more economical structure. Improved efficiency will result in lowering development time and expense.

  17. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  18. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  19. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  20. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  1. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  2. Functional characterization of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus gp16 (ac130)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ming; Huang, Cui; Qian, Duo-Duo; Li, Lu-Lin

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the function of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) gp16, multiple gp16-knockout and repair mutants were constructed and characterized. No obvious difference in productivity of budded virus, DNA synthesis, late gene expression and morphogenesis was observed between gp16-knockout and repair viruses, but gp16 deletion resulted in six hours of lengthening in ST{sub 50} to the third instar Spodoptera exigua larvae in bioassays. GP16 was fractionated mainly in the light membrane fraction, by subcellular fractionation. A GP16-EGFP fusion protein was predominantly localized close around the nuclear membrane in infected cells, being coincident with formation of the vesicles associated with the nuclear membrane, which hosted nucleocapsids released from the nucleus. These data suggest that gp16 is not required for viral replication, but may be involved in membrane trafficking associated with the envelopment/de-envelopment of budded viruses when they cross over the nuclear membrane and pass through cytoplasm. - Highlights: • gp16 knockout and repair mutants of AcMNPV were constructed and characterized. • AcMNPV gp16 is not essential to virus replication. • Deletion of gp16 resulted in time lengthening to kill S. exigua larvae. • GP16 was localized close around the nuclear membrane of infected cells. • GP16 was fractionated in the light membrane fraction in subcellular fractionation.

  3. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-05-20

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  4. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  5. Eclipse program C-141A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. The project used a QF-106 interceptor aircraft to simulate a future orbiter, which would be towed to a high altitude and released to fire its own engines and carry a payload into space. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  6. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  7. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  8. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  9. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  10. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  11. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  12. Aircraft empennage structural detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    This project involved the detailed design of the aft fuselage and empennage structure, vertical stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator for the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate the integration of the control systems devices used in the tail surfaces and their necessary structural supports as well as the elevator trim, navigational lighting system, electrical systems, tail-located ground tie, and fuselage/cabin interface structure. Accommodations for maintenance, lubrication, adjustment, and repairability were devised. Weight, fabrication, and (sub)assembly goals were addressed. All designs were in accordance with the FAR Part 23 stipulations for a normal category aircraft.

  13. Antecedents and analogues - Experimental aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the development of experimental aircraft from 1953 to the present. Consideration is given to the X-series experimental aircraft, to X-15 (the first aerospace plane), to the transition of experimental aircraft to high-speed flight, to XB-70 research, to lifting body research aircraft, and to current high-speed flight research.

  14. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  15. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  16. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  17. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  18. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  19. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  20. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  1. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  2. Experimental methodologies to support aircraft icing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Kirby, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental methodologies are illustrated by graphs, charts and line drawings. Typical ultrasonic echo signals for dry and wet ice growth, ice accretion rates for various tunnel configurations, the experimental configuration for flight tests of the ultrasonic measuring system and heat balance models used to predict ice growth are among the topics that are illustrated and briefly discussed.

  3. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  4. An aircraft Earth station for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matyas, R.; Boughton, J.; Lyons, R.; Spenler, S.; Rigley, J.

    1990-01-01

    While the focus has been international commercial air traffic, an opportunity exists to provide satellite communications to smaller aircraft. For these users equipment cost and weight critically impact the decision to install satellite communications equipment. Less apparent to the operator is the need for a system infrastructure that will be supported both regionally and internationally and that is compatible with the ground segment being installed for commercial aeronautical satellite communications. A system concept is described as well as a low cost terminal that are intended to satisfy the small aircraft market.

  5. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    aircraft to safe flight. Today, all aircraft must have a flutter boundary 15 percent beyond the aircraft s expected maximum speed to ensure that flutter conditions are not encountered in flight. NASA continues to support research in new aircraft designs to improve knowledge of aeroelasticity and flutter. Through platforms such as Dryden Flight Research Center s Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research aircraft, the Agency researches methods for in-flight validation of predictions and for controlling and taking advantage of aeroelastic conditions to enhance aircraft performance.

  6. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  7. A path model of aircraft noise annoyance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. M.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a path model of aircraft noise annoyance by using noise and social survey data collected in the vicinity of Toronto International Airport. Path analysis is used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of seventeen independent variables on individual annoyance. The results show that the strongest direct effects are for speech interference, attitudes toward aircraft operations, sleep interruption and personal sensitivity to noise. The strongest indirect effects are for aircraft Leq(24) and sensitivity. Overall the model explains 41 percent of the variation in the annoyance reported by the 673 survey respondents. The findings both support and extend existing statements in the literature on the antecedents of annoyance.

  8. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.

    1989-01-01

    The design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long haul, high capacity cargo mission are described. This span-loading aircraft, or flying wing, is capable of carrying extremely large payloads and is expected to be in demand to replace the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use. The spanloader seeks to reduce empty weight by eliminating the aircraft fuselage. Disadvantages are the thickness of the cargo-containing wing, and resulting stability and control problems. The spanloader presented here has a small fuselage, low-aspect ratio wings, winglets, and uses six turbofan engines for propulsion. It will have a payload capacity of 300,000 pounds plus 30 first class passengers and 6 crew members. Its projected market is transportation of freight from Europe and the U.S.A. to countries in the Pacific Basin. Cost estimates support its economic feasibility.

  9. View of QF-106 aircraft cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of the cockpit and instrument panel of the QF-106 airplane used in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  10. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  11. Eclipse program C-141A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wind loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  13. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  14. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  15. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  16. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  17. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  18. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  19. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  20. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  1. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  2. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  3. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's solar cell arrays are prominently displayed as it touches down on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following a test flight. The solar arrays covered more than 75 percent of Pathfinder's upper wing surface, and provided electricity to power its six electric motors, flight controls, communications links and a host of scientific sensors. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  4. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  5. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft heads for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  6. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  7. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  8. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  9. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  10. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  11. Solar powered aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.H.

    1983-11-15

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  12. Solar powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the Sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  13. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  14. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  15. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  16. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  17. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  18. Commercial aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerz, Thomas; Holzäpfel, Frank; Darracq, Denis

    2002-04-01

    This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of wake ages, the characterization of wake vortices, and the proper evaluation of wake data from measurement and simulation, are addressed in the first part. In the second part an inventory of our knowledge is given on vortex characterization and control, prediction and monitoring of vortex decay, vortex detection and warning, vortex encounter models, and wake-vortex safety assessment. Each section is concluded by a list of questions and required actions which may help to guide further research activities. The primary objective of the joint international efforts in wake-vortex research is to avoid potentially hazardous wake encounters for aircraft. Shortened aircraft separations under appropriate meteorological conditions, whilst keeping or even increasing the safety level, is the ultimate goal. Reduced time delays on the tactical side and increased airport capacities on the strategic side will be the benefits of these ambitious ventures for the air transportation industry and services.

  19. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  20. Aircraft to Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video discusses how the technology of computer modeling can improve the design and durability of artificial joints for human joint replacement surgery. Also, ultrasound, originally used to detect structural flaws in aircraft, can also be used to quickly assess the severity of a burn patient's injuries, thus aiding the healing process.

  1. Aircraft mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauge, D. S.; Rosendaal, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Aircraft missions, from low to hypersonic speeds, are analyzed rapidly using the FORTRAN IV program NSEG. Program employs approximate equations of motion that vary in form with type of flight segment. Takeoffs, accelerations, climbs, cruises, descents, decelerations, and landings are considered.

  2. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  3. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  4. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  5. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  6. The role of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in aircraft design

    SciTech Connect

    Tinoco, E.N. )

    1990-01-01

    The application of CFD to aircraft design configurations and its influence on the aircraft development and support process is analyzed. Results indicate that combining CFD and the wind tunnel can achieve design solutions that otherwise would not be found, and can also significantly reduce the length of the design cycle. It is concluded that CFD provides for a better understanding of flow physics, achievement of design solutions that are otherwise unobtainable, and reduction of development flowtime.

  7. Gottingen Wind Tunnel for Testing Aircraft Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1920-01-01

    Given here is a brief description of the Gottingen Wind Tunnel for the testing of aircraft models, preceded by a history of its development. Included are a number of diagrams illustrating, among other things, a sectional elevation of the wind tunnel, the pressure regulator, the entrance cone and method of supporting a model for simple drag tests, a three-component balance, and a propeller testing device, all of which are discussed in the text.

  8. Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Brian Douglas

    Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component

  9. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  10. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  11. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  12. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  13. Project report: Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Baughcum, S.; Metwally, M.; Seals, R.

    1994-04-01

    Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

  14. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  15. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  16. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation, and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental techniques of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure, and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Areas requiring further research are discussed, and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installation is addressed.

  17. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-03-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  18. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  19. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  20. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  1. Certification of an agricultural spray aircraft on ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    A Piper Pawnee, one of the most common agricultural spray aircraft, is currently undergoing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification to allow the use of denatured ethanol as its fuel. This certification is part of a broader effort to introduce ethanol as a replacement for aviation gasoline. Various reasons brought about the choice of an agricultural spray aircraft to be certified on ethanol. One is the minimization of initial fuel distribution problems. Agricultural aviation often requires only single fuel storage since most of the flying is local. Additionally, corn-produced ethanol is the natural fuel of choice for farming operations. The increased power developed on ethanol compared to aviation gasoline (avgas) is very important when operating heavily loaded spray aircraft at very low altitudes. The power-plant, a Lycoming IO-540, is already certified. The aircraft is currently flying on ethanol in order to satisfy the airframe requirements. The effort is being supported by a consortium of organizations of corn-producing states. Upon completion of certification, the aircraft will be demonstrated around the mid-western states. Certification will allow the use of the aircraft in the commercial arena. Many mid-western agricultural spray operations and ag-pilots have already expressed interest in converting their aircraft to ethanol fuel.

  2. Method of vibration isolating an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Stanley I. (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor); Dawes, Peter W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method for coupling an engine to a support frame for mounting to a fuselage of an aircraft using a three point vibration isolating mounting system in which the load reactive forces at each mounting point are statically and dynamically determined. A first vibration isolating mount pivotably couples a first end of an elongated support beam to a stator portion of an engine with the pivoting action of the vibration mount being oriented such that it is pivotable about a line parallel to a center line of the engine. An aft end of the supporting frame is coupled to the engine through an additional pair of vibration isolating mounts with the mounts being oriented such that they are pivotable about a circumference of the engine. The aft mounts are symmetrically spaced to each side of the supporting frame by 45 degrees. The relative orientation between the front mount and the pair of rear mounts is such that only the rear mounts provide load reactive forces parallel to the engine center line, in support of the engine to the aircraft against thrust forces. The forward mount is oriented so as to provide only radial forces to the engine and some lifting forces to maintain the engine in position adjacent a fuselage. Since each mount is connected to provide specific forces to support the engine, forces required of each mount are statically and dynamically determinable.

  3. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  4. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  5. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  6. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  7. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  8. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  9. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  10. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  11. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  12. Inflight Rotor Stability Monitor. [for Sikorsky aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczynski, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    An inflight rotor stability monitor developed at Sikorsky Aircraft to support stability testing of new rotorcraft is described. The monitor has as its core a damping estimation algorithm which embodies spectral analysis techniques. The interactive system is activated and controlled from a cathode ray tube (CRT) and operates on-line in a flight test telemetry environment. Accurate estimates of the level of damping of critical system modes are generated within one minute of the completion of a prescribed test maneuver. The stability monitor was used successfully to support various Sikorsky research and development flight programs including the UTTAS, CH-53E, S-67 Fan-in-Fin, and ABC.

  13. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  14. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  15. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  16. NASA's Zero-g aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Zero-g aircraft, operated by the Johnson Space Center, provides the unique weightless or zero-g environment of space flight for hardware development and test and astronaut training purposes. The program, which began in 1959, uses a slightly modified Boeing KC-135A aircraft, flying a parabolic trajectory, to produce weightless periods of 20 to 25 seconds. The program has supported the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz and Shuttle programs as well as a number of unmanned space operations. Typical experiments for flight in the aircraft have included materials processing experiments, welding, fluid manipulation, cryogenics, propellant tankage, satellite deployment dynamics, planetary sciences research, crew training with weightless indoctrination, space suits, tethers, etc., and medical studies including vestibular research. The facility is available to microgravity research organizations on a cost-reimbursable basis, providing a large, hands-on test area for diagnostic and support equipment for the Principal Investigators and providing an iterative-type design approach to microgravity experiment development. The facility allows concepts to be proven and baseline experimentation to be accomplished relatively inexpensively prior to committing to the large expense of a space flight.

  17. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  18. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  19. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The {open_quotes}building in{close_quotes} of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  1. Consistent approach to describing aircraft HIRF protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rimbey, P. R.; Walen, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    The high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) certification process as currently implemented is comprised of an inconsistent combination of factors that tend to emphasize worst case scenarios in assessing commercial airplane certification requirements. By examining these factors which include the process definition, the external HIRF environment, the aircraft coupling and corresponding internal fields, and methods of measuring equipment susceptibilities, activities leading to an approach to appraising airplane vulnerability to HIRF are proposed. This approach utilizes technically based criteria to evaluate the nature of the threat, including the probability of encountering the external HIRF environment. No single test or analytic method comprehensively addresses the full HIRF threat frequency spectrum. Additional tools such as statistical methods must be adopted to arrive at more realistic requirements to reflect commercial aircraft vulnerability to the HIRF threat. Test and analytic data are provided to support the conclusions of this report. This work was performed under NASA contract NAS1-19360, Task 52.

  2. Psychiatric diagnoses aboard an aircraft carrier.

    PubMed

    Bohnker, B; McEwen, G; Blanco, J; Feeks, E

    1992-11-01

    A descriptive study was conducted for 150 consecutive patients with a psychiatric diagnosis evaluated over 11 months by the medical staff onboard an aircraft carrier. Patients with sole diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Axis II diagnoses, or personality disorders, were more common (N = 120) than Axis I diagnoses (N = 46). The most common Axis I diagnoses were adjustment disorder and major depression. Axis II diagnoses were significantly more likely (OR = 7.33, 95% CI 4.45-12.16, p = 0.000) in sailors less than 23 years of age compared to ship's population. Suicide behavior was demonstrated in 68% (102/150) of the patient population. This study emphasized the requirement for extensive psychiatric training for the clinical aerospace medicine specialists providing operational support to aircraft carrier crews.

  3. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  4. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  5. Aircraft identification experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Important aspects of estimating the unknown coefficients of the aircraft equations of motion from dynamic flight data are presented. The primary topic is the application of the maximum likelihood estimation technique. Basic considerations that must be addressed in the estimation of stability and control derivatives from conventional flight maneuvers are discussed. Some complex areas of estimation (such as estimation in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, estimation of acceleration derivatives, and analysis of maneuvers where both kinematic and aerodynamic coupling are present) are also discussed.

  6. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  7. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  8. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  9. Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    not at increased risk of total cancer (SMR 0.93) or of lung cancer (SMR 1.02). Workers routinely exposed to TCE, PCE, or a mixture of solvents also were not at increased risk of total cancer (SMRs 0.86, 1.07, and 0.89, respectively), and the numbers of deaths for specific cancer sites were close to expected values. Slight to moderately increased rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were found among workers exposed to TCE or PCE, but none was significant. A significant increase in testicular cancer was found among those with exposure to mixed solvents, but the excess was based on only six deaths and could not be linked to any particular solvent or job activity. Internal cohort analyses showed no significant trends of increased risk for any cancer with increasing years of exposure to chromate or solvents. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this large scale cohort study of workers followed up for over 3 decades provide no clear evidence that occupational exposures at the aircraft manufacturing factory resulted in increases in the risk of death from cancer or other diseases. Our findings support previous studies of aircraft workers in which cancer risks were generally at or below expected levels.   PMID:10615290

  10. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight over Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership flies over the main building at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and has also been both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of

  11. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight, view from tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane from a KC-135 tanker aircraft. The Eclipse aircraft was not refueling but simply flying below and behind the tanker for purposes of shooting the photograph from the air. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  12. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  13. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  14. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  15. Dumbo heavy lifter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riester, Peter; Ellis, Colleen; Wagner, Michael; Orren, Scott; Smith, Byron; Skelly, Michael; Zgraggen, Craig; Webber, Matt

    1992-01-01

    The world is rapidly changing from one with two military superpowers, with which most countries were aligned, to one with many smaller military powers. In this environment, the United States cannot depend on the availability of operating bases from which to respond to crises requiring military intervention. Several studies (e.g. the SAB Global Reach, Global Power Study) have indicated an increased need to be able to rapidly transport large numbers of troops and equipment from the continental United States to potential trouble spots throughout the world. To this end, a request for proposals (RFP) for the concept design of a large aircraft capable of 'projecting' a significant military force without reliance on surface transportation was developed. These design requirements are: minimum payload of 400,000 pounds at 2.5 g maneuver load factor; minimum unfueled range of 6,000 nautical miles; and aircraft must operate from existing domestic air bases and use existing airbases or sites of opportunity at the destination.

  16. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  17. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  18. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  19. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  20. Structural modeling of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Lackey, J. I.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the feasibility of determining the mechanical properties of aircraft tires from small-scale model tires was accomplished. The theoretical results indicate that the macroscopic static and dynamic mechanical properties of aircraft tires can be accurately determined from the scale model tires although the microscopic and thermal properties of aircraft tires can not. The experimental investigation was conducted on a scale model of a 40 x 12, 14 ply rated, type 7 aircraft tire with a scaling factor of 8.65. The experimental results indicate that the scale model tire exhibited the same static mechanical properties as the prototype tire when compared on a dimensionless basis. The structural modeling concept discussed in this report is believed to be exact for mechanical properties of aircraft tires under static, rolling, and transient conditions.

  1. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable workhorse, the B-52 mothership, rolls out on the Edwards AFB runway after a test flight in 1996. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  2. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Dryden Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership sits on the ramp in front of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  3. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to cruise at altitudes from 59,000 to more than 65,000 feet for up to 18 hours. It was designed and built by Burt Rutan, president of Scaled Composites, Inc., to carry an 18-foot diameter telecommunications antenna system for relay of broadband data over major cities. The design allows for Proteus to be reconfigured at will for a variety of other missions such as atmospheric research, reconnaissance, commercial imaging, and launch of small space satellites. It is designed for extreme reliability and low operating costs, and to operate out of general aviation airports with minimal support. The aircraft consists of an all composite airframe with graphite-epoxy sandwich construction. It has a wingspan of 77 feet 7 inches, expandable to 92 feet with removable wingtips installed. It is 56.3 feet long and 17.6 feet high and weighs 5,900 pounds, empty. Proteus is powered by two Williams-Rolls FJ44-2 turbofan engines developing 2,300 pounds of thrust each.

  4. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  5. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The overall wing study objectives are to study and plan the effort by commercial transport aircraft manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current conventional materials and practices to extensive use of advanced composites in wings of aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Specific wing study objectives are to define the technology and data needed to support an aircraft manufacturer's commitment to utilize composites primary wing structure in future production aircraft and to develop plans for a composite wing technology program which will provide the needed technology and data.

  6. 76 FR 27374 - Determination To Transfer Title of Selected Aircraft to the Government of Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Determination To Transfer Title of Selected Aircraft to the Government of Mexico Pursuant to section 484(a)(2)(A... that the United States retain title to aircraft made available to foreign countries primarily for..., because it is in the United States' national interest to transfer title. This Determination, supported...

  7. Aircraft radar antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrank, Helmut E.

    1987-04-01

    Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance antennas is illustrated by the AN/APY-1 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) slotted waveguide array, which achieved a significant breakthrough in sidelobe suppression. Gimballed flat plate arrays in nose radomes are typified by the AN/APG-66 (F-16) antenna. Multifunction phased arrays are presented by the Electronically Agile Radar (EAR) antenna, which has achieved significant advances in performance versatility and reliability. Trends toward active aperture, adaptive, and digital beamforming arrays are briefly discussed. Antennas for future aircraft radar systems must provide multiple functions in less aperture space, and must perform more reliably.

  8. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  9. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  10. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  11. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  12. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  13. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  14. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  15. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  16. Eclipse program F-106 aircraft in flight, front view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shot of the QF-106 aircraft in flight with the landing gear deployed. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  17. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  18. Experimental flight test vibration measurements and nondestructive inspection on a USCG HC-130H aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Jones, C.R.; Mihelic, J.E.; Barnes, J.D.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents results of experimental flight test vibration measurements and structural inspections performed by the Federal Aviation Administration`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Laboratories and the US Coast Guard Aircraft Repair and Supply Center (ARSC). Structural and aerodynamic changes induced by mounting a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system on a USCG HC-130H aircraft are described. The FLIR adversely affected the air flow characteristics and structural vibration on the external skin of the aircraft`s right main wheel well fairing. Upon initial discovery of skin cracking and visual observation of skin vibration in flight by the FLIR, a baseline flight without the FLIR was conducted and compared to other measurements with the FLIR installed. Nondestructive inspection procedures were developed to detect cracks in the skin and supporting structural elements and document the initial structural condition of the aircraft. Inspection results and flight test vibration data revealed that the FLIR created higher than expected flight loading and was the possible source of the skin cracking. The Coast Guard performed significant structural repair and enhancement on this aircraft, and additional in-flight vibration measurements were collected on the strengthened area both with and without the FLIR installed. After three months of further operational FLIR usage, the new aircraft skin with the enhanced structural modification was reinspected and found to be free of flaws. Additional US Coast Guard HC-130H aircraft are now being similarly modified to accommodate this FLIR system. Measurements of in-flight vibration levels with and without the FLIR installed, and both before and after the structural enhancement and repair were conducted on the skin and supporting structure in the aircraft`s right main wheel fairing. Inspection results and techniques developed to verify the aircraft`s structural integrity are discussed.

  19. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  20. Materials Aspects of Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    The turboelectric distributed propulsion approach for aircraft makes a contribution to all four "corners" of NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing trade space, reducing fuel burn, noise, emissions and field length. To achieve the system performance required for the turboelectric approach, a number of advances in materials and structures must occur. These range from improved superconducting composites to structural composites for support windings in superconducting motors at cryogenic temperatures. The rationale for turboelectric distributed propulsion and the materials research and development opportunities that it may offer are outlined.

  1. Progress in aircraft design since 1903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant developments in aviation history are documented to show the advancements in aircraft design which have taken place since 1903. Each aircraft is identified according to the manufacturer, powerplant, dimensions, normal weight, and typical performance. A narrative summary of the major accomplishments of the aircraft is provided. Photographs of each aircraft are included.

  2. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  3. V/STOL aircraft and fluid dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, L.; Anderson, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of military applications on rotorcraft and V/STOL aircraft design with respect to fixed wing aircraft is discussed. The influence of the mission needs on the configurational design of V/STOL aircraft, the implications regarding some problems in fluid dynamics relating to propulsive flows, and their interaction with the aircraft and the ground plane, are summarized.

  4. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  5. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  6. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  7. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  8. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  9. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  10. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  11. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  12. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations... Articles § 121.3 Aircraft. (a) In USML Category VIII, except as described in paragraph (b) below, “aircraft” means aircraft that: (1) Are U.S.-origin aircraft that bear an original military designation of A, B,...

  13. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  14. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  15. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  16. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  17. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  18. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  19. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  20. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  1. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  2. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  3. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  4. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  5. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  6. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  7. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  8. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  9. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  10. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  11. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  12. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  13. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  14. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  15. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  16. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  17. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  18. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine. This AD...; phone: +43 7246 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You...

  19. Turboprop Cargo Aircraft Systems study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, F. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of advanced propellers (propfan) on aircraft direct operating costs, fuel consumption, and noiseprints were determined. A comparison of three aircraft selected from the results with competitive turbofan aircraft shows that advanced turboprop aircraft offer these potential benefits, relative to advanced turbofan aircraft: 21 percent fuel saving, 26 percent higher fuel efficiency, 15 percent lower DOCs, and 25 percent shorter field lengths. Fuel consumption for the turboprop is nearly 40 percent less than for current commercial turbofan aircraft. Aircraft with both types of propulsion satisfy current federal noise regulations. Advanced turboprop aircraft have smaller noiseprints at 90 EPNdB than advanced turbofan aircraft, but large noiseprints at 70 and 80 EPNdB levels, which are usually suggested as quietness goals. Accelerated development of advanced turboprops is strongly recommended to permit early attainment of the potential fuel saving. Several areas of work are identified which may produce quieter turboprop aircraft.

  20. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  1. Propulsion integration for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The transonic aerodynamic characteristics for high-performance aircraft are significantly affected by shock-induced flow interactions as well as other local flow interference effects which usually occur at transonic speeds. These adverse interactions can not only cause high drag, but can cause unusual aerodynamic loadings and/or severe stability and control problems. Many new programs are underway to develop methods for reducing the adverse effects, as well as to develop an understanding of the basic flow conditions which are the primary contributors. It is anticipated that these new programs will result in technologies which can reduce the aircraft cruise drag through improved integration as well as increased aircraft maneuverability throughh the application of thrust vectoring. This paper will identify some of the primary propulsion integration problems for high performance aircraft at transonic speeds, and demonstrate several methods for reducing or eliminating the undesirable characteristics, while enhancing configuration effectiveness.

  2. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  3. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  4. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  5. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  6. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  7. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  8. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  9. Cap protects aircraft nose cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. F., Jr.; Bryan, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Inexpensive, easily fabricated cap protects aircraft nose cone from erosion. Made of molded polycarbonate, cap has been flight tested at both subsonic and supesonic speeds. Its strength and erosion characteristics are superior to those of fiberglass cones.

  10. Lean burn combustor technology at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, Willard J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes progress to date at GE Aircraft Engines in demonstration of a lean combustion system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). These efforts were supported primarily by NASA contracts, with the exception of initial size and weight estimates and development of advanced diagnostics which were conducted under GE Independent Research and Development projects. Key accomplishments to date are summarized below.

  11. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  12. Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

  13. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  14. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  15. The disposal of military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    The end of the war saw every belligerent with vast stocks of aircraft and aircraft supplies in all stages of usefulness, much of the material being absolutely new. The question of the best method of getting rid of this accumulation is one which has been agitating those responsible for its disposal for more than three years now, but no wholly satisfactory solution has yet been reached.

  16. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  17. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  18. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  19. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  20. High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, Renee Anna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ ft, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer. The aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. The first is a polar mission that ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n.m. at 100,000 ft with a 2500-lb payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude and an increased payload. For the third mission, the aircraft will take off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 ft, and land in Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to make an excursion to 120,000 ft. All four missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained because of constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the requirements. The performance of each is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the mission requirements.

  1. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  2. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Technician D.A. Dereng examines power plug in 1/10-scale model of Northrop Snark missile with Deacon booster at Wallops, November 1950. Joseph Shortal described the missile as follows: 'The Snark was to be the Nation's first intercontinental strategic missile and it was to serve as an interim weapon while ballistic missiles were under development. The Snark first attained its design range of 5,000 miles on October 31, 1957, and became operational in April 1959.' The NACA research program based on Northrup's 'need for rocket-model tests of the Snark....' 'Although the Snark was essentially a subsonic missile, one flight plan called for the missile to attain transonic speeds in a final dive on its target from high altitude. The Air Force requested a free-flight program by the rocket-model technique on March 23, 1950 and the NACA issued RA 1564 on April 17, 1950, to cover the investigation.' 'The purpose of the investigation was 'to determine the drag, roll, and pitch characteristics at transonic and low supersonic velocities.' From four to six 1/12-scale models, to be built by Northrop Aircraft Inc., were authorized. Actually the models were 1/10-scale and eight models were tested....' 'The first model was launched on November 15, 1950 and the last on June 4, 1954. All flights were successful and were reported.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

  3. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Technician William Ferguson adjusts coupling on typical NACA D4 automatic control research missile with double Deacon booster, August 18, 1950. Joseph Shortal noted that a new research authorization (RA 1525) was issued on September 29, 1948 'to study various automatic stabilization systems for pilotless aircraft.' Earlier research had revealed aerodynamic control problems at speeds beyond Mach 1. The first two development missiles in this research program were launched in April 1949; the first stabilized missile on May 24, 1949. That flight was successful and 'verified the wing-tip aileron control system, the adaptation of the gyro-actuated control to supersonic flight, and a method for calculating rolling response.' 'A typical D4 missile is shown on the launcher.... This particular missile was launched August 1950, by which time the booster had been changed to a double-Deacon System to obtain higher speeds. The D4 missile configuration was also found to be a desirable one from pitch and yaw considerations in later flights. Its general configuration was followed later in the design of the Navy-Martin Bullpup air-to-ground guided missile.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

  4. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  5. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  6. Sun powered aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccready, P. B.; Lissaman, P. B. S.; Morgan, W. R.; Burke, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two piloted aircraft have been developed and flown powered solely by photovoltaic cells in a program sponsored by the DuPont Company. The 30.8-kg (68-lb), 21.6-m (71-ft) span, Gossamer Penguin was used as a solar test bed, making a 2.6-km (1.6-mile) flight in August 1980. The 88.1-kg (194-lb), 14.3-m (47-ft) span Solar Challenger was developed for long flights in normal turbulence. Stressed to +9 G, it utilizes Kevlar, Nomex honeycomb-graphite sandwich wall tubes, expanded polystyrene foam ribs, and Mylar skin. With a 54.9-kg (121-lb) airframe, 33.1-kg (73-lb) propulsion system, and a 45.4-kg (100-lb) pilot, it flies on 1400 watts. In summer, the projected maximum climb is 1.0 m/s (200 ft/min) at 9,150 m (30,000 ft). Sixty purely solar-powered flights were made during winter 1980-1981. Using thermals, 1,070 m (3,500 ft) was reached with 115-minute duration.

  7. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  8. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  9. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  10. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  11. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  12. Progress toward the development of an aircraft icing analysis capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the NASA efforts to develop an aircraft icing analysis capability is presented. Discussions are included of the overall and long term objectives of the program as well as current capabilities and limitations of the various computer codes being developed. Descriptions are given of codes being developed to analyze two and three dimensional trajectories of water droplets, airfoil ice accretion, aerodynamic performance degradation of components and complete aircraft configurations, electrothermal deicer, and fluid freezing point depressant deicer. The need for bench mark and verification data to support the code development is also discussed.

  13. Selected methods for quantification of community exposure to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, P. M., Jr.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the state-of-the-art for the quantification of community exposure to aircraft noise is presented. Physical aspects, people response considerations, and practicalities of useful application of scales of measure are included. Historical background up through the current technology is briefly presented. The developments of both single-event and multiple-event scales are covered. Selective choice is made of scales currently in the forefront of interest and recommended methodology is presented for use in computer programing to translate aircraft noise data into predictions of community noise exposure. Brief consideration is given to future programing developments and to supportive research needs.

  14. Development of crashworthy passenger seats for general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, M. J.; Tanner, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of energy absorbing passenger seat concepts suitable for installation in light twin-engine fixed wing aircraft were developed. An existing passenger seat for such an aircraft was used to obtain the envelope constraints. Ceiling suspended and floor supported seat concept designs were developed. A restraint system suitable for both concepts was designed. Energy absorbing hardware for both concepts was fabricated and tension and compression tests were conducted to demonstrate the stroking capability and the force deflection characteristics. Crash impact analysis was made and seat loads developed. The basic seat structures were analyzed to determine the adequacy of their strength under impact loading.

  15. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  16. Evaluation of all-electric secondary power for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.

  17. Evaluation of all-electric secondary power for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E; $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.

  18. Integrating the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) in CTAS Trajectory Synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramson, Michael; Ali, Kareem

    2012-01-01

    The Center-Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) Automation System (CTAS), developed at NASA Ames Research Center for assisting controllers in the management and control of air traffic in the extended terminal area, supports the modeling of more than four hundred aircraft types. However, 90% of them are supported indirectly by mapping them to one of a relatively few aircraft types for which CTAS has detailed drag and engine thrust models. On the other hand, the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA), developed and maintained by Eurocontrol, supports more than 300 aircraft types, about one third of which are directly supported, i.e. they have validated performance data. All these data were made available for CTAS by integrating BADA version 3.8 into CTAS Trajectory Synthesizer (TS). Several validation tools were developed and used to validate the integrated code and to evaluate the accuracy of trajectory predictions generated using CTAS "native" and BADA Aircraft Performance Models (APM) comparing them with radar track data. Results of these comparisons indicate that the two models have different strengths and weaknesses. The BADA APM can improve the accuracy of CTAS predictions at least for some aircraft types, especially small aircraft, and for some flight phases, especially climb.

  19. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  20. Aircraft measurements and analysis of severe storms: 1975 field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Three aircraft and instrumentation systems were acquired in support of the severe storm surveillance program. The data results indicate that the original concept of a highly mobile research aircraft capability for obtaining detailed measurements of wind, temperature, dew point, etc., near and within specifically designated severe storms is entirely feasible and has been demonstrated for the first time by this program. This program is unique in that it is designed to be highly mobile in order to move to and/or with the developing storm systems to obtain the necessary measurements. Previous programs have all been fixed to a particular location and therefore have had to wait for the storms to come within their network. The present research is designed around a highly mobile aircraft measurements group in order to maximize the storm cases during the field measurements program.

  1. Study of V/STOL aircraft implementation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portenier, W. J.; Webb, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A high density short haul air market which by 1980 is large enough to support the introduction of an independent short haul air transportation system is discussed. This system will complement the existing air transportation system and will provide relief of noise and congestion problems at conventional airports. The study has found that new aircraft, exploiting V/STOL and quiet engine technology, can be available for implementing these new services, and they can operate from existing reliever and general aviation airports. The study has also found that the major funding requirements for implementing new short haul services could be borne by private capital, and that the government funding requirement would be minimal and/or recovered through the airline ticket tax. In addition, a suitable new short haul aircraft would have a market potential for $3.5 billion in foreign sales. The long lead times needed for aircraft and engine technology development will require timely actions by federal agencies.

  2. Lil HAL: digital kneeboard for ejection seat aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Vince

    2004-09-01

    In the last few years, airlines, commercial air carriers and the military have begun to introduce electronic tools into the cockpit to replace paper versions of flight publications, flight plans, departure and approach plates, maps, etc. These devices have varied from the common laptop to the smaller pen-tablet type computers. In some instances these devices have been connected to aircraft data buses to collect maintenance data, fault codes and other useful information. None of these devices, however, have been found satisfactory in ejection seat aircraft due to their size, weight, and dynamic characteristics when subjected to the inertial and aerodynamic forces that occur during an ejection. This paper describes an electronic digital kneeboard suitable for use in an ejection seat aircraft. The kneeboard consists of a look at helmet-mounted display, a small streamlined kneeboard input device, a carry-on/carry-off computer and its associated support interfaces.

  3. Finite-difference modeling of commercial aircraft using TSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.

    1994-11-15

    Future aircraft may have systems controlled by fiber optic cables, to reduce susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. However, the digital systems associated with the fiber optic network could still experience upset due to powerful radio stations, radars, and other electromagnetic sources, with potentially serious consequences. We are modeling the electromagnetic behavior of commercial transport aircraft in support of the NASA Fly-by-Light/Power-by-Wire program, using the TSAR finite-difference time-domain code initially developed for the military. By comparing results obtained from TSAR with data taken on a Boeing 757 at the Air Force Phillips Lab., we hope to show that FDTD codes can serve as an important tool in the design and certification of U.S. commercial aircraft, helping American companies to produce safe, reliable air transportation.

  4. An efficient navigation-control system for small unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girwar-Nath, Jonathan Alejandro

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been research in the past decade for a broad range of tasks and application domains such as search and rescue, reconnaissance, traffic control, pipe line inspections, surveillance, border patrol, and communication bridging. This work describes the design and implementation of a lightweight Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) semi-autonomous Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Presented here is a methodology for System Identification utilizing the Box-Jenkins model estimator on recorded flight data to characterize the system and develop a mathematical model of the aircraft. Additionally, a novel microprocessor, the XMOS, is utilized to navigate and maneuver the aircraft utilizing a PD control system. In this thesis is a description of the aircraft and the sensor suite utilized, as well as the flight data and supporting videos for the benefit of the UAV research community.

  5. F-15B transonic flight research testbed aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying a modified McDonnell-Douglas F-15B aircraft as a testbed for a variety of transonic flight experiments. The two-seat aircraft, bearing NASA tail number 836, is shown during a recent flight over the high desert carrying a Drdyen-designed Flight Test Fixture (FTF) upon which aerodynamic experiments are mounted. The FTF is a heavily instrumented fin-like structure which is mounted on the F-15B's underbelly in place of the standard external fuel tank. Since being aquired by NASA in 1993, the aircraft has been modified to include video recording, telemetry and data recording capabilities. The twin-engine aircraft flew several flights recently in support of an experiment to determine the precise location of sonic shockwave development as air passes over an airfoil. The F-15B is currently being prepared for the Boundary Layer Heat Experiment, which will explore the potential drag reduction from heating the turbulent portion of the air that passes over the fuselage of a large aircraft.

  6. Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Tupper, C R

    1989-01-01

    Several potentially hazardous chemicals are required to make modern military aircraft fly. With each airevac mission, the possibility exists for structural failure of a fluid system, resulting in contamination to flight/medical crews, patients, and passengers. Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers (AECMs) need to be aware of the hazardous chemicals used in aircraft and areas where there is an increased risk to those in and around the aircraft. This study identified potential areas for chemical leakage, such as refuel receptacles, hydraulic reservoirs, hydraulic motors, doors, ramps, engines, and more. Further, it identified the basic first aid procedures to perform on people contaminated with jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, fire extinguisher agents, LOX and other fluids. First aid procedures are basic and can be performed with supplies and equipment on a routine aeromedical evacuation mission, AECMs trained in a basic awareness of hazardous aircraft chemicals will result in crews better prepared to cope with the unique risks of transporting patients in a complicated military aircraft.

  7. Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Tupper, C R

    1989-01-01

    Several potentially hazardous chemicals are required to make modern military aircraft fly. With each airevac mission, the possibility exists for structural failure of a fluid system, resulting in contamination to flight/medical crews, patients, and passengers. Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers (AECMs) need to be aware of the hazardous chemicals used in aircraft and areas where there is an increased risk to those in and around the aircraft. This study identified potential areas for chemical leakage, such as refuel receptacles, hydraulic reservoirs, hydraulic motors, doors, ramps, engines, and more. Further, it identified the basic first aid procedures to perform on people contaminated with jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, fire extinguisher agents, LOX and other fluids. First aid procedures are basic and can be performed with supplies and equipment on a routine aeromedical evacuation mission, AECMs trained in a basic awareness of hazardous aircraft chemicals will result in crews better prepared to cope with the unique risks of transporting patients in a complicated military aircraft. PMID:2923600

  8. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  9. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  10. Multidisciplinary design optimization of low-noise transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifsson, Leifur Thor

    The objective of this research is to examine how to design low-noise transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). The subject is approached by designing for low-noise both implicitly and explicitly. The explicit design approach involves optimizing an aircraft while explicitly constraining the noise level. An MDO framework capable of optimizing both a cantilever wing and a Strut-Braced-Wing (SBW) aircraft was developed. The objective is to design aircraft for low-airframe-noise at the approach conditions and quantify the change in weight and performance with respect to a traditionally designed aircraft. The results show that reducing airframe noise by reducing approach speed alone, will not provide significant noise reduction without a large performance and weight penalty. Therefore, more dramatic changes to the aircraft design are needed to achieve a significant airframe noise reduction. Another study showed that the trailing-edge flap can be eliminated, as well as all the noise associated with that device, without incurring a significant weight and performance penalty. Lastly, an airframe noise analysis showed that a SBW aircraft with short fuselage-mounted landing gear could have a similar or potentially a lower airframe noise level than a comparable cantilever wing aircraft. The implicit design approach involves selecting a configuration that supports a low-noise operation, and optimizing for performance. In this study a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transport aircraft, with a conventional and a distributed propulsion system, was optimized for minimum take-off gross weight. The effects of distributed propulsion were studied using an MDO framework previously developed at Virginia Tech. The results show that more than two thirds of the theoretical savings of distributed propulsion are required for the BWB designs with a distributed propulsion system to have comparable gross weight as those with a conventional propulsion system. Therefore

  11. Robust control of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yong-hua; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yu-zhuo

    2007-11-01

    Design of a robust controller for the longitudinal dynamics of a hypersonic aircraft by using parameter space method is present. The desirable poles are mapped to the parameter space of the controller using pole placement approach in this method. The intersection of the parameter space is the common controller for the multiple mode system. This controller can meet the need of the different phases of aircraft. It has been proved by simulation that the controller has highly performance of precision and robustness for the disturbance caused by separation, cowl open, fuel on and fuel off and perturbation caused by unknown dynamics.

  12. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  13. Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  15. Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.

  16. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  17. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  18. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  19. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  20. Multi-aircraft dynamics, navigation and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, Sharon Wester

    Air traffic control stands on the brink of a revolution. Fifty years from now, we will look back and marvel that we ever flew by radio beacons and radar alone, much as we now marvel that early aviation pioneers flew by chronometer and compass alone. The microprocessor, satellite navigation systems, and air-to-air data links are the technical keys to this revolution. Many airports are near or at capacity now for at least portions of the day, making it clear that major increases in airport capacity will be required in order to support the projected growth in air traffic. This can be accomplished by adding airports, adding runways at existing airports, or increasing the capacity of the existing runways. Technology that allows use of ultra closely spaced (750 ft to 2500 ft) parallel approaches would greatly reduce the environmental impact of airport capacity increases. This research tackles the problem of multi aircraft dynamics, navigation, and operation, specifically in the terminal area, and presents new findings on how ultra closely spaced parallel approaches may be accomplished. The underlying approach considers how multiple aircraft are flown in visual conditions, where spacing criteria is much less stringent, and then uses this data to study the critical parameters for collision avoidance during an ultra closely spaced parallel approach. Also included is experimental and analytical investigations on advanced guidance systems that are critical components of precision approaches. Together, these investigations form a novel approach to the design and analysis of parallel approaches for runways spaced less than 2500 ft apart. This research has concluded that it is technically feasible to reduce the required runway spacing during simultaneous instrument approaches to less than the current minimum of 3400 ft with the use of advanced navigation systems while maintaining the currently accepted levels of safety. On a smooth day with both pilots flying a tunnel

  1. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory... Rotax Aircraft Engines BRP has issued Alert Service Bulletin ASB- 912-059 and ASB-914-042...

  2. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal... 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You may obtain further information by examining...

  3. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  4. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  5. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  6. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  7. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  8. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  11. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is an ADS-B-enabled suite of applications that use ground and flight deck capabilities and procedures designed to support the relative spacing of aircraft (Barmore et al., 2004, Murdoch et al. 2009, Barmore 2009, Swieringa et al. 2011; Weitz et al. 2012). Relative spacing refers to managing the position of one aircraft to a time or distance relative to another aircraft, as opposed to a static reference point such as a point over the ground or clock time. This results in improved inter-aircraft spacing precision and is expected to allow aircraft to be spaced closer to the applicable separation standard than current operations. Consequently, if the reduced spacing is used in scheduling, IM can reduce the time interval between the first and last aircraft in an overall arrival flow, resulting in increased throughput. Because IM relies on speed changes to achieve precise spacing, it can reduce costly, low-altitude, vectoring, which increases both efficiency and throughput in capacity-constrained airspace without negatively impacting controller workload and task complexity. This is expected to increase overall system efficiency. The Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment provides speeds to the flight crew that will deliver them to the achieve-by point at the controller-specified time, i.e., assigned spacing goal, after the target aircraft crosses the achieve-by point (Figure 1.1). Since the IM and target aircraft may not be on the same arrival procedure, the FIM equipment predicts the estimated times of arrival (ETA) for both the IM and target aircraft to the achieve-by point. This involves generating an approximate four-dimensional trajectory for each aircraft. The accuracy of the wind data used to generate those trajectories is critical to the success of the IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the FIM equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather

  12. Building Bridges to Family-Supporting Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Hilary; Seltzer, Marlene

    2001-01-01

    Jobs for the Future (JFF) has identified the following best practice programs that support what is known to work best in moving women into family-supporting employment: (1) Cessna Aircraft Company in Wichita, Kansas, trains welfare recipients to work as sheet metal assemblers while providing a support services counselor and support for child care…

  13. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  14. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  15. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  16. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  17. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  18. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  19. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  20. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  1. Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory): This example of the Douglas DT-2 torpedo plane, which flew as 'NACA 11,' was built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Langley's NACA staff studied the take-off characteristics of a twin-float seaplane with this aircraft.

  2. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft under a type certificate must establish an approved production flight test procedure...

  3. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft under a type certificate must establish an approved production flight test procedure...

  4. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  5. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  6. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  7. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  8. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  9. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  10. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  11. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  12. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  13. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  14. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  15. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  16. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  17. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  18. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  20. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  1. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  2. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  3. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  4. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  5. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  6. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  7. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  8. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  9. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  10. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  11. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  12. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  13. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  14. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  15. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  16. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  17. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  18. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  19. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  20. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6.... § 87.6 Aircraft safety. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012. The provisions of... revised text is set forth as follows: § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part will be...

  1. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  2. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  3. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  4. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  5. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  6. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  7. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  8. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  10. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with 41 CFR 102-33, subpart B and DOE Order 440.2B latest revision. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  12. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  13. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  14. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  15. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  16. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  17. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  18. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  19. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  20. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  1. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  2. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  3. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  4. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  5. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  6. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  8. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  9. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  10. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  11. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  12. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  13. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  14. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  15. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with 41 CFR 102-33, subpart B and DOE Order 440.2B latest revision. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  16. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each...

  17. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  19. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  20. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  1. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  2. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  3. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  4. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  6. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  7. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  8. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  9. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate § 47.61 Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. (a) The FAA issues a Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificate,...

  10. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  11. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate § 47.61 Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates. (a) The FAA issues a Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate,...

  12. 14 CFR 47.51 - Triennial aircraft registration report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Triennial aircraft registration report. 47... AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.51 Triennial aircraft... occurred within the preceding 36 calendar months, the holder of each Certificate of Aircraft...

  13. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  14. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  15. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate § 47.61 Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. (a) The FAA issues a Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificate,...

  16. Aircraft integrated design and analysis: A classroom experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    AAE 451 is the capstone course required of all senior undergraduates in the School of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Purdue University. During the past year the first steps of a long evolutionary process were taken to change the content and expectations of this course. These changes are the result of the availability of advanced computational capabilities and sophisticated electronic media availability at Purdue. This presentation will describe both the long range objectives and this year's experience using the High Speed Commercial Transport (HSCT) design, the AIAA Long Duration Aircraft design and a Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) design proposal as project objectives. The central goal of these efforts was to provide a user-friendly, computer-software-based, environment to supplement traditional design course methodology. The Purdue University Computer Center (PUCC), the Engineering Computer Network (ECN), and stand-alone PC's were used for this development. This year's accomplishments centered primarily on aerodynamics software obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center and its integration into the classroom. Word processor capability for oral and written work and computer graphics were also blended into the course. A total of 10 HSCT designs were generated, ranging from twin-fuselage and forward-swept wing aircraft, to the more traditional delta and double-delta wing aircraft. Four Long Duration Aircraft designs were submitted, together with one RPV design tailored for photographic surveillance. Supporting these activities were three video satellite lectures beamed from NASA/Langley to Purdue. These lectures covered diverse areas such as an overview of HSCT design, supersonic-aircraft stability and control, and optimization of aircraft performance. Plans for next year's effort will be reviewed, including dedicated computer workstation utilization, remote satellite lectures, and university/industrial cooperative efforts.

  17. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  18. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  19. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  20. Wingtip vortex dissipator for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A means for attenuating the vortex created at aircraft wingtips which consists of a retractable planar surface transverse to the airstream and attached downstream of the wingtip which creates a positive pressure gradient just downstream from the wing is presented. The positive pressure forces a break up of the rotational air flow of the vortex.

  1. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  2. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  3. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  4. Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

  5. The Cleveland Aircraft Fire Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenneman, James J.; Heine, Donald A.

    1968-01-01

    On June 30 and July 1, 1966, tests were conducted to evaluate high expansion foam's ability to extend the time for which an aircraft passenger cabin environment would remain survivable during a post-crash fire. While some results tend to confirm those of similar tests, others may shed new light on the problem.

  6. A formulation for aircraft rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Boland, N.

    1994-12-31

    The aircraft rotation problem arises in airline operations: the flight legs to be flown by a particular type of aircraft must be sequenced, with the intention that any one aircraft could fly through the entire sequence and end up positioned so as to begin the sequence again, hence the use of the term {open_quotes}rotation{close_quotes}. A rotation must be constructed so that at regular intervals the aircraft can undergo maintenance. This requires a particular location and duration of time. For each pair of legs which can be adjacent in the rotation, there is an associated value, called the {open_quotes}through-value{close_quotes}, which represents the revenue possibilities of providing one-stop service on these legs. We model this problem on a digraph: we need to find a Hamiltonian cycle that maximizes total through-value, subject to the side constraints arising from the maintenance requirements. We present a set partitioning formulation in which column generation involves finding a shortest path in a network, subject to side constraints.

  7. Composite structural materials. [aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The development of composite materials for aircraft applications is addressed with specific consideration of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability, and life prediction. The design and flight testing of composite ultralight gliders is documented. Advances in computer aided design and methods for nondestructive testing are also discussed.

  8. System for providing an integrated display of instantaneous information relative to aircraft attitude, heading, altitude, and horizontal situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A display device is disclosed which is particularly suited for providing the pilot of an aircraft with combined inflight attitude, heading, altitude, and horizontal situation information previously available only by using two or three devices providing separate displays. The preferred embodiment combines a commonly used and commercially available flight director-type device for providing a display in combination with a miniature aircraft supported for angular displacement from a vertical orientation to indicate heading error, or heading offset, and an extended course deviation indicator bar which projects into juxtaposition with the miniature aircraft for providing a true picture of the aircraft's horizontal situation relative to a selective VOR, ILS, or MLS course.

  9. Study of the application of hydrogen fuel to long-range subsonic transport aircraft. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.; Lange, R. H.; Moore, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in advanced designs of long range, subsonic transport aircraft is assessed. Both passenger and cargo type aircraft are investigated. Comparisons of physical, performance, and economic parameters of the LH2 fueled designs with conventionally fueled aircraft are presented. Design studies are conducted to determine appropriate characteristics for the hydrogen related systems required on board the aircraft. These studies included consideration of material, structural, and thermodynamic requirements of the cryogenic fuel tanks and fuel systems with the structural support and thermal protection systems.

  10. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  11. Advanced turboprop testbed systems study. Volume 1: Testbed program objectives and priorities, drive system and aircraft design studies, evaluation and recommendations and wind tunnel test plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, E. S.; Little, B. H.; Warnock, W.; Jenness, C. M.; Wilson, J. M.; Powell, C. W.; Shoaf, L.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of propfan technology readiness was determined and candidate drive systems for propfan application were identified. Candidate testbed aircraft were investigated for testbed aircraft suitability and four aircraft selected as possible propfan testbed vehicles. An evaluation of the four candidates was performed and the Boeing KC-135A and the Gulfstream American Gulfstream II recommended as the most suitable aircraft for test application. Conceptual designs of the two recommended aircraft were performed and cost and schedule data for the entire testbed program were generated. The program total cost was estimated and a wind tunnel program cost and schedule is generated in support of the testbed program.

  12. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  13. Structural analysis of light aircraft using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. T.; Bruce, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    An application of NASTRAN to the structural analysis of light aircraft was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness. A model of the Baby Ace D model homebuilt aircraft was used. The NASTRAN model of the aircraft consists of 193 grid points connected by 352 structural members. All members are either rod or beam elements, including bending of unsymmetrical cross sections and torsion of noncircular cross sections. The aerodynamic loads applied to the aircraft were in accordance with FAA regulations governing the utility category aircraft.

  14. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  15. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  16. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  17. National Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goplen, Susan E.; Sloan, Jeff L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office leads the implementation of UAS technology in the Department of the Interior (DOI). Our mission is to support the transition of UAS into DOI as a new cost-effective tool for collecting remote-sensing data to monitor environmental conditions, respond to natural hazards, recognize the consequences and benefits of land and climate change and conduct wildlife inventories. The USGS is teaming with all DOI agencies and academia as well as local, State, and Tribal governments with guidance from the Federal Aviation Administration and the DOI Office of Aviation Services (OAS) to lead the safe, efficient, costeffective and leading-edge adoption of UAS technology into the scientific research and operational activities of the DOI.

  18. Rib for blended wing-body aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Structural ribs for providing structural support for a structure, such as the pressure cabin of a blended-wing body aircraft. In a first embodiment, the ribs are generally Y-shaped, being comprised of a vertical web and a pair of inclined webs attached to the vertical web to extend upwardly and outwardly from the vertical web in different directions, with only the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to a structural element. In a second embodiment, the ribs are generally trident-shaped, whereby the vertical web extends upwardly beyond the intersection of the inclined webs with the vertical web, with the upper edge of the vertical web as well as the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to the same structural element.

  19. Refurbishment of NASA aircraft with fire-retardant materials. [aircraft compartments of commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Supkis, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Selected fire-retardant materials for possible application to commercial aircraft are described. The results of flammability screening tests and information on the physical and chemical properties of both original and newly installed materials after extended use are presented in tabular form, with emphasis on wear properties, strength, puncture and tear resistances, and cleanability.

  20. Ignition characteristics of some aircraft interior fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brandt, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Six samples of aircraft interior fabrics were evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by radiant heat. Five samples were aircraft seat upholstery fabrics and one sample was an aircraft curtain fabric. The aircraft seat fabrics were 100% wool (2 samples), 83% wool/17% nylon, 49% wool/51% polyvinyl chloride, and 100% rayon. The aircraft curtain fabric was 92% modacrylic/8% polyester. The five samples of aircraft seat upholstery fabrics were also evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by a smoldering cigarette. The four samples of wool-containing aircraft seat fabrics appeared to be superior to the sample of rayon seat fabric in resistance to ignition, both by radiant heat and by a smoldering cigarette.

  1. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  2. Image enhancement and understanding for remote visual inspection of aircraft surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunatilake, Priyan; Siegel, Mel; Jordan, Angel G.; Podnar, Gregg W.

    1996-11-01

    We describe a library of image enhancement and understanding algorithms developed to enhance and recognize surface defects from remote live imagery of an aircraft surface. Also described are the supporting mobile robot platform that generates the remote stereoscopic imagery and the inspection console containing a graphical user interface, through which the inspector accesses the live imagery for remote inspection. We will discuss initial results of the remote imaging process and the image processing library, and speculate on their future application in aircraft inspection.

  3. High altitude perspective. [cost-reimbursable services using NASA U-2 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The capabilities of the NASA Ames Center U-2 aircraft for research or experimental programs are described for such areas as Earth resources inventories; remote sensing data interpretation, electronic sensor research and development; satellite investigative support; stratospheric gas studies; and astronomy and astrophysics. The availability of this aircraft on a cost-reimbursable basis for use in high-altitude investigations that cannot be performed by the private sector is discussed.

  4. Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hongchul

    This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From

  5. Experimental flight test vibration measurements and nondestructive inspection on a USCG HC-130H aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Jones, C. R.; Mihelic, J. E.; Barnes, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental flight test vibration measurements and structural inspections performed by the Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Laboratories and the US Coast Guard Aircraft Repair and Supply Center (ARSC). Structural and aerodynamic changes induced by mounting a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system on a USCG HC-130H aircraft are described. The FLIR adversely affected the air flow characteristics and structural vibration on the external skin of the aircraft's right main wheel well fairing. Upon initial discovery of skin cracking and visual observation of skin vibration in flight by the FLIR, a baseline flight without the FLIR was conducted and compared to other measurements with the FLIR installed. Nondestructive inspection procedures were developed to detect cracks in the skin and supporting structural elements and document the initial structural condition of the aircraft. Inspection results and flight test vibration data revealed that the FLIR created higher than expected flight loading and was the possible source of the skin cracking. The Coast Guard performed significant structural repair and enhancement on this aircraft, and additional in-flight vibration measurements were collected on the strengthened area both with and without the FLIR installed. After three months of further operational FLIR usage, the new aircraft skin with the enhanced structural modification was reinspected and found to be free of flaws. Additional US Coast Guard HC-130H aircraft are now being similarly modified to accommodate this FLIR system. Measurements of in- flight vibration levels with and without the FLIR installed, and both before and after the structural enhancement and repair were conducted on the skin and supporting structure in the aircraft's right main wheel fairing. Inspection results and techniques developed to verify the aircraft's structural integrity are discussed.

  6. Experimental Validation: Subscale Aircraft Ground Facilities and Integrated Test Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Roger M.; Hostetler, Robert W., Jr.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Belcastro, Celeste M.; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental testing is an important aspect of validating complex integrated safety critical aircraft technologies. The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) Testbed is being developed at NASA Langley to validate technologies under conditions that cannot be flight validated with full-scale vehicles. The AirSTAR capability comprises a series of flying sub-scale models, associated ground-support equipment, and a base research station at NASA Langley. The subscale model capability utilizes a generic 5.5% scaled transport class vehicle known as the Generic Transport Model (GTM). The AirSTAR Ground Facilities encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for the GTM testbed. The ground facilities support remote piloting of the GTM aircraft, and include all subsystems required for data/video telemetry, experimental flight control algorithm implementation and evaluation, GTM simulation, data recording/archiving, and audio communications. The ground facilities include a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, capable of deployment to remote sites when conducting GTM flight experiments. The ground facilities also include a laboratory based at NASA LaRC providing near identical capabilities as the mobile command/operations center, as well as the capability to receive data/video/audio from, and send data/audio to the mobile command/operations center during GTM flight experiments.

  7. Safe structures for future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The failure mechanisms, design lessons, and test equipment employed by NASA in establishing the airworthiness and crashworthiness of aircraft components for commercial applications are described. The composites test programs have progressed to medium primary structures such as stabilizers and a vertical fin. The failures encountered to date have been due to the nonyielding nature of composites, which do not diffuse loads like metals, and the presence of eccentricities, irregular shapes, stiffness changes, and discontinuities that cause tension and shear. Testing to failure, which always occurred in first tests before the design loads were reached, helped identify design changes and reinforcements that produced successful products. New materials and NDE techniques are identified, together with aircraft structural design changes that offer greater protection to the passengers, fuel antimisting agents, and landing gear systems.

  8. CID Aircraft slap-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  9. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  10. The microburst - Hazard to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Serafin, R.

    1984-01-01

    In encounters with microbursts, low altitude aircraft first encounter a strong headwind which increases their wing lift and altitude; this phenomenon is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component, a downdraft, and finally a strong tailwind that catastrophically reduces wing lift and precipitates a crash dive. It is noted that the potentially lethal low altitude wind shear of a microburst may lie in apparently harmless, rain-free air beneath a cloud base. Occasionally, such tell-tale signs as localized blowing of ground dust may be sighted in time. Microbursts may, however, occur in the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, where they will be totally obscured from view. Wind shear may be detected by an array of six anemometers and vanes situated in the vicinity of an airport, and by Doppler radar equipment at the airport or aboard aircraft.

  11. Dynamic response of aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The physical and mathematical problems associated with the response of elastic structures to random excitations such as occurs during buffeting and other transonic phenomena were discussed. The following subjects were covered: (1) general dynamic system consisting of the aircraft structure, the aerodynamic driving forces due to separated flow, and the aerodynamic forces due to aircraft structural motion, (2) structural and aerodynamic quantities of the dynamic system with special emphasis given to the description of the aerodynamic forces, and including a treatment of similarity laws, scaling effects, and wind tunnel testing, and (3) methods for data processing of fluctuating pressure recordings and techniques for response analysis for random excitation. A general buffeting flutter model, which takes into account the interactions between the separated and motion induced flows was presented. Relaxations of this model leading to the forced vibration model were explained.

  12. Aircraft digital control design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Parsons, E.; Tashker, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Variations in design methods for aircraft digital flight control are evaluated and compared. The methods fall into two categories; those where the design is done in the continuous domain (or s plane) and those where the design is done in the discrete domain (or z plane). Design method fidelity is evaluated by examining closed loop root movement and the frequency response of the discretely controlled continuous aircraft. It was found that all methods provided acceptable performance for sample rates greater than 10 cps except the uncompensated s plane design method which was acceptable above 20 cps. A design procedure based on optimal control methods was proposed that provided the best fidelity at very slow sample rates and required no design iterations for changing sample rates.

  13. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  14. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-03-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  15. Imaging Supersonic Aircraft Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vieira, Gerald J.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Bowers, Albion H.

    1997-01-01

    A schlieren imaging system that uses the sun as a light source was developed it) obtain direct flow-field images of shock waves of aircraft in flight. This system was used to study how shock waves evolve to form sonic booms. The image quality obtained was limited by several optical and mechanical factors. Converting the photographs to digital images and applying digital image-processing techniques greatly improved the final quality of the images and more clearly showed the shock structures.

  16. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  17. Process modeling KC-135 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation will be provided for KC-135 aircraft which will provide a quantitative measure of g-level variation during parabolic flights and its effect on experiments which demonstrate differences in results obtained with differences in convective flow. The flight apparatus will provide video recording of the effects of the g-level variations on varying fluid samples. The apparatus will be constructed to be available to fly on the KC-135 during most missions.

  18. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  19. Weather data dissemination to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.; Parker, Craig B.

    1990-01-01

    Documentation exists that shows weather to be responsible for approximately 40 percent of all general aviation accidents with fatalities. Weather data products available on the ground are becoming more sophisticated and greater in number. Although many of these data are critical to aircraft safety, they currently must be transmitted verbally to the aircraft. This process is labor intensive and provides a low rate of information transfer. Consequently, the pilot is often forced to make life-critical decisions based on incomplete and outdated information. Automated transmission of weather data from the ground to the aircraft can provide the aircrew with accurate data in near-real time. The current National Airspace System Plan calls for such an uplink capability to be provided by the Mode S Beacon System data link. Although this system has a very advanced data link capability, it will not be capable of providing adequate weather data to all airspace users in its planned configuration. This paper delineates some of the important weather data uplink system requirements, and describes a system which is capable of meeting these requirements. The proposed system utilizes a run-length coding technique for image data compression and a hybrid phase and amplitude modulation technique for the transmission of both voice and weather data on existing aeronautical Very High Frequency (VHF) voice communication channels.

  20. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... enrolled in educational programs, etc.) supporting the donee's need for the aircraft or vessel. ...) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.230 What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus...