Science.gov

Sample records for ac-20 asphalt binder

  1. Interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamed, Arash; Bhasin, Amit; Liechti, Kenneth M.

    2012-05-01

    Asphalt mixtures are complex composites that comprise aggregate, asphalt binder, and air. Several research studies have shown that the mechanical behavior of the asphalt mixture is strongly influenced by the matrix, i.e. the asphalt binder. Characterization and a thorough understanding of the binder behavior is the first and crucial step towards developing an accurate constitutive model for the composite. Accurate constitutive models for the constituent materials are critical to ensure accurate performance predictions at a material and structural level using micromechanics. This paper presents the findings from a systematic investigation into the nature of the linear and nonlinear response of asphalt binders subjected to different types of loading using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Laboratory test data show that a compressive normal force is generated in an axially constrained specimen subjected to torsional shear. This paper investigates the source of this normal force and demonstrates that the asphalt binder can dilate when subjected to shear loads. This paper also presents the findings from a study conducted to investigate the source of the nonlinearity in the asphalt binder. Test results demonstrate that the application of cyclic shear loads results in the development of a normal force and a concomitant reduction in the dynamic shear modulus. This form of nonlinear response is referred to as an "interaction nonlinearity". A combination of experimental and analytical tools is used to demonstrate and verify the presence of this interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders. The findings from this study highlight the importance of modeling the mechanical behavior of asphalt binders based on the overall stress state of the material.

  2. Characterization of asphalt additive produced from hydroretorted Alabama shale

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1992-12-31

    Shale oil, produced from beneficiated Alabama shale by pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting, was fractionated to produce shale oil asphalt additives (SOA). Three shale oil fractions boiling above 305{degrees}C were added to standard AC-20 asphalt to improve pavement properties. The physical properties and aging characteristics of AC-20 asphalt binder (cement) containing SOA are similar to those of unmodified AC-20 asphalt binder. Asphalt pavement briquettes made with AC-20 asphalt binder containing 5 to 10 percent SOA have superior resistance to freeze-thaw cracking and a greater retention of tensile strength when wet compared to pavement briquettes containing AC-20 binder alone.

  3. Effect of moisture on the aging behavior of asphalt binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Huang, Xiao-Ming; Mahmoud, Enad; Garibaldy, Emil

    2011-08-01

    The moisture aging effect and mechanism of asphalt binder during the in-service life of pavement were investigated by laboratory simulating tests. Pressure aging vessel (PAV) test simulating the long-term aging of binder during the in-service life of pavement was modified to capture the long-term moisture aging effect of binder. Penetration grade tests including penetration test, soften point test, and ductility test as well as Superpave™ performance grade tests including viscosity test, dynamic shear rheometer test, and bending beam rheometer test were conducted to fully evaluate the moisture aging effect of binder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy test and Gel-permeation chromatography test were applied to provide a fundamental understanding of the moisture aging mechanism of binder. The results indicate that moisture condition can accelerate the aging of asphalt binder and shorten the service life of asphalt binder. The modified PAV test with moisture condition can well characterize the moisture aging properties of asphalt binder.

  4. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  5. Effect of pyrolyzed carbon black on asphalt cement. Part 2. Asphalt binder. Final report, September 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Y.; Lovell, C.W.

    1996-02-20

    Scrap tires derived from automobiles have become a large environmental problem in the United States. In the study, research is carried out to investigate the potential use of tire-derived pyrolyzed carbon black from scrap tires as an asphalt cement modifier. The asphlat cements used in the research were AC10 and AC20. Penetration and softening point tests were performed to obtain the consistency of the asphalt cements. The pyrolyzed carbon black, as provided by Wolf Industries, was combined with the asphalt cement in the following percentages: 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Penetration, softening point and ductility tests were performed to determine the temperature susceptibility of the modified binder as altered by the pyrolyzed carbon black. In order that the results are comparable to previous testing, commercial carbon black purchased from CABOT Industry was also used as a modifier in the tests. The same test procedures were applied to the asphalt cements modified by commercial carbon black. The test results contained in the report illustrate the viability of the pyrolyzed carbon black as an asphalt modifier. Recommendations are provided to facilitate further research on this particular project. A preliminary assessment of a test road using the pyrolyzed carbon is appended.

  6. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic - mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.

  7. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  8. Design of open graded friction courses with sulfur extended asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylak, D.; Ho, K. K.; Gallaway, B. M.; Little, D. N.

    1982-09-01

    The combination of the anticipated shortage of asphalt cement and the projected abundance of sulfur has led to the investigation of the potential for substituting this element for the former in the paving industry. Sulfur was incorporated with asphalt to form sulfur-extended asphalt (SEA) binders for use in open graded friction course mixtures. The experimental design variable included aggregated type, asphalt cement, level of sulfur contents in the binder and method of preparing SEA binders.

  9. Investigation of the curing variables of asphalt-rubber binder

    SciTech Connect

    Billiter, T.C.; Chun, J.S.; Davison, R.R.

    1996-12-31

    Currently, the paving industry utilizes a curing time of 1 hour at 177{degrees}C (350{degrees}F) for producing asphalt-rubber binder. Billiter et al. showed that at these curing conditions, 1 hour at 177{degrees}C (350{degrees}F), adding rubber to asphalt was beneficial, with the rubber improving the low-temperature creep stiffness at (-15{degrees}C (5{degrees}F)), the temperature susceptibility in the 0{degrees}C-90{degrees}C (32{degrees}F-194{degrees}F) temperature region, increasing G* and {eta}* at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) and 1.0 rad/sec, and decreasing 8 at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) and 1.0 rad/sec. On the other hand, Billiter et al. (2) showed that the addition of rubber was also detrimental, in that the viscosity increased significantly in the compaction temperature region of 149{degrees}C-193{degrees}C (300{degrees}F-380{degrees}F). This increased viscosity can cause compaction problems, with Allison reporting that engineers blamed the compaction problems of asphalt-rubber on undissolved crumb rubber, which they believed had no beneficial effect. Additionally, the engineers reported that improper compaction led to early road failure. This work investigates the variables of binders, curing tenperature and time, and amount of mechancial energy on asphalt properties.

  10. Evaluation of Thermal Oxidative Aging Effect on the Rheological Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Modified asphalt binder, which is combined by base binder and additive modifier, has been implemented in pavement industry for more than 30 years. Recently, the oxidative aging mechanism of asphalt binder has been studied for several decades, and appreciable finding results of asphalt binder aging mechanism were achieved from the chemistry and rheological performance aspects. However, most of these studies were conducted with neat binders, the research of aging mechanism of modified asphalt binder was limited. Nowadays, it is still highly necessary to clarify how the asphalt binder aging happens with the modified asphalt binder, what is the effect of the different modifiers (additives) on the binder aging process, how the rheological performance changes under the thermal oxidative aging conditions and so on. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isothermal oxidative aging conditions on the rheological performance change of the modified and controlled asphalt binders. There were totally 14 different sorts of asphalt binders had been aged in the PAV pans in the air-force drafted ovens at 50°C, 60°C and 85°C for 0.5 day to 240 days. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) were used to perform the experiments. The analysis of rheological indices (Low shear viscosity-LSV, Crossover modulus-G*c, Glover-Rowe Parameter-G-R, DSR function-DSR Fn) as a function of carbonyl area (CA) was conducted. With the SBS modification, both of the hardening susceptibility of the rheological index-LSV and G-R decreases compared with the corresponding base binder. The TR increased the hardening susceptibility of all the rheological indexes. While for the G*c, SBS increases the slope of the most modified asphalt binders except A and B_TR_X series binders. The multiple linear regression statistical analysis results indicate that the oxidative aging conditions play an important role on the CA, and rheological performance

  11. Assessment of low temperature cracking in asphalt pavement mixes and rheological performance of asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowah-Kuma, David

    Government spends a lot of money on the reconstruction and rehabilitation of road pavements in any given year due to various distresses and eventual failure. Low temperature (thermal) cracking, one of the main types of pavement distress, contributes partly to this economic loss, and comes about as a result of accumulated tensile strains exceeding the threshold tensile strain capacity of the pavement. This pavement distress leads to a drastic reduction of the pavement's service life and performance. In this study, the severity of low temperature (thermal) cracking on road pavements selected across the Province of Ontario and its predicted time to failure was assessed using the AASTHO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and AASHTOWARE(TM) software, with inputs such as creep compliance and tensile strength from laboratory test. Highway 400, K1, K2, Y1, Sasobit, Rediset LQ, and Rediset WMX were predicted to have a pavement in-service life above 15 years. Additionally, the rheological performance of the recovered asphalt binders was assessed using Superpave(TM) tests such as the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR). Further tests using modified standard protocols such as the extended bending beam rheometer (eBBR) (LS-308) test method and double-edge notched tension (DENT) test (LS-299) were employed to evaluate the failure properties associated with in service performance. The various rheological tests showed K1 to be the least susceptible to low temperature cracking compared to the remaining samples whiles Highway 24 will be highly susceptible to low temperature cracking. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was performed on the recovered asphalt binders to determine the presence of metals such as zinc (Zn) and molybdenum (Mo) believed to originate from waste engine oil, which is often added to asphalt binders. Finally, the severity of oxidative aging (hardening) of the recovered asphalt binders was also evaluated using the

  12. Measurements of thermal and healing properties of nanoclay modified asphalt binders using molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dustin; Hawa, Takumi; Hossain, Zahid; Saha, Mrinal; Zaman, Musharraf

    2014-03-01

    A seven component molecular dynamics model has been developed to represent asphalt binder. The model has been developed to include the four major classes of molecules found in asphalt binders. The seven asphalt binder molecules were assembled with the Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations force field (OPLS) and the Large-scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator (LAMMPS) was used to carry out all simulations. Diffusion and density values were determined to validate individual molecules; all values were within acceptable range. Diffusion values were also determined for each molecule while present in the asphalt binder mixture. Density of the asphalt binder was determined to compare to experimental results. Values appear to follow the same trend as seen in experimental results and were closer to experimental results than other asphalt binder models. A glass transition temperature of 263.59K was determined using the density results at nineteen temperatures and was found to be in an acceptable range. A nano-clay model has also been developed using Clay force field and combined with the asphalt binder model. Also, we have investigated how the nano-clay impacts thermal and healing properties of the binder.

  13. Design and Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Renewable Bioasphalt Binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Irfansyah, P. A.; Shidiq, A. M.; Wibisono, I. S.; Fauzy, M. N.; Hadi, F. N.

    2017-02-01

    The needs of petroleum asphalt as materials for pavement is very large, while the petroleum classified as natural resources that cannot be renewable. As a result of petroleum dwindling and prices tend to be more expensive. So that requiring other alternative materials as a substitute for conventional asphalt derived from biomass or often called bioasphalt. This study aims to know the volumetric and Marshall characteristics on Asphalt Cement ( AC ) using the Damar asphalt modification to substitute 60/70 penetration asphalt as a binder. The volumetric and Marshall characteristic are porosity, density, flow, stability, and Marshall quotient. The characteristic of asphalt concrete at optimum bitumen content are compared to the conditions from highway agency 1987 and the general specification of asphalt concrete Bina Marga 2010 the third revision. The research uses experimental method in the laboratory with the samples made using the dasphalt modification as binder and incorporating the aggregate gradation no. VII SNI 03-1737-1989. The research is using 15 samples divided into 5 contents of damar asphalt, they are 5%, 5,5%, 6%, 6,5%, dan 7%. Tests carried out using Marshall test equipment to get the value of flow and stability and then be searched the value of optimum damar asphalt content. The result of asphalt concrete analysis using dasphalt modification as binder gives the value of optimum dasphalt content at 5,242%. The most characteristics already met the requirements and specifications.

  14. Influence of mixture characteristics on the oxidative aging of asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morian, Nathan E.

    The objective of this research effort focused on the evaluation of asphalt mixtures with respect to thermal cracking. Preliminary investigations soon indicated that a fundamental evaluation of thermal cracking was highly dependent upon the more complicated understanding of asphalt binder oxidation. The oxidation of asphalt binders within an asphalt mixture were understood to potentially be influenced by the mixture characteristics (i.e. air void levels, binder content, etc.) and aggregate properties (i.e. aggregate absorption, gradation, etc.). Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate and quantify the effects different aggregate sources and mixture properties may have on the oxidation and thermal cracking performance of asphalt mixtures. The investigation specifically focused on quantifying the oxidation of the asphalt binder alone and as part of the asphalt mixture when subjected to isothermal oven aging. The oxidation parameters of pan-aged asphalt binders were quantified, according to the standard of practice in the industry. These parameters were then compared to extracted and recovered mixture-aged asphalt binders to examine the influence of the main aggregate and mixture factors on the binder oxidation. The study observed differences between the pan-aged and mixture-aged asphalt binders in terms of oxidation kinetics, rheological measures, and the combined effect represented as the hardening susceptibility. Further evaluation of the binder oxidation based upon the dynamic modulus measures indicated marked influences of the mixture characteristics, the individual component materials, and the interactions between the investigated factors. Differentiation of the experimental factors was further identified by the newly developed low-temperature evaluation method, Uniaxial Thermal Stress and Strain Test (UTSST). The UTSST provides a fundamental approach to characterize the thermo-viscoelastic properties of asphalt mixtures permitting the

  15. Relating tensile, bending, and shear test data of asphalt binders to pavement performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.S.; Tsai, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    Eight different asphalt binders representing a wide range of applications for pavement construction were tested in uniaxial tension, bending, and shear stresses. Theoretical analyses were performed in this study to covert the data from the three engineering tests to stiffness moduli for predicting pavement performance. At low temperatures, high asphalt stiffness may induce pavement thermal cracking; thus, the allowable maximum stiffness was set at 1,000 MPa. At high temperatures, low asphalt stiffness may lead to pavement rutting (ruts in the road); master curves were constructed to rank the potential for rutting in the asphalts. All three viscoelastic functions were shown to be interchangeable within the linear viscoelastic region. When subjected to large deformation in the direct tension test, asphalt binders behaved nonlinear viscoelastic in which the data under bending, shear and tension modes were not comparable. The asphalts were, however, found toe exhibit linear viscoelasticity up to the failure point in the steady-state strain region.

  16. Enhancing Asphalt Binder's Rheological Behavior and Aging Susceptibility Using Nano-Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Renaldo C.

    The life expectancy of Asphalt Binder (AB) has been negatively impacted by the harsh bombardment of UV rays. UV rays cause asphalt to oxidize faster which results in deterioration of asphalt rheological characteristics that can lead to pavement distresses. This study investigates the impact that nano-particles and bio modification have on the aging susceptibility of asphalt binder. As such, the following hypothesis was investigated: Introduction of nano particles to asphalt binder will reduce asphalt oxidation aging by increasing the inter layer spacing of the nano particles. Two nano scale materials were used for this study, nano-clay and bio-char as well as one micro scale material, silica fume. Nano-clay (Cloisite 30B) is a naturally occurring inorganic mineral. Bio-char is the waste product from bio-binder production. Bio-binder is produced from swine manure using a thermochemical conversion process. This process is then followed by a filtration procedure where the bio-char is produced. Chemical and physical properties of bio-char showed a significant presence of carbon which could in turn reduce the rate of asphalt oxidation. Silica Fume is an ultra-fine powder collected as a by-product of silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production and consists of spherical particles. In this study several mixtures are designed and evaluated using RV testing (Rotational Viscometer), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Nano-clay is blended at 2% and 4% by weight of dry mass, with and without bio-binder (5% by weight of dry mass). Bio-char is grinded to nano scale and added to the virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 5% and 10% by weight of dry mass. Silica Fume is added to virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 4% and 8% by weight of dry mass. The optimum percent of nano scale material that is added to virgin asphalt binder is expected to reduce aging susceptibility of asphalt binder, extending its service life.

  17. Black curves and creep behaviour of crumb rubber modified binders containing warm mix asphalt additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Juan; Rodríguez-Alloza, Ana María; Giuliani, Felice

    2016-08-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a new research topic in the field of road pavement materials. This technology allows lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by reducing compaction and placement temperatures of the asphalt mixtures. However, this technology is still under study, and the influence of the WMA additives has yet to be investigated thoroughly and clearly identified, especially in the case of crumb rubber modified (CRM) binders.

  18. About the sizes of elastomer particles in the asphalt concrete binder providing the maximum service life of pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, A. M.; Chekunaev, N. I.

    2014-05-01

    It is noted that the durability of asphalt concrete pavements is determined by the time of the trunk cracks formation in the polymer-containing composites - in the modified by elastomers (e.g., by rubber) bitumenous binder of asphalt. Developed by the authors previously the theory of the cracks propagation in heterosystems [1] has allowed to investigate the problem of the cracks propagation in the rubber-bitumen composite. This investigations show that most effectively to prevente the trunk cracks formation in asphalt concrete can ultrafine rubber particles (150-750 nm) in a bitumenos binder of asphalt.

  19. Essential work of fracture approach to fatigue grading of asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriescu, Adrian

    The main objective of this thesis was to apply failure mechanics principles to the characterization of fatigue cracking of asphalt pavements and to identify the correlations between the pavement performance and the composition of binders. The essential work of fracture (EWF) method developed herein is an energy-based testing approach used for the fracture characterization of ductile materials. Developed for both binders and asphalt mixtures, the method provides fundamental parameters, such as specific essential work of fracture and critical tip opening displacement, as potential candidates for a better fatigue specification. It was shown that binders from different sources and with the same performance grade can have very different levels of fatigue susceptibility depending on their manufacturing method and hence failure properties. Also, the currently used binder loss modulus as developed by the Strategic Highway Research Program does not correlate with the newly proposed fracture mechanics based parameters. An extensive theological and ductile failure investigation on a large interval of testing conditions was performed for a group of binders that are used in the recently built test sections of Highway 655 in northern Ontario. It was found that the shift factors used in the construction of the master curves of the ductile fracture parameters differ from the shift factors of the rheological master curves. The difference was attributed to the response of the internal structure of the binder at the high strain levels that precede the failure phenomenon.

  20. Optical Characterization of Temperature- and Composition-Dependent Microstructure in Asphalt Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramm, Adam; Nazmus, Sakib; Bhasin, Amit; Downer, Michael

    We introduce noncontact optical microscopy and optical scattering to characterize asphalt binder microstructure at temperatures ranging from 15 to 85°C for two compositionally different asphalt binders. We benchmark optical measurements against rheometric measurements of the magnitude of the temperature-dependent bulk complex shear modulus | G* (T) | . The main findings are: (1) Elongated (5 x 1 μm), striped microstructures (known from AFM studies as ''bees'' because they resemble bumble-bees) are resolved optically, found to reside primarily at the surface, and do not reappear immediately after a single heating-cooling cycle. (2) Smaller (1 μm2) microstructures with no observable internal structure (hereafter dubbed ``ants''), are found to reside primarily in the bulk, to persist after multiple thermal cycles and to scatter light strongly. Optical scattering from ''ants'' decreases to zero with heating from 15 to 65°C, but recovers completely upon cooling back to 15°C, albeit with distinct hysteresis. (3) Rheometric measurements of | G* (T) | reveal hysteresis that closely resembles that observed by optical scatter, suggesting that thermally-driven changes in microstructure volume fraction cause corresponding changes in | G* (T) | .

  1. Evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt binder using matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Paulo R N; Soares, Sandra de A; Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Soares, Jorge B; Cavalcante, Rivelino M

    2009-10-01

    A method developed for the extraction and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the asphalt binder using a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and gas chromatography is presented. The MSPD method was proposed as a rapid and easy approach to determining PAHs present in the maltenic phase of asphalt binder extracted through a mechanical shaking and sonication of the material. The recovery rates ranged from 62.77-89.92% (shaking) and from 56.54-93.6% (sonication) with relative standard deviations lower than 8.8%. The study shows that the recovery rates using shaking and sonication extractions are not significantly different at the p < 0.05 level. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.7-1.8 mg/kg and 2.2-5.6 mg/kg, respectively. The proposed analytical method was applied to determine PAH levels in an asphalt binder from Brazil. The main PAHs found were BbF, BaP, Per, IncdP, DahA, and BghiP, with average concentrations of 10.2-20.7 mg/kg, but the PAHs Ace and Acy were not detected. However, Nap, Fl, Phen, Ant, Flr, Pyr, Chry, BaA, and BkF were present in average concentrations amounting to less than 10 mg/kg. The results showed that the MSPD method is potentially a valuable tool for the determination of PAHs in the asphalt binder.

  2. Evolution of the microstructure of unmodified and polymer modified asphalt binders with aging in an accelerated weathering tester.

    PubMed

    Menapace, Ilaria; Masad, Eyad

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents findings on the evolution of the surface microstructure of two asphalt binders, one unmodified and one polymer modified, directly exposed to aging agents with increasing durations. The aging is performed using an accelerated weathering tester, where ultraviolet radiation, oxygen and an increased temperature are applied to the asphalt binder surface. Ultraviolet and dark cycles, which simulated the succession of day and night, alternated during the aging process, and also the temperature varied, which corresponded to typical summer day and night temperatures registered in the state of Qatar. Direct aging of an exposed binder surface is more effective in showing microstructural modifications than previously applied protocols, which involved the heat treatment of binders previously aged with standardized methods. With the new protocol, any molecular rearrangements in the binder surface after aging induced by the heat treatment is prevented. Optical photos show the rippling and degradation of the binder surface due to aging. Microstructure images obtained by means of atomic force microscopy show gradual alteration of the surface due to aging. The original relatively flat microstructure was substituted with a profoundly different microstructure, which significantly protrudes from the surface, and is characterized by various shapes, such as rods, round structures and finally 'flower' or 'leaf' structures.

  3. Effect of X-ray Line Spectra Profile Fitting with Pearson VII, Pseudo-Voigt and Generalized Fermi Functions on Asphalt Binder Aromaticity and Crystallite Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebresellasie, K.; Shirokoff, J.; Lewis, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray line spectra profile fitting using Pearson VII, pseudo-Voigt and generalized Fermi functions was performed on asphalt binders prior to the calculation of aromaticity and crystallite size parameters. The effects of these functions on the results are presented and discussed in terms of the peak profile fit parameters, the uncertainties in calculated values that can arise owing to peak shape, peak features in the pattern and crystallite size according to the asphalt models (Yen, modified Yen or Yen-Mullins) and theories. Interpretation of these results is important in terms of evaluating the performance of asphalt binders widely used in the application of transportation systems (roads, highways, airports).

  4. Effect of treatment temperature on the microstructure of asphalt binders: insights on the development of dispersed domains.

    PubMed

    Menapace, I; Masad, E; Bhasin, A

    2016-04-01

    This paper offers important insights on the development of the microstructure in asphalt binders as a function of the treatment temperature. Different treatment temperatures are useful to understand how dispersed domains form when different driving energies for the mobility of molecular species are provided. Small and flat dispersed domains, with average diameter between 0.02 and 0.70 μm, were detected on the surface of two binders at room temperature, and these domains were observed to grow with an increase in treatment temperature (up to over 2 μm). Bee-like structures started to appear after treatment at or above 100°C. Moreover, the effect of the binder thickness on its microstructure at room temperature and at higher treatment temperatures was investigated and is discussed in this paper. At room temperature, the average size of the dispersed domains increased as the binder thickness decreased. A hypothesis that conciliates current theories on the origin and development of dispersed domains is proposed. Small dispersed domains (average diameter around 0.02 μm) are present in the bulk of the binder, whereas larger domains and bee-like structures develop on the surface, following heat treatment or mechanical disturbance that reduces the film thickness. Molecular mobility and association are the key factors in the development of binder microstructure.

  5. Aromaticity Parameters in Asphalt Binders Calculated From Profile Fitting X-ray Line Spectra Using Pearson VII and Pseudo-Voigt Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokoff, J.; Lewis, J. Courtenay

    2010-10-01

    The aromaticity and crystallite parameters in asphalt binders are calculated from data obtained after profile fitting x-ray line spectra using Pearson VII and pseudo-Voigt functions. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the peak profile fit parameters used, peak deconvolution procedure, and differences in calculated values that can arise owing to peak shape and additional peaks present in the pattern. These results have implications concerning the evaluation and performance of asphalt binders used in highways and road applications.

  6. Using pyrolized carbon black from waste tires in asphalt pavement. Part 1. Limestone aggregate. Final report, September 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.; Lovell, C.W.

    1996-02-20

    The study presents the viability of using pyrolyzed carbon black (PCB) as an additive in hot mix asphalt concrete. Different ratios of PCB (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% by weight of asphalt) were blended with two grades of asphalt (AC-10 and AC-20). The complete behaviors of the PCB modified asphalt concrete were investigated by comprehensive laboratory testing and evaluation. The Marshall method was used to determine the optimum binder content, and the mechanical properties and void relationships were investigated by this method. The Gyratory Testing Machine was used to define the stress-strain relationships of the PCB mixtures. The rutting potential of PCB mixtures was investigated using the Dynamic Creep Testing. The performance of the PCB mixtures at low temperature (5 degrees C) was determined by the Indirect Tensile Testing. The strength performance of the PCB mixtures at intermediate temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C) was examined by the Resilient Modulus Test. The Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device was employed to ascertain the stripping potential of the PCB mixtures. The findings of the study show beneficial effects of added PCB for asphalt mixture. Specifically, test results show that PCB contents of 10% to 15% by weigh of asphalt produce a number of significant 0mprovements. The rutting potential, the temperature susceptibility and the stripping potential can be reduced by the inclusion of PCB in the asphalt mixture. Added material costs of about 6% may well be justified by expected improvements in performance.

  7. Oxidation and photooxidation of asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Mill, T.; Tse, D. )

    1990-07-01

    Oxidation of asphalt is a major cause of pavement failure owing to hardening of the asphalt binder with accompanying changes in viscosity, separation of components, embrittlement and loss of cohesion and adhesion of the asphalt in the mix. However oxidation of asphalt-aggregate mixes at high temperature is deliberately done to partly harden the mix prior to laydown; hardening then continues during cooling. Excessive hardening at this point is undesirable because of embrittlement and cracking. Slow oxidation of asphalt continues during the service life of the roadbed at a rate that appears to be partly determined by the void volume of the roadbed, as well as the properties of the asphalt and (possibly) the properties of the aggregate. The authors focused their efforts on understanding the mechanistic basis for slow oxidation of asphalt under service conditions in order to predict how rapidly an asphalt will oxidize, based on its composition, and to find better ways to inhibit the process under service conditions.

  8. Evaluation of Asphalt Binder Modifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    level of two different high -molecular-weight polymers. Since the two- component polymer modified materials did not perform as favorably as the other two... high - and low- temperature performance is suggested from these laboratory test results. Field test results indicate that improved resistance to...AVAILABILITY OF REPORT . Approved for public release; distribution 2b. DECLASSIFICATION I DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE unlimited. 4. PERFORMiNG ORGANIZATION REPORT

  9. Investigation of factors affecting asphalt pavement recycling and asphalt compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Venable, R.L.; Petersen, J.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Plancher, H.

    1983-03-01

    Both economic and environmental factors dictate that asphalt pavement be recycled. Many recycling projects have been completed using a variety of recycling additives, but little work has been done on the physiochemical aspects of pavement recycling. The present exploratory study was undertaken to better define the physiochemical variables of recycling. Objectives of the present study include: (1) to determine if molecular structuring in the asphalt binder could be observed in oxidized (air-aged) asphalt-aggregate briquets, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquits, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquet recycling and (2) to determine if recycling agents penetrate the strongly adsorbed asphalt layer on the aggregate surface. Differences were seen in asphalt component compatibility as judged by the state of peptization parameters. In extreme cases the values of the parameters correlated with properties of asphalts of known compatibility; however, a relationship between the parameters determined on a series of asphalts in pavements was not established. The parameters might be useful in evaluating additives for pavement recycling; however, more systems need to be studied to fully assess their potential usefulness. Finally, the parameters need to be correlated with performance-related measurements such as asphalt rheological and mix properties. Examination of the parameters and their changes on asphalt oxidative aging may also be informative with regard to asphalt durability inasmuch as oxidation-induced changes are a major cause of asphalt pavement failure.

  10. Rheological properties of asphalts with particulate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, N.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave asphalt binder specifications are performance-based specifications for purchasing asphalt binders for the construction of roads. This means that the asphalt is characterized by fundamental material (rheological) properties that relate to the distress modes of the pavements. The distress modes addressed are primarily rutting, fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. For example, G*/sin({delta}) is designed to predict the rutting potential of pavements, where G* is the magnitude of the complex shear modulus and 6 is the phase angle. The binder for a road that is situated in a certain climatic zone requires the binder to have a minimum G*/sin({delta}) of 2200 Pa at the highest consecutive 7-day average pavement temperature the road had experienced. Implicit in such a performance based specification is that the fundamental property, G*/sin({delta}), of the binder correlates with rutting potential of the pavement regardless of the nature of the binder. In other words, the specification is transparent to the fact that the binder can simply be an asphalt, or an asphalt modified by polymers, particulates and other materials that can form a two-phase mixture. This paper discusses the asphalt-particulate system.

  11. MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT COVER CONTAINMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to make improvements to conventional paving asphalt to make it more suitable for containment applications, Wilder Construction Co. of Everett, WA offers MatCon, a polymer modified asphalt system comprised of proprietary binder, when coupled with a selected aggregate type...

  12. Recycled rubber, aggregate, and filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    ;Contents(Partial): Evaluation Systems for Crumb Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures; Hot Mix Asphalt Rubber Applications in Virginia; Evaluation of Pyrolized Carbon Black from Scrap Tires as Additive in Hot Mix Asphalt; Use of Scrap Tire Chips in Asphaltic Membrane; Effects of Mineral Fillers on Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures; and Quantitative Analysis of Aggregate Based on Hough Transform.

  13. Evaluation of Cement, Lime, and Asphalt Amended Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Residues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    waste does not contain sufficient pozzolans for lime solidification, or if organics in the cement residue mixes are excessive, a low 3 strength material...occur due to insufficient coverage of the residue by the asphalt binder . This defeats the asphalt’s primary metal immobilization mechanism...stabilized waste form direct contact with an cidic environment (Cote, 1986). Asphalt Amended Wastes. As with most thermoplastic agent, asphalt binder

  14. Supercritical fractions as asphalt recycling agents and preliminary aging studies on recycled asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, J.M.; Liu, M.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Bullin, J.A.

    1997-03-01

    Several asphalts were fractionated using supercritical pentane. These fractions were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and their viscosities were measured. The properties of these fractions vary not only among the fractions of a given asphalt but also for the same fraction produced from different asphalts. These widely varied fractions previously have been shown to have potential for reblending to produce superior asphalts. This study investigates the potential for using some of the fractions as asphalt recycling agents. A modified strategic highway research program (SHRP) pressure aging vessel (PAV) test and kinetics studies were conducted on nine recycled asphalts and the original asphalt. The aging indexes of eight of the recycled asphalts are superior to the aging index of the original asphalt. Two of the blends using industrial supercritical fractions and the three blends using laboratory supercritical fractions have lower aging indexes than blends using commercial recycling agents. The kinetics investigation also indicates that at road conditions the recycled asphalts will harden more slowly than the original asphalt. The degree of hardening for a given amount of oxidation in the recycled binders was found to be a strong function of the total saturate content in the recycled binder.

  15. Feasibility of using 100% Recycled Asphalt Pavement mixtures for road construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Russell Edgar, IV

    Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is the largest recycled good in the United States and 80 million tons are recycled yearly, saving taxpayers about $1.5 billion dollars. This paper explores the possibility of utilizing 100% RAP materials in asphalt pavement. Asphalt mixtures are produced at 135°C in a typical asphalt plant. However, at 135°C, not all binder from RAP materials may not become effective for coating aggregates. The main objective of the study is to determine the amount of effective binder available from RAP in the asphalt plant. The 100% RAP mixes have aged binder that can alter mix designs and interaction with virgin binder. In this study, to determine low temperature cracking resistance and fatigue performance, samples were prepared using a 100% RAP mix with no virgin binder and a 100% RAP mix with virgin asphalt binder to achieve the optimum binder content of the mix. Second, to determine the effectiveness of binder from RAP materials, compaction tests were performed by heating RAP materials at various temperatures. It was found that 100% RAP mixes cannot be feasible for field use if additional virgin binder is added to reach the optimum asphalt content. Based on limited test results, the low temperature grade was not within proper limits but the beam fatigue testing results were acceptable. Based on compaction test results, additional heating is needed to increase the effectiveness of asphalt binder from RAP materials.

  16. Contributions of performance-graded asphalt to low temperature cracking resistance of pavements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, S.W.; Olek, J.

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to study and evaluate the role that asphalt cracking. As part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) new specifications for asphalt binders were developed that are based on the performance of the material. The asphalt binder graded and specified according to these new performance-based specifications is called PG binder. These new specifications are commonly referred to as Superpave (Superior Performing Asphalt Pavement) binder specifications. A section of Interstate 64 in southern Indiana was experiencing severe low temperature cracking before it was reconstructed over the summers of 1995 and 1996. The binder used in the new pavement mixes was PG material. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) tests, Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) tests, and viscosity tests were performed on this binder. Comparisons were made between test results obtained from the binders in the old pavement and the new pavement. All tests and comparisons were based on the Superpave binder specifications.

  17. Investigation of modified asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimich, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Currently the problem of improving the asphalt quality is very urgent. It is used primarily as topcoats exposed to the greatest relative to the other layers of the road, dynamic load - impact and shear. The number of cars on the road, the speed of their movement, as well as the traffic intensity increase day by day. We have to upgrade motor roads, which entails a huge cost. World experience shows that the issue is urgent not only in Russia, but also in many countries in Europe, USA and Asia. Thus, the subject of research is the resistance of asphalt concrete to water and its influence on the strength of the material at different temperatures, and resistance of pavement to deformation. It is appropriate to search for new modifiers for asphaltic binder and mineral additives for asphalt mix to form in complex the skeleton of the future asphalt concrete, resistant to atmospheric condensation, soil characteristics of the road construction area, as well as the growing road transport load. The important task of the work is searching special modifying additives for bitumen binder and asphalt mixture as a whole, which will improve the quality of highways, increasing the period between repairs. The methods described in the normative-technical documentation were used for the research. The conducted research allowed reducing the frequency of road maintenance for 7 years, increasing it from 17 to 25 years.

  18. Characterization of cold recycled asphalt mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tia, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this study, the long-term behavior of the cold-recycled asphalt mixtures was investigated through nine experimental designs. The scope of the study covered two types of pavement material, three levels of oxydized condition of the old binder and one type of virgin aggregate. The added softening agents included a high-float asphalt emulsion AE-150, a foamed asphalt, and the rejuvenating agents, Reclamite, Mobilsol and DUTREX 739. The Water Sensitivity Test was used to evaluate the resistance of the recycled mixes to water. The results of the study indicated that most of the rejuvenating action of the added binder on the old binder took place during the compaction process. The binders of the recycled mixes which underwent the initial softening during the compaction process generally increased in stiffness with increasing curing time. The results indicated that the gyratory stability index and the gyratory elasto-plastic index could be used to determine the optimum binder content of a recycled mix. However, they could not be used to estimate the resilient modulus or the Marshall stability of the mix.A higher compactive effort generally produced a higher resilient modulus and Marshall stability of the recycled mix. When the binder content is too high, a higher compactive effort generally produces a lower Hveem R-value.The structural performance of these recycled mixes was compared to that of an asphalt concrete using a linear elastic multilayer analysis.

  19. Compatibilizer for crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Labib, M.E.; Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The United States of America discards more than 300 million tires each year, and out of that a large fraction of the tires is dumped into stock piles. This large quantity of tires creates an environmental problem. The use of scrap tires is limited. There is a usage potential in such fields as fuel for combustion and Crumb Rubber-Modified Asphalt binder (CRMA). The use of crumb rubber in modifying asphalt is not a new technique; it is been used since early 1960 by pavement engineers. Crumb rubber is a composite of different blends of natural and synthetic rubber (natural rubber, processing oils, polybutadiene, polystyrene butadiene, and filler). Prior research had concluded that the performance of crumb rubber modified asphalt is asphalt dependent. In some cases it improves the Theological properties and in some cases it degrades the properties of modified asphalt.

  20. High Modulus Asphalt Concrete with Dolomite Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonovs, V.; Tihonovs, J.; Smirnovs, J.

    2015-11-01

    Dolomite is one of the most widely available sedimentary rocks in the territory of Latvia. Dolomite quarries contain about 1,000 million tons of this material. However, according to Latvian Road Specifications, this dolomite cannot be used for average and high intensity roads because of its low quality, mainly, its LA index (The Los Angeles abrasion test). Therefore, mostly the imported magmatic rocks (granite, diabase, gabbro, basalt) or imported dolomite are used, which makes asphalt expensive. However, practical experience shows that even with these high quality materials roads exhibit rutting, fatigue, and thermal cracks. The aim of the research is to develop a high performance asphalt concrete for base and binder courses using only locally available aggregates. In order to achieve resistance against deformations at a high ambient temperature, a hard grade binder was used. Workability, fatigue and thermal cracking resistance, as well as sufficient water resistance is achieved by low porosity (3-5%) and higher binder content compared to traditional asphalt mixtures. The design of the asphalt includes a combination of empirical and performance based tests, which in laboratory circumstances allow simulating traffic and environmental loads. High performance AC 16 base asphalt concrete was created using local dolomite aggregate with polymer modified (PMB 10/40-65) and hard grade (B20/30) bitumen. The mixtures were specified based on fundamental properties in accordance with EN 13108-1 standard.

  1. Current practices for modification of paving asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Bahia, H.U.; Perdomo, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave binder specification, AASHTO MP1, has introduced new concepts for selecting paving asphalt binders. The specification, in addition to using rheological and failure measurements that are more related to performance, is based on the idea that the criteria to maintain a satisfactory contribution of asphalt binders to the resistance of pavement failures remains the same but have to be satisfied at critical application temperatures. The test procedures require that the material be characterized within certain ranges of strains or stresses to ensure that material and geometric non-linearities are not confounded in the measurements. These new specification concepts have resulted in re-evaluation of asphalt modification by the majority of modified asphalt suppliers. The philosophy of asphalt modification is expected to change, following these new concepts, from a general improvement of quality to more focus on using modifiers based on the most critical need as defined by two factors: (1) The application temperature domain and (2) the type of distress to be remedied. The new specification requirements should result in a more effective use of modifiers as the amount and type of modifier will be directly related to the application environment and the engineering requirements.

  2. Reclaimed manufacturer asphalt roofing shingles in asphalt mixtures. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, A.B.

    1999-04-23

    The purpose of this project was to pave a test section using hot mix asphalt with roofing shingle pieces in the wearing and binder courses and to evaluate. The test project near Allentown, PA plus two other test projects in 1998 provide evidence of very good pavement performance. The bituminous concrete mix was modified with shredded shingles with a maximum size of 1/2 inch which added 1% of the asphalt content. The Department issued a statewide Provisional Specification titled Reclaimed Manufacturer Asphalt Roofing Shingles in Plant-Mixed Bituminous Concrete Courses'' on March 15, 1999. New manufacturer asphalt roofing shingle scrap including tab punch-outs can be successfully incorporated in bituminous concrete pavements if the shingles are shredded to 100% passing the 3/4 inch sieve. To take full advantage of the potential to replace a portion of the asphalt and therefore, reduce mix costs, shingles should be shredded to 100% passing minus 1/2 inch sieve.

  3. Asphalt and asphalt additives. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Contents: use of asphalt emulsions for in-place recycling: oregon experience; gap-graded cold asphalt concrete: benefits of polymer-modified asphalt cement and fibers; cold in-place recycling for rehabilitation and widening of low-volume flexible pavements in indiana; in situ cold recycling of bituminous pavements with polymer-modified high float emulsions; evaluation of new generation of antistripping additives; correlation between performance-related characteristics of asphalt cement and its physicochemical parameters using corbett's fractions and hpgc; reaction rates and hardening susceptibilities as determined from pressure oxygen vessel aging of asphalts; evaluation of aging characteristics of asphalts by using tfot and rtfot at different temperature levels; summary of asphalt additive performance at selected sites; relating asphalt absorption to properties of asphalt cement and aggregate; study of the effectiveness of styrene-butadiene rubber latex in hot mix asphalt mixes; stability of straight and polymer-modified asphalts.

  4. Analysis of Adhesive Characteristics of Asphalt Based on Atomic Force Microscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Yi, Junyan; Feng, Decheng; Huang, Yudong; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-05-18

    Asphalt binder is a very important building material in infrastructure construction; it is commonly mixed with mineral aggregate and used to produce asphalt concrete. Owing to the large differences in physical and chemical properties between asphalt and aggregate, adhesive bonds play an important role in determining the performance of asphalt concrete. Although many types of adhesive bonding mechanisms have been proposed to explain the interaction forces between asphalt binder and mineral aggregate, few have been confirmed and characterized. In comparison with chemical interactions, physical adsorption has been considered to play a more important role in adhesive bonding between asphalt and mineral aggregate. In this study, the silicon tip of an atomic force microscope was used to represent silicate minerals in aggregate, and a nanoscale analysis of the characteristics of adhesive bonding between asphalt binder and the silicon tip was conducted via an atomic force microscopy (AFM) test and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results of the measurements and simulations could help in better understanding of the bonding and debonding procedures in asphalt-aggregate mixtures during hot mixing and under traffic loading. MD simulations on a single molecule of a component of asphalt and monocrystalline silicon demonstrate that molecules with a higher atomic density and planar structure, such as three types of asphaltene molecules, can provide greater adhesive strength. However, regarding the real components of asphalt binder, both the MD simulations and AFM test indicate that the colloidal structural behavior of asphalt also has a large influence on the adhesion behavior between asphalt and silicon. A schematic model of the interaction between asphalt and silicon is presented, which can explain the effect of aging on the adhesion behavior of asphalt.

  5. Evaluation of properties of recycled asphalt concrete hot mix

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the laboratory performance of recycled asphalt concrete mixtures and to compare these results to those measured for conventional asphalt concrete mixtures. To make these comparisons, samples of aged asphalt concrete were obtained from three locations where recycling was planned. These samples were blended with new aggregate and new asphalt materials to produce six different recycled mixtures. Two aggregate types, a crushed gravel and a crushed limestone, were used to produce two conventional mixtures and to blend with the reclaimed asphalt pavement to produce the six recycled mixtures. Three asphalt materials which were obtained to produce the various mixtures being evaluated consisted of AC-20 for preparing the conventional mixtures and AC-5 and a recycling agent for preparing the recycled mixtures. The Shell BISAR computer program was used to predict the stesses and strains for two typical pavement sections under a given loading conditions. The computed stresses and strains were then analyzed along with the laboratory fatigue tests to predict the fatigue performance of the various mixtures. The results of this study indicated a satisfactory comparison between laboratory performance of recycled mixtures and conventional mixtures. Fatigue analysis indicated that the conventional mixtures would provide the greatest fatigue resistance in thick asphalt concrete layers at lower temperatures while the recycled mixtures would provide the greatest fatigue resistance in thin asphalt layers at higher temperatures.

  6. Effect of ageing on rheological properties of storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yu, Jianying; Wu, Shaopeng

    2010-10-15

    Oxidative ageing as an inevitable process in practical road paving has a great effect on the properties of polymer-modified asphalts (PMAs). In this article, the effect of short-term and long-term oxidative ageing on the rheological, physical properties and the morphology of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)- and storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts was studied, respectively. The analysis on the rheological and physical properties of the PMAs before and after ageing showed the two major effects of ageing. On one hand, ageing prompted the degradation of polymer and increased the viscous behaviour of the modified binders, on the other, ageing changed the asphalt compositions and improved the elastic behaviour of the modified binders. The final performance of the aged binders depended on the combined effect. After ageing, the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts showed an obvious viscous behaviour compare with the SBS-modified asphalts and this led to an improved low-temperature creep property. The rutting resistance of the SBS-modified asphalts declined by the addition of sulfur due to the structural instability of the SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. The rheological properties of the modified binders before and after ageing also depended strongly on the structural characteristics of SBS. The observation by using optical microscopy showed the compatibility between asphalt and SBS was improved with further ageing, especially for the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

  7. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Khattak, Mohammad Jamal; Gallo, August A

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification.

  8. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Gallo, August A.

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification. PMID:27437456

  9. The Asphalt Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The new and completely revised edition of the Asphalt Handbook, a standard reference work in the field of asphalt technology and construction, summarizes with reference the information contained in other Asphalt Institute technical manuals. Major areas discussed include the following--(1) uses of asphalt, (2) terms relating to asphalt and its…

  10. Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Additives for Use in Modified Asphalt Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamoun, Zahi

    The objective of this research effort is to evaluate the use of warm-mix additives with polymer modified and terminal blend tire rubber asphalt mixtures from Nevada and California. The research completed over two stages: first stage evaluated two different WMA technologies; Sasobit and Advera, and second stage evaluated one additional WMA technology; Evotherm. The experimental program covered the evaluation of resistance of the mixtures to moisture damage, the performance characteristics of the mixtures, and mechanistic analysis of mixtures in simulated pavements. In the both stages, the mixture resistance to moisture damage was evaluated using the indirect tensile test and the dynamic modulus at multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and the resistance of the various asphalt mixtures to permanent deformation using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT). Resistance of the untreated mixes to fatigue cracking using the flexural beam fatigue was only completed for the first stage. One source of aggregates was sampled in, two different batches, three warm mix asphalt technologies (Advera, Sasobit and Evotherm) and three asphalt binder types (neat, polymer-modified, and terminal blend tire rubber modified asphalt binders) typically used in Nevada and California were evaluated in this study. This thesis presents the resistance of the first stage mixtures to permanent deformation and fatigue cracking using two warm-mix additives; Advera and Sasobit, and the resistance to moisture damage and permanent deformation of the second stage mixtures with only one warm-mix additive; Evotherm.

  11. Road asphalt modifiers based on oil-resistant rubbers and products of thermal transformations of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sharypov, V.I.; Kiselev, V.P.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Bugaenko, M.B.; Kuznetsov, B.N.

    2008-07-15

    The properties of asphalt binder modifiers prepared by dissolving butadiene-acrylonitrile rubbers and their production waste in liquid products of heat treatment of various brands of coal were studied.

  12. A review of the fundamentals of polymer-modified asphalts: Asphalt/polymer interactions and principles of compatibility.

    PubMed

    Polacco, Giovanni; Filippi, Sara; Merusi, Filippo; Stastna, George

    2015-10-01

    During the last decades, the number of vehicles per citizen as well as the traffic speed and load has dramatically increased. This sudden and somehow unplanned overloading has strongly shortened the life of pavements and increased its cost of maintenance and risks to users. In order to limit the deterioration of road networks, it is necessary to improve the quality and performance of pavements, which was achieved through the addition of a polymer to the bituminous binder. Since their introduction, polymer-modified asphalts have gained in importance during the second half of the twentieth century, and they now play a fundamental role in the field of road paving. With high-temperature and high-shear mixing with asphalt, the polymer incorporates asphalt molecules, thereby forming a swallowed network that involves the entire binder and results in a significant improvement of the viscoelastic properties in comparison with those of the unmodified binder. Such a process encounters the well-known difficulties related to the poor solubility of polymers, which limits the number of macromolecules able to not only form such a structure but also maintain it during high-temperature storage in static conditions, which may be necessary before laying the binder. Therefore, polymer-modified asphalts have been the subject of numerous studies aimed to understand and optimize their structure and storage stability, which gradually attracted polymer scientists into this field that was initially explored by civil engineers. The analytical techniques of polymer science have been applied to polymer-modified asphalts, which resulted in a good understanding of their internal structure. Nevertheless, the complexity and variability of asphalt composition rendered it nearly impossible to generalize the results and univocally predict the properties of a given polymer/asphalt pair. The aim of this paper is to review these aspects of polymer-modified asphalts. Together with a brief description of

  13. Asphalt cement poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  14. Effects of two warm-mix additives on aging, rheological and failure properties of asphalt cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omari, Isaac Obeng

    Sustainable road construction and maintenance could be supported when excellent warm-mix additives are employed in the modification of asphalt. These warm-mix additives provide remedies for today's requirements such as fatigue cracking resistance, durability, thermal cracking resistance, rutting resistance and resistance to moisture damage. Warm-mix additives are based on waxes and surfactants which reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions significantly during the construction phase of the pavement. In this study, the effects of two warm mix additives, siloxane and oxidised polyethylene wax, on roofing asphalt flux (RAF) and asphalt modified with waste engine oil (655-7) were investigated to evaluate the rheological, aging and failure properties of the asphalt binders. In terms of the properties of these two different asphalts, RAF has proved to be superior quality asphalt whereas 655-7 is poor quality asphalt. The properties of the modified asphalt samples were measured by Superpave(TM) tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) test as well as modified protocols such as the extended BBR (eBBR) test (LS-308) and the Double- Edge-Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) after laboratory aging. In addition, the Avrami theory was used to gain an insight on the crystallization of asphalt or the waxes within the asphalt binder. This study has however shown that the eBBR and DENT tests are better tools for providing accurate specification tests to curb thermal and fatigue cracking in contemporary asphalt pavements.

  15. Evaluation of asphalt-rubber interlayers. (Revised). Final research report, September 1986-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Estakhri, C.K.; Pendleton, O.; Lytton, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The report presents the field performance results of three asphalt-rubber interlayer test roads in terms of the effectiveness of the interlayer at reducing the rate of reflection cracking. Several variables were included in the field experiments: concentration of rubber, binder application rate, type or source of rubber, and digestion (or mixing) time of asphalt and rubber. Control sections were made up of no interlayer and interlayer binders of polymer-modified asphalt and conventional asphalt cement. Results of the statistical analyses of the data indicated that, in general, asphalt-rubber interlayers are more effective at reducing reflection cracking than no interlayer at all. Asphalt-rubber also peerformed better than control sections composed of asphalt cement interlayers and polymer-modified interlayers except in one case where the interlyaer was composed of a double application of asphalt cement/aggregate. The data also indicated that higher binder application rates lead to imnproved cracking resistance; however, on many test sections, excessively high binder application rates caused flushing at the pavement surface.

  16. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  17. Characterization of asphalt and asphalt recyclability

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, P.C.

    1993-10-01

    The goal of the research program was to construct a simple model and computer programs that will allow at least a qualitative understand of the phase behavior of asphalt (i.e., how asphalt components mix with one another), mixtures of different types of asphalt (i.e., in recycling) and mixtures of asphalt with other materials, such as synthetic polymers. The authors have constructed such a model and computer programs (for Macintosh computers) that allow such calculations to be performed easily.

  18. Pelletized Asphalt for Airfield Damage Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    HD) design is based on the 75-blow Marshall Hammer and utilizes air voids (Va) and voids filled with asphalt (VFA) as criteria for establishing... flowable ); however, these additives pose their own unique problems. For instance, when sulfur is used to stiffen the binder, it has a tendency to...pellets during the manufacturing process. These fines fill the interstices between the pellets and eliminate the point contact thus creating a

  19. Recycling of asphalt mixtures containing crumb rubber. Final report, 1 September 1994-30 August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, B.E.; Tia, M.; Jonsson, G.; Setze, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    An investigation of the effects of Crumb Rubber Modifier (CRM) on asphalt binder and mixture properties was conducted to determine whether or not CRM would have a detrimental effect on the properties of recycled paving mixtures containing CRM RAP. Although CRM increased the viscosity and lowered the temperature susceptibility of the binder, the effect was not pronounced at CRM of 12 percent or less. Recycled structural asphalt mixtures containing 50 percent RAP with 12 percent CRM had essentially the same shear strength and air void content properties as a conventional asphalt mixture without any CRM. However, mixtures containing 18 percent or more CRM could have different properties which may affect recycling operations.

  20. Review of crumb-rubber modified asphalt concrete technology. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Papagiannakis, A.T.; Lougheed, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of the characteristics of crumb-rubber modified (CRM) asphalt pavements. It is comprised of a state-of-the-art literature review and laboratory testing conducted with a Brookfield viscometer. The reaction that occurs between the rubber and asphalt is not a chemical reaction, but rather a diffusion process that includes the physical absorption of aromatic oils from the asphalt into the polymer chain of the rubber. The presence of CRM in asphalt produces a thicker binder, which increases aging and oxidation resistance. The presence of carbon black in CRM improves binder durability. The temperature susceptibility of the mix is reduced, causing more uniform fatigue characteristics. CRM applications have been met with various degrees of success because existing quality control and quality assurance methods have not been developed enough to ensure desired binder properties in the field.

  1. Performance evaluation of high modulus asphalt concrete mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonovs, V.; Tihonovs, J.; Zaumanis, M.

    2016-04-01

    Dolomite is one of the most available sedimentary rocks in the territory of Latvia. Dolomite quarries contain about 1000 million tons of this material. However, according to Latvian Road Specifications, this dolomite cannot be used for average and high intensity roads because of its low quality (mainly, LA index). Therefore, mostly imported magmatic rocks (granite, diabase, gabbro, basalt) or imported dolomite are used which makes asphalt expensive. However, practical experience shows that even with these high quality materials roads exhibit rutting, fatigue and thermal cracks. The aim of the research is to develop a high performance asphalt concrete for base and binder courses using only locally available aggregates. In order to achieve resistance against deformations at a high ambient temperature, a hard grade binder was used. Workability, fatigue and thermal cracking resistance, as well as sufficient water resistance is achieved by low porosity (3-5%) and higher binder content compared to traditional asphalt mixtures. The design of the asphalt includes a combination of empirical and performance based tests, which in laboratory circumstances allow simulating traffic and environmental loads. High performance AC 16 base asphalt concrete was created using local dolomite aggregate with polymer modified (PMB 10/40-65) and hard grade (B20/30) bitumen. The mixtures were specified based on fundamental properties in accordance to EN 13108-1 standard.

  2. Reinforcement of asphalt concrete pavement by segments of exhausted fiber used for sorption of oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashevich, V. N.; Efanov, I. N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper is aimed at construction of the experimental road pavement made of dispersed reinforced asphalt concrete. Electronic paramagnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy and fluorescent bitumen studies were used to prove that disperse reinforcement of asphalt concrete mixtures with fibers of exhausted sorbents reduce the selective filtration of low polymeric fractions of petroleum bitumen and improve its properties in the adsorption layer. Sesquioxides are neutralized as catalysts aging asphalt binder. This leads to improvement in the elasticity of bitumen films at low temperatures and provide better crack resistance of coatings to reduce the intensity of the aging of asphalt binder, and, therefore, to increase the durability of road pavements. The experimental road pavement made of dispersed reinforced asphalt concrete operated during 4 years and demonstrated better transport- performance properties in comparison with the analogue pavements.

  3. Rubberized asphalt emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, E.

    1986-09-02

    A method is described of making a rubberized asphalt composition which comprises the steps of: (a) combining asphalt with a hydrocarbon oil having a flash point of 300/sup 0/F. or more to provide a homogenous asphalt-oil mixture or solution, (b) then combining the asphalt-oil mixture with a particulate rubber at a temperature sufficient to provide a homogenous asphalt-rubber-oil gel, and (c) emulsifying the asphalt-rubber-oil gel by passing the gel, water, and an emulsifying agent through a colloid mill to provide an emulsion.

  4. Evaluation of western and eastern shale oil residua as asphalt pavement recycling agents

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the utility of residual materials prepared from Green River Formation (western) and New Albany Shale (eastern) shale oils as recycling agents for aged asphalt pavement. Four petroleum asphalts were first aged by a thin-film accelerated-aging test, which simulates long service life of asphalt in pavement. The aged asphalts were mixed (recycled) with Green River Formation shale oil distillation residua to restore the original viscosities. Separately, for comparison, a commercial recycling agent was used to recycle the aged asphalts under the same circumstances. The recycled asphalts were reaged and the properties of both binder and asphalt-aggregate mixtures studied. Originally, the same study was intended for an eastern shale residua. However, the eastern shale oil distillation residua with the required flash point specification also had the properties of a viscosity builder; therefore, it was studied as such with asphalts that do not achieve sufficient viscosity during processing to serve as usable binders. Results show that Green River Formation shale oil residuum can be used to restore the original asphalt properties with favorable rheological properties, the shale oil residuum has a beneficial effect on resistance to moisture damage, the low-temperature properties of the shale oil residuum recycled asphalts are not adversely affected, and the low-temperature properties of the shale oil residuum recycled asphalts are dependent upon the chemistry of the mixture. The eastern shale oil residua was blended with soft petroleum asphalts. Results show the products have higher viscosities than the starting materials, the rheological properties of the soft asphalt-eastern shale oil residue blends are acceptable, and the eastern shale oil residue has dispersant properties despite its high viscosity. 11 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Investigation of mineral filler effects on the aging process of asphalt mastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Raquel

    Aging of asphalt binders is induced by chemical and/or physicochemical changes during production of pavement and throughout its service life. Although binder aging in pavement always occurs while binder is in contact with aggregates and mineral filler, in most laboratory aging studies, and in current specifications, asphalt binders are individually aged without accounting for aggregate induced interactions. Past research has had conflicting findings, attributing both mitigating and/or catalytic effects to the presence of mineral filler in asphalt binder with regards to oxidative aging. Thus, in the present study it was hypothesized that evaluation of asphalt oxidative aging without regard to interactive effect of the presence of mineral filler is inadequate as a specification tool. Effects of mineral fillers on oxidative aging of asphalt is investigated by means of accelerated aging of mastics (asphalt and fillers) in Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV). Testing matrix included aging evaluation of mastics containing different fillers content, mineralogy, and surface area. Results showed that low-temperature behavior of aged mastic can be modified by controlling filler concentration and type. Fillers acts as an agent adsorbing heavy fractions of asphalt binder, therefore reducing stiffness and changing glass-transition temperature. Also, during oxidative aging of asphalt binders and mastics, both diffusion and adsorption mechanisms play a role in the rate of aging of asphaltic material. A method to characterize the behavior of mastics with aging was also developed by monitoring the mastics |G*| aging index (ratio of complex modulus before and after aging). Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) testing results supported mentioned findings regarding |G*| changes, as the presence of mineral filler appears to decelerate the rate of production of larger molecular size oxidation products in the binder phase of mastics. Implication of the findings is that change in molecular size

  6. 78 FR 49318 - Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-167A

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20- 167A...: This notice announces the availability of draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and draft AC 20- 167A, Airworthiness Approval of Enhanced Vision System, Synthetic Vision...

  7. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  8. Asphalt coking method

    SciTech Connect

    Bonilla, J.A.; Elliott, J.D.

    1987-08-11

    A process is described for treating a heavy hydrocarbon fluid containing asphaltenes comprising: contacting the heavy hydrocarbon fluid with a solvent, wherein the solvent is light naphtha, C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons, C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons, or a mixture of any of light naphtha and C/sub 4/, C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons, to obtain an asphalt mix, containing asphalt and the solvent, and deasphalted oil mix, containing deasphalted oil and the solvent; feeding the asphalt mix to a delayed coking process to form coke, wherein the asphalt mix is heated by passing the asphalt mix through conduit means in a heater in the delayed coking process. The flow of the asphalt mix through the conduit means is assisted by vaporization in the heater of the solvent in the asphalt mix, and the asphalt mix includes sufficient solvent to provide a residence time of the asphalt mix in the heater adequate for heating the asphalt mix for coking while reducing the formation of coke in the heater; separating the solvent in the deasphalted oil mix from the deasphalted oil mix to yield deasphalted oil; and recovering the deasphalted oil, bypassing the delayed coking process.

  9. Multiscale Constitutive Modeling of Asphalt Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Benjamin Shane

    found that the maximum aggregate size of the FAM is mixture dependent, but consistent with a gradation parameter from the Baily Method of mixture design. Mechanistic modeling of these different length scales reveals that although many consider asphalt concrete to be a LVE material, it is in fact only quasi-LVE because it shows some tendencies that are inconsistent with LVE theory. Asphalt FAM and asphalt mastic show similar nonlinear tendencies although the exact magnitude of the effect differs. These tendencies can be ignored for damage modeling in the mixture and FAM scales as long as the effects are consistently ignored, but it is found that they must be accounted for in mastic and binder damage modeling. The viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model is used for damage modeling in this research. To aid in characterization and application of the VECD model for cyclic testing, a simplified version (S-VECD) is rigorously derived and verified. Through the modeling efforts at each scale, various factors affecting the fundamental and engineering properties at each scale are observed and documented. A microstructure association model that accounts for particle interaction through physico-chemical processes and the effects of aggregate structuralization is developed to links the moduli at each scale. This model is shown to be capable of upscaling the mixture modulus from either the experimentally determined mastic modulus or FAM modulus. Finally, an initial attempt at upscaling the damage and nonlinearity phenomenon is shown.

  10. Performance testing of asphalt concrete containing crumb rubber modifier and warm mix additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikpugha, Omo John

    Utilisation of scrap tire has been achieved through the production of crumb rubber modified binders and rubberised asphalt concrete. Terminal and field blended asphalt rubbers have been developed through the wet process to incorporate crumb rubber into the asphalt binder. Warm mix asphalt technologies have been developed to curb the problem associated with the processing and production of such crumb rubber modified binders. Also the lowered production and compaction temperatures associated with warm mix additives suggests the possibility of moisture retention in the mix, which can lead to moisture damage. Conventional moisture sensitivity tests have not effectively discriminated good and poor mixes, due to the difficulty of simulating field moisture damage mechanisms. This study was carried out to investigate performance properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete, using commercial warm mix asphalt technology. Commonly utilised asphalt mixtures in North America such as dense graded and stone mastic asphalt were used in this study. Uniaxial Cyclic Compression Testing (UCCT) was used to measure permanent deformation at high temperatures. Indirect Tensile Testing (IDT) was used to investigate low temperature performance. Moisture Induced Sensitivity Testing (MiST) was proposed to be an effective method for detecting the susceptibility of asphalt mixtures to moisture damage, as it incorporates major field stripping mechanisms. Sonnewarm(TM), Sasobit(TM) and Evotherm(TM) additives improved the resistance to permanent deformation of dense graded mixes at a loading rate of 0.5 percent by weight of the binder. Polymer modified mixtures showed superior resistance to permanent deformation compared to asphalt rubber in all mix types. Rediset(TM) WMX improves low temperature properties of dense graded mixes at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. Rediset LQ and Rediset WMX showed good anti stripping properties at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. The

  11. Incorporation de particules de bardeaux d'asphalte de postconsommation dans les enrobes bitumineux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malo, Jean-Michel

    Every year, more than 200 000 tons of used residential roofing asphalt shingles are sent to landfills in Quebec. In order to reduce this amount, a research project funded by the 3RMCDQ and RECYC-QUÉBEC is ongoing at the LCMB at École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS) in Montreal. This project studies the feasibility of incorporating tear-off shingles particles in hot mix asphalt which could be used on Quebec roads. Currently, in Quebec, the ministry of Transportation (MTQ), allows the use of 5% of new asphalt shingles (factory reject) in the base course and 3% in the surface course, and tear-off shingles are not allowed. Incorporating new shingles particles is valued notably by the MTQ standardization for a reduction of binder in these mixes. As of now, the MTQ does not have a standard on the use of tear-off shingles, but the subject of experimental boards. The research done at ETS aim to characterize a standard base mix, GB20, and a standard surface mix, ESG-10, that contains tear-off shingles. Mixes containing different percentage of virgin binder were fabricated then tested on compaction capacity, on rutting resistance, on thermal cracking resistance (TSRST) and on complex modulus (E*). The amount of Virgin binder is calculated according to different percentage of effective binder from the shingles. This study has permitted to identify an optimal formula for both types of hot mix asphalt that were tested. Results show that for the standard ESG-10 surface mix, the possible contribution of tear-off asphalt shingles would be about 20%. For the standard GB-20 base mix, no reduction in the virgin binder may be considered for now when 5% of tear-off asphalt shingles are incorporated in the formula mix. In this case, further testing on complex modulus are recommended to obtain meaningful results that will determine if a reduction of the virgin binder would not be favorable.

  12. An atomistic-based chemophysical environment for evaluating asphalt oxidation and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tongyan; Sun, Lu; Yu, Qifeng

    2012-12-01

    Asphalt binders in service conditions are subject to oxidative aging that involves the reactions between oxygen molecules and the component species of bulk asphalt. As a result, significant alterations can occur to the desired physical and/or mechanical properties of asphalt. A common practice to alleviate asphalt aging has been to employ different chemical additives or modifiers as antioxidants. The current state of knowledge in asphalt oxidation and antioxidant evaluation is centered on determining the degradation of asphalt physical properties, mainly the viscosity and ductility. Such practices, although meeting direct engineering needs, do not contribute to the fundamental understanding of the aging and anti-oxidation mechanisms, and thereby developing anti-aging strategies. From this standpoint, this study was initiated to study the chemical and physical bases of asphalt oxidation, as well as the anti-oxidation mechanisms of bio-based antioxidants using the coniferyl-alcohol lignin as an example. A quantum chemistry (QC) based chemophysical environment is developed, in which the various chemical reactions between asphalt component species and oxygen, as well as the incurred physical changes are studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to validate the modified and unmodified asphalt models.

  13. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  14. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  15. Elastomeric Cathode Binder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Soluble copolymer binder mixed with cathode material and solvent forms flexible porous cathode used in lithium and Ni/Cd batteries. Cathodes prepared by this process have lower density due to expanding rubbery binder and greater flexibility than conventional cathodes. Fabrication procedure readily adaptable to scaled-up processes.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of crumb rubber and SBR on rutting resistance of asphalt concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Chuang-Tsair; Tia, Mang; Ruth, B.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effects of addition of crumb rubber (CR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) on the rutting resistance of asphalt concrete. These two additives were blended with an AC-20 and an AC-30 grade asphalt cements at different levels of concentrations. These modified and unmodified asphalt blends were tested at intermediate and high temperatures to evaluate their rutting resistance characteristics. They were also used to make Florida type S-I structural surface mixtures. These mixtures were made into Marshall-size specimens by using Gyratory Testing Machine (GTM) equipped with air-roller to compact and density to three compaction levels which simulate three different conditions in the pavement. The FDOT`s (Florida Department of Transportation) Loaded Wheel Tester was also used to evaluate the rutting resistance of these asphalt mixtures. The test results indicate that the modified asphalt mixtures show relatively better rutting resistance and shear resistance as compared with the unmodified asphalt mixtures.

  17. Modelling and Laboratory Studies on the Adhesion Fatigue Performance for Thin-Film Asphalt and Aggregate System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongsheng; Feng, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion between asphalt and aggregate plays an important role in the performance of asphalt mixtures. A low-frequency adhesion fatigue test was proposed in this paper to study the effect of environment on the asphalt-aggregate adhesion system. The stress-based fatigue model had been utilized to describe the fatigue behavior of thin-film asphalt and aggregate system. The factors influencing the adhesion fatigue performance were also investigated. Experiment results show that asphalt has more important effect on the adhesion performance comparing with aggregate. Basalt, which is regarded as hydrophobic aggregates with low silica content, has better adhesion performance to asphalt binder when compared with granite. The effects of aging on the adhesion fatigue performance are different for PG64-22 and rubber asphalt. Long-term aging is found to reduce the adhesion fatigue lives for rubber asphalt and aggregate system, while the effect of long-term aging for aggregate and PG64-22 binder system is positive. Generally the increased stress amplitude and test temperature could induce greater damage and lead to less fatigue lives for adhesion test system. PMID:25054187

  18. Modelling and laboratory studies on the adhesion fatigue performance for thin-film asphalt and aggregate system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongsheng; Yi, Junyan; Feng, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion between asphalt and aggregate plays an important role in the performance of asphalt mixtures. A low-frequency adhesion fatigue test was proposed in this paper to study the effect of environment on the asphalt-aggregate adhesion system. The stress-based fatigue model had been utilized to describe the fatigue behavior of thin-film asphalt and aggregate system. The factors influencing the adhesion fatigue performance were also investigated. Experiment results show that asphalt has more important effect on the adhesion performance comparing with aggregate. Basalt, which is regarded as hydrophobic aggregates with low silica content, has better adhesion performance to asphalt binder when compared with granite. The effects of aging on the adhesion fatigue performance are different for PG64-22 and rubber asphalt. Long-term aging is found to reduce the adhesion fatigue lives for rubber asphalt and aggregate system, while the effect of long-term aging for aggregate and PG64-22 binder system is positive. Generally the increased stress amplitude and test temperature could induce greater damage and lead to less fatigue lives for adhesion test system.

  19. Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies and Recycled Asphalt Pavements in Truckee Meadows, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Montecino, Cristian

    This study evaluated the properties and laboratory-performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixtures with different levels of Recycled Asphalt Pavements (RAP) content: none for control mixtures, around 15% by dry weight of aggregates, and more than 30% by dry weight of aggregates. The rheological properties were evaluated for virgin and recovered RAP asphalt binders. The target amount of RAP in the mixtures was determined by using Blending Charts and Mortar Experiments. The mixtures are design through the guidelines established in Marshall Mix Design Method considering additional modifications for RAP and WMA from Superpave Mix Design. The mixtures are evaluated for their resistance to moisture damage by means of measuring the Dynamic Modulus |E*| after three freeze/thaw cycles and the indirect tensile strength after one and three freeze/thaw cycles. The resistance of the mixtures to permanent deformation was also evaluated by using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT) to measure the flow number (FN). For this study, it was determined that the resistance to moisture damage decreases as the number of freeze/thaw cycles increases for most of the evaluated mixtures. Mixtures exhibited an increase in dynamic modulus as the RAP percentage increased. A decrease in the resistance to moisture damage was detected with the increase in RAP content for most of the mixtures. HMA mixtures exhibited a better performance in rutting than the WMA mixtures. An increase in rutting resistance was observed with the increase in RAP percentage for HMA mixtures whereas an inconsistent trend was observed for WMA mixtures. Further study is needed to validate the use of the high percentage of RAP in Washoe County.

  20. Estimation of grain size in asphalt samples using digital image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Källén, Hanna; Heyden, Anders; Lindh, Per

    2014-09-01

    Asphalt is made of a mixture of stones of different sizes and a binder called bitumen, the size distribution of the stones is determined by the recipe of the asphalt. One quality check of asphalt is to see if the real size distribution of asphalt samples is consistent with the recipe. This is usually done by first extracting the binder using methylenchloride and the sieving the stones and see how much that pass every sieve size. Methylenchloride is highly toxic and it is desirable to find the size distribution in some other way. In this paper we find the size distribution by slicing up the asphalt sample and using image analysis techniques to analyze the cross-sections. First the stones are segmented from the background, bitumen, and then rectangles are fit to the detected stones. We then estimate the sizes of the stones by using the width of the rectangle. The result is compared with both the recipe for the asphalt and with the result from the standard analysis method, and our method shows good correlation with those.

  1. Microstructural characterization of the chemomechanical behavior of asphalt in terms of aging and fatigue performance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Robert Grover

    The study of asphalt chemo-mechanics requires a basic understanding of the physical properties and chemical composition of asphalt and how these properties are linked to changes in performance induced by chemical modifications. This work uniquely implements the framework of chemo-mechanics by investigating two types of chemical modification processes, natural (oxidative aging) and synthetic (chemical doping) as they relate not only to macro-scale properties of asphalt binder but also to the asphalt microstructure and nanorheology. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and the extraction of nano-scale engineering properties, i.e. elastic modulus, relaxation modulus, and surface energy, as a method to predict performance related to the fatigue characteristics of asphalt binders by modeling intrinsic material flaws present amongst phase interfaces. It was revealed that oxidative aging induces substantial microstructural changes in asphalt, including variations in phase structure, phase properties, and phase distribution. It has also been shown that certain asphalt chemical parameters have a consistent and measureable effect on the asphalt microstructure that is observed with AFM. In fact, particular phases that emerged via chemical doping revealed a surprising correlation between oxidative aging and the saturates chemical parameter of asphalt in terms of how they explicitly impact durability and performance of asphalt. By implementing a crack initiation model---which requires measureable microstructural characteristics as an input parameter---it was found that microstructural flaws (depending on the extremity) can have a more profound impact on asphalt performance than the properties of the material located between the flaws. It was also discovered by comparing the findings to performance data in the Strategic Highway Research Program's (SHRP's) Materials Reference Library (MRL), that the crack initiation model

  2. The effect of crumb rubber particle size to the optimum binder content for open graded friction course.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Koting, Suhana; Mashaan, Nuha S

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%-7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC.

  3. Field Performance of Asphalt Pavements with New Technologies in Northern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faeth, Benjamin Michael

    The Regional Transportation Commission (RTC) of the Washoe Valley Area has been tasked to determine if three advanced asphalt pavement technologies and one modified aggregate gradation are suitable for implementation within Reno, Stead, and Sparks Nevada. This was accomplished through research and test roads and Intersections to determine if Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP), Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), Polymer-Modified Asphalt Binder, and the Type 2-R aggregate gradation were succeeding in their design plans. Over the course of several years the streets being used by RTC to test the technologies are succeeding within their design lifespans, and the Intersections being used to test the Type 2-R aggregate gradation are showing significant resistance to rutting. Due to the roads and Intersections not being more than 10 years old, these conclusions are subject to change over time.

  4. Development of superior asphalt recycling agency: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Lin, Moon-Sun; Chaffin, J.; Liu, Meng; Eckhardt, C.

    1996-04-01

    About every 12 years, asphalt roads must be reworked, and this is usually done by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of failed material, resulting in considerable waste of material and use of new asphalt binder. A good recycling agent is needed, not only to reduce the viscosity of the aged material but also to restore compatibility. Objective is to establish the technical feasibility (Phase I) of determining the specifications and operating parameters for producing high quality recycling agents which will allow most/all the old asphalt-based road material to be recycled. It is expected that supercritical fractionation can be used. The advanced road aging simulation procedure will be used to study aging of blends of old asphalt and recycling agents.

  5. Assessments of low emission asphalt mixtures produced using combinations of foaming agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Hasan, Mohd Rosli

    The asphalt foaming techniques have been used over the last couple of decades as an alternative to the traditional method of preparing asphalt mixtures. Based on positive feedback from the industry, this study was initiated to explore and evaluate the performance of the Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixture produced through a foaming process using physical and chemical foaming agents, which are ethanol and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), respectively. The success of this project may lead to new theories and provide an environmentally friendly technique to produce asphalt mixtures. This may advance the understanding of the foaming process and improve the performance of WMA to support sustainable development. Theoretically, ethanol can function in the same manner as water but requires less energy to foam due to its lower boiling point, 78°C. During the asphalt foaming process, numerous bubbles were generated by the vaporized ethanol, which significantly increased the volume of the asphalt binder, hence the coating potential of aggregates improves. The sodium bicarbonate was incorporated to enhance the quantity of bubbles and its stability. Therefore, understanding foaming agents, their solubility, chemical reactions, chemical function groups and rheological properties of the foamed binder are essential to help control the foam structure and final properties of the foamed WMA mixture. In order to understand the overall performance of newly developed foaming WMA, this material was evaluated for moisture susceptibility, rutting potential, and resistance to fracture and thermal cracking. The coatability, workability and compactability of foamed asphalt mixtures during production were also evaluated. Based on the results, it was found that the newly proposed foaming WMA has high potential to promote sustainable development by lowering the energy consumption and impacts on the environment. The ethanol is efficient in lowering the viscosity of asphalt binders, enhancing the

  6. State of the practice: Design and construction of asphalt paving materials with crumb-rubber modifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzman, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    The document is a comprehensive overview of the terminology, processes, products, and applications of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) technology. The technology includes any use of scrap tire rubber in asphalt paving materials. In general, CRM technology can be divided into two categories--the wet process and the dry process. When CRM is incorporated into an asphalt paving material, it will modify the properties of the binder (asphalt rubber) and/or act as a rubber aggregate (rubber modified hot mix asphalt). The five concepts for using CRM discussed in the report are McDonald, PlusRide, generic dry, chunk rubber asphalt concrete, and continuous blending asphalt rubber. There are two principal unresolved engineering issues related to the use of CRM in asphalt paving materials. On the national level, the ability to recycle asphalt paving mixes containing CRM has not been demonstrated. At the State and local levels, these modified asphalt mixes must be field evaluated to establish expected levels of performance. The appendices provide guidelines for material specifications, mix design, and construction specifications. An experimental work plan for monitoring performance and a stack emission testing program are also included.

  7. 75 FR 13646 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ..., Hand Fire Extinguishers for Use in Aircraft ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal... received regarding proposed advisory circular (AC) 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers for use in Aircraft... guidance for the fire-fighting effectiveness, selection, location, mounting and safe-use of hand...

  8. Microbial Degradation of Asphalt1

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, U. A.; Traxler, R. W.

    1963-01-01

    Organisms of the genera Pseudomonas, Chromobacterium, and Bacillus capable of degrading asphalt were isolated by enrichment cultures. The asphalt degradation by these organisms varied from 3 to 25% after incubation for 1 week. The effects of temperature, pH, and atmosphere of incubation on asphalt degradation were investigated and were shown to vary with different organisms on the same substrate. PMID:16349633

  9. Asphalt pavement surfaces and asphalt mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The papers in this volume, which deal with asphalt pavement surfaces and asphalt mixtures, should be of interest to state and local construction, design, materials, and research engineers as well as contractors and material producers. The papers in Part 1 include discussions of pavement smoothness specifications and skidding characteristics. The first four papers in Part 2 were submitted in response to a call for papers for a session at the 75th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board on low-temperature properties of hot-mix asphalt. The next eight are on the influence of volumetric and strength properties on the performance of hot-mix asphalt. In the following three papers, the topics covered are the complex modulus of asphalt concrete, cold in-place asphalt recycling, and polymer modification of asphalt pavements in Ontario. The last two papers were presented in a session on relationship of materials characterization to accelerated pavement performance testing.

  10. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Rean; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra; Mohamed, Nazim

    2015-01-01

    The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB), and TLA : TPB (50 : 50) blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G∗) and phase angle (δ) were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G∗/sinδ values) and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G∗sinδ value). The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50) blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials. PMID:26336652

  11. New energetic epoxy binders

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S.R.; Amanulla, S.

    1996-07-01

    A new class of epoxy resins having N{single_bond}N bonds in the backbone has been synthesized with a view to explore their properties as energetic binders. The N-epoxidation of bis-dicarbonylhydrazones of adipic, azelaic and sebacic dihydrazides results in the formation of viscous resins having epoxide end groups. The resins have been characterized by the elemental and end group analyses, IR and NMR spectra. Relevant properties for their use as binders in solid propellants, such as thermal stability, heat of combustion, burn rate and performance parameters of AP-based propellant systems, have been evaluated. A significant increase in the burn rate of AP-based propellants noticed, is perhaps related to the exothermicity of the binder decomposition and the reactivity of N{single_bond}N bonds with perchloric acid formed during the combustion of AP.

  12. Slow mechanical relaxation in asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Stastna, J.; Zanzotto, L.

    1996-12-31

    Asphalt (or bitumen) is one of the earliest construction materials used by mankind. However, despite the long history of its use and the important role it plays at the present time, in the construction of pavements, the composition and especially the structure of asphalt is still not fully understood. It is generally believed that asphalt is a multiphase system in which the large and polar molecules called asphaltenes, or their agglomerates are dispersed in the medium consisting of the smaller molecules with low or no polarity. Opinions on how the asphalt structure is arranged vary. The study of asphalt structure is made extremely difficult by the nature of this material. Non-invasive methods such as dynamic mechanical or electric testing, which investigate the asphalt in its original state may greatly contribute to our knowledge of the asphalt internal structure.

  13. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

  14. Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Chaffin, J.; Lin, Moon-Sun

    1995-07-01

    About 27 million tons of asphalt and nearly twenty times this much aggregate are consumed each year to build and maintain over two million miles of roads in this country. Over a cycle of about 12 years on the average, these roads must be reworked and much of these millions of tons of rock and asphalt cannot be reused with present recycling technology. Instead, much of the maintenance is accomplished by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of the failed material. This results in considerable waste of material, both in terms of quality aggregate and in terms of asphalt binder. In addition, the new asphalt binder represents a significant source of potential energy. The main impediment to recycling asphalt binder is the poorly developed science of recycling agent composition and, as a result, optimum recycling agents are not available. An excellent recycling agent should not only be able to reduce the viscosity of the aged material, but it must also be able to restore compatibility. The properties of the old material and recycling agent must be compatible to give both good initial properties and aging characteristics, and this must be understood. The agent must also be inexpensive and easily manufactured. A large quantity of potential feedstock for the production of recycling agents is available and much of it is now fed to cokers. This material could be recovered by supercritical extraction which is an existing refinery technology. A supercritical pilot plant is available at Texas A&M and has been used to produce fractions for study. The objective of this research is to establish the technical feasibility of determining the specifications and operating parameters necessary to produce high quality recycling agents which will allow most old asphalt-based road material to be recycled.

  15. Discovery with "Binders".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candler, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    It is helpful to elicit sentences using "binders" and to examine their properties together, especially when the indigenous language has textual and logical processes different from those of English. Such a procedure increases students' awareness of the delicacy of the clause/sentence grammar which pivots around these difficult words. (Author)

  16. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  17. Use of waste toner in asphaltic concrete. Research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Solaimanian, M.; Kennedy, T.W.; McGennis, R.B.

    1997-02-01

    Every year, a tremendous amount of toner is produced for copiers and printers by toner manufacturing companies throughout the United States. Some of this toner does not meet quality specifications and consequently becomes a waste product of the manufacturing process. This manufacturing waste, along with the spent toner (residue) from copiers and printer cartridges, is dumped into landfills for lack of a better way utilizing the material. A cooperative research project undertaken by the Texas Department of Transportation and The University of Texas at Austin investigated the feasibility and potential benefits of utilizing waste toner in hot-mix asphalt concrete. The research program included procuring a number of different waste and spent toners, blending them with asphalt cement at different ratios, and evaluating the binder and mixtures properties resulting from the waste toner addition.

  18. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  19. Assessment of asphalt mixtures characteristics through GPR testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, Jorge; Fernandes, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Road pavements are composed by granular and asphalt layers, placed over the pavement subgrade, which are designed to resist to traffic and climatic effects. Pavement distresses include permanent deformation mainly due to the contribution of the subgrade and fatigue cracking in the asphalt layers. Fatigue cracking is the main pavement distress and is responsible for the main rehabilitations carried out in road pavements which leads, in most cases, to the pavement reconstruction due to the severity of the cracking observed in many roads. For a given aggregate gradation, the fatigue cracking resistance is related to the proportions of the components in the asphalt mixtures, namely the void content and the binder content. Also the presence of water, or moisture, has an important influence in the fatigue resistance, and its effect is characterized by a reduction in the fatigue cracking resistance. The characteristics of the asphalt mixtures applied in road pavements can be assessed in laboratory through the testing of cores extracted from the pavement. These cores are extracted some representative section of the pavement, usually equally spaced in the road. Due to the construction process, the representative sections of the pavement don't allow to identify the quality of the whole pavement. Thus, the use of continuous measurement is essential to ensure the perfect assessment of the pavement quality and the use of the GPR assumes a paramount importance. Thus, this communication presents several GPR tests carried out on pavement slabs produced in laboratory with different void content, binder content and moisture content in order to establish different classifiers that will allow the identification of this condition during regular inspections. Furthermore, tests carried on specimens before and after fatigue tests will allow to calculate similar parameters to estimate the state of conservation of pavements in terms of stiffness and the presence of cracks. This work is a

  20. A review of changes in composition of hot mix asphalt in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Diane J; Marano, Kristin M; Nunes, Anthony P; Adams, Robert C

    2009-11-01

    This review researched the materials, methods, and practices in the hot mix asphalt industry that might impact future exposure assessments and epidemiologic research on road paving workers. Since World War II, the U.S. interstate highway system, increased traffic volume, transportation speeds, and vehicle axle loads have necessitated an increase in demand for hot mix asphalt for road construction and maintenance, while requiring a consistent road paving product that meets state-specific physical performance specifications. We reviewed typical practices in hot mix asphalt paving in the United States to understand the extent to which materials are and have been added to hot mix asphalt to meet specifications and how changes in practices and technology could affect evaluation of worker exposures for future research. Historical documents were reviewed, and industry experts from 16 states were interviewed to obtain relevant information on industry practices. Participants from all states reported additive use, with most being less than 2% by weight. Crumb rubber and recycled asphalt pavement were added in concentrations approximately 10% per unit weight of the mix. The most frequently added materials included polymers and anti-stripping agents. Crumb rubber, sulfur, asbestos, roofing shingles, slag, or fly ash have been used in limited amounts for short periods of time or in limited geographic areas. No state reported using coal tar as an additive to hot mix asphalt or as a binder alternative in hot mix pavements for high-volume road construction. Coal tar may be present in recycled asphalt pavement from historical use, which would need to be considered in future exposure assessments of pavers. Changes in hot mix asphalt production and laydown emission control equipment have been universally implemented over time as the technology has become available to reduce potential worker exposures. This work is a companion review to a study undertaken in the petroleum refining

  1. Thermal behavior of crumb-rubber modified asphalt concrete mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Amy Louise

    Thermal cracking is one of the primary forms of distress in asphalt concrete pavements, resulting from either a single drop in temperature to an extreme low or from multiple temperature cycles above the fracture temperature of the asphalt-aggregate mixture. The first mode described is low temperature cracking; the second is thermal fatigue. The addition of crumb-rubber, manufactured from scrap tires, to the binder in asphalt concrete pavements has been suggested to minimize both types of thermal cracking. Four experiments were designed and completed to evaluate the thermal behavior of crumb-rubber modified (CRM) asphalt-aggregate mixtures. Modified and unmodified mixture response to thermal stresses was measured in four laboratory tests. The Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST) and the Indirect Tensile Test (IDT) were used to compare mixture resistance to low temperature cracking. Modified mixtures showed improved performance, and cooling rate did not affect mixture resistance according to the statistical analysis. Therefore results from tests with faster rates can predict performance under slower field rates. In comparison, predicted fracture temperatures and stresses (IDT) were generally higher than measured values (TSRST). In addition, predicted fracture temperatures from binder test results demonstrated that binder testing alone is not sufficient to evaluate CRM mixtures. Thermal fatigue was explored in the third experiment using conventional load-induced fatigue tests with conditions selected to simulate daily temperature fluctuations. Test results indicated that thermal fatigue may contribute to transverse cracking in asphalt pavements. Both unmodified and modified mixtures had a finite capacity to withstand daily temperature fluctuations coupled with cold temperatures. Modified mixtures again exhibited improved performance. The fourth experiment examined fracture properties of modified and unmodified mixtures using a common fracture toughness test

  2. Development of an Image-based Multi-Scale Finite Element Approach to Predict Fatigue Damage in Asphalt Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, Amir

    Image-based simulation of complex materials is a very important tool for understanding their mechanical behavior and an effective tool for successful design of composite materials. In this thesis an image-based multi-scale finite element approach is developed to predict the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. In this approach the "up-scaling" and homogenization of each scale to the next is critically designed to improve accuracy. In addition to this multi-scale efficiency, this study introduces an approach for consideration of particle contacts at each of the scales in which mineral particles exist. One of the most important pavement distresses which seriously affects the pavement performance is fatigue cracking. As this cracking generally takes place in the binder phase of the asphalt mixture, the binder fatigue behavior is assumed to be one of the main factors influencing the overall pavement fatigue performance. It is also known that aggregate gradation, mixture volumetric properties, and filler type and concentration can affect damage initiation and progression in the asphalt mixtures. This study was conducted to develop a tool to characterize the damage properties of the asphalt mixtures at all scales. In the present study the Viscoelastic continuum damage model is implemented into the well-known finite element software ABAQUS via the user material subroutine (UMAT) in order to simulate the state of damage in the binder phase under the repeated uniaxial sinusoidal loading. The inputs are based on the experimentally derived measurements for the binder properties. For the scales of mastic and mortar, the artificially 2-Dimensional images of mastic and mortar scales were generated and used to characterize the properties of those scales. Finally, the 2D scanned images of asphalt mixtures are used to study the asphalt mixture fatigue behavior under loading. In order to validate the proposed model, the experimental test results and the simulation results were

  3. Development of a crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt concrete mix design. Final report, June 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.; Swartz, S.E.; Hoque, M.E.; Funk, L.P.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an asphalt mix design method incorporating crumb rubber and using the `Wet` or `Dry` method of producing Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt (CRM). Several resurfacing projects have been constructed using both the `Wet` and `Dry` methods. Based on this study, KDOT could use CRM mixes with a binder content between 7.5% and 9.0% depending on the percent air voids, with 19% to 22% rubber content. In this study, it was observed that using 24% rubber produced mixed were too sticky to manage. With a rubber content of less than 18% combined with AC-5 it was difficult to satisfy the minimum requirements. Fracture tests can be used as a basis to determine the optimum binder content for any asphalt-rubber mix.

  4. Asphalt-aggregate interactions in hot recycling. Final report, April 1985-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kiggundu, B.M.; Newman, J.K.

    1987-07-01

    This report summarizes results of an investigation of asphalt-aggregate interactions in hot recycled systems. Materials used in the research included a severe stripping aggregate and a nonstripping aggregate. Both were evaluated using the Lottman 70% retained tensile-strength criteria. Additional materials included a 40/60 RAP new aggregate system, one virgin asphalt, two RAP recovered binders, one modifier or recycling agent, and two blends. The modifier was selected using a recently developed specification involving physical, composition, and solubility properties. Aggregates were evaluated for surface area, bulk composition, water-soluble ions, cation exchange capacity, gradation, and specific gravities. Binders were tested for physical properties and composition properties using a modified Clay-Gel procedure, and compatibility properties using a modified Heithaus procedure.

  5. Characteristics and applications of high-performance fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Philip

    developed model is formulated in finite strain for asphalt binder and in infinitesimal strain for asphalt concrete. Comparisons to published test data show that the model is capable of modeling behavior over a wide range of stress, temperature and strain rate conditions. The performance of asphalt plug joints (APJ) which are used as expansion joints in bridges is investigated. The study sheds light on the reasons for premature APJ failures observed in the field, based on which improved joint details are proposed.

  6. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    SciTech Connect

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-12-15

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  7. Physical and environmental properties of asphalt mixtures containing incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Ming; Chiu, Chui-Te; Li, Kung-Cheh; Yang, Wan-Fa

    2006-10-11

    This paper presents parts of the results from a research project sponsored by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA), investigating both the physical and environmental properties of asphalt mixtures using different amount of incinerator bottom ash (IBA) as fine aggregate substitution. The Marshall mix design method was used to determine the design asphalt content and evaluate the potential performance of these IBA-asphalt mixtures. Water sensitivity and wheel track rutting were also performed on these mixtures. Leachates, from both laboratory and outdoor leaching tests, were performed to measure the concentration of selected heavy metals and the level of daphnia toxicity. While with adequate Marshall stability, the IBA-asphalt mixtures were shown to have excessively high Marshall flow and excessively low VMA (voids in the mineral aggregate). The results of the wheel tracking tests also indicated that the IBA-asphalt mixtures had low rutting resistance. The results of the water sensitivity test according to procedure of AASHTO T283 method showed that the IBA-asphalt mixtures had a higher tensile strength ratio (TSR) as compared with the conventional asphalt mixtures. Considering the environmental aspects, outdoor leaching tests showed that IBA had a high level of daphnia toxicity. From an ecological perspective, IBA could be identified as hazardous waste in Taiwan. However, after being mixed with asphalt binder, the concentration of heavy metals and the levels of daphnia toxicity were significantly reduced. The leachates of 10-day flat plate leaching tests on Marshall specimens containing IBA indicated that the heavy metal were undetectable and the daphnia toxicity was ineffective.

  8. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  9. Assessment of the aging level of rejuvenated hot mixed asphalt concrete pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Megan; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy of asphalt rejuvenator on restoring the properties of oxidatively aged asphalt was tested via a non-collinear ultrasonic subsurface wave mixing technique modified for field use. Longitudinal transducers were mounted on angle wedges to generate subsurface dilatational waves to allow for pavement evaluation when there is only access to one side. Because in the field the asphalt concrete (AC) pavement properties (i.e., ultrasonic velocities and attenuations) are unknown, a pre-determined fixed incident angle (based on the AC mixture type) was used, which allows for practical implementation in the field. Oxidative aged AC specimens were coated with rejuvenator (10% by weight of the binder) and left to dwell for varying amounts of time. Once the dwell time reached the desired amount, the specimen was immediately ultrasonically tested. The frequency ratio, f2/f1, at which the interaction took place and the normalized nonlinear wave generation parameter, β/β0, were recorded and compared against a reference plot. It was observed that the rejuvenator had the effect of restoring the nonlinear properties to those corresponding to a virgin sample after a sufficient amount of dwell time. The ability of the rejuvenator to fully penetrate and act on the binder was observed to be dependent on the porosity and aggregate structure, and thus varied for each specimen. As a result, some portions of the binder were restored to a greater extent than others. This non-uniform nature was captured via the nonlinear ultrasonic technique.

  10. Effects of asphalt rejuvenator on thermal and mechanical properties on oxidized hot mixed asphalt pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, Nicholas A.; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of asphalt rejuvenator, and its effectiveness for restoring thermal and mechanical properties was investigated via Disk-shaped Compact Tension (DC(T)) and acoustic emission (AE) testing for determining mechanical properties and embrittlement temperatures of the mixtures. During the DC(T) testing the fracture energies and peak loads were used to measure the resistance of the rejuvenated asphalt to low temperature cracking. The AE testing monitored the acoustic emission activity while the specimens were cooled from room temperature to -40 °C to estimate the temperature at which thermal cracking began (i.e. the embrittlement temperature). First, a baseline response was obtained by obtaining the mechanical and thermal response of virgin HMA samples and HMA samples that had been exposed to oxidative aging for 36 hours at 135°C. The results showed the virgin samples had much higher peak loads and fracture energies than the 36 hours aged samples. Acoustic Emission showed similar results with the virgin samples having embrittlement temperatures 10 °C cooler than the 36 hours aged specimens. Then, overaged for 36 hours specimens were treated different amounts of rejuvenator (10%, 15%, and 20% by weight of binder content) and left to dwell for increased amount of time periods varying from one to eight weeks. It was observed that the AE results showed an improvement of embrittlement temperature with increasing with the dwell times. The 8 weeks specimens had cooler embrittlement temperatures than the virgin specimens. Finally, the low temperature effects on fracture energy and peak load of the rejuvenated asphalt was investigated. Rejuvenator was applied (10% by weight of binder) to specimens aged 36 hours at 135 °C, and the dwell time was varied from 1 to 4 weeks. The results showed that the peak loads were restored to levels of the virgin specimens, and the fracture energies improved to levels beyond that of the virgin specimens. The results also showed a

  11. Microstructural and rheological analysis of fillers and asphalt mastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.; Buzimov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pavements are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and organic binder. The aggregates are sorted in different sizes and different amount which are mixed together with bitumen. The finest mineral fraction (d<0.063 mm) is called filler. This component has an important role in asphalt mixture - it fills the gaps between the aggregates and if mixed with bitumen (which is called asphalt mastics) it sticks the larger particles together. Particle size, microstructure and surface properties of fillers highly affect the cohesion with bitumen, therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the microstructure of mineral fillers (limestone, dolomite) which are used in Hungarian road constructions with the use of different techniques (particle size distribution, scanning electronmicroscopy tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, BET specific surface tests, determination of hydrophobicity). After the tests of fillers, asphalt mastics were prepared and rheological examinations were obtained. These examinations served to observe the interaction and the effect of fillers. The stiffening effect of fillers and the causes of rutting were also investigated. Based on our results, it can be stated that particle size, hydrophobic properties and the amount of fillers highly affect the rheological properties of mastics.

  12. Laboratory and field evaluation of hot mix asphalt with high contents of reclaimed asphalt pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Winkle, Clinton Isaac

    Currently in Iowa, the amount of RAP materials allowed for the surface layer is limited to 15% by weight. The objective of this project was to develop quality standards for inclusion of RAP content higher than 15% in asphalt mixtures. To meet Superpave mix design requirements, it was necessary to fractionate the RAP materials. Based on the extensive sieve-by-sieve analysis of RAP materials, the optimum sieve size to fractionate RAP materials was identified. To determine if the higher percentage of RAP materials than 15% can be used in Iowa's state highway, three test sections with 30.0%, 35.5% and 39.2% of RAP materials were constructed on Highway 6 in Iowa City. The construction of the field test sections was monitored and the cores were obtained to measure field densities of test sections. Field mixtures collected from test sections were compacted in the laboratory in order to test the moisture sensitivity using a Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device. The binder was extracted from the field mixtures with varying amounts of RAP materials and tested to determine the effects of RAP materials on the PG grade of a virgin binder. Field cores were taken from the various mix designs to determine the percent density of each test section. A condition survey of the test sections was then performed to evaluate the short-term performance.

  13. Improved alkali-metal/silicate binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of inorganic binders utilizes potassium or sodium oxide/silicate dispersion and employs high mole ratio of silicon dioxide to alkali-metal binder. Binders are stable, inexpensive, extremely water resistant, and easy to apply.

  14. Char binder for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  15. Rehabilitating asphalt highways

    SciTech Connect

    Butalia, T.S.

    2007-07-01

    Coal fly ash has been used on two Ohio full-depth reclamation projects in Delaware and Warren. The object of the project carried out with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science at Ohio State University is to demonstrate the effective use of Class fly ash in combination with lime or lime kiln dust in the full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements. The article describes the mixes used for the highway reconstruction of part of Section Line Road Delaware County and of a road in Warren County. During construction the pavement sections were instrumented with several structural and environmental monitoring devices and data is being collected on a quarterly basis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests to measure load defection behaviour, resilient of pavement layers and soil and base structural layer coefficient are being carried out twice a year. It was shown that use of fly ash increased the elastic modulus of base layers. This article first appeared in the Feb/May 2007 issue of Asphalt Contractor. 4 photos.

  16. Implementation and Validation of the Viscoelastic Continuum Damage Theory for Asphalt Mixture and Pavement Analysis in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Luis Alberto Herrmann do

    This dissertation presents the implementation and validation of the viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model for asphalt mixture and pavement analysis in Brazil. It proposes a simulated damage-to-fatigue cracked area transfer function for the layered viscoelastic continuum damage (LVECD) program framework and defines the model framework's fatigue cracking prediction error for asphalt pavement reliability-based design solutions in Brazil. The research is divided into three main steps: (i) implementation of the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model in Brazil (Petrobras) for asphalt mixture characterization, (ii) validation of the LVECD model approach for pavement analysis based on field performance observations, and defining a local simulated damage-to-cracked area transfer function for the Fundao Project's pavement test sections in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and (iii) validation of the Fundao project local transfer function to be used throughout Brazil for asphalt pavement fatigue cracking predictions, based on field performance observations of the National MEPDG Project's pavement test sections, thereby validating the proposed framework's prediction capability. For the first step, the S-VECD test protocol, which uses controlled-on-specimen strain mode-of-loading, was successfully implemented at the Petrobras and used to characterize Brazilian asphalt mixtures that are composed of a wide range of asphalt binders. This research verified that the S-VECD model coupled with the GR failure criterion is accurate for fatigue life predictions of Brazilian asphalt mixtures, even when very different asphalt binders are used. Also, the applicability of the load amplitude sweep (LAS) test for the fatigue characterization of the asphalt binders was checked, and the effects of different asphalt binders on the fatigue damage properties of the asphalt mixtures was investigated. The LAS test results, modeled according to VECD theory, presented a strong correlation with

  17. 75 FR 12988 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing; Technical Correction AGENCY: Environmental... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category (74 FR 63236). Following... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category on December 2, 2009...

  18. Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Chaffin, J.; Liu, M.; Madrid, R.

    1997-07-01

    After an introduction and a literature survey in Chap. 1, Chap. 2 describes the tasks, together with objectives and important results obtained for each task throughout the entire project. Chaps. 3 thru 7 detail work in developing a qualitative and quantitative knowledge of asphalt oxidation, composition dependence of asphalt properties, and guidelines for producing superior asphalt binders through composition control. They also detail the development of a kinetic model for asphalt oxidative aging and present an understanding of the composition dependence of asphalt oxidation as well as other performance-related properties. Chaps. 8 and 9 compare the aging performance of recycled blends produced using commercial recycling agents and industrial supercritical fractions as rejuvenating agents. Oxidative aging of the recycled blends were evaluated along with the performance of the recycled blends in terms of the strategic highway research program performance grading procedure. Chap. 10 summarizes the work completed in the areas of processing schemes development, projection updates, and scale-up and commercialization plans.

  19. Effect of Crumb Rubber and Warm Mix Additives on Asphalt Aging, Rheological, and Failure Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prashant

    Asphalt-rubber mixtures have been shown to have useful properties with respect to distresses observed in asphalt concrete pavements. The most notable change in properties is a large increase in viscosity and improved low-temperature cracking resistance. Warm mix additives can lower production and compaction temperatures. Lower temperatures reduce harmful emissions and lower energy consumption, and thus provide environmental benefits and cut costs. In this study, the effects of crumb rubber modification on various asphalts such as California Valley, Boscan, Alaska North Slope, Laguna and Cold Lake were also studied. The materials used for warm mix modification were obtained from various commercial sources. The RAF binder was produced by Imperial Oil in their Nanticoke, Ontario, refinery on Lake Erie. A second commercial PG 52-34 (hereafter denoted as NER) was obtained/sampled during the construction of a northern Ontario MTO contract. Some regular tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and some modified new protocols such as the extended BBR test (LS-308) and the Double-Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) are used to study, the effect of warm mix and a host of other additives on rheological, aging and failure properties. A comparison in the properties of RAF and NER asphalts has also been made as RAF is good quality asphalt and NER is bad quality asphalt. From the studies the effect of additives on chemical and physical hardening tendencies was found to be significant. The asphalt samples tested in this study showed a range of tendencies for chemical and physical hardening.

  20. A historical review of additives and modifiers used in paving asphalt refining processes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Diane J; Adams, Robert C; Marano, Kristin M

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. asphalt paving industry has evolved over time to meet various performance specifications for liquid petroleum asphalt binder (known as bitumen outside the United States). Additives to liquid petroleum asphalt produced in the refinery may affect exposures to workers in the hot mix paving industry. This investigation documented the changes in the composition and distribution of the liquid petroleum asphalt products produced from petroleum refining in the United States since World War II. This assessment was accomplished by reviewing documents and interviewing individual experts in the industry to identify current and historical practices. Individuals from 18 facilities were surveyed; the number of facilities reporting use of any material within a particular class ranged from none to more than half the respondents. Materials such as products of the process stream, polymers, elastomers, and anti-strip compounds have been added to liquid petroleum asphalt in the United States over the past 50 years, but modification has not been generally consistent by geography or time. Modifications made to liquid petroleum asphalt were made generally to improve performance and were dictated by state specifications.

  1. Method Of Characterizing An Electrode Binder

    DOEpatents

    Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Coco, Isabelle; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1999-05-11

    In a method of characterizing a polymer binder for cell electrodes in contact with an electrolyte and including a current collector and a paste containing an electrochemically active material and said binder, a spreading coefficient of the binder on the active material is calculated from the measured angle of contact between standard liquids and the active material and the binder, respectively. An interaction energy of the binder with the electrolyte is calculated from the measured angle of contact between the electrolyte and the binder. The binder is selected such that the spreading coefficient is less than zero and the interaction energy is at least 60 mJ/m.sup.2.

  2. Multiscale imaging and characterization of the effect of mixing temperature on asphalt concrete containing recycled components.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, M C; Griffa, M; Bressi, S; Partl, M N; Tebaldi, G; Poulikakos, L D

    2016-10-01

    When producing asphalt concrete mixture with high amounts of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), the mixing temperature plays a significant role in the resulting spatial distribution of the components as well as on the quality of the resulting mixture, in terms of workability during mixing and compaction as well as in service mechanical properties. Asphalt concrete containing 50% RAP was investigated at mixing temperatures of 140, 160 and 180°C, using a multiscale approach. At the microscale, using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy the RAP binder film thickness was visualized and measured. It was shown that at higher mixing temperatures this film thickness was reduced. The reduction in film thickness can be attributed to the loss of volatiles as well as the mixing of RAP binder with virgin binder at higher temperatures. X-ray computer tomography was used to characterize statistically the distribution of the RAP and virgin aggregates geometric features: volume, width and shape anisotropy. In addition using X-ray computer tomography, the packing and spatial distribution of the RAP and virgin aggregates was characterized using the nearest neighbour metric. It was shown that mixing temperature may have a positive effect on the spatial distribution of the aggregates but did not affect the packing. The study shows a tendency for the RAP aggregates to be more likely distributed in clusters at lower mixing temperatures. At higher temperatures, they were more homogeneously distributed. This indicates a higher degree of blending both at microscale (binder film) and macroscale (spatial distribution) between RAP and virgin aggregates as a result of increasing mixing temperatures and the ability to quantify this using various imaging techniques.

  3. Viscosity function in polymer-modified asphalts.

    PubMed

    Stastna, J; Zanzotto, L; Vacin, O J

    2003-03-01

    Asphalt is a multidisperse micellar system with rheological behavior resembling that of a low-molecular-weight polymer. Nowadays, asphalt is frequently modified by blending it with various polymers. Such modified asphalt has rheological properties that differ from the properties of the base asphalt. It is quite common to study asphalt in dynamic experiments. Such studies, however useful, cannot reveal all characteristic features of polymer-modified asphalts. Asphalt modification by polymers is strongly manifested in the region of transitions from a viscoelastic fluid to the Newtonian fluid. The viscosity study in this region can reveal behavior characteristic of the used polymer modifier, thus complementing the dynamic studies of these materials. The viscosity of base asphalt modified by styrene-butadiene-styrene and by ethylene-vinyl acetate polymers (in several concentrations) is studied and discussed in this note.

  4. 7 CFR 3201.77 - Asphalt restorers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Asphalt restorers. 3201.77 Section 3201.77... Designated Items § 3201.77 Asphalt restorers. (a) Definition. Products designed to seal, protect, or restore poured asphalt and concrete surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.77 - Asphalt restorers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt restorers. 3201.77 Section 3201.77... Designated Items § 3201.77 Asphalt restorers. (a) Definition. Products designed to seal, protect, or restore poured asphalt and concrete surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred...

  6. Experimental evaluation of using stainless steel slag to produce mechanomutable asphalt mortars for their use in smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Navarro, F.; Iglesias, G. R.; Rubio-Gámez, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanomutable asphalt binders are a new generation of smart materials, which are able to change their mechanical response to the load conditions suffered during their service life. These binders are composed of a bituminous matrix and iron micro-particles that can be activated with an external magnetic field, which induces mechanical changes in the system. However, these particles are expensive and they considerably increase the cost of these materials, reducing their competiveness. Thus, the aim of this work is to study the viability to produce more sustainable and low-cost mechanomutable asphalt mortars using stainless steel slag (SSS). This by-product is obtained from the production of stainless steel and contains a significant quantity of iron that could be used to activate the response of these materials. Different sizes and concentrations of SSS were used to manufacture mechanomutable asphalt mortars, and their mechanical behavior was then examined using several rheological tests. The results show that it is possible to achieve changes in the rheological response of these smart asphalt materials, thereby obtaining mechanomutable mortars from the stainless steel by-products. The efficiency of the slag also appears to be more dependent on its iron content than on its concentration or particle size.

  7. Increase in composite binder activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R.; Smoliakov, A.; Stoyushko, N.

    2016-11-01

    The binder of portland cement (51-59 wt.%), fly ash of thermal power stations (3644 wt.%), limestone crushing waste (4-9 wt.%) and dry hyper plasticizer (0.2 wt.%) has been created. It can be used in the building materials industry for production of high-strength concrete. The composite binder is obtained by co-milling of the components in vario-planetary mill to a specific surface area of 550-600 m2/kg. The technical result is the possibility of obtaining a composite binder with significant replacement of cement with industrial waste, cost-effective and superior to portland cement for construction and technical properties, increased activity. This allows producing concrete for walling with a compressive strength of 100 MPa, while using more than 50% of industrial waste.

  8. Recycling asphalt proves economical for paving contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Methods of recyclig asphalt to repair roads are described and evaluated. Need for recycling is caused by the escalating price of asphalt (an oil product). The economics and efficiency of the various processes used are evaluated. Methods described are: (1) cold-mix recycling in which the road is crushed, mixed with a new asphalt emulsion and reapplied; (2) hot mix, which involves ripping up pavement, trucking it to an asphalt plant, and mixing the old pavement material with virgin paving materials; and (3) cold planing (when only the top few inches of the road are deteriorated). Mining of asphalt roads, by removing top layers from old roads which are thick from many repair jobs, is described as well as mining of old airstrips. Value of asphalt available has been estimated as high as $50 billion. Recycling processes for asphalt are described briefly. (MJJ)

  9. Mixture design and performance prediction of rubber-modified asphalt in Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, R.Y.

    1997-08-01

    Appropriate disposal of scrap tires has been a major environmental concern over the years, mainly due to potential fire and health hazards associated with uncontrolled stockpiling. Primarily driven by this environmental concern, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 has required each State to begin incorporating scrap tire rubber into its asphalt paving materials. Although in the revision of the original ISTEA, the mandate has been eliminated, there remains a language of encouraging the use of crumb rubbers in asphalt paving materials. Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) desires to develop the mix design procedure, construction practice, and performance specifications for crumb rubber modified asphalt paving materials. This research was conducted to develop the needed design and construction guidance for meeting the ODOT anticipated needs. Specifically, the objectives of this research encompass the following scope: (1) investigation of the rheological properties of asphalt-rubber binder to determine optimum content of crumb rubber, (2) development of optimum mix design for various applications, including both wet and dry mix processes, (3) characterization of mechanical properties of recommended paving mixtures, including resilient modulus, fatigue cracking behavior, low-temperature thermal cracking resistance, water sensitivity test, incremental creep test and loaded wheel track test, and (4) comparison of performance of selected paving mixes.

  10. Analysis of the dispersion of air pollutants from a factory Asphalt in Nuevo Vallarta, Nay., Mex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Gonzalez, F. M.; Gaitán-Rodríguez, M.; Cornejo-López, V. M.; Morales-Hernández, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    An asphalt factory has operated intermittently near the urban area of Nuevo Vallarta on Banderas Bay, Nayarit, Mex. This factory has emissions that can affect the health of people living in the colonies nearest are Valle Dorado and San Vicente. The dispersion of emissions depends on the wind (sea breeze-land breeze) and the roof of the inversion, these phenomena determined by the density and temperature of the lower layers of the atmosphere. Asphalts are dark colored binder materials, formed by a complex non-volatile hydrocarbon chains and high molecular weight. Asphalts are produced from petroleum, but by a process of evaporation of the volatiles, leaving the asphalt alone. Therefore, the material emitted by the fireplace are mainly low molecular weight hydrocarbons known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Emergency Response Guide 2008 developed by various agencies in Canada, U.S. and Mexico mentions that the hydrocarbon gas can have health effects. Animal studies have shown that PAHs can cause harmful effects to the skin, body fluids and some PAHs are carcinogenic. An analysis of the wind field, monthly and seasonal averages for the years 2010 and 2011, recorded in AWS administered by the CEMCO and other stations located near the study area.

  11. The Effect of Crumb Rubber Particle Size to the Optimum Binder Content for Open Graded Friction Course

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Koting, Suhana; Mashaan, Nuha S.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%–7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC. PMID:24574875

  12. Cold in-place recycling characterization framework for single or multiple component binder systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Benjamin C.

    Cold in-place recycling (CIR) is a pavement rehabilitation technique which has gained momentum in recent years. This momentum is due partly to its economic and sustainability characteristics, which has led to CIR market expansion. When pavement network deterioration is considered alongside increasing material costs, it is not beyond reason to expect demands on CIR to continue to increase. Historically, single component binder (SCB) systems, those with one stabilization binder (or two if the secondary binder dosage is 1% or less), have dominated the CIR market and could be considered the general state of practice. Common stabilization binders are either bituminous or cementitious. Two example SCB systems would be: 1) 3% portland cement, or 2) 3% asphalt emulsion with 1% hydrated lime. While traditional SCB systems have demonstrated positive economic and sustainability impacts, this dissertation focuses on multiple component binder (MCB) systems (bituminous and cementitious combined) which exhibit the potential to provide better overall economics and performance. Use of MCBs has the potential to alleviate SCB issues to some extent (e.g. cracking with cementitious SCBs, rutting with bituminous SCBs). Furthermore, to fairly represent both binders in an MCB system a universal design method which can accommodate multiple binder types is needed. The main objectives of this dissertation are to develop a universal CIR design framework and, using this framework, characterize multiple SCB and MCB systems. Approximately 1500 CIR specimens were tested herein along with approximately 300 asphalt concrete specimens which serve as a reference data set for CIR characterization. A case study of a high-traffic Mississippi CIR project which included cement SCB and emulsion SCB sections is also presented to support laboratory efforts. Individual components needed to comprise a universal design framework, such as curing protocols, were developed. SCB and MCB characterization indicated

  13. Polysiloxane binder for lithium ion battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-13

    An electrode includes a binder and an electroactive material, wherein the binder includes a polymer including a linear polysiloxane or a cyclic polysiloxane. The polymer may be generally represented by Formula I: ##STR00001##

  14. Suppressants for lowering propellant binder burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Addition of boron compound to lower burning rate of solid propellant binder is reported. Chemical reactions involved in propellant binder modification are described. Advantages of method for lowering burning rate are analyzed.

  15. Modified pipe extension safely releases chain binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haw, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Pipe, cut partly in half lengthwise, and cupped and notched at one end, safely releases tension in chain binders that cinch tiedown chains around truck loads. Device prevents binder-handle from being thrown violently during release.

  16. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  17. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  18. The oxidation of carbonized binders

    SciTech Connect

    Prokushin, V.N.; Fedoseev, S.D.; Kleimenov, V.V.; Kovaneva, M.A.; Marochkin, E.P.; Smyslov, V.I.; Trapeznikov, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    The oxidation by air of carbonized binders used in the production of carbonaceous materials has been studied by the derivatographic method. The effective activation energies of the process have been calculated. Of the materials investigated, the greatest oxidative resistance was possessed by coke obtained from medium-temperature hard-coal pitch.

  19. 7 CFR 30.15 - Cigar binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cigar binder. 30.15 Section 30.15 Agriculture... Cigar binder. A portion of a tobacco leaf rolled around the filler of a cigar to bind or hold it together and form the first covering. Cigar-binder tobacco is tobacco of the kind and quality commonly...

  20. Road pavers' occupational exposure to asphalt containing waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Virpi; Elovaara, Eivor; Nykyri, Erkki; Santonen, Tiina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, using mixes of conventional asphalt (SMA, AC) or mixes containing waste material (SMA-WPT, AC-WPT). The concentrations of 11 aldehydes in air were 515 and 902 microg m(-3) at the SMA-WPT and AC-WPT worksites, being 3 and 13 times greater than at the corresponding worksites laying conventional asphalt. Resin acids (2-42 microg m(-3)), which are known sensitizers, were detected only during laying of AC-WPT. The emission levels (microg m(-3)) of total particulates (300-500), bitumen fumes (60-160), bitumen vapour (80-1120), naphthalene (0.59-1.2), phenanthrene (0.21-0.32), pyrene (<0.015-0.20), benzo(a)pyrene (<0.01) and the sum of 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1.28-2.00) were similar for conventional and WPT asphalts. The dermal deposition of 16 PAHs on exposure pads (on workers' wrist) was low in all pavers (0.7-3.5 ng cm(-2)). Eight OH-PAH biomarkers of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene exposures were quantified in pre- and post-shift urine specimens. The post-shift concentrations (mean +/- SD, micromol mol(-1) creatinine) of 1- plus 2-naphthol; 1-,2-,3-,4- plus 9-phenanthrol; and 1-hydroxypyrene were, respectively, for asphalt workers: 18.1+/- 8.0, 2.41 +/- 0.71 and 0.66+/- 0.58 (smokers); 6.0+/- 2.3, 1.70+/- 0.72 and 0.27+/- 0.15 (non-smokers); WPT asphalt workers: 22.0+/- 9.2, 2.82+/- 1.11 and 0.76+/- 0.18 (smokers); 6.8+/- 2.6, 2.35+/- 0.69 and 0.46+/- 0.13 (non-smokers). The work-related uptake of PAHs was low in all pavers, although it was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. The WPT asphalt workers complained of eye irritation and sore throat more than the pavers who had a much lower exposure to aldehydes and resin acids.

  1. 21 CFR 880.5160 - Therapeutic medical binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Therapeutic medical binder. 880.5160 Section 880... Devices § 880.5160 Therapeutic medical binder. (a) Identification. A therapeutic medical binder is a... device includes the abdominal binder, breast binder, and perineal binder. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  3. Nature of the chemical reaction for furfural modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H.

    1994-12-31

    Three of the most serious problems of asphalt pavements today are rutting, cracking, and susceptibility to moisture damage (stripping). Asphalt manufacturers have been mixing asphalts with polymers to produce polymer-modified asphalts with improved rheological properties. However, the costs for these improved polymer-modified asphalts are almost double that of regular asphalts. FHWA researchers have found that asphalt modified by the chemical, furfural (which is prepared by simple elimination reaction of aldopentoses obtained from oat hulls), exhibited better stripping properties and was less temperature susceptible than the virgin asphalt while costing less than polymer-modified asphalts. This paper discusses the possible structure of the furfural-modified asphalt, data for the virgin and furfural-modified asphalts and their Corbett fractions, data from a model reaction between phenol and furfural, and a possible explanation of this structure based on these data.

  4. Assessment of porous asphalt pavement performance: hydraulics and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, J. F.; Ballestero, T. P.; Roseen, R. M.; Houle, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    derived from that which is entering the stormwater treatment system in the adjacent parking lot. Since the facility is new, parking has been less intensive here, and influent concentrations will be adjusted down accordingly. Several wells have been installed in and around the facility. Screened intervals are at two levels; in the reservoir and beneath the facility. One well in the facility is continually monitored for basic water quality parameters (temperature, specific conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen) and level, and is also sampled with an automated refrigerated sampler. Grab samples are collected from the other wells as a basis for comparison. Water samples are collected during several storm events and during interstorm periods to assess water quality treatment performance. The samples are analyzed for nutrients, metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, and pathogens. The potential for leaching of pollutants from the asphalt binder will also be assessed during these storm events. Water quality treatment performance is compared to those of several other studies. Updates on spring 2005 data are also included in the presentation.

  5. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration.

  6. Asphalt Raking. Instructor Manual. Trainee Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This packet consists of the instructor and trainee manuals for an asphalt raking course. The instructor manual contains a course schedule for 4 days of instruction, content outline, and instructor outline. The trainee manual is divided into five sections: safety, asphalt basics, placing methods, repair and patching, and clean-up and maintenance.…

  7. EVALUATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PAVING ASPHALTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides data from pilot-scale measurements of the emissions of specific air pollutants from paving asphalt both with and without recycled crumb rubber additives. The methods used in this work measured emissions from a static layer of asphalt maintained for several hou...

  8. Effect of Cement on Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oruc, Seref; Celik, Fazil; Akpinar, M. Vefa

    2007-10-01

    Emulsified asphalt mixtures have environmental, economical, and logistical advantages over hot mixtures. However, they have attracted little attention as structural layers due to their inadequate performance and susceptibility to early life damage by rainfall. The objective of this article is to provide an improved insight into how the mechanical properties of emulsion mixtures may be improved and to determine the influence of cement on emulsified asphalt mixtures. Laboratory tests on strength, temperature susceptibility, water damage, creep and permanent deformation were implemented to evaluate the mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures have significantly improved with Portland cement addition. This experimental study suggested that cement modified asphalt emulsion mixtures might be an alternate way of a structural layer material in pavement.

  9. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  10. Softening agents for recycling asphalt pavement

    SciTech Connect

    Sawatzky, H.; Clelland, F.I.; Farnand, B.A.; Houde, J. Jr.

    1993-08-10

    An asphaltic composition is described consisting essentially of: comminuted aged asphaltic pavement material; an effective amount, from about 2% to about 15 % by weight of a blend of an agent selected from the group consisting of a soft asphalt cement, a conventional asphalt cement, and a cutback asphalt, with a nitrogen-containing, adhesion-improving, anti-stripping agent comprising a sewage sludge-derived oil, or a fraction thereof, said sewage sludge-derived oil comprising a mixture of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatic hydrocarbons, diaromatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polar compounds and basic, pyridene-soluble compounds, having the following elemental chemical composition: nitrogen, about 3.4% to about 5% by weight; oxygen, about 5.8% to about 6.9% by weight; sulfur, about 0.3% to about 0.8% by weight; hydrogen, about 9.7% to about 10.4%, and carbon, about 76.9% to about 79.8%.

  11. Binders for Thermal-Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.; Curry, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Methyl trialkoxysilane hydrolysates have been found to be superior binders for radiative thermal-control coatings. Using sprayed test panels, candidate coating formulations were optimized with respect to binder/ pigment radio, ethanol content, pigment particle size, coating thickness, and curing conditions. Binders are made from monomers of trialkoxy-silanes or chain-extended alkoxysilanes. Monomers are believed to polymerize to ladder-type structures like methyl silicone.

  12. BEHAVIOR OF MODEL ASPHALT PAVEMENT CONTAINING A HYDRAULIC, GRADED IRON AND STEEL SLAG BASE-COURSE UNDER REPEATED PLATE-LOADING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Sugisako, Yasunari

    In this paper, the dynamic response of asphalt pave ment containing a hydraulic, graded iron and steel slag (hereafter called HMS) base-course under repeated plate-loading was investigated using a model asphalt pavement and the influence of hydraulicity on th e pavement behavior was discussed. The model pavement constructed was a 4-layer system consis ting of a dense-graded asphalt mix surface layer, a dense-graded asphalt mix binder-course, a HMS base-course and a Masado (heavily-weathered granitic sand) subgrade. A repeated plate-loading test was carri ed out so as to achieve a resilient state. It is shown that surface resilient deflection decreases as curing progresses and after 90 days, the deflection becomes almost half of the initial. Large horizontal tensile strains develop at the bottoms of binder- and base-course, which decrease significantly with curing. It is indicative that HMS base-course behaves like a stiffer plate resulting in a hard-to-deflect state due to the development of hydraulicity.

  13. Investigation of Primary Causes of Load-Related Cracking in Asphalt Concrete Pavement in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hong Joon

    sites with observed bottom-up cracking have higher tensile strain levels at the bottom of the asphalt layer than sites with observed top-down cracking. Extracted binder fatigue test results indicate that binder properties between good and poor sections of a given site are not the result of differences in the binder properties. Hence, other mixture design factors are at work in controlling the site variability in terms of fatigue resistance.

  14. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  15. Development of a stress-mode sensitive viscoelastic constitutive relationship for asphalt concrete: experimental and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Mohammad M.; Tabatabaee, Nader; Jahanbakhsh, H.; Jahangiri, Behnam

    2016-11-01

    Asphalt binder is responsible for the thermo-viscoelastic mechanical behavior of asphalt concrete. Upon application of pure compressive stress to an asphalt concrete specimen, the stress is transferred by mechanisms such as aggregate interlock and the adhesion/cohesion properties of asphalt mastic. In the pure tensile stress mode, aggregate interlock plays a limited role in stress transfer, and the mastic phase plays the dominant role through its adhesive/cohesive and viscoelastic properties. Under actual combined loading patterns, any coordinate direction may experience different stress modes; therefore, the mechanical behavior is not the same in the different directions and the asphalt specimen behaves as an anisotropic material. The present study developed an anisotropic nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive relationship that is sensitive to the tension/compression stress mode by extending Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic model. The proposed constitutive relationship was implemented in Abaqus using a user material (UMAT) subroutine in an implicit scheme. Uniaxial compression and indirect tension (IDT) testing were used to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the bituminous materials and to calibrate and validate the proposed constitutive relationship. Compressive and tensile creep compliances were calculated using uniaxial compression, as well as IDT test results, for different creep-recovery loading patterns at intermediate temperature. The results showed that both tensile creep compliance and its rate were greater than those of compression. The calculated deflections based on these IDT test simulations were compared with experimental measurements and were deemed acceptable. This suggests that the proposed viscoelastic constitutive relationship correctly demonstrates the viscoelastic response and is more accurate for analysis of asphalt concrete in the laboratory or in situ.

  16. Advanced self-healing asphalt composites in the pavement performance field: mechanisms at the nano level and new repairing methodologies.

    PubMed

    Agzenai, Yahya; Pozuelo, Javier; Sanz, Javier; Perez, Ignacio; Baselga, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to give a global view of this field of research, in this mini-review we highlight the most recent publications and patents focusing on modified asphalt pavements that contain certain reinforcing nanoparticles which impart desirable thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. In response to the increasing cost of asphalt binder and road maintenance, there is a need to look for alternative technologies and new asphalt composites, able to self-repair, for preserving and renewing the existing pavements. First, we will focus on the self-healing property of asphalt, the evidences that support that healing takes place immediately after the contact between the faces of a crack, and how the amount of healing can be measured in both the laboratory and the field. Next we review the hypothetical mechanisms of healing to understand the material behaviour and establish models to quantify the damage-healing process. Thereafter, we outline different technologies, nanotechnologies and methodologies used for self-healing paying particular attention to embedded micro-capsules, new nano-materials like carbon nanotubes and nano-fibres, ionomers, and microwave and induction heating processes.

  17. Polypropylene - asphalt mixtures for waterproofing membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Italia, P.; Brandolese, E.

    1996-12-31

    In any field of polymer-asphalt mixtures application is extremely important to achieve a very good compatibility between the components in order to improve as much as possible the performances due to the polymer content. In the case of waterproofing membranes application this compatibility reduce, moreover, the amount of polymer required to obtain the best performances. Using the Colloidal Instability Index Ic, as measured by the Iatroscan device, we propose a correlation between asphalt`s chemical characteristics and the polymer minimum amount sufficient to disperse in a stable way the asphalt itself in the polymeric matrix. As a result, through the proposed correlation, with a simple asphalt composition analysis it is possible to predict its performance when mixed with polypropilene. In the paper, beside the description of the Iatroscan analytical technique, we also present a method for determining phase inversion based on optical fluorescence microscopy performed on about 30 different samples of asphalt. We also present the experimental correlation laws between the polymer amount at phase inversion and the asphalt single components content.

  18. Theme Binders: One Size Fits All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskwill, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Describes theme binders designed by sixth graders as an independent study component that unites the class as a learning community, showcases student work, and illustrates developmental milestones for parents. Details theme binder components: (1) cover page; (2) introductory page outlining the theme and contents; (3) evaluation sections indicating…

  19. A study of sound absorption by street canyon boundaries and asphalt rubber concrete pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drysdale, Graeme Robert

    A sound field model, based on a classical diffusion equation, is extended to account for sound absorption in a diffusion parameter used to model sound energy in a narrow street canyon. The model accounts for a single sound absorption coefficient, separate accommodation coefficients and a combination of separate absorption and accommodation coefficients from parallel canyon walls. The new expressions are compared to the original formula through numerical simulations to reveal the effect of absorption on sound diffusion. The newly established analytical formulae demonstrate satisfactory agreement with their predecessor under perfect reflection. As well, the influence of the extended diffusion parameter on normalized sound pressure levels in a narrow street canyon is in agreement with experimental data. The diffusion parameters are used to model sound energy density in a street canyon as a function of the sound absorption coefficient of the street canyon walls. The acoustic and material properties of conventional and asphalt rubber concrete (ARC) pavement are also studied to assess how the crumb rubber content influences sound absorption in street canyons. The porosity and absolute permeability of compacted specimens of asphalt rubber concrete are measured and compared to their normal and random incidence sound absorption coefficients as a function of crumb rubber content in the modified binder. Nonlinear trends are found between the sound absorption coefficients, porosity and absolute permeability of the compacted specimens and the percentage of crumb rubber in the modified binders. The cross-sectional areas of the air voids on the surfaces of the compacted specimens are measured using digital image processing techniques and a linear relationship is obtained between the average void area and crumb rubber content. The measured material properties are used to construct an empirical formula relating the average porosity, normal incidence noise reduction coefficients and

  20. Optimization of Binder Jetting Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sanjay; Manogharan, Guha

    2017-01-01

    Among several additive manufacturing (AM) methods, binder-jetting has undergone a recent advancement in its ability to process metal powders through selective deposition of binders on a powder bed followed by curing, sintering, and infiltration. This study analyzes the impact of various process parameters in binder jetting on mechanical properties of sintered AM metal parts. The Taguchi optimization method has been employed to determine the optimum AM parameters to improve transverse rupture strength (TRS), specifically: binder saturation, layer thickness, roll speed, and feed-to-powder ratio. The effects of the selected process parameters on the TRS performance of sintered SS 316L samples are studied with the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standard test method. It was found that binder saturation and feed-to-powder ratio were the most critical parameters, which reflects the strong influence of binder powder interaction and density of powder bed on resulting mechanical properties. This article serves as an aid in understanding the optimum process parameters for binder jetting of SS 316L.

  1. Optimization of Binder Jetting Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sanjay; Manogharan, Guha

    2017-03-01

    Among several additive manufacturing (AM) methods, binder-jetting has undergone a recent advancement in its ability to process metal powders through selective deposition of binders on a powder bed followed by curing, sintering, and infiltration. This study analyzes the impact of various process parameters in binder jetting on mechanical properties of sintered AM metal parts. The Taguchi optimization method has been employed to determine the optimum AM parameters to improve transverse rupture strength (TRS), specifically: binder saturation, layer thickness, roll speed, and feed-to-powder ratio. The effects of the selected process parameters on the TRS performance of sintered SS 316L samples are studied with the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standard test method. It was found that binder saturation and feed-to-powder ratio were the most critical parameters, which reflects the strong influence of binder powder interaction and density of powder bed on resulting mechanical properties. This article serves as an aid in understanding the optimum process parameters for binder jetting of SS 316L.

  2. Exposure to ultrafine particles in asphalt work.

    PubMed

    Elihn, Karine; Ulvestad, Bente; Hetland, Siri; Wallen, Anna; Randem, Britt Grethe

    2008-12-01

    An epidemiologic study has demonstrated that asphalt workers show increased loss of lung function and an increase of biomarkers of inflammation over the asphalt paving season. The aim of this study was to investigate which possible agent(s) causes the inflammatory reaction, with emphasis on ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure to total dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and NO(2) was determined by personal sampling. Exposure to ultrafine particles was measured by means of particle counters and scanning mobility particle sizer mounted on a van following the paving machine. The fractions of organic and elemental carbon were determined. Asphalt paving workers were exposed to ultrafine particles with medium concentration of about 3.4 x 10(4)/cm(3). Ultrafine particles at the paving site originated mainly from asphalt paving activities and traffic exhaust; most seemed to originate from asphalt fumes. Oil mist exceeded occupational limits on some occasions. Diesel particulate matter was measured as elemental carbon, which was low, around 3 microg/m(3). NO(2) and total dust did not exceed limits. Asphalt pavers were exposed to relatively high concentrations of ultrafine particles throughout their working day, with possible adverse health effects.

  3. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organics present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.

  4. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organicsmore » present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.« less

  5. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  6. 7 CFR 29.6126 - Binder (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Binder (B Group). 29.6126 Section 29.6126 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6126 Binder (B Group). Tobacco of this group is of cigar-binder quality from..., and tolerances B1 Fine Quality Binder. Thin, ripe, open, elastic, strong, spready, and 19 inches...

  7. 46 CFR 309.101 - Amendment of interim binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment of interim binders. 309.101 Section 309.101... INSURANCE § 309.101 Amendment of interim binders. The interim binder for a vessel whose stated valuation is... after the attachment of the insurance under the interim binder to which such valuation...

  8. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.; Odinek, Judy G.

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  9. Analysis of asphalt-based roof systems using thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, R.M.; Delgado, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Asphalt has been used in the construction of roads and houses for thousands of years. The properties of asphalt has rendered it quite useful in roofing and waterproofing applications. The most popular use of asphalt in industrial roofing is in the form of a built-up roof or modified-bituminous sheet. This type of roof consists of asphalt, reinforcement and aggregate which is used to protect the asphalt from ultraviolet rays. All materials have their weaknesses and asphalt is no exception. A good asphalt (e.g., low asphaltene content) must be used to ensure the quality and low-temperature performance of roofing asphalts. Polymer additives can be added. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the utility of termogravimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis in establishing the durability of modified bituminous membranes.

  10. Preparation and rheological behavior of polymer-modified asphalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Ali Akbar

    1999-09-01

    Different materials and methods were used to prepare and stabilize polymer-modified asphalts. Addition of thermoplastic elastomers improved some technically important properties of asphalt. Due to inherent factors like large density difference between asphalt and polyethylene, many physical methods in which the structure of asphalt is unchanged, failed to stabilize this system. The effect of addition of copolymers and a pyrolytic oil residue derived from used tire rubber were also studied and found to be ineffective on the storage stability of the polymer-asphalt emulsions while high and moderate temperature properties of the asphalt were found to be improved. Finally, the technique of catalytic grafting of polymer on the surface of high-density particles (e.g. carbon black) was used to balance the large density difference between asphalt and polymer. The resulting polymer-asphalts were stable at high temperatures and showed enhanced properties at low and high temperatures.

  11. SITE DEMONSTRATION CAPSULE --MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MatCon is a polymer modified asphalt material designed specifically for waste contaminment applications. The modifications to the material differentiate it from conventional paving asphalt by minimizing the damaging effects of environmental exposure that could detract from the d...

  12. Resinous binders for coal and chars

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    Binder development and application to the briquetting or pelleting of coal fines has been extensive. The search for low-cost, effective binders for making strong and durable briquettes or pellets continues unabated. Strong, durable compacts are required, not only for handling, transport, and storage of the product but also to withstand the rigors of application such as flue gas treatment sorbents and catalytic supports. Many kinds of binders, organic and inorganic, have been used to gain the desired strength. Synthetic polymers have been investigated because they promote good strength and water insolubility, but these features are generally outweighed by the polymer cost. Promising earlier developments of biomass-derived binders have received slow market acceptance, mainly because of the cost resulting from the high concentrations required. However, recent advances in processing lignocellulosic materials have generated potentially low-cost polymeric binding agents for making coal briquettes. Phenol novolaks were previously used with lignites to make activated carbons. Recently, binders were prepared from mixtures of phenol, lignin, and formaldehyde and used for wood flour molding and friction materials. The goal of our work was to investigate the characteristics of resinous binders from lignocellulosic as well as coal-derived materials when used with dried or beneficiated coals and chars.

  13. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  14. Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements for Parking Lots and Driveways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The latest information for designing full-depth asphalt pavements for parking lots and driveways is covered in relationship to the continued increase in vehicle registration. It is based on The Asphalt Institute's Thickness Design Manual, Series No. 1 (MS-1), Seventh Edition, which covers all aspects of asphalt pavement thickness design in detail,…

  15. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  16. 7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 Section 3201.76... Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition. Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads, or other surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 Section 3201.76... Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition. Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads, or other surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  1. Asphalt and risk of cancer in man.

    PubMed Central

    Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Amsel, J

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological publications regarding the carcinogenic potential of asphalt (bitumen) are reviewed. In 1984 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that there is "inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are carcinogenic to humans." They did, however, conclude that animal data provided sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain extracts of steam refined and air refined bitumens. In the absence of data on man, IARC considered it reasonable to regard chemicals with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals as if they presented a carcinogenic risk to man. Epidemiological data for man accumulated since the IARC report do not fulfil the criteria for showing a causal association between exposure to asphalt and development of cancer. The studies cited all suffer from a lack of data on exposure or potential confounders, which are necessary to establish whether or not such an association may or may not exist. In view of the evidence (or lack thereof) regarding asphalt today, an appropriate public health attitude suggests at least that action be taken to protect those working with asphalt by monitoring the workplace, taking whatever steps are possible to minimise exposures and to inform workers of potential hazards. At the same time, a need exists for well designed analytical epidemiological studies to determine whether a risk of cancer in man exists from exposure to asphalt. PMID:1878310

  2. Biodegradation of Asphalt Cement-20 by Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pendrys, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven gram-negative, aerobic bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for asphalt-degrading bacteria. The predominant genera of these isolates were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavimonas, and Flavobacterium. The mixed culture preferentially degraded the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. A residue remained on the surface which was resistant to biodegradation and protected the underlying asphalt from biodegradation. The most potent asphalt-degrading bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NAV2, excretes an emulsifier which is capable of emulsifying the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. This emulsifier is not denatured by phenol. PMID:16347928

  3. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ömer Hınç; Bal, Ceylan; Neşelioglu, Salim; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Eren, Funda; Tutkun, Lutfiye; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric

    2016-09-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers who are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occupationally. The study was carried out in 34 nonsmoker asphalt workers. Additionally, 35 healthy nonsmoker volunteers were recruited as control group. Thiol and disulfide concentrations were determined using the novel automated measurement method. Levels of urinary 1-OH-pyrene were analyzed by liquid chromatography. Disulfide/thiol ratio was significantly higher in exposed group (p = .034). Also, a positive correlation was detected between disulfide/thiol ratio and 1-OH-pyrene values (r = .249, p = .036). Thiol/disulfide homeostasis was found to be disturbed in asphalt workers. The novel test used in this study may be useful for evaluating the oxidative status in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure.

  4. Pneumoproteins and inflammatory biomarkers in asphalt pavers.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Dag G; Ulvestad, Bente; Andersson, Lena; Barregard, Lars

    2010-09-01

    Pneumoproteins, biomarkers of systemic inflammation and endothelial activation were studied across a season in 72 asphalt pavers, 32 asphalt plant operators and 19 asphalt engineers. Smokers had lower concentrations of Clara cell protein (CC-16) and surfactant protein A, but higher concentrations of surfactant protein D, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 than non-smokers. Smokers reporting wheezing had lower mean CC-16 concentration than smokers not reporting wheezing (5.7 vs 8.6 microg l(-1); p = 0.05). Cholesterol, P-selectin and ICAM-1 were lower in pavers and operators at the end compared with the start of the season. This may be related to increased physical activity during the season.

  5. Evaluation of Fatigue Performance of Asphalt Based on Constant Strain DSR Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. Z.; Yan, E. H.; Lu, Z. T.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt performance has important effect on the fatigue resistance performance of asphalt mixture. This research based on the DSR time scanning mode, investigated the constant strain performance of 70 # matrix asphalt and SBS modified asphalt. Based on 50% G* 0 to simulate the fatigue performance of two kinds of the asphalt.

  6. One Binder to Bind Them All.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Oliver

    2016-10-10

    High quality binders, such as antibodies, are of critical importance for chemical sensing applications. With synthetic alternatives, such as molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), less sensor development time and higher stability of the binder can be achieved. In this feature paper, I will discuss the impact of synthetic binders from an industrial perspective and I will challenge the molecular imprinting community on the next step to leapfrog the current status quo of MIPs for (bio)sensing. Equally important, but often neglected as an effective chemical sensor, is a good match of transducer and MIP coating for a respective application. To demonstrate an application-driven development, a biosensing use case with surface-imprinted layers on piezoacoustic sensors is reported. Depending on the electrode pattern for the transducer, the strong mechanical coupling of the analyte with the MIP layer coated device allows the adoption of the sensitivity from cell mass to cell viability with complete reversibility.

  7. One Binder to Bind Them All

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    High quality binders, such as antibodies, are of critical importance for chemical sensing applications. With synthetic alternatives, such as molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), less sensor development time and higher stability of the binder can be achieved. In this feature paper, I will discuss the impact of synthetic binders from an industrial perspective and I will challenge the molecular imprinting community on the next step to leapfrog the current status quo of MIPs for (bio)sensing. Equally important, but often neglected as an effective chemical sensor, is a good match of transducer and MIP coating for a respective application. To demonstrate an application-driven development, a biosensing use case with surface-imprinted layers on piezoacoustic sensors is reported. Depending on the electrode pattern for the transducer, the strong mechanical coupling of the analyte with the MIP layer coated device allows the adoption of the sensitivity from cell mass to cell viability with complete reversibility. PMID:27735880

  8. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or ‘pragmatic’ designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  9. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications.

  10. Microbial life in a liquid asphalt desert.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Haque, Shirin; de Sousa Antonio, Marina Resendes; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J; Hallam, Steven J

    2011-04-01

    Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago is a natural asphalt reservoir nourished by pitch seepage, a form of petroleum that consists of mostly asphaltines, from the surrounding oil-rich region. During upward seepage, pitch mixes with mud and gases under high pressure, and the lighter portion evaporates or is volatilized, which produces a liquid asphalt residue characterized by low water activity, recalcitrant carbon substrates, and noxious chemical compounds. An active microbial community of archaea and bacteria, many of them novel strains (particularly from the new Tar ARC groups), totaling a biomass of up to 10(7) cells per gram, was found to inhabit the liquid hydrocarbon matrix of Pitch Lake. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed diverse, novel, and deeply branching microbial lineages with the potential to mediate anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in different parts of the asphalt column. In addition, we found markers for archaeal methane metabolism and specific gene sequences affiliated with facultative and obligate anaerobic sulfur- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The microbial diversity at Pitch Lake was found to be unique when compared to microbial communities analyzed at other hydrocarbon-rich environments, which included Rancho Le Brea, a natural asphalt environment in California, USA, and an oil well and a mud volcano in Trinidad and Tobago, among other sites. These results open a window into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices and establish the site as a terrestrial analogue for modeling the biotic potential of hydrocarbon lakes such as those found on Saturn's largest moon Titan.

  11. Microbial Life in a Liquid Asphalt Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Haque, Shirin; de Sousa Antonio, Marina Resendes; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C.; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M.; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2011-04-01

    Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago is a natural asphalt reservoir nourished by pitch seepage, a form of petroleum that consists of mostly asphaltines, from the surrounding oil-rich region. During upward seepage, pitch mixes with mud and gases under high pressure, and the lighter portion evaporates or is volatilized, which produces a liquid asphalt residue characterized by low water activity, recalcitrant carbon substrates, and noxious chemical compounds. An active microbial community of archaea and bacteria, many of them novel strains (particularly from the new Tar ARC groups), totaling a biomass of up to 107 cells per gram, was found to inhabit the liquid hydrocarbon matrix of Pitch Lake. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed diverse, novel, and deeply branching microbial lineages with the potential to mediate anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in different parts of the asphalt column. In addition, we found markers for archaeal methane metabolism and specific gene sequences affiliated with facultative and obligate anaerobic sulfur- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The microbial diversity at Pitch Lake was found to be unique when compared to microbial communities analyzed at other hydrocarbon-rich environments, which included Rancho Le Brea, a natural asphalt environment in California, USA, and an oil well and a mud volcano in Trinidad and Tobago, among other sites. These results open a window into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices and establish the site as a terrestrial analogue for modeling the biotic potential of hydrocarbon lakes such as those found on Saturn's largest moon Titan.

  12. Sintered diamond compacts using metallic cobalt binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, W. F.; Katzman, H.

    1972-01-01

    Method is developed for sintering diamond powder which uses metallic cobalt as binder. Present samples show maximum microhardness of over 3000 kg/sq mm on Knoop scale. Material may be used as hard surface coating or may compete with cubic boron nitride as abrasive grain.

  13. Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  14. Organic Binder Developments for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Mobasher, Amir A.

    2003-01-01

    A number of rapid prototyping techniques are under development at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Rapid Prototyping Laboratory. Commercial binder developments in creating solid models for rapid prototyping include: 1) Fused Deposition Modeling; 2) Three Dimensional Printing; 3) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). This document describes these techniques developed by the private sector, as well as SLS undertaken by MSFC.

  15. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544... Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from the American...

  16. 46 CFR 309.101 - Amendment of interim binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amendment of interim binders. 309.101 Section 309.101... INSURANCE § 309.101 Amendment of interim binders. The interim binder for a vessel whose stated valuation is established pursuant to this part shall be deemed to have been amended on the first day of the...

  17. 46 CFR 309.101 - Amendment of interim binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amendment of interim binders. 309.101 Section 309.101... INSURANCE § 309.101 Amendment of interim binders. The interim binder for a vessel whose stated valuation is established pursuant to this part shall be deemed to have been amended on the first day of the...

  18. 21 CFR 880.5160 - Therapeutic medical binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Therapeutic medical binder. 880.5160 Section 880...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5160 Therapeutic medical binder. (a) Identification. A therapeutic medical binder is...

  19. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  20. Analysis of asphalt-based roof systems using thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, R.M.; Delgado, A.H.

    1996-10-01

    Asphalt is used extensively in roofing applications. Traditionally, it is used in a built-up roof system, where four or five plies are applied in conjunction with asphalt. This is labour intensive and requires good quality assurance on the roof top. Alternatively, asphalt can be used in a polymer-modified sheet where styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) or atactic polypropylene (APP) are added to the asphalt shipped in a roll where reinforcement (e.g., glass fibre mat) has been added. Regardless of the system used, the roof must be able to withstand the environmental loads such UV, heat, etc. Thermoanalytical techniques such as DSC, DMA, TMA and TG/DTA are ideally suited to monitor the weathering of asphalt. This paper presents data obtained using these techniques and shows how the performance of asphalt-based roof systems can be followed by thermal analysis.

  1. Mechanical properties of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, X. Y.; Gu, X. Y.; Wang, X. W.

    2017-01-01

    Gutta-percha is the isomer of caoutchouc and can be used to enhance the performance of asphalt. In this paper, the produce proceedings of gutta-percha sulfide and gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt are introduced. The performance indices of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt samples with different proportions are examined based on laboratory tests and the optimum ratio of gutta-percha and sulfur is decided.The micromechanism, temperature sensitivity, high and low temperature properties and viscoelasticity of the polymer modified asphalt are analyzed to discuss the modified mechanism and to decide the optimal polymer content. Low temperature bending tests are carried out to verify the low temperature performance of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt mixture. Research results showed that gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt has good low temperature performance and a promising application prospect in the cold regions.

  2. Manufacture of road paving asphalt using coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.Y.

    1986-09-01

    Coal tar is a ready source of asphaltenes needed in asphalt production. Coal tar pitch itself, however, is unsuitable for making road-paving asphalt, since the resulting material has low ductility, high temperature sensitivity, and low resistance to wear. For this reason, in England, where replacing imported petroleum with local products was important 10 to 20 years ago, it was required that no more than 10 to 20 percent coal tar pitch be incorporated in road pavement. At higher concentrations, the pitch separates from the petroleum-derived asphalt, causing brittleness and cracking. To make a good asphalt from coal tar pitch, chemical modification or blending with additives appears necessary. In this study, the potentials are for producing road-paving asphalt from coal tar and available inexpensive petroleum fractions are explored. The objective of the study is to develop new uses of coal tar for asphalt production and to free the petroleum residue for upgrading to gasoline and diesel fuels.

  3. Research on Surfactant Warm Mix Asphalt Construction Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoliang; Sun, Jingxin; Guo, Xiufeng

    Discharging temperature of hot asphalt mixture is about 150°C-185°C, volatilization of asphalt fume harms people's health and fuel cost is high. Jinan Urban Construction Group applies PTL/01 asphalt warm mix agent to produce warm mix asphalt to construction of urban roads' asphalt bituminous pavement. After comparing it with performance of traditional hot asphalt mixture, mixing temperature may be reduced by 30°C-60°C, emission of poisonous gas is reduced, energy conservation and environmental protection are satisfied, construction quality reaches requirements of construction specifications and economic, social and environmental benefits are significant. Thus, it can be used for reference for green construction of urban roads.

  4. Rheo-mechanical model for self-healing asphalt pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gömze, A. L.; Gömze, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    Examining the rheological properties of different asphalt mixtures at different temperatures, pressures and deformation conditions on the combined rheo-tribometers the authors have found that the generally used Burgers-model doesn’t explain the deformation properties of asphalt mixtures and pavements under loading forces and loading pressures. To understand better the rheological and deformation properties of such complex materials like asphalt mixtures and pavements the authors used Malvern Mastersizer X laser granulometer, Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer, Hitachi TM 1000 Scanning Elektronmicroscope, Tristar 3000 specific surface tester and the combined rheo-tribometer developed and patented by the authors. After the complex investigation of different asphalt mixtures the authors have found a new, more complex rheological model for the asphalts including self-healing asphalt pavements.

  5. Seal coats and asphalt recycling. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers in this volume deal with various facets of seal coats and asphalt recycling; they should be of interest to state and local construction, design, materials, maintenance, and research engineers as well as contractors and material producers. Authors describe their work related to the design, construction, and performance of seal coats. The relationship between asphalt mixture characteristics and design and the frictional resistance of bituminous wearing course mixtures is reported, and research efforts related to asphalt recycling are explained.

  6. Use of scrap rubber in asphalt pavement surfaces. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.A.; Roberts, R.J.; Blackburn, R.R.

    1991-12-01

    Scrap tire rubber was mixed into an asphalt concrete wearing course to study the effect of ice disbonding from the pavement surface under traffic. Rubber contents of 0, 3, 6, and 12% by weight were studied. Initial laboratory ice disbonding test results led to the development of a new paving material, Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC), that uses larger pieces of rubber in a much denser asphalt concrete mix. Strength values doubled and ice disbonding performance was enhanced.

  7. Current Practices on Nighttime Pavement Construction Asphaltic Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    foot width. This production amounted to approximately 1520 tons per night. 9. Equipment: a. Asphalt Spreader. The Contractor utilized one Blaw Knox ...Diego, CA. to monitor the testing of the Port Authority requirements. 11. Grade Control Requirements. a. Ski. The Blaw Knox paving machine was specified...q 16. Crack Reflection Membrane: None. 17. Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete Overlay Placing: a. Asphalt Spreaders Operating in Echelon. Only one Blaw - Knox

  8. Production variability analysis of hot-mixed asphalt concrete containing reclaimed asphalt pavement. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Solaimanian, M.; Kennedy, T.W.

    1995-02-01

    A research project was undertaken to evaluate the production and construction variability of Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete (HMAC) containing high quantities of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) material. Four construction projects were selected for this purpose. Two of the projects used 35 percent RAP material (both type-C mixes), while the other two used 40 percent (a type-B mix) and 50 percent (a type-D mix) of the RAP material, respectively. The projects differed in sizes, with total construction tonnage ranging from 10.9 million kg to 27.2 million kg (12,000 to 30,000 tons). In all cases, dedicated stockpiles of RAP material were used. Analysis was performed on the results obtained from the tests. The gradation and asphalt content deviations, air voids, penetration and viscosities, and stabilities, were included in the analysis. Pay adjustment factors were determined for gradation and asphalt content deviation, as well as for air voids (based on TxDOT Specification 3007). In general, these high-percent RAP projects indicated a variability higher than that of a typical HMAC without RAP. The pay adjustment factors for gradation and asphalt content deviation were lower than typical values. The construction gradations were finer than the job-mix formula target gradations, possibly a result of aggregate crushing during the milling operation.

  9. Alkali-metal silicate binders and methods of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A paint binder is described which uses a potassium or sodium silicate dispersion having a silicon dioxide to alkali-metal oxide mol ratio of from 4.8:1 to 6.0:1. The binder exhibits stability during both manufacture and storage. The process of making the binder is predictable and repeatable and the binder may be made with inexpensive components. The high mol ratio is achieved with the inclusion of a silicon dioxide hydrogel. The binder, which also employs a silicone, is in the final form of a hydrogel sol.

  10. Asphalt compatibility testing using the automated Heithaus titration test

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Heithaus titration test or variations of the test have been used for over 35 years to predict compatibilities of blends of asphalts from different crude sources. Asphalt compatibility is determined from three calculated parameters that measure the state of peptization of an asphalt or asphalt blend. The parameter p{sub a} is a measure of the peptizability of the asphaltenes. The parameter p{sub a} is a measure of the peptizing power of the maltenes, and the parameter P, derived from p{sub a} and p{sub o} values, is a measure of the overall state of peptization of the asphalt or asphalt blend. In Heithaus original procedure, samples of asphalt were dissolved in toluene and titrated with n-heptane in order to initiate flocculation. The onset of flocculation was detected either by photography or by spotting a filter paper with a small amount of the titrated solution. Recently, an {open_quotes}automated{close_quotes} procedure, after Hotier and Robin, has been developed for use with asphalt. In the automated method UV-visible spectrophotometric detection measures the onset of flocculation as a peak with the percent transmittance plotted as a function of the volume of titrating solvent added to a solution of asphalt. The automated procedure has proven to be less operator dependent and much faster than the original Heithaus procedure. Results from the automated procedure show the data to be consistent with results from the original, {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} Heithaus procedure.

  11. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.

    1981-09-01

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10/sup -6/ cm/sup 2//s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables.

  12. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt`s potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions.

  13. Detection of asphalt pavement cracks using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettas, Christodoulos; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-10-01

    Deterioration of asphalt road pavements is inevitable throughout its life cycle. There are several types of deterioration that take place on these surfaces, like surface defects and deformations. One of the most common asphalt defects is cracking. Fatigue, transverse, longitudinal, reflective, edge, block and slippage are types of cracking that can be observed anywhere in the world. Monitoring and preventative/periodic maintenance of these types of wears are two very important actions that have to take place to avoid "costly" solutions. This paper aims to introduce the spectral characteristics of uncracked (healthy) and cracked asphalt surfaces which can give a new asphalt crack index. This is performed through remote sensing applications in the area of asphalt pavements. Multispectral images can be elaborated using the index to enhance crack marks on asphalt surfaces. Ground spectral signatures were acquired from both uncracked and cracked asphalted areas of Cyprus (Limassol). Evaluation separability indices can be used to identify the optimum wavelength regions that can distinguish better the uncracked and cracked asphalt surfaces. The results revealed that the spectral sensitivity for the enhancement of cracked asphalt was detected using the Euclidean, Mahalanobis and Cosine Distance Indices in the Vis range (approximately at 450 nm) and in the SWIR 1 range (approximately at 1750 nm).

  14. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  15. Asphalt-Aggregate Interactions in Hot Recycling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    showed that recycled systems resisted the action of water better than virgin systems. Bonding energy measurements indicated that asphalt-aggregate mixtures...Mexico Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory for surface area/porosity measurements and discussion of results John Husler and Les Mcfadden at the...FORMUJLA MIXTURE RESULTS.................. 70 22 F VALUES DERIVED FROM THE TWO-WAY ANOVA................. 79 23 BONDING ENERGY MEASUREMENTS FOR - #16 + #50

  16. Valorization of phosphogypsum as hydraulic binder.

    PubMed

    Kuryatnyk, T; Angulski da Luz, C; Ambroise, J; Pera, J

    2008-12-30

    Phosphogypsum (calcium sulfate) is a naturally occurring part of the process of creating phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), an essential component of many modern fertilizers. For every tonne of phosphoric acid made, from the reaction of phosphate rock with acid, commonly sulfuric acid, about 3t of phosphogypsum are created. There are three options for managing phosphogypsum: (i) disposal or dumping, (ii) stacking, (iii) use-in, for example, agriculture, construction, or landfill. This paper presents the valorization of two Tunisian phosphogypsums (referred as G and S) in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the following proportions: 70% phosphogypsum-30% calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. The use of sample G leads to the production of a hydraulic binder which means that it is not destroyed when immersed in water. The binder including sample S performs very well when cured in air but is not resistant in water. Formation of massive ettringite in a rigid body leads to cracking and strength loss.

  17. Composite binders for concrete with reduced permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-02-01

    Composite binder consisting of cement (55%), acid fly ash (40%) and limestone (5%) has been designed. It is obtained by co-milling to a specific surface of 550 kg/m2, it has an activity of 77.3 MPa and can produce a more dense cement stone structure. Integrated study revealed that the concrete on the composite binder basis provides an effective diffusion coefficient D. So we can conclude that the concrete layer protects buildings from toxic effects of expanded polystyrene. Low water absorption of the material (2.5% by weight) is due to the structure of its cement stone pore space. Besides lime powder prevents the penetration of moisture, reduces water saturation of the coverage that has a positive effect on useful life period. It also explains rather low water vapor permeability of the material - 0.021 mg/(m- hour-Pa).

  18. Solvolytic Degradation of Polymeric Propellant Binders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    above the TgW* of the binder [39). For the - elastomers employed it r’ocket propeilants Tg is lower than room temperature 140). Finally, solvents in...which-JA? or other oxidizerAs are readily -soluble -mcy be employed [37J. -P’,lyurethanes, polyamides , and polyesters similar to those found in prood...Univercity oil Florida, contributed to -the synthesis program, including synthesis of the model linear polyurethane, determina~tion of its nolution

  19. Stabilization/solidification of munition destruction waste by asphalt emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cervinkova, Marketa; Vondruska, Milan; Bednarik, Vratislav; Pazdera, Antonin

    2007-04-02

    Destruction of discarded military munitions in an explosion chamber produces two fractions of hazardous solid waste. The first one is scrap waste that remains in the chamber after explosion; the second one is fine dust waste, which is trapped on filters of gas products that are exhausted from the chamber after explosion. The technique of stabilization/solidification of the scrap waste by asphalt emulsion is described in this paper. The technique consists of simple mixing of the waste with anionic asphalt emulsion, or two-step mixing of the waste with cationic asphalt emulsion. These techniques are easy to use and the stabilized scrap waste proves low leachability of contained heavy metals assessed by TCLP test. Hence, it is possible to landfill the scrap waste stabilized by asphalt emulsion. If the dust waste, which has large specific surface, is stabilized by asphalt emulsion, it is not fully encapsulated; the results of the leaching tests do not meet the regulatory levels. However, the dust waste solidified by asphalt emulsion can be deposited into an asphalted disposal site of the landfill. The asphalt walls of the disposal site represent an efficient secondary barrier against pollutant release.

  20. Hot asphalt burns: a review of injuries and management options.

    PubMed

    Bosse, George M; Wadia, Shernaz A; Padmanabhan, Pradeep

    2014-07-01

    Hot asphalt burns to human tissue can increase the likelihood of infection and potential conversion of partial thickness to full-thickness injuries. Successful intervention for hot asphalt burns requires immediate and effective cooling of the asphalt on the tissue followed by subsequent gradual removal of the cooled asphalt. A review of the literature reveals that multiple substances have been used to remove asphalt, including topical antibiotics, petroleum jelly, a commercial product known as De-Solv-It (ORANGE-SOL, Chandler, AZ), sunflower oil, baby oil, liquid paraffin, butter, mayonnaise, and moist-exposed burn ointment (MEBO). Although many of these products may be effective in the removal of asphalt, they may not be readily available in an emergency department setting. Topical antibiotics are readily available, are more commonly described in the medical literature, and would be expected to be effective in the removal of asphalt. We developed guidelines for on scene (first-aid) management and the initial care of such patients upon presentation to a health care facility. These guidelines emphasize the principles of early cooling, gradual removal of adherent asphalt using topical antibiotics, and avoidance of the use of topical agents, which are likely to result in tissue toxicity.

  1. Good news from the bottom: US asphalt market 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-22

    For US refiners faced with numerous tough challenges in 1993, the US asphalt market recovery may have provided some welcome news for those watching the bottom line. Higher prices and increased sales made the asphalt market a summertime profit center for many US refiners and marketers -- for the first time in years.

  2. 7 CFR 3201.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 3201.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.65 - Concrete and asphalt cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt cleaners. 3201.65 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.65 Concrete and asphalt cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemicals used in concrete etching as well as to remove petroleum-based soils, lubricants, paints, mastics, organic...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 2902.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 3201.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete...

  6. 7 CFR 2902.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 2902.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete...

  7. 7 CFR 3201.65 - Concrete and asphalt cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt cleaners. 3201.65 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.65 Concrete and asphalt cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemicals used in concrete etching as well as to remove petroleum-based soils, lubricants, paints, mastics, organic...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.65 - Concrete and asphalt cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt cleaners. 3201.65 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.65 Concrete and asphalt cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemicals used in concrete etching as well as to remove petroleum-based soils, lubricants, paints, mastics, organic...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 3201.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing... Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and Information... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations For * * * You must meet...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing... Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and Information... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations For * * * You must meet...

  12. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30 Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  13. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30 Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 443.40 - Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory. 443.40 Section 443.40 Protection of Environment... THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.40 Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt...

  15. 40 CFR 443.40 - Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory. 443.40 Section 443.40 Protection of Environment... THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.40 Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt...

  16. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  18. 40 CFR 443.40 - Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory. 443.40 Section 443.40 Protection of Environment... PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.40 Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory....

  19. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing... Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and Information... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations For * * * You must meet...

  1. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30 Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  2. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing... Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and Information... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations For * * * You must meet...

  4. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30 Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  5. 40 CFR 443.40 - Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory. 443.40 Section 443.40 Protection of Environment... THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.40 Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing... Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and Information... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations For * * * You must meet...

  7. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  8. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30 Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  9. 40 CFR 443.20 - Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asphalt concrete subcategory. 443.20 Section 443.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.20 Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  10. 40 CFR 443.20 - Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt concrete subcategory. 443.20 Section 443.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.20 Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  11. 40 CFR 443.20 - Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asphalt concrete subcategory. 443.20 Section 443.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.20 Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  12. 40 CFR 443.20 - Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asphalt concrete subcategory. 443.20 Section 443.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.20 Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  13. 40 CFR 443.20 - Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asphalt concrete subcategory. 443.20 Section 443.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.20 Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 443.40 - Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory. 443.40 Section 443.40 Protection of Environment... PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.40 Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory....

  15. Use of dynamic phase angle and complex modulus for the low temperature performance grading of asphalt cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani, Abdolrasoul

    This thesis discusses and documents the validation efforts related to Ontario's LS-299 and LS-308 test methods which are two new test methods developed for the performance-based specification grading of asphalt cement. In addition, this report presents the field validation of a simple performance indicator, loss tangent, for specification grading of asphalt cement for thermal cracking. Furthermore, another objective of this study is to investigate and compare the low temperature fracture and rheological behavior of engineered asphalt materials from field and laboratory-aged test sections on Highway 655 in northern Ontario. Extracted asphalt cements from 20 contract sites in eastern and northeastern Ontario were tested according to Ontario's LS-299 and LS-308 test methods. It was found that all good performing contracts that showed little or no distress showed low grade losses in LS-308 and retained high strain tolerances as measured in LS-299 compared to the poor performing contracts. Asphalt cements recovered from these 20 contract sites in eastern and northeastern Ontario were also tested in torsion bar geometry to determine their viscoelastic properties. It was decided to focus on the phase angle, as a more direct measure for low temperature performance. Phase angle is a very sensitive parameter to small changes in rheology as the phase angle is approximately equal to the derivative of the logarithm of the stiffness with respect to frequency. It was found that tan(delta) was able to distinguish good from poor performers with 95% accuracy after only a short period of conditioning prior to testing. This is a considerable improvement over the current low temperature bending beam rheometer protocol. Black space diagrams, frequency sweeps, Cole-Cole plots, and master curves were generated for comparison of field and laboratory aged materials from the Highway 655 trial in northern Ontario. The findings show that chemical hardening occurs much faster in the field than

  16. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  17. Utilization of Recycled Asphalt Concrete with Warm Mix Asphalt and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures. PMID:25574851

  18. Cementitious binder from fly ash and other industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Garg, M.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, investigations were undertaken to formulate cementitious binder by judicious blending of fly ash with Portland cement as well as by admixing fly ash with calcined phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum, lime sludge, and chemical activators of different finenesses. The effect of addition of calcined clay in these types of binders was studied. Data showed that cementitious binders of high compressive strength and water retentivity can be produced. The strength of masonry mortars increased with the addition of chemical activators. The strength development of binders takes place through formation of ettringite. C-S-H, and C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}. The binders are eminently suitable for partial replacement (up to 25%) of the cement in concrete without any detrimental affect on the strength. The results showed that fly ash can be used in the range from 45% to 70% in formulating these binders along with other industrial wastes to help in mitigating environmental pollution.

  19. Combustion characteristics of a solid propellant with a charring binder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udlock, D. E.; Strand, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    A brief investigation of the combustion characteristics of a solid propellant containing a binder which chars, as opposed to melting or volatizing, has been made. The burning rate of the propellant with the charring binder was significantly higher than similar propellants containing non-charring binders. High speed motion pictures of the burning propellant showed that the aluminum burned on the regressing surface, rather than a short distance from it as is typical with composite propellants.

  20. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. PMID:26056137

  1. Air sampling methodology for asphalt fume in asphalt production and asphalt roofing manufacturing facilities: total particulate sampler versus inhalable particulate sampler.

    PubMed

    Calzavara, Thomas S; Carter, Charles M; Axten, Charles

    2003-05-01

    In 2000, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) changed its 1971 threshold limit value (TLV) for 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to asphalt from 5 mg/m(3) total particulate (generally < or =40 micrometer [microm] diameter) to 0.5 mg/m(3) inhalable particulate (< or =100 microm aerodynamic diameter) as benzene-soluble aerosol. To date, no inhalable particulate sampling method has been standardized and validated for asphalt fume. Furthermore, much of the historical data were collected using total particulate samplers, and the comparability of total versus inhalable size fractions of asphalt fume is not known. Therefore, the present study compared results from two types of asphalt fume samplers: 1) a traditional total particulate sampler with a 37-mm filter in a closed-face cassette with a 4-mm orifice (NIOSH 5042) versus (2) an inhalable particulate sampler designed by the IOM with a 15-mm orifice. A total of 75 simultaneous pairs of samples were collected, including personal and area samples from 19 roofing and asphalt production facilities operated by 7 different manufacturers. Each sample was analyzed for total mass collected and for benzene-soluble mass. Data from the two sampling methods (total versus inhalable) were comparable for asphalt fumes up to an aerosol concentration of 10 mg/m(3). However, we conclude that the traditional total particulate method is preferable, for this reason: The vast majority of asphalt fume particles are <12.5 microm in diameter. The traditional sampler is designed to collect primarily particles < or =40 microm, while the IOM sampler is optimized for collecting particles < or =100 microm. Thus, the traditional sampler is less likely than the IOM sampler to collect the larger-size fraction of airborne particles, most of which are non-asphalt dust.

  2. Observation of a network structure in asphalt cements

    SciTech Connect

    Rozeveld, J.; Shin, E.E.; Bhurke, A.; Drzal, L.T.

    1996-12-31

    Paving asphalts are often judged and selected based on their rheological behavior at prescribed temperatures or aging response. Asphalts are considered as a colloidal mixture, where clusters of polar, aromatic molecules are dispersed in a less polar solvent. Thus, the extent to which the solvent phase disperses the associating molecules will determine many of the fundamental asphalt properties. Asphalts are typically divided into four major groups, namely: asphaltenes, resins, aromatics, ans saturates. Asphaltenes are the highest molecular weight group and constitute {approximately}25% of the total asphalt. Resins are very polar in nature and act as a dispersing agent or peptisers for the asphaltenes. The solvent or oily phase (aromatics and saturates) are the lightest molecular weight group and are the bulk of the total asphalt (40-50%). The dispersion of the asphaltenes within the oily solvent is an important property and has been studied by separation and titration methods. In this study, asphalt cements were examined using an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) (ElectroScan 2020), and confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM) (Zeiss 10).

  3. Evolution of geopolymer binders: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuruddin, M. F.; Malkawi, A. B.; Fauzi, A.; Mohammed, B. S.; Almattarneh, H. M.

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to present the current state of research about the terminology, chemical reactions, mechanisms, and microstructure modelling of geopolymer binders. Modelling the structure of the geopolymerization products is essential for controlling the product properties. The currently available models have shown some limitations in determining the rate of geopolymerization and setting time of the gel. There is a need for deeper knowledge regarding the physicochemical analysis of geopolymer binders. Most of the available models have used pure material like metakaolin; however, the less pure materials are expected to have different mechanisms. The FTIR and MAS-NMR analysis are considered as effective tools in providing information on the molecular deviations during geopolymerization. However, XRD analysis is not effective because most of the changes take place in amorphous phases. Also, the role of the iron oxides and some of the other impurities still not clear where none of the previous method of investigation can be used to detect the molecular changes of the iron compounds. This issue is very relevant hence the iron oxides are existed in substantial amounts in most of the waste materials that are suitable to be used as geopolymer source materials.

  4. Pharmacology of the phosphate binder, lanthanum carbonate.

    PubMed

    Damment, Stephen J P

    2011-01-01

    Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [(32)P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses.

  5. Pharmacology of the Phosphate Binder, Lanthanum Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Damment, Stephen JP

    2011-01-01

    Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [32P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses. PMID:21332344

  6. High temperature intermetallic binders for HVOF carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, K.G.; Gruninger, M.F.; Jarosinski, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gas turbines technology has a long history of employing the desirable high temperature physical attributes of ceramic-metallic (cermet) materials. The most commonly used coatings incorporate combinations of WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr, which have also been successfully utilized in other non-turbine coating applications. Increased turbine operating temperatures and other high temperature service conditions have made apparent the attractive notion of increasing the temperature capability and corrosion resistance of these coatings. In this study the intermetallic binder NiAl has been used to replace the cobalt and NiCr constituents of conventional WC and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} cermet powders. The composite carbide thermal spray powders were fabricated for use in the HVOF coating process. The structure of HVOF deposited NiAl-carbide coatings are compared directly to the more familiar WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coatings using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron imaging (BEI) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness variations with temperature are reported and compared between the NiAl and Co/NiCr binders.

  7. Low permeability asphalt concrete gamma ray shielding properties.

    PubMed

    Binney, S E; Sykes, K L

    1997-01-01

    Energy-dependent gamma ray shielding properties were measured as a function of gamma ray energy for a low permeability asphalt concrete that is used as a cap to prevent water infiltration into radioactive waste sites. Experimental data were compared to ISO-PC point kernel shielding calculations. Calculated dose equivalent rates compared well with experimental values, especially considering the poor detector resolution involved. The shielding properties of the asphalt concrete closely resembled those of aluminum. The results presented can be used to determine the asphalt concrete thickness required to reduce dose equivalent rates from several gamma ray emitting radionuclides.

  8. HP-GPC characterization of asphalt and modified asphalts from gulf countries and their relation to performance based properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wahhab, H.I.A.; Ali, M.F.; Asi, I.M.; Dubabe, I.A.

    1996-12-31

    Asphalt producing refineries in the Gulf countries include Ras Tanura and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Al-Ahmadi (Kuwait), and BAPCO (Bahrain). Riyadh and Ras Tanura refineries are located in the central and eastern Saudi Arabia respectively. Arabian light crude oil is used to produce 2000 to 3000 tons of asphalt per day using vacuum distillation, air blowing and grade blending techniques to produce 60/70 penetration grade asphalts in each of these two Saudi refineries. All of the asphalt cement used in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and parts of the United Arab Emirates is supplied by Riyadh and Ras Tanura refineries. Al-Ahmadi refinery supplies all of the asphalt cement needed for construction in the state of Kuwait. Ratwi-Burgan crude off mix is used to produce 750 to 1000 tons of asphalt per day using vacuum distillation and air blowing processes. This study was initiated to evaluate different locally available polymers in order to identify potential polymers to modify asphalts to satisfy the performance requirements in the Gulf countries environmental conditions.

  9. Development of Silane Hydrolysate Binder for Thermal-Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Technical report describes theoretical and experimental development of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) hydrolysate binder for white, titanium dioxidepigmented thermal-control coatings often needed on satellites. New coating is tougher and more abrasion-resistant than conventional coating, S-13G, which comprises zinc oxide in hydroxyl-therminated dimethylsiloxane binder.

  10. Sterilizable Binder Is Stable at 135 degrees C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Yovrouian, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Polyurethane binder for solid propellants endures heat sterilization without decomposition based on an ester diol. Binder resists oxidation under prolonged exposure to 135 degrees C temperature, low enough in viscosity to be handled easily during processing, and readily mixed with oxidizers, such as ammonium perchlorate. Polyurethane is also suitable material for encapsulants, potting compounds, and coatings that must be sterilized.

  11. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder....

  12. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The...

  13. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts under interim binder. 308.103 Section 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder....

  14. Evaluation of sorghum starch as a tablet disintegrant and binder.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A V; Panya, L B

    1987-06-01

    The starch prepared from the seeds of Sorghum bicolor, Moench has been evaluated as a disintegrant and binder in tablets of magnesium sulphate, calcium carbonate, sulphadimidine, and chloroquine phosphate to represent soluble and insoluble inorganic and organic substances. The starch performed as well as maize starch in binding and disintegrating properties and better than acacia as binder.

  15. Polyorganosilazane preceramic binder development for reaction bonded silicon nitride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.L.; Starr, T.L.

    1992-11-01

    This study has examined the use of two commercially available polyorganosilazanes for application as preceramic binders in a composite composed of silicon carbide fibers in a reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix. Ceramic monolithic and composite samples were produced. Density of monolithic and whisker reinforced RBSN samples containing the polysilazane binder was increased. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a significant decrease in the pore sizes of samples containing a polyorganosilazane binder. Electron micrographs of samples containing the preceramic binder looked similar to control samples containing no precursor. Overall, incorporation of the polysilazane into monolithic and whisker reinforced samples resulted in significantly increased density and decreased porosity. Nitriding of the RBSN was slightly retarded by addition of the polysilazane binder. Samples with the preceramic binders contained increased contents of {alpha} versus {beta}-silicon nitride which may be due to interaction of hydrogen evolved from polysilazane pyrolysis with the nitriding process. Initial efforts to produce continuous fiber reinforced composites via this method have not realized the same improvements in density and porosity which have been observed for monolithic and whisker reinforced samples. Further, the addition of perceramic binder resulted in a more brittle fracture morphology as compared to similar composites made without the binder.

  16. Polyorganosilazane preceramic binder development for reaction bonded silicon nitride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.L.; Starr, T.L. )

    1992-11-01

    This study has examined the use of two commercially available polyorganosilazanes for application as preceramic binders in a composite composed of silicon carbide fibers in a reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix. Ceramic monolithic and composite samples were produced. Density of monolithic and whisker reinforced RBSN samples containing the polysilazane binder was increased. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a significant decrease in the pore sizes of samples containing a polyorganosilazane binder. Electron micrographs of samples containing the preceramic binder looked similar to control samples containing no precursor. Overall, incorporation of the polysilazane into monolithic and whisker reinforced samples resulted in significantly increased density and decreased porosity. Nitriding of the RBSN was slightly retarded by addition of the polysilazane binder. Samples with the preceramic binders contained increased contents of [alpha] versus [beta]-silicon nitride which may be due to interaction of hydrogen evolved from polysilazane pyrolysis with the nitriding process. Initial efforts to produce continuous fiber reinforced composites via this method have not realized the same improvements in density and porosity which have been observed for monolithic and whisker reinforced samples. Further, the addition of perceramic binder resulted in a more brittle fracture morphology as compared to similar composites made without the binder.

  17. Environmentally Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Perlite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Production of Portland cement (PC), the ubiquitous binding material for construction works, is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nearly half of these emissions arise from the decomposition of calcareous raw materials, and the other half from kiln fuel combustion and cement clinker grinding operations. As such, PC production contributes significantly to global warming and climate change. Lately, there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower associated green house gas emissions. An important class of such binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders have very low CO2 emissions from grinding of the starting material, and some from the production of the activating chemical. The total CO2 emission from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/5th - 1/10th of those of Portland cement concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time makes their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Perlite is a volcanic aluminosilicate glass abundant in Turkey, China, Japan, the US and several EU countries. It has been used in its expanded form, for horticulture, for insulation, and for producing lightweight concrete. Turkish perlites contain more than 70 % SiO2, and have a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of ~5.5. This study shows that ground perlite can be mixed with alkaline activators like sodium hydroxide or sodium silicate to yield mortars with strengths comparable to those of portland cement mortars. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in 24 h or less. Since perlite is natural, perlite geopolymers can have environmental, energetic, and

  18. Development of a green binder system for paper products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important for industries to find green chemistries for manufacturing their products that have utility, are cost-effective and that protect the environment. The paper industry is no exception. Renewable resources derived from plant components could be an excellent substitute for the chemicals that are currently used as paper binders. Air laid pressed paper products that are typically used in wet wipes must be bound together so they can resist mechanical tearing during storage and use. The binders must be strong but cost-effective. Although chemical binders are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, the public is demanding products with lower carbon footprints and that are derived from renewable sources. Results In this project, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds were applied to air laid, pressed paper products in order to identify potential renewable green binders that are as strong as the current commercial binders, while being organic and renewable. Each potential green binder was applied to several filter paper strips and tested for strength in the direction perpendicular to the cellulose fibril orientation. Out of the twenty binders surveyed, soy protein, gelatin, zein protein, pectin and Salix lignin provided comparable strength results to a currently employed chemical binder. Conclusions These organic and renewable binders can be purchased in large quantities at low cost, require minimal reaction time and do not form viscous solutions that would clog sprayers, characteristics that make them attractive to the non-woven paper industry. As with any new process, a large-scale trial must be conducted along with an economic analysis of the procedure. However, because multiple examples of “green” binders were found that showed strong cross-linking activity, a candidate for commercial application will likely be found. PMID:23531016

  19. 5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOODFRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOOD-FRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC SIDING, LOOKING WEST. - Lockport DuPage Farmer's Elevator Company Grain Elevator, South of Romeoville Road, Lockport, Will County, IL

  20. Comprehensive research program: Wind resistance of asphalt shingles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.E.; Metz, R.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association's comprehensive research program which has resulted in a validated wind load model that can be used to calculate the uplift pressure on asphalt shingles as a function of approach wind velocities and other wind and building conditions. Also, a tab uplift resistance test method has been developed to measure the ability of asphalt shingles to withstand the imposed pressures due to the wind. In combination, the results of these two efforts provide the shingle manufacturers with the methodology to evaluate and improve their products. The results are not only of interest to the roofing manufacturers, but also to contractors, code officials, insurance companies, roofing specifiers and other professionals in the roofing industry. The results of this work should provide building owners and homeowners with high performance asphalt shingles for extreme wind conditions.

  1. 12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND NORTH SIDE GUARD WALL - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  2. 4. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT LATTICED GUARDRAIL, DIAGONALS, ASPHALT DECK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT LATTICED GUARDRAIL, DIAGONALS, ASPHALT DECK AND LACED ANGLES ON VERTICALS - Wayne County Bridge No. 122, Spanning West Fork Whitewater River at Main Street, Milton, Wayne County, IN

  3. Performance modeling of Arabian asphalt using HP-GPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asi, I. M.; Wahhab, H. I. Al-Abdul; Al-Dubabi, I. A.; Ali, M. F.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, Arabian neat asphalt samples were collected from different asphalt producing refineries in the Gulf countries. Another set of polymer modified samples was also included in this study. In the polymer modification process, 5,10, and 15% crumb rubber (CRT) and 3,6, and 9% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) were used. All asphalt samples were subjected to two aging processes to simulate heating, mixing, compaction, and in-service aging. The asphalt samples at the different aging stages were subjected to performance-based tests that were adapted and/or modified by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) team. High pressure gel permeation chromatography (HP-GPC) was used to chemically analyze the test samples by generating profiles of their molecular size distribution. Models were built to predict the performance-based properties from the produced HP-GPC profiles.

  4. Hot in-place recycling of asphalt concrete. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Button, J.W.; Little, D.N.; Estakhri, C.K.; Mason, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    ;Contents: Hot in place recycling processes and equipment; HIPR as a tool for asphalt pavement rehabilitation; Mixture design for HIPR processes; Relative performance of HIPR pavements; Guidelines for effective use of HIPR; and Conclusions and recommendations.

  5. User's guide: Cold-mix recycling of asphalt concrete pavements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shoenberger, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    This guide provides the technical information required to implement the application of cold-mix recycling of asphalt concrete pavements. Included are details on areas on application, benefits/advantages, limitations/disadvantages, and costs associated with this technology. Information is provided on two demonstration sites at Fort Gillem, Georgia, and Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Also provided is information concerning funding, procurement, maintenance, and performance monitoring. A fact sheet on recycling, contract specification example, and references are provided in the appendixes.... Asphalt pavement recycling, Emulsified asphalt cement, Cold milling, In-place cold-mix asphalt recycling, Cold-mix asphalt recycling, Recycling of asphalt.

  6. Wavelet-based asphalt concrete texture grading and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuntashri, Ali; Agaian, Sos

    2011-03-01

    In this Paper, we introduce a new method for evaluation, quality control, and automatic grading of texture images representing different textural classes of Asphalt Concrete (AC). Also, we present a new asphalt concrete texture grading, wavelet transform, fractal, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based automatic classification and recognition system. Experimental results were simulated using different cross-validation techniques and achieved an average classification accuracy of 91.4.0 % in a set of 150 images belonging to five different texture grades.

  7. Impulse radar evaluation of concrete, asphalt and waterproofing membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T.; Carter, C. R.; Masliwec, T.; Manning, D. G.

    1994-04-01

    Impulse radar has proved to be effective in the nondestructive testing of bridge decks composed of layers of dielectric materials such as asphalt, waterproofing membrane, and reinforced concrete. In this work, the waveforms reflected from these materials are modeled and analyzed theoretically. The relative dielectric constants are measured using sample blocks, and the reflected radar waveforms are related to the actual physical structures. It is found that asphalt thickness and cover over reinforcement can be accurately determined.

  8. Value-added utilisation of recycled concrete in hot-mix asphalt.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yiik Diew; Sun, Darren Delai; Lai, Dickson

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of partial substitution of granite aggregate in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) with waste concrete aggregate was investigated. Three hybrid HMA mixes incorporating substitutions of granite fillers/fines with 6%, 45% untreated, and 45% heat-treated concrete were evaluated by the Marshall mix design method; the optimum binder contents were found to be 5.3%, 6.5% and 7.0% of grade Pen 60/70 bitumen, respectively. All three hybrid mixes satisfied the Marshall criteria of the Singapore Land Transport Authority (LTA) W3B wearing course specification. The hybrid mix with 6% concrete fillers gave comparable resilient modulus and creep resistance as the conventional W3B mix, while hybrid mixes with higher concrete substitutions achieved better performance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the distinct presence of free lime in the heat-treated concrete, while the scanning electron microscope (SEM) provided an in-depth perspective of the concrete grains in the HMA matrix. The results suggest feasible use of waste concrete as partial aggregate substitution in HMA.

  9. Value-added utilisation of recycled concrete in hot-mix asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yiik Diew; Sun, Darren Delai . E-mail: ddsun@ntu.edu.sg; Lai, Dickson

    2007-07-01

    The feasibility of partial substitution of granite aggregate in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) with waste concrete aggregate was investigated. Three hybrid HMA mixes incorporating substitutions of granite fillers/fines with 6%, 45% untreated, and 45% heat-treated concrete were evaluated by the Marshall mix design method; the optimum binder contents were found to be 5.3%, 6.5% and 7.0% of grade Pen 60/70 bitumen, respectively. All three hybrid mixes satisfied the Marshall criteria of the Singapore Land Transport Authority (LTA) W3B wearing course specification. The hybrid mix with 6% concrete fillers gave comparable resilient modulus and creep resistance as the conventional W3B mix, while hybrid mixes with higher concrete substitutions achieved better performance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the distinct presence of free lime in the heat-treated concrete, while the scanning electron microscope (SEM) provided an in-depth perspective of the concrete grains in the HMA matrix. The results suggest feasible use of waste concrete as partial aggregate substitution in HMA.

  10. Bacteria and asphalt stripping. Final report, December 1983-August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamurti, K.; Jayaprakash, G.P.

    1987-08-01

    Major types of bituminous pavement distress were rutting, cracking (longitudinal, transverse, and alligator) and stripping. The rubble and loosely bound material contained bacteria. The deterioration lessened upward from the pavement-soil interface. The soil appears to be the prime source of the bacteria. Most of the bacterial cells were sausage shaped with polar flagellation. They appeared to belong to the genus Pseudomonas, which is a known user of asphaltic hydrocarbons. Cocci-type bacteria and a virus were also noted. Increasing the density of some asphaltic concrete and strengthening the bond between aggregate and asphalt are considered as the preferred alternatives to using chemical biocides. Anything to reduce pavement cracking would help. Adding lime to asphalt mixes may be one effective means of improving aggregate-asphalt bond and controlling biodeterioration. Lime stabilization of soils under asphalt pavements may provide an added protection against bacterial attack by rendering the soil more hostile to bacterial habitat. Full-depth hot-mix recycling would be more effective than partial-depth recycling in retarding bacterial decay at cracks.

  11. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    PubMed

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  12. Criteria for Asphalt-Rubber Concrete in Civil Airport Pavements. Volume 2. Evaluation of Asphalt-Rubber Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    194 ix LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 1977 FAA Aggregate Grading Band for Bituminous Surface Course with 1/2" (12.5m) Maximum Particle Size* ...... 6 2...Asphalt Concrete and Asphalt-Rubber Concrete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 xi LIST OF FthJiJRf1 Figure Page 1 1977 FAA...were blended to meet the 1977 FAA aggregate grading specification for pavements with a bituminous surface course and designed to accommodate aircraft

  13. Quantitative exposure matrix for asphalt fume, total particulate matter, and respirable crystalline silica among roofing and asphalt manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Fayerweather, William E; Trumbore, David C; Johnson, Kathleen A; Niebo, Ronald W; Maxim, L Daniel

    2011-09-01

    This paper summarizes available data on worker exposures to asphalt fume (soluble fraction), total particulate matter, and respirable crystalline silica (quartz) [hereinafter RCS] over a 30-year period in Owens Corning's asphalt production and roofing manufacturing plants. For the period 1977 through 2006, the air-monitoring database contains more than 1,400 personal samples for asphalt fume (soluble fraction), 2,400 personal samples for total particulate, and 1,300 personal samples for RCS. Unique process-job categories were identified for the asphalt production and roofing shingle manufacturing plants. Quantitative exposures were tabulated by agent, process-job, and calendar period to form an exposure matrix for use in subsequent epidemiologic studies of the respiratory health of these workers. Analysis of time trends in exposure data shows substantial and statistically significant exposure reductions for asphalt fume (soluble fraction), total particulate matter, and respirable crystalline silica at Owens Corning plants. Cumulative distribution plots for the most recent sampling period (2001-2006) show that 95% of the asphalt fume (soluble fraction) measurements were less than 0.25 mg/m3; 95% of the total particulate measurements were less than 2.2 mg/m3; and 95% of the RCS measurements were less than 0.05 mg/m3. Several recommendations are offered to improve the design of future monitoring efforts.

  14. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the...

  15. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the...

  16. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the...

  17. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  18. A Redox-Active Binder for Electrochemical Capacitor Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Corentin; Demeter, Dora; Bélanger, Daniel; Cougnon, Charles

    2016-04-18

    A promising strategy for increasing the performance of supercapacitors is proposed. Until now, a popular strategy for increasing the specific capacity of the electrode consists of grafting redox molecules onto a high surface area carbon structure to add a faradaic contribution to the charge storage. Unfortunately, the grafting of molecules to the carbon surface leads to a dramatic decrease of the electrochemical performances of the composite material. Herein, we used the organic binder as an active material in the charge/discharge process. Redox molecules were attached onto its polymeric skeleton to obtain a redox binder with the dual functionalities of both the binder and the active material. In this way, the electrochemical performance was improved without detrimentally affecting the properties of the porous carbon. Results showed that the use of a redox binder is promising for enhancing both energy and power densities.

  19. Development of bio-sourced binder to metal injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Alexandre; Barrière, Thierry; Gelin, Jean-Claude

    2016-10-01

    In the MIM process the binder play the most important role. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture for injection molding and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part, must be easy to be removed from the molded part, and must be the recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical ones. The goal of this study is to develop a binder environmentally friendly. For this, a study of formulation based on polyethylene glycol, because of is water debinding properties, was made. Polylactic acid and Polyhydroxyalkanoates were investigated as bio sourced polymers. The chemical, miscibility and rheological behavior of the binder formulation were investigated.

  20. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  1. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  2. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  3. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  4. Electrochemical performance of Si anode modified with carbonized gelatin binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying; Mu, Daobin; Chen, Shi; Wu, Borong; Cheng, Kailin; Li, Luyu; Wu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Gelatin is alternatively adopted as the binder to modify Si anode coupling with its carbonization treatment. The binder can provide good bonding and uniform dispersion of the particles besides its environmental benignancy. Importantly, the carbonized binder containing nitrogen will be advantageous to the electrical conductivity of the electrode. In addition, some spaces are formed in the electrode due to the decomposition and shrinkage of the gelatin binder during heat-treatment, which may facilitate electrolyte penetration and accommodate volume change during cycling. All these merits make contribution to the good electrochemical performance of the modified Si electrode. It exhibits a reversible capacity of 990.3 mA h g-1 after 70 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and 904 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 400 mA g-1.

  5. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore processing which are intended to improve the

  6. Asphalt fume exposure levels in North American asphalt production and roofing manufacturing operations.

    PubMed

    Axten, Charles W; Fayerweather, William E; Trumbore, David C; Mueller, Dennis J; Sampson, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    This study extends by 8 years (1998-2005) a previous survey of asphalt fume exposures within North American asphalt processing and roofing product manufacturing workers. It focuses on characterizing personal, full-shift samples and seeks to address several limitations of the previous survey. Five major roofing manufacturers with established occupational health programs submitted workplace asphalt fume sampling results to a central repository for review and analysis. A certified industrial hygienist-led quality assurance team oversaw the data collection, consolidation, and analysis efforts. The analysis dataset consisted of 1261 personal exposure samples analyzed for total particulate (TP) and benzene soluble fraction (BSF) using existing NIOSH methods. For BSF, the survey's arithmetic (0.25 mg/m(3), SD = 0.62) and geometric (0.12 mg/m(3), GSD = 2.88) means indicate that the industry has sustained the control levels achieved in the late 1980s, early 1990s. Similar results were found for TP. The survey-wide summary statistics are consistent with other post-1990 multi-company exposure studies. Although these findings indicate that currently available controls are capable of achieving substantial (95%) compliance with the current threshold limit value in asphalt processing and inorganic shingle and roll plants, they also show that the majority of plants are not achieving this level of exposure control, and that exposures are significantly higher in plants making other product lines, particularly organic felt products. The current retrospective survey of existing company exposure data, like its predecessor, has several important limitations. These include lack of data on smaller manufacturers and on several commercially important product lines; insufficient information on the prevalence and effectiveness of engineering controls; no standard criteria by which to define and assess exposures in non-routine operations; and a paucity of exposure data collected as part of a

  7. Research on fracture performance of epoxy asphalt concrete based on double-K fracture criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Qian, Z. D.; Xue, Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    After cracks appear on steel bridge deck epoxy asphalt concrete pavement, cracks propagate fast under vehicle load. This paper studied the fracture performance of epoxy asphalt concrete, utilized single edge notched beam (SEB) three-point bending test, measured the load (P) exerted on epoxy asphalt SEB; utilized digital camera to record the fracture process of epoxy asphalt SEB, extracted the images according to the required sampling frequency and utilized Image-Pro Plus to measure the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) of epoxy asphalt SEB on the extracted images; calculated the double-K fracture parameters according to the P-CMOD curve. Results indicate that of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.11 MPa and of epoxy asphalt concrete is 2.31 MPa at -15°C of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.02 MPa and of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.83 MPa at -5°C of epoxy asphalt concrete is 0.77 MPa and of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.82 MPa at 5°C. The double-K fracture parameters of epoxy asphalt concrete increase slightly when the temperature decreases at the scope of -15°C to 5°C. The relation of and is .

  8. ASPHALT FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS, 3RD EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    THIS PAMPHLET DISCUSSES THE ALTERNATIVE METHODS, APPLICATIONS, AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS. OFF-STREET PAVING INCLUDES--(1) ASPHALT-PAVED PARKING AREAS, (2) ROOF DECK PARKING AREAS, (3) ASPHALT-PAVED DRIVEWAYS, (4) ASPHALT-PAVED SERVICE STATION LOTS, AND (5) SIDEWALKS. THE DISCUSSION OF PLAY AREAS…

  9. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

  10. On the representative volume element of asphalt concrete at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasteanu, Mihai; Cannone Falchetto, Augusto; Velasquez, Raul; Le, Jia-Liang

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of characterizing asphalt mixtures' rheological and failure properties at low temperatures by means of the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) is investigated in this paper. The main issue is the use of thin beams of asphalt mixture in experimental procedures that may not capture the true behavior of the material used to construct an asphalt pavement.

  11. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory....

  12. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory....

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Coater-only production lines a. Limit PAH emissions to 0.0002 lb/ton of asphalt roofing product...-only production lines a. Limit PAH emissions to 0.0007 lb/ton of asphalt roofing product manufactured... saturator/coater production lines a. Limit PAH emissions to 0.0009 lb/ton of asphalt roofing...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Coater-only production lines a. Limit PAH emissions to 0.0002 lb/ton of asphalt roofing product...-only production lines a. Limit PAH emissions to 0.0007 lb/ton of asphalt roofing product manufactured... saturator/coater production lines a. Limit PAH emissions to 0.0009 lb/ton of asphalt roofing...

  18. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  19. PRELIMINARY TESTING OF NANOPARTICLE EFFECTIVENESS IN BINDER JETTING APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Alta C; Elliott, Amy M; Basti, Mufeed M

    2016-01-01

    Binder jetting works by selectively depositing a binder with an inkjet print head into layers of powdered material. Compared with other metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, binder jetting has significant potential for near-term adoption in manufacturing environments due to its reliability and throughput. The Achilles heel of binder jetting, however, is the inability to produce fully dense, single-alloy materials. The lack of density in printed binder jet parts is strictly dictated by the packing factor of the powder feedstock. Adding nanoparticles during printing will not only increase the part s packing factor but may also serve as a sintering aid. This study focuses on the effect of both the binder and nanoparticles on the final part density. As an unintended consequence of high nanoparticle loading, printed parts underwent a significant increase in porosity during the curing process. This unintended consequence is the apparent result of the nanoparticles blocking the exit of the solvent vapor during the curing step. Additionally, nanoparticle use for densification is validated with SEM imagery.

  20. Effect of abdominal binders on breathing in tetraplegic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, J M; Rose, L S; Williams, S J; Silver, J R; Denison, D M

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effect on breathing of a conventional and a newly designed abdominal binder in seven patients with complete tetraplegia. The indices of respiratory ability used were the transdiaphragmatic pressure on maximal sniff (sniff Pdi), the maximum static inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax), and the vital capacity (VC). These were measured in patients with and without binders, in the supine position, raised up to 70 degrees on a tilt table, and seated upright. When patients were raised from the supine to the 70 degrees tilt and to the seated posture, sniff Pdi and VC decreased. Both binders improved VC in the seated position and at 70 degrees tilt, and sniff Pdi at 70 degrees tilt. The new binder was as effective as but no better than the conventional binder. PImax was too variable to be a valuable index of inspiratory power. These findings support the view that abdominal binders assist breathing in tetraplegic patients who are seated or raised to near vertical positions. Images PMID:2954256

  1. An optical fiber viscometer based on long-period fiber grating technology and capillary tube mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Tang, Jaw-Luen

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses the development and assessment of a fiber optical viscometer using a simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG) level sensor and a capillary tube mechanism. Previous studies of optical viscosity sensors were conducted by using different optical sensing methods. The proposed optical viscometer consists of an LPFG sensor, a temperature-controlled chamber, and a cone-shaped reservoir where gravitational force could cause fluid to flow through the capillary tube. We focused on the use of LPFGs as level sensors and the wavelength shifts were not used to quantify the viscosity values of asphalt binders. When the LPFG sensor was immersed in the constant volume (100 mL) AC-20 asphalt binder, a wavelength shift was observed and acquired using LabVIEW software and GPIB controller. The time spent between empty and 100 mL was calculated to determine the discharge time. We simultaneously measured the LPFG-induced discharge time and the transmission spectra both in hot air and AC-20 asphalt binder at five different temperatures, 60, 80, 100, 135, and 170 Celsius. An electromechanical rotational viscometer was also used to measure the viscosities, 0.15-213.80 Pa·s, of the same asphalt binder at the above five temperatures. A non-linear regression analysis was performed to convert LPFG-induced discharge time into viscosities. Comparative analysis shows that the LPFG-induced discharge time agreed well with the viscosities obtained from the rotational viscometer.

  2. Asphalt mounds and associated biota on the Angolan margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel O. B.; Walls, Anne; Clare, Michael; Fiske, Mike S.; Weiland, Richard J.; O'Brien, Robert; Touzel, Daniel F.

    2014-12-01

    Release of hydrocarbons from sediments is important in increasing habitat heterogeneity on deep ocean margins. Heterogeneity arises from variation in abiotic and biotic conditions, including changes in substratum, geochemistry, fluid flow, biological communities and ecological interactions. The seepage of heavy hydrocarbons to the seafloor is less well studied than most other cold seep systems and may lead to the formation of asphalt mounds. These have been described from several regions, particularly the Gulf of Mexico. Here, we describe the structure, potential formation and biology of a large asphalt mound province in Block 31SE Angola. A total of 2254 distinct mound features was identified by side-scan sonar, covering a total area of 3.7 km2 of seafloor. The asphalt mounds took a number of forms from small (<0.5 m diameter; 13% observations) mounds to large extensive (<50 m diameter) structures. Some of the observed mounds were associated with authigenic carbonate and active seepage (living chemosynthetic fauna present in addition to the asphalt). The asphalt mounds are seabed accumulations of heavy hydrocarbons formed from subsurface migration and fractionation of reservoir hydrocarbons primarily through a network of faults. In Angola these processes are controlled by subsurface movement of salt structures. The asphalt mounds were typically densely covered with epifauna (74.5% of mounds imaged had visible epifauna) although individual mounds varied considerably in epifaunal coverage. Of the 49 non-chemosynthetic megafaunal taxa observed, 19 taxa were only found on hard substrata (including asphalt mounds), 2 fish species inhabited the asphalt mounds preferentially and 27 taxa were apparently normal soft-sediment fauna. Antipatharians (3.6±2.3% s.e.) and poriferans (2.6±1.9% s.e.) accounted for the highest mean percentage of the observed cover, with actinarians (0.9±0.4% s.e.) and alcyonaceans (0.4±0.2% s.e.) covering smaller proportions of the area

  3. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullová, Daša; Đurčanská, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  4. Chapopote Asphalt Volcano may have been generated by supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovland, M.; MacDonald, I. R.; Rueslåtten, H.; Johnsen, H. K.; Naehr, T.; Bohrmann, G.

    Asphalt volcanoes and lava-like flows of solidified asphalt on the seafloor (Figure 1) were first discovered and described by MacDonald et al. [2004]. The flows covered more than one square kilometer of a dissected salt dome at abyssal depths (˜3000 m) in the southern Gulf of Mexico. “Chapopote” (93°26‧W, 21°54‧N) was one of two asphalt volcanoes they discovered. MacDonald et al. determined that the apparently fresh asphalt must initially have flowed in a hot state, and subsequently chilled, contracted, and solidified, much in the same way as normal lava does on the surface of the Earth.The two asphalt-volcanoes discovered occur at the apex of salt domes that pierce through the seafloor. These “piercement salt domes,” known as the Campeche Knolls, are pertinent features of the deep Campeche Sedimentary Basin, which has a sediment thickness of about 10 km. According to conventional theory [Vendeville and Jackson, 1992], piercement salt domes represent “salt diapirs” that have risen up, due partly to density contrasts between salt and clay/sand from the “mother salt” located between 7 and 10 km below seafloor. A salt diapir is a vertical body of sub-surface salt, which is most often circular in cross section, is one to several kilometers in diameter, and can be 8-10 km high.

  5. An Approach for Nonlinear Fatigue Damage Evaluation in Asphalt Pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Thongram, Sonika

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue due to vehicular loads is one of the primary distress mechanisms in asphalt pavements. It happens primarily due to deterioration in asphalt material with load repetitions. Degradation of asphalt material may be evaluated using different parameters. In view of degradation, the incremental damage in a given pavement section would be different for different repetitions, even with same loadings. Therefore, the damage progression becomes nonlinear with repetitions. Accounting such nonlinearity in damage accumulation, and based on different damage evaluation parameters, this paper presents an equivalent approach for fatigue damage evaluation in asphalt pavements. Traditional fatigue equation adopted in mechanistic-empirical pavement design has been used in the present work. Four different criteria, namely number of load repetitions, asphalt stiffness reduction, strain enhancement and fatigue life reduction with repetitions are considered for damage estimation. The proposed approach could estimate same value of nonlinear damage, irrespective of the criteria used. The simplest form of criterion i.e. the number of load repetitions can be used for fatigue performance evaluation. Probabilistically, the damage propagation is also correlated and assessed with the failure probability.

  6. Occupational asphalt is not associated with head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fogleman, E. V.; Eliot, M.; Michaud, D. S.; Nelson, H. H.; McClean, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies that evaluate the relationship between occupational asphalt exposure and head and neck cancer have had a limited ability to control for known risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). Aims To better elucidate this relationship by including known risk factors in a large case–control study of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from the greater Boston area. Methods We analysed the relationship between occupational asphalt exposure and HNSCC among men in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Analyses were conducted using unconditional multivariable logistic regression, performed with adjustments for age, race, education, smoking, alcohol consumption and HPV serology. Results There were 753 cases and 913 controls. No associations between HNSCC and occupational asphalt exposure (neither among ever-exposed nor by occupational duration) were observed for exposures in any occupation or those restricted to the construction industry. We also observed no associations in subgroup analyses of never-smokers and ever-smokers. Adjusting for known risk factors further reduced the estimated effect of asphalt exposure on HNSCC risk. Conclusions We found no evidence for an association between occupational asphalt exposure and HNSCC. The null findings from this well-controlled analysis could suggest that the risk estimates stemming from occupational cohort studies may be overestimated due to uncontrolled confounding and enhance the literature available for weighing cancer risk from occupational exposure to bitumen. PMID:26272381

  7. Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

    1984-02-02

    Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

  8. Hanford Protective Barriers Program asphalt barrier studies -- FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1989-05-01

    The Hanford Protective Barrier (HPB) Program is evaluating alternative barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternative barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick, which has been shown to be very effective as a barrier for radon gas and, hence, should be equally effective as a barrier for the larger molecules of water. Fiscal Year 1988 studies focused on the selection and formulation of the most promising asphalt materials for further testing in small-tube lysimeters. Results of laboratory-scale formulation and hydraulic conductivity tests led to the selection of a rubberized asphalt material and an admixture of 24 wt% asphalt emulsion and concrete sand as the two barriers for lysimeter testing. Eight lysimeters, four each containing the two asphalt treatments, were installed in the Small Tube Lysimeter Facility on the Hanford Site. The lysimeter tests allow the performance of these barrier formulations to be evaluated under more natural environmental conditions.

  9. 43 CFR 3503.14 - For what areas may I get a permit or lease for asphalt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for asphalt? 3503.14 Section 3503.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... § 3503.14 For what areas may I get a permit or lease for asphalt? You may get leases for asphalt only on... may not obtain prospecting permits for asphalt....

  10. 43 CFR 3503.14 - For what areas may I get a permit or lease for asphalt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for asphalt? 3503.14 Section 3503.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... § 3503.14 For what areas may I get a permit or lease for asphalt? You may get leases for asphalt only on... may not obtain prospecting permits for asphalt....

  11. 43 CFR 3503.14 - For what areas may I get a permit or lease for asphalt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for asphalt? 3503.14 Section 3503.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... § 3503.14 For what areas may I get a permit or lease for asphalt? You may get leases for asphalt only on... may not obtain prospecting permits for asphalt....

  12. 43 CFR 3503.14 - For what areas may I get a permit or lease for asphalt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for asphalt? 3503.14 Section 3503.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... § 3503.14 For what areas may I get a permit or lease for asphalt? You may get leases for asphalt only on... may not obtain prospecting permits for asphalt....

  13. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: I. dermal carcinogenicity evaluation of asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles R; Burnett, Donald M; Parker, Craig M; Arp, Earl W; Swanson, Mark S; Minsavage, Gary D; Kriech, Anthony J; Osborn, Linda V; Freeman, James J; Barter, Robert A; Newton, Paul E; Beazley, Shelley L; Stewart, Christopher W

    2011-10-01

    Asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates collected from the headspace above paving and Type III built up roofing asphalt (BURA) tanks were evaluated in two-year dermal carcinogenicity assays in male C3H/HeNCrl mice. A third sample was generated from the BURA using a NIOSH laboratory generation method. Similar to earlier NIOSH studies, the BURA fume condensates were applied dermally in mineral oil twice per week; the paving sample was applied 7 days/week for a total weekly dose of 50 mg/wk in both studies. A single benign papilloma was observed in a group of 80 mice exposed to paving fume condensate at the end of the two-year study and only mild skin irritation was observed. The lab generated BURA fume condensate resulted in statistically significant (P<0.0001) increases in squamous cell carcinomas (35 animals or 55% of animals at risk). The field-matched BURA condensate showed a weaker but significant (P=0.0063) increase (8 carcinomas or 13% of animals) and a longer average latency (90 weeks vs. 76 for the lab fume). Significant irritation was observed in both BURA condensates. It is concluded that the paving fume condensate was not carcinogenic under the test conditions and that the field-matched BURA fume condensate produced a weak tumor response compared to the lab generated sample.

  14. Ice melting properties of steel fiber modified asphalt mixtures with induction heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hao; Sun, Yihan; Liu, Quantao; Li, Bin; Wu, Shaopeng; Tang, Jin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the ice melting performance of asphalt concrete with steel fibers was studied. Steel fiber modified asphalt mixtures were prepared, five different fiber amount of steel fiber modified asphalt mixtures were mixed to study their induction heating rate. The samples covered with different thickness of ice were heated with induction heating to study their ice melting efficency. It was proved that the induction heating of steel fiber modified asphalt mixtures could significantly improve their ice melting efficency compared with the natural condition. And it was found that the thickness of the ice had little influence on the induction heating rate of the asphalt concrete.

  15. Investigation of Asphalt Mixture Creep Behavior Using Thin Beam Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Zofka, Adam; Marasteanu, Mihai; Turos, Mugur

    2008-02-15

    The asphalt pavement layer consists of two or more lifts of compacted asphalt mixture; the top of the layer is also exposed to aging, a factor that significantly affects the mixture properties. The current testing specifications use rather thick specimens that cannot be used to investigate the gradual change in properties with pavement depth. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the 3-point bending test with thin asphalt mixture beams (127x12.7x6.35 mm) to determine the low-temperature creep compliance of the mixtures. Several theoretical and semi-empirical models, from the theory of composites, are reviewed and evaluated using numerical and experimental data. Preliminary results show that this method can be used for low-temperature mixture characterization but several crucial factors need further inspection and interpretation.

  16. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  17. Application of asphalt emulsion seals to uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Clark, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to less than background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt % asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and conpacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation. 14 figures.

  18. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

  19. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

  20. Abrasive blast material utilization in asphalt roadbed material

    SciTech Connect

    Means, J.L.; Nehring, K.W.; Heath, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    The State of California has promulgated rules on California-only hazardous wastes that offer the potential for some of these wastes to be recycled or reused. Abrasive blast material (ABM) from military and commercial operations such as sandblasting may fall into the category of waste that can be reused. Experiments were conducted on spent sandblasting grit to determine whether the grit could be incorporated into asphalt concrete for use as roadbed material, and a test roadbed was laid to evaluate the long-term stability of the metals found in the grit. Incorporation of the ABM in asphalt helps reduce the mobility of metal contaminants making the material suitable for reuse. The results of the initial characterization, treatability testing, and follow-up measurements of core samples taken from the test roadbed are presented to show that the use of abrasive blast material in asphalt roadbed material is a viable option under the proposed California regulatory standards.

  1. Deformation Parameters and Fatigue of the Recycled Asphalt Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šrámek, Juraj

    2015-12-01

    The deformational properties of asphalt mixtures measured by dynamic methods and fatigue allow a design the road to suit the expected traffic load. Quality of mixtures is also expressed by the resistance to permanent deformation. Complex modulus of stiffness and fatigue can reliably characterize the proposed mixture of asphalt pavement. The complex modulus (E*) measurement of asphalt mixtures are carried out in laboratory of Department of Construction Management at University of Žilina by two-point bending test method on trapezoid-shaped samples. Today, the fatigue is verified on trapezoid-shaped samples and is assessed by proportional strain at 1 million cycles (ɛ6). The test equipment and software is used to evaluate fatigue and deformation characteristics.

  2. Test of LOX compatibility for asphalt and concrete runway materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyers, C. V.; Bryan, C. J.; Lockhart, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A literature survey and a telephone canvass of producers and users of LOX is reported which yielded one report of an accident resulting from a LOX spill on asphalt, one discussion of hazardous conditions, and an unreferenced mention of an incident. Laboratory tests using standard LOX impact apparatus yielded reactions with both old and new alphalt, but none with concrete. In the final test, using a larger sample of asphalt, the reaction caused extensive damage to equipment. Initial field experiments using 2-meter square asphalt slabs covered with LOX, conducted during rainy weather, achieved no reaction with plummets, and limited reaction with a blasting cap as a reaction initiator. In a final plummet-initiated test on a dry slab, a violent reaction, which appeared to have propagated over the entire slab surface, destroyed the plummet fixture and threw fragments as far as 48 meters.

  3. Use of recycled chunk rubber asphalt concrete (CRAC) on low volume roads and use of recycled crumb rubber modifier in asphalt pavements. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.; Funk, L.P.; Sadeq, M.A.; Marucci, G.

    1995-06-01

    The major objective of this project was to formulate a Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC) mix for use on low volume roads. CRAC is a rubber modified asphalt concrete product produced by the `dry process` where rubber chunks of 1/2 inch size are used as aggregate in a cold mix with a type C fly ash. The second objective of this project was to develop guidelines concerning the use of rubber modified asphalt concrete hot mix to include: (1) Design methods for use of asphalt-rubber mix for new construction and overlay, (2) Mix design method for asphalt-rubber, and (3) Test method for determining the amount of rubber in an asphalt-rubber concrete for quality control purposes.

  4. Open Graded Asphalt Mixture Design for Environmentally Friendly Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawan, A.; Suryoto; Sumarsono, A.; Widyastuti, S.

    2017-02-01

    The road is an important infrastructure to support various economic development. By increasing the population, the constructions of road infrastructure are obviously required and cover more land use area, consequently narrowed the areas for water absorption into the land. Therefore, it is necessary to improve more environmentally friendly of road constructions, in this case is by using open graded asphalt. Open graded asphalt is the mixture of asphalt with low fine aggregate content to produce a high percentage of air voids, which expected to be able to absorb water into the land underneath. This observation uses laboratory experiment method. Materials that are used are natural gravel and the volcanic gravel, 60/70 asphalt penetration and stone dust filler. The tests performed for the samples are Marshall test, falling head water permeability, indirect tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength. The optimum bitumen content for each type of aggregate have been found to be 2.95% for natural gravel and 4.65% for volcanic gravel. Open graded asphalt porosity is 26.52% for natural gravel, whereas the volcanic gravel is 22.31%. The vertical and horizontal permeability for natural gravel are 1.25 cm/second and 0.92 cm/second, respectively. Whereas, for the volcanic gravel is 1.43 cm/second and 1.10 cm/second, respectively. Indirect tensile strength (ITS) value for natural gravel is 59.49 KPa whereas the volcanic gravel is 74.84 KPa. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) value for natural gravel is 1070.63 KPa, whereas the volcanic gravel is 1120.69 KPa. It is concluded that the open graded porous asphalt is only compatible for low volume traffic road and need improvement to be able to be used as standard road.

  5. Asphalt roofing industry Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy modified bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    A Request for Emissions Testing at Four Asphalt Roofing and Processing Facilities was submitted by the US EPA Emission Standards Division (ESD), Minerals and Inorganic Chemicals Group (MICG) to the Emission Measurement Center (EMC). The Emission Measurement Center directed Midwest Research Institute (MRI) to conduct emissions testing at asphalt roofing plants. This report presents results of MRI`s FTIR and Method 25A testing conducted at US Intec in Port Arthur, Texas. The field measurements were performed in September 1997 under several test conditions for both controlled and uncontrolled emissions.

  6. [Biological monitoring of PAH exposure among asphalt workers].

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Calisti, Roberto; Polledri, Elisa; Barretta, Francesco; Stopponi, Roberta; Massacesi, Stefania; Bertazzi, Pieralberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this work was the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) in asphalt workers. Median levels of 1-OHPyr resulted higher in asphalt workers than in controls (184 vs. < 20 ng/L, p < 0.001). The determinants of exposure of 1-OHPyr resulted smoking habit, the number of consecutive days at work and the job task; 1-OHPyr was also associated to urinary creatinine. End of work week 1-OHPyr is suggested as an useful indicator of occupational exposure to PAHs in bitumen fumes.

  7. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  8. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    DOEpatents

    Pauli, Adam T [Cheyenne, WY; Robertson, Raymond E [Laramie, WY; Branthaver, Jan F [Chatham, IL; Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY

    2012-08-07

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  9. [Anesthetic management in a patient with head and neck burn by asphalt].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nao; Niiyama, Yukitoshi; Tokinaga, Yasuyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2013-10-01

    In cases of facial burns caused by molten asphalt, examination for possible airway burns and early removal of the asphalt should be carried out to prevent chemical-induced tissue damage and infection. However, asphalt that has adhered to tissues is difficult to remove. A 35-year-old male with burns caused by molten asphalt was scheduled for emergency debridement. He had 6% body surface area burns on his face and neck. He was not able to open his eyes due to the adherence of asphalt. His respiratory condition was stable and a perioperative fiberoptic view revealed no airway burns. After awake intubation, orange peel oil was used to remove the asphalt from his face and eyes. Since orange peel oil does not contain any harmful substances, it is effective for removing asphalt without causing tissue damage.

  10. Background of superpave asphalt mixture design and analysis. National asphalt training center demonstration project 101. Final report, December 1992-November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McGennis, R.B.; Anderson, R.M.; Kennedy, T.W.; Solaimanian, M.

    1995-02-01

    The manual represents the first formal training document that embodies the complete series of SUPERPAVE asphalt mixture design and analysis test equipment and procedures. These tests and procedures represent the results of the SHRP 5-year research effort to investigate and improve asphalt cement technology. This manual was developed under the FHWA`s National Asphalt Training Center. Students attending the center utilize this manual to obtain a better understanding of the underlying theory behind asphalt mixture design and analysis, as well as how to perform each of the new procedures.

  11. The humoral immune response of mice exposed to simulated road paving-like asphalt fumes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Munson, Albert E; Tomblyn, Seth; Meade, B Jean; Diotte, Nicole M

    2008-07-01

    Asphalt is a complex mixture of organic molecules, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which have been reported to cause serious adverse health effects in humans. Workers in manufacturing and construction trades exposed to asphalt are potentially at risk for being exposed to asphalt fumes and PAHs. Epidemiological investigations have collected mounting evidence that chemicals found in asphalt fumes present carcinogenic and possibly immunotoxic hazards. Studies evaluating the immunotoxic effects of asphalt fume are limited due to the large number of variables associated with asphalt fume exposures. This work investigates the immuno-toxic effects of road paving-like asphalt fume by analyzing the in vivo IgM response to a T-dependent antigen after exposure to whole, vapor, and particulate phase road paving-like asphalt fumes and asphalt fume condensate. Systemic exposures via intraperitoneal injection of asphalt fume condensate (at 0.625 mg/kg) and the particulate phase (at 5 mg/kg) resulted in significant reductions in the specific spleen IgM response to SRBC. Pharyngeal aspiration of the asphalt fume condensate (at 5 mg/kg) also resulted in significant suppression of the IgM response to SRBC. A significant reduction in the specific spleen IgM activity was observed after inhalation exposure to whole asphalt fumes (35 mg/m(3)) and the vapor components (11 mg/m(3)). Dermal exposures to the asphalt fume condensate resulted in significant reductions in the total (at 50 mg/kg) and specific (at 250 mg/kg) spleen IgM response to SRBC. These results demonstrate that exposure to road paving-like asphalt fumes is immunosuppressive through systemic, respiratory, and dermal routes of exposure in a murine model and raise concerns regarding the potential for adverse immunological effects.

  12. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler

    2004-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of acidic heap-leach facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of other agglomeration applications, particularly advanced primary ironmaking.

  13. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur

    2016-04-01

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO2 powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO2 paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm2 by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO2 photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO2 photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  14. Elastomeric binders for electrodes. [in secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D. H.; Somoano, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The poor mechanical integrity of the cathode represents an important problem which affects the performance of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells. Repeated charge of a TiS2 cathode may give rise to stresses which disturb the electrode structure and can contribute to capacity loss. An investigation indicates that the use of an inelastic binder material, such as Teflon, aggravates the problem, and can lead to electrode disruption and poor TiS2 particle-particle contact. The feasibility of a use of elastomers as TiS2 binder materials has, therefore, been explored. It was found that elastomeric binders provide an effective approach for simplifying rechargeable cathode fabrication. A pronounced improvement in the mechanical integrity of the cathode structure contributes to a prolonged cycle life.

  15. BINDER MODIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT FOR BRIQUETTING STEEL MILL RESIDUES

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson

    1998-07-01

    Alternatives to the molasses-ordinary portland cement (OPC) binder as a binder for steel mill residues were extensively investigated. A large number of binder modifications were tested using a hand pelleting apparatus to identify effective compositions. The more effective compositions were evaluated in a series of three briquetting matrices using the Komarek press. Evaluations consisted of drop tests, compression tests of given and cured pellets, and tumble tests of cured pellets. Pyrolysis odor tests were performed to determine the effects of certain compositions on the disagreeable wet campfire odor produced during heating of the molasses--OPC briquettes. Several scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology studies were conducted to examine the nature of structures formed during pelleting or briquetting.

  16. Injection Moulding of Wood Powder with Low Binder Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Tsunehisa; Takakura, Norio; Iizuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Imanishi, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kouzou

    This study is aimed at exploring possibilities to improve the injectability of wood powder and the mechanical properties of the injected product while keeping the amount of binder to its minimum. In the preliminary experiment, injection moulding of Japanese cedar wood powder was conducted. The effects of binder content (PE; pellet-size) and nozzle temperature on the tensile strength and strain at break of the product were investigated. Results showed that under such conditions, injection moulding of wood powder only was not possible due to insufficient fluidity. Increasing the binder content and the nozzle temperature resulted to a decrease in the maximum injection pressure and improvement in the fluidity of the powder. Using the same PE content, increasing the temperature resulted to an increase in tensile strength of the injected product. However, the strain at break was decreased. Moreover, at PE content below 50%, the strength and strain decreased considerably.

  17. In silico design of smart binders to anthrax PA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Michael; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2012-06-01

    The development of smart peptide binders requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of recognition which has remained an elusive grail of the research community for decades. Recent advances in automated discovery and synthetic library science provide a wealth of information to probe fundamental details of binding and facilitate the development of improved models for a priori prediction of affinity and specificity. Here we present the modeling portion of an iterative experimental/computational study to produce high affinity peptide binders to the Protective Antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. The result is a general usage, HPC-oriented, python-based toolkit based upon powerful third-party freeware, which is designed to provide a better understanding of peptide-protein interactions and ultimately predict and measure new smart peptide binder candidates. We present an improved simulation protocol with flexible peptide docking to the Anthrax Protective Antigen, reported within the context of experimental data presented in a companion work.

  18. Advancements in Binder Systems for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Paper will present recent developments in advanced material binder systems for solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technologies. The advantage of SFF is the capability to custom fabricate complex geometries directly from computer aided design data in layer- by-layer fashion, eliminated the need for traditional fixturing and tooling. Binders allow for the low temperature processing of 'green' structural materials, either metal, ceramic or composite, in traditional rapid prototyping machines. The greatest obstacle comes when green parts must then go through a sintering or burnout process to remove the binders and fully densify the parent material, without damaging or distorting the original part geometry. Critical issues and up-to-date assessments will be delivered on various material systems.

  19. Improvements in Fabrication of Sand/Binder Cores for Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhitiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.; Adanur, Sabit

    2005-01-01

    Three improvements have been devised for the cold-box process, which is a special molding process used to make sand/binder cores for casting hollow metal parts. These improvements are: The use of fiber-reinforced composite binder materials (in contradistinction to the non-fiber-reinforced binders used heretofore), The substitution of a directed-vortex core-blowing subprocess for a prior core-blowing process that involved a movable gassing plate, and The use of filters made from filtration-grade fabrics to prevent clogging of vents. For reasons that exceed the scope of this article, most foundries have adopted the cold-box process for making cores for casting metals. However, this process is not widely known outside the metal-casting industry; therefore, a description of pertinent aspects of the cold-box process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the aforementioned improvements. In the cold-box process as practiced heretofore, sand is first mixed with a phenolic resin (considered to be part 1 of a three-part binder) and an isocyanate resin (part 2 of the binder). Then by use of compressed air, the mixture is blown into a core box, which is a mold for forming the core. Next, an amine gas (part 3 of the binder) that acts as a catalyst for polymerization of parts 1 and 2 is blown through the core box. Alternatively, a liquid amine that vaporizes during polymerization can be incorporated into the sand/resin mixture. Once polymerization is complete, the amine gas is purged from the core box by use of compressed air. The finished core is then removed from the core box.

  20. Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Arthur

    This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

  1. Assessment of Water Quality of Runoff from Sealed Asphalt Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the results of runoff tests from recently-sealed asphalt surfaces conducted at EPA's Urban Watershed Research Facility (UWRF) in Edison, New Jersey. Both bench-scale panels and full-scale test plots were evaluated. Full-scale tests were performed on an asp...

  2. Coal tar-containing asphalt - resource or hazardous waste?

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson-Skold, Y.; Andersson, K.; Lind, B.; Claesson, A.; Larsson, L.; Suer, P.; Jacobson, T.

    2007-09-30

    Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. The transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.

  3. The Asphalt Identikit: Old Age and the Driver's License.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhandler, Susan A.

    1990-01-01

    Used a recent study of older adults (N=50) from a small community to explore use of the "asphalt identikit" (possession of a valid driver's license and driving) to maintain non-age-related and hence unstigmatized identity. Found resistance to giving up driving was strong even as self-imposed limits curtailed driving. (Author/TE)

  4. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  5. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description...

  6. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  7. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  8. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  9. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description...

  10. Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of recent data.

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is treated by dietary measures, dialysis techniques and/or phosphate binders. For the present review PubMed was searched for new publications on phosphate binders appearing between January 2010 and October 2015. This review summarizes the latest information on non-pharmacological measures and their problems in lowering phosphate in CKD patients, effects of phosphate binders on morbidity and mortality, adherence to phosphate binder therapy as well as new information on specific aspects of the various phosphate binders on the market: calcium acetate, calcium carbonate, magnesium-containing phosphate binders, polymeric phosphate binders (sevelamer, bixalomer, colestilan), lanthanum carbonate, ferric citrate, sucroferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum-containing phosphate binders, and new compounds in development. The review also briefly covers the emerging field of drugs targeting intestinal phosphate transporters.

  11. 46 CFR 308.6 - Period of interim binders, updating application information and new applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with the American War Risk Agency, 14 Wall Street, New York, New York 10005. All interim binders on U.S... Wall Street, New York, New York 10005. All interim binders on foreign-flag vessels will...

  12. 46 CFR 308.6 - Period of interim binders, updating application information and new applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the American War Risk Agency, 14 Wall Street, New York, New York 10005. All interim binders on U.S... Wall Street, New York, New York 10005. All interim binders on foreign-flag vessels will...

  13. 46 CFR 308.6 - Period of interim binders, updating application information and new applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with the American War Risk Agency, 14 Wall Street, New York, New York 10005. All interim binders on U.S... Wall Street, New York, New York 10005. All interim binders on foreign-flag vessels will...

  14. Cellular Composites with Ambient and Autoclaved Type of Hardening with Application of Nanostructured Binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelyubova, V.; Pavlenko, N.; Netsvet, D.

    2015-11-01

    The research presents the dimensional and structural characteristics of nonhydrational hardening binders - nanostructured binders. Rational areas of their use in composites for construction purposes are given. The paper presents the results of the development of natural hardening foam concrete and aerated autoclaved concrete for thermal insulating and construction and thermal insulating purposes. Thus nanostructured binder (NB) in the composites was used as a primary binder and a high reactive modifier.

  15. Multimodality and Immigrant Children (Response to Marni Binder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campano, Gerald; Low, David

    2011-01-01

    This response to Marni Binder reflects upon two examples of (im)migrant children's artwork and challenges the dominant notion that (im)migration experiences--and their subsequent portrayals--can be fit into neat slots. The authors position multimodal composing opportunities as affording children a vital instrument for deploying their full semiotic…

  16. Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  17. 47 CFR 51.232 - Binder group management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Binder group management. 51.232 Section 51.232 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION... loop technology. (b) Any party seeking designation of a technology as a known disturber should file...

  18. 47 CFR 51.232 - Binder group management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Binder group management. 51.232 Section 51.232 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION... loop technology. (b) Any party seeking designation of a technology as a known disturber should file...

  19. 47 CFR 51.232 - Binder group management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Binder group management. 51.232 Section 51.232 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION... loop technology. (b) Any party seeking designation of a technology as a known disturber should file...

  20. Characterization of polymeric binders for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adames, Juan M.

    The Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process is an economically attractive method of producing large amounts of small and complex metallic parts. This is achieved by combining the productivity of injection molding with the versatility of sintering of metal particulates. In MIM, the powdered metal is blended with a plastic binder to obtain the feedstock. The binder imparts flowability to the blend at injection molding conditions and strength at ambient conditions. After molding, the binder is removed in a sequence of steps that usually involves solvent-extraction and polymer burn-out. Once the binder is removed, the metal particles are sintered. In this research several topics of the MIM process were studied to understand how the polymeric binder, similar to the one used in the sponsoring company, works. This was done by examining the compounding and water debinding processes, the rheological and thermal properties, and the microstructure of the binder/metal composite at different processing stages. The factors studied included the metal contents, the composition of the binder and the processing conditions. The three binders prepared during the course of this research were blends of a polyolefin, polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM) and a water-soluble polymer (WSP). The polyolefin resins included polypropylene (PP), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). The powdered metal in the feedstocks was 316 L stainless steel. The compounding studies were completed in an internal mixer under different conditions of temperature, rotational speed and feedstock composition. It was found that the metal concentration was the most important factor in determining the torque evolution curves. The observation of microstructure with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at different stages during compounding revealed that the metal particles neither agglomerate nor touch each other. The liquid extraction of the water-soluble polymer (WSP) from the molded

  1. Intensive Hemodialysis, Mineral and Bone Disorder, and Phosphate Binder Use.

    PubMed

    Copland, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Weinhandl, Eric D; McCullough, Peter A; Morfin, Jose A

    2016-11-01

    Mineral and bone disorder is a common complication of end-stage renal disease. Notably, hyperphosphatemia likely promotes calcification of the myocardium, valves, and arteries. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity along a gradient beginning at 5.0mg/dL. Among contemporary hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean serum phosphorus level is 5.2mg/dL, although 25% of patients have serum phosphorus levels of 5.5 to 6.9mg/dL; and 13%, >7.0mg/dL. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia is burdensome. Dialysis patients consume a mean of 19 pills per day, half of which are phosphate binders. Medicare Part D expenditures on binders for dialysis patients approached $700 million in 2013. Phosphorus removal with thrice-weekly HD (4 hours per session) is ∼3,000mg/wk. However, clearance is unlikely to counterbalance dietary intake, which varies around a mean of 7,000mg/wk. Dietary restriction and phosphate binders are important interventions, but each has limitations. Dietary control is complicated by limited access to healthy food choices and unclear labeling. Meanwhile, adherence to phosphate binders is poor, especially in younger patients and those with high pill burden. Multiple randomized clinical trials show that intensive HD reduces serum phosphorus levels. In the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trial, short daily and nocturnal schedules reduced serum phosphorus levels by 0.6 and 1.6mg/dL, respectively, relative to 3 sessions per week. A similar effect of nocturnal HD was observed in an earlier trial. In the daily arm of the FHN trial, intensive HD significantly lowered estimated phosphate binder dose per day, whereas in the nocturnal arm, intensive HD led to binder discontinuation in 75% of patients. However, intensive HD appears to have no meaningful effects on serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. In conclusion, intensive HD, especially nocturnal HD, lowers serum phosphorus levels and decreases the need for

  2. Leachability of Cr(VI) and other metals from asphalt composites with addition of filter dust.

    PubMed

    Vahcic, Mitja; Milacic, Radmila; Mladenovic, Ana; Murko, Simona; Zuliani, Tea; Zupancic, Marija; Scancar, Janez

    2008-12-01

    The potential use of filter dust in asphalt composites for road construction was investigated. Filter dust contains high concentrations of metals, of which Cr(VI) and Pb are leached with water. Compact and ground asphalt composites with addition of 2% of filter dust by mass were studied. In order to evaluate their environmental impact, leachability tests were performed using water and salt water as leaching agents. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and Pb were determined in leachates over a time period of 182 days. The results indicated that Pb was not leached with leaching agents from asphalt composites. Cr(VI) was also not leached with leaching agents from compact asphalt composites. However, in ground asphalt composites, Cr(VI) was leached with water in concentrations up to 220 microg L(-1) and in salt water up to 150 microg L(-1). From the physico-mechanical and environmental aspects, filter dust can be used as a component in asphalt mixtures.

  3. Characterization and treatment of runoff from highways in the Netherlands paved with impervious and pervious asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Berbee, R.; Rijs, G.; Brouwer, R. de; Velzen, L. van

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to assess the effects of impervious and pervious (or porous) asphalt on the quality of runoff from highways in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the effects of settling and filtration on the quality of runoff of both types of asphalt have been elaborated. This study has been performed to support decisionmaking on how to deal with polluted runoff from highways in the Netherlands. The results show that runoff from well-maintained pervious asphalt contains a relatively low concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals, mineral oil, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and suspended solids compared to runoff from impervious asphalt. In runoff from both types of asphalt, copper, lead, and zinc are the prevailing heavy metals. The impression exists that especially the hard shoulders along highways provided with pervious asphalt act as a sink for suspended solids, soil particles, and other pollutants. To maintain its permeability and filter action, the hard shoulders should be regularly cleaned.

  4. Lymphocyte DNA damage in Turkish asphalt workers detected by the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Bacaksiz, Aysegul; Kayaalti, Zeliha; Soylemez, Esma; Tutkun, Engin; Soylemezoglu, Tulin

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has a highly complex structure and it contains several organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. In this study, comet assay was used to detect the DNA damage in blood lymphocytes of 30 workers exposed to asphalt fumes and 30 nonexposed controls. This is the first report on Turkish asphalt workers' investigated DNA damage using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The DNA damage was evaluated by the percentage of DNA in the comet tail (% tail DNA) for each cell. According to our results, workers exposed to asphalt fumes had higher DNA damage than the control group (p < 0.01). The present study showed that asphalt fumes caused a significant increase in DNA damage and the comet assay is a suitable method for determining DNA damage in asphalt workers.

  5. SGC tests for influence of material composition on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Li, Yuzhi

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes.

  6. Research on the characteristics of temperature field of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jiangang; Liu, Weizheng

    2014-08-01

    The characteristics of climate in seasonal frozen area are low temperature and a large range of temperature variation between day and night in winter. These characteristics often lead to problems of asphalt pavement, especially transverse cracks. To reduce the problems of asphalt pavement, it is necessary to examine the distribution of the temperature range of asphalt pavement. A three-dimensional finite element model was used, taking the SMA asphalt pavement as an example with solid70 and plane55 unit features of ANSYS software. It can obtain the relationship between temperature gradient and time and the relationship between temperature gradient and depth. In addition, a function relation model of stress and time was also established. It can provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of problems of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen area. Moreover, it has an important significance for improving asphalt pavement design.

  7. 40 CFR 63.10886 - What are my management practices for binder formulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... binder formulations? 63.10886 Section 63.10886 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... What are my management practices for binder formulations? For each furfuryl alcohol warm box mold or core making line at a new or existing iron and steel foundry, you must use a binder...

  8. 46 CFR 308.6 - Period of interim binders, updating application information and new applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.6 Period of interim binders, updating... interim binders are required to notify the American War Risk Agency annually, by June 30th, of any change... with the American War Risk Agency, 14 Wall Street, New York, New York 10005. All interim binders on...

  9. 46 CFR 308.302 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.302 Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in form as set forth in §...

  10. 46 CFR 308.202 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.202 Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in form as set...

  11. 46 CFR 308.202 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. 308... binder; terms and conditions. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in form as set forth... terms, conditions, and warranties contained in the application for war risk protection and...

  12. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  13. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of In-Place Asphalt Recycling Technologies for Small Airfield Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R -1 3 -2 3 Laboratory and Field Evaluation of In-Place Asphalt Recycling Technologies for Small Airfield Repair G eo...default. ERDC/GSL TR-13-23 June 2013 Laboratory and Field Evaluation of In-Place Asphalt Recycling Technologies for Small Airfield Repair...repair (SuPR) kit the capability for in- place asphalt recycling. This type of repair has the potential for reducing not only logistics associated

  14. The reinforcement and healing of asphalt mastic mixtures by rejuvenator encapsulation in alginate compartmented fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabaković, A.; Post, W.; Cantero, D.; Copuroglu, O.; Garcia, S. J.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the potential use of compartmented alginate fibres as a new method of incorporating rejuvenators into asphalt pavement mixtures. The compartmented fibres are employed to locally distribute the rejuvenator and to overcome the problems associated with spherical capsules and hollow fibres. The work presents proof of concept of the encapsulation process which involved embedding the fibres into the asphalt mastic mixture and the survival rate of fibres in the asphalt mixture. To prove the effectiveness of the alginate as a rejuvenator encapsulating material and to demonstrate its ability survive asphalt production process, the fibres containing the rejuvenator were prepared and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and uniaxial tensile test. The test results demonstrated that fibres have suitable thermal and mechanical strength to survive the asphalt mixing and compaction process. The CT scan of an asphalt mortar mix containing fibres demonstrated that fibres are present in the mix in their full length, undamaged, providing confirmation that the fibres survived the asphalt production process. In order to investigate the fibres physiological properties and ability to release the rejuvenator into cracks in the asphalt mastic, the environmental scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis were employed. To prove its success as an asphalt healing system, compartmented alginate fibres containing rejuvenator were embedded in asphalt mastic mix. The three point bend tests were performed on the asphalt mastic test samples and the degree to which the samples began to self-heal in response was measured and quantified. The research findings indicate that alginate fibres present a promising new approach for the development of self-healing asphalt pavement systems.

  15. A Study of Thermal Properties and the Heating Process in Asphaltic Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    PROPERTIES AND THE HEATING FINAL PROCESS IN ASPHALTIC CONCRETE 1 Jul 1982 - 31 Dec. 19R3 6. PERFORMING O1G. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT...OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH /NA February 1984 BOLLING AFB, DC 20332 15. NUMBEROFPAGES 157 14...asphalt and asphaltic concrete have been reported in the literature for at least 55 years (14), much of the data is un- documented in that variables

  16. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Plancher, Henry; Petersen, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  17. The use of HPGPC for determination of MWD of asphalt cement - A spectrophotometric vs. gravimetric finish

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, S.W.; McReynolds, R.L. )

    1990-07-01

    A comparison between spectrophotometric and gravimetric methods to study MWD of asphalt is presented. Spectrophotometry suffers from not detecting saturated compounds, as well as from variation of molar absorptivity during analysis. To address these shortcoming, the whole asphalt sample is fractionated, and the relative molar absorptivity determined for each fraction. Using another sample weight of the whole asphalt, the saturates are separated, and injected to get their MWD using refractive index detection. This information, when used to mathematically treat the whole asphalt distribution data, can correct the latter to include saturates as well, but can only partially account for continuous variation of the molar absorptivity.

  18. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  19. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  20. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Pavements” ERDC/CRREL TR-16-7 ii Abstract This report investigated the application of accepted methods of pavement structural evaluation to...consisted of an elastomeric polymer coated fiberglass grid with an open configuration. The reinforcing grid was installed in the asphalt layer during...Method of Test for Pavement De- flection Measurements (AASHTO 2005) or ASTM standards as applicable . 1.4 Technical approach We completed the initial site

  1. Evaluation of energies of interaction correlated with observed stabilities and rheological properties of asphalt-aggregate mixtures of western shale-oil residue as a modifier to petroleum asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Tauer, J.E.; Ensley, E.K.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of improving bonding and aging characteristics using a distillation residue from the Green River Formation (western) shale oil as a modifier to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. This study was to examine the differences in moisture damage resistance and adhesion properties, as measured by bonding energy, of shale-oil modified asphalts compared with non-modified asphalts. The shale-oil modified asphalts mechanical properties were not expected to match those of the rubberized asphalt. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested only for comparison of mechanical properties. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation type of experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. Energy of interaction (bonding energy) measurements were performed on asphalt materials with portland cement concrete, two silicate aggregates, and a limestone aggregate to evaluate the compatibility of the asphalt materials with various aggregates. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalt improved the relaxation time, percent recovery, and bonding energy compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  2. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  3. Stability of polymer binders in Li-O2 batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-06-24

    A number of polymers with various chemical structures were studied as binders for air electrodes in Li-O2 batteries. The nature of the polymer significantly affects the binding properties in the carbon electrodes thus altering the discharge performance of Li-O2 batteries. Stability of polymers to the aggressive reduced oxygen species generated during discharge was tested by ball milling them with KO2 and Li2O2, respectively. Most of the polymers decomposed under these conditions and mechanisms of the decompositions are proposed for some of the polymers. Polyethylene was found to have excellent stability and is suggested as robust binder for air electrodes in Li-O2 batteries.

  4. Hyperphosphatemia in Dialysis Patients: Beyond Nonadherence to Diet and Binders.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients is routinely attributed to nonadherence to diet, prescribed phosphate binders, or both. The role of individual patient variability in other determinants of phosphate control is not widely recognized. In a manner that cannot be explained by dialysis parameters or serum phosphate levels, dialytic removal of phosphate may vary by >400mg per treatment. Similarly, enteral phosphate absorption, unexplained by diet or vitamin D intake, may differ by ≥250mg/d among patients. Binder efficacy also varies among patients, with 2-fold differences reported. One or more elements of this triple threat-varying dialytic removal, phosphate absorption, and phosphate binding-may account for hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients rather than nonadherence to therapy. Just as the cause(s) of hyperphosphatemia may vary, so too may an individual patient's response to different therapeutic interventions.

  5. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  6. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  7. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Mohsen, Q.; El-maghraby, A.

    2014-06-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  8. Emissions Reductions Associated with the Use of Warm-Mix Asphalt as Compared to Hot-Mix Asphalt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    processes generating greenhouse gases. The motivation was to meet strict emissions regulations set forth by the Kyoto Protocol (Prowell et al. 2012...estimating emissions during asphalt production, current protocols to measure and control emissions, and case studies where WMA emissions were measured and...Research Program (NCHRP) funded project 9-47a to update the Protocol for Documenting Emissions and Energy Reductions of WMA and Conventional HMA

  9. Thermoplastic Elastomers as LOVA (Low Vulnerability Ammunition) Binders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    has been prepared and shown to be stable when capped. It is a 5 gummy rubbery material. Polyacetal has been prepared from diethylene glycol and...physical mechanisms. 5 . Binder-filler adhesion The strain dilatation methods available in our laboraytories provide an excellent method of studying...according to ASTM standards (# 5 ) and studied under tensile tests with crosshead speed of 2 cm/min. Results are presented in Figures 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, and

  10. Infiltration of Nanoparticles into Porous Binder Jet Printed Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amelia; AlSalihi, Sarah; Merriman, Abbey L.; Basti, Mufeed M.

    2016-01-01

    The densification of parts that are produced by binder jetting Additive Manufacturing (AM; a.k.a. “3D Printing”) is an essential step in making them mechanically useful. By increasing the packing factor of the powder bed by incorporating nanoparticles into the binder has potential to alleviate the amount of shrinkage needed for full densification of binder jet parts. We present preliminary data on the use of 316L Stainless Steel Nanoparticles (SSN) to densify 316L stainless steel binder jet parts. Aqueous solutions of Diethylene Glycol (DEG) or Ethylene Glycol (EG) were prepared at different DEG/water and EG/water molar ratios; pH of the solutions was adjusted by the use of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide. Nanoparticles were suspended in a resulted solution at a volume percentage of SSN/solution at 0.5%. The suspension was then sonicated for thirty minutes. One milliliter of the suspension was added stepwise to a sintered, printed disk with the dimensions: (d = 10 mm, h = 3 mm) in the presence of a small magnet. The 3D part was then sintered again. Moreover, the increase in the mass of the 3D part was used as indication of the amount of nanoparticles that diffused in the 3D part. This mass percent increase was studied as a function of pH of the suspension and as function DEG/water molar ratio. Unlike EG, data show that change in pH affects the mass percent when the suspension was made with DEG. Finally, optical analysis of the discs’ cross sections revealed trends metallic densities similar to trends in the data for mass increase with changing pH and water molar ratio.

  11. Infiltration of Nanoparticles into Porous Binder Jet Printed Parts

    DOE PAGES

    Elliott, Amelia; AlSalihi, Sarah; Merriman, Abbey L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    The densification of parts that are produced by binder jetting Additive Manufacturing (AM; a.k.a. “3D Printing”) is an essential step in making them mechanically useful. By increasing the packing factor of the powder bed by incorporating nanoparticles into the binder has potential to alleviate the amount of shrinkage needed for full densification of binder jet parts. We present preliminary data on the use of 316L Stainless Steel Nanoparticles (SSN) to densify 316L stainless steel binder jet parts. Aqueous solutions of Diethylene Glycol (DEG) or Ethylene Glycol (EG) were prepared at different DEG/water and EG/water molar ratios; pH of the solutionsmore » was adjusted by the use of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide. Nanoparticles were suspended in a resulted solution at a volume percentage of SSN/solution at 0.5%. The suspension was then sonicated for thirty minutes. One milliliter of the suspension was added stepwise to a sintered, printed disk with the dimensions: (d = 10 mm, h = 3 mm) in the presence of a small magnet. The 3D part was then sintered again. Moreover, the increase in the mass of the 3D part was used as indication of the amount of nanoparticles that diffused in the 3D part. This mass percent increase was studied as a function of pH of the suspension and as function DEG/water molar ratio. Unlike EG, data show that change in pH affects the mass percent when the suspension was made with DEG. Finally, optical analysis of the discs’ cross sections revealed trends metallic densities similar to trends in the data for mass increase with changing pH and water molar ratio.« less

  12. Low-loss binder for hot pressing boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1991-01-01

    Borazine derivatives used as low-loss binders and precursors for making ceramic boron nitride structures. The derivative forms the same composition as the boron nitride starting material, thereby filling the voids with the same boron nitride material upon forming and hot pressing. The derivatives have a further advantage of being low in carbon thus resulting in less volatile byproduct that can result in bubble formation during pressing.

  13. Development of Novel Environmentally Sustainable Binders for Energetic Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    could modulate the physical and mechanical properties of the final polymer . The second reaction partner, a functionalized diene, was integrated to...the functionalized polymer . This experiment led to the down selection of the linkers and identification of the optimal combination that provides a gum...15. SUBJECT TERMS Novel binder, non-toxic, new polymer ligation, cyclooctyne, isobenzofuran, HTPB 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  14. Fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramics using binder jetting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinskiy, L.; Ripetsky, A.; Sitnikov, S.; Solyaev, Y.; Kahramanov, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the binder jetting technology application for the processing of the Si3N4-based ceramics. The difference of the developed technology from analogues used for additive manufacturing of silicon nitride ceramics is a method of the separate deposition of the mineral powder and binder without direct injection of suspensions/slurries. It is assumed that such approach allows reducing the technology complexity and simplifying the process of the feedstock preparation, including the simplification of the composite materials production. The binders based on methyl ester of acrylic acid with polyurethane and modified starch were studied. At this stage of the investigations, the technology of green body's fabrication is implemented using a standard HP cartridge mounted on the robotic arm. For the coordinated operation of the cartridge and robot the specially developed software was used. Obtained green bodies of silicon powder were used to produce the ceramic samples via reaction sintering. The results of study of ceramics samples microstructure and composition are presented. Sintered ceramics are characterized by fibrous α-Si3N4 structure and porosity up to 70%.

  15. Furfural modified asphalt obtained by using a Lewis acid as a catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Memon, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    Asphalt is solid or semi-solid at room temperature, becomes soft and starts flowing upon heating, and becomes hard and brittle at very low temperatures. States have been facing problems such as cracking, rutting, and asphalt adhesion to aggregates in their asphaltic pavements for years. Many polymer additives have been used in asphalt to reduce these problems, but little work has been done using chemically modified products of asphalt to attempt to solve these serious problems of asphalt pavements. The above mentioned problems decrease the life of the pavements, resulting in an increase of maintenance and/or replacement costs. There are two types of cracking which can occur in asphalt pavement; one related to load, and the other related to thermal stress. The load-related cracking is known as fatigue cracking and is defined as fracture under repeated or cyclic stress having a maximum value of less than the tensile strength of the material. The thermal cracking occurs due to pavement shrinkage at low temperature causing the shrinkage stresses to exceed the tensile strength. FHWA researchers have found furfural to be a suitable candidate for functional group modification of asphalt. The modified product shows improved performance as well as improved rheological properties.

  16. Acute effects and exposure to organic compounds in road maintenance workers exposed to asphalt.

    PubMed

    Norseth, T; Waage, J; Dale, I

    1991-01-01

    Subjective symptoms and exposure to organic compounds were recorded in road repair and construction workers. Abnormal fatigue, reduced appetite, laryngeal/pharyngeal irritation, and eye irritation were recorded more often in such workers handling asphalt than in a corresponding reference group without asphalt exposure. Mean daily exposure to volatile compounds was only occasionally above 1 ppm. Mean exposure to asphalt fume was 0.358 mg/m3. There was no correlation between symptoms and total amount of volatile compounds, but a significant positive correlation was demonstrated between symptoms and some substances. The highest correlation was found for 1, 2, 4 trimethyl benzene. Symptoms increased with increasing asphalt temperature and with increasing concentrations of asphalt fumes. Amine addition did not increase the sum of symptoms, but soft asphalt seems to result in fewer symptoms than the harder types. Symptoms were not related to external factors like weather, traffic density, or specific working operations. As preventive measures, asphalt temperature should be kept below 150 degrees C, fume concentrations below 0.40 mg/m3, and if possible, the use of harder asphalt types which also require high temperatures should be avoided.

  17. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials for road construction. Citations discuss asphalt concrete mixtures and recycling, recycled materials testing and evaluation, and pavement bases. Engineering and environmental aspects of recycled materials are examined. (Contains a minimum of 78 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Chemical aspects of incorporating contaminated soil into cold-mix asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The chemical aspects associated with the incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons- and metals-affected soil has been extensively studied in regards to pavement properties, leaching behavior, sensitivities to moisture-damage and function group analysis. These studies provide information that can be used to evaluate the stability of these constituents in soil that have been incorporated as an ingredient in asphalt. These studies also indicate that cold-mix asphalt incorporating contaminated soil will be highly stable and perform adequately as an end product. Maximum chemical performance is achieved when the asphalt is comprised of high contents of pyridinic, phenolic and ketone groups, which can be achieved by selectively choosing the source material. If the situation requires special stability or redundancy, small amounts of shale oil and lime can be used as additives. Situations and conditions which favor the presence of inorganic sulfur, monovalent salts and high strength solutions in the asphalt should be avoided since these conditions decrease the chemical stability of the asphalt cement by disruption of the functional group-aggregate bonds and by increasing the overall permeability. However, these conditions are not typically expected in the anticipated uses of asphalt cement to stabilize contaminants in soil using Environmentally Processed Asphalt{trademark} (EPA{trademark}) or Asphaltic Metals Stabilization{trademark} (AMS{trademark}) remedial technologies.

  19. Damage detection and artificial healing of asphalt concrete after trafficking with a load simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, M.; Arraigada, M.; Partl, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    Artificial healing of asphalt concrete by induction heating requires the addition of electrically conductive and/or magnetic materials into the asphalt mixture. Hence, bitumen can be heated up by an alternating electromagnetic field, decreasing therefore its viscosity and allowing it to flow for closing cracks and recover bonding among the mineral aggregates.

  20. Integrating Recycled Glass Cullet in Asphalt Roof Shingles to Mitigate Heat Island Effect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    and then rock or slag granules with similar gradation for the headlap granules. Ideal top surface materials are either igneous or metamorphic...mineral and rock , and despite being called asphalt shingles, asphalt represents a very small yet important element (Leavell 2006). Fiberglass...material include fly ash, recycled rubber, recycled shingles, fine grained carbonate rock , dolomite, limestone, trap rock , sand, and stone dust

  1. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md.; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR–asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR–asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR–asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR–asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress. PMID:28182724

  2. City finds new efficiencies in hot in-place asphalt recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This article reviews the experience of Boulder, Colorado, in recycling asphalt pavement in place during repair of a major city artery. The method used was able to recover, level and compact one inch of the existing roadway while filling potholes, cracks and other surface defects with asphaltic patching material. There was considerable savings in materials, cost and down-time for the roadway section.

  3. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    PubMed

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O K; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study analysis asphalt storage area, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska. The site is located approximately 2000 feet from the east end of the east/west runway and includes approximately 25 acres. The site was used for asphalt storage and preparation activities during the 1940s and 1950s. Approximately 4,500 drums of asphalt and 29 drums of unknown materials have been abandoned at the site. The drums are located in 32 areas throughout the 25-acre site. Following several decades of exposure to the elements, many of the drums have corroded and leaked to the ground surface. Several acres of soil are inundated with liquid asphalt that has leaked from the drums. Depths of the asphalt range from 6 to 10 inches in areas where surface anomalies have created depressions, and thus a collection point for the asphalt. A 14-x 18-x 4 foot wood frame pit used to support previous asphalt operations is located at the north end of the site. The pit contains approximately 2300 gallons of asphalt. There are also locations where the soil appears to be contaminated by petroleum products other than asphalt.

  5. Airborne Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Among Workers in Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, David C; Osborn, Linda V; Johnson, Kathleen A; Fayerweather, William E

    2015-01-01

    We studied exposure of 151 workers to polycyclic aromatic compounds and asphalt emissions during the manufacturing of asphalt roofing products-including 64 workers from 10 asphalt plants producing oxidized, straight-run, cutback, and wax- or polymer-modified asphalts, and 87 workers from 11 roofing plants producing asphalt shingles and granulated roll roofing. The facilities were located throughout the United States and used asphalt from many refiners and crude oils. This article helps fill a gap in exposure data for asphalt roofing manufacturing workers by using a fluorescence technique that targets biologically active 4-6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds and is strongly correlated with carcinogenic activity in animal studies. Worker exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds were compared between manufacturing plants, at different temperatures and using different raw materials, and to important external benchmarks. High levels of fine limestone particulate in the plant air during roofing manufacturing increased polycyclic aromatic compound exposure, resulting in the hypothesis that the particulate brought adsorbed polycyclic aromatic compounds to the worker breathing zone. Elevated asphalt temperatures increased exposures during the pouring of asphalt. Co-exposures in these workplaces which act as confounders for both the measurement of total organic matter and fluorescence were detected and their influence discussed. Exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds in asphalt roofing manufacturing facilities were lower than or similar to those reported in hot-mix paving application studies, and much below those reported in studies of hot application of built-up roofing asphalt. These relatively low exposures in manufacturing are primarily attributed to air emission controls in the facilities, and the relatively moderate temperatures, compared to built-up roofing, used in these facilities for oxidized asphalt. The exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds was a very

  6. Characterization of asphalt cements modified with crumbed rubber from discarded tires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, W.H.; Negulescu, I.I.

    1994-11-01

    The potential legislative requirement for incorporation of scrap rubber into asphalt blends mandated a thorough evaluation of the influence of scrap rubber additives on the physical properties and aging characteristics of rubber/asphalt blends. Blends with up to 20 percent ground vulcanized rubber (both crumb and 200 mesh powder particles) from recycled tires were prepared with asphalt cements of various grades (AC5 - AC30) and evaluated using DMA. Blends produced from powdered rubber particles exhibited Newtonian behavior at high temperatures; similar behavior was not observed with crumb rubber blends. The mechanical properties of asphalt-rubber blends depend upon the concentration of rubber additives, the particle dimensions, and the chemical composition of the asphalt.

  7. Crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete in Oregon. Summary report. Report for 1985-94

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, E.; Peters, W.

    1995-07-01

    Over the last nine years, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has constructed 13 projects using crumb rubber modifiers (CRM) in asphalt concrete pavements using both the wet and dry process. State and federal legislation may require the use of recycled rubber in asphalt concrete, therefore, the Oregon Department of Transportation is interested in determining the most cost -effective crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete. The report includes a literature review on the use of crumb rubber modifiers in asphalt concrete pavement; a review on non-ODOT CRM paving projects constructed by Oregon counties and cities; and the Washington Department of Transportation. In additon, the report summarizes the data collected on all CRM hot mix asphalt concrete pavement projects constructed by ODOT. The ODOT information includes background constitution, cost, and performance data for each of the test and control sections. Finally, the future activities of the project are reviewed.

  8. Beneficial uses of recycled asphalt-stabilized products as landfill cover and capping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Camougis, G.

    1996-12-31

    The American Reclamation Corporation (AMREC{reg_sign}) has played a major role in the development of new programs for the recycling of discarded materials from construction, demolition, remediation and manufacturing operations. Excavated petroleum-contaminated soils (oily soils), asphalt paving, concrete rubble, and discarded asphalt roofing shingles have been processed and recycled into beneficially useful construction products. AMREC uses a cold-mix, asphalt-emulsion technology to process many of the recyclables received at its recycling facility in Charlton, MA. Recyclable materials are processed and blended to produce recycled, asphalt-stabilized products. In addition, recycled, asphalt-stabilized products are being investigated and tested for other beneficial uses. This includes their uses as capping materials and as containment materials.

  9. Change in consistency and composition of trichloroethylene- and trichloroethane-treated asphalts.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elgheit, M A; Ijam, M J

    1982-12-01

    Solvent extraction of asphalt from pavement mixtures is a technique used to study the change in asphalt during service. Rheological measurements indicate that asphalts recovered from trichloroethylene or trichloroethane are markedly hardened. Compositional studies on asphaltic fractions reveal a notable decrease in saturates, naphthenes, H, N, Ni and V, and increase in polar aromatics and asphaltenes along with incorporation of Cl in all fractions. These structural changes are responsible for the hardening of the asphalt and are interpreted in terms of cyclization of saturates, aromatization of naphthenes, coupling of free radicals with neutral species to give a high content of asphaltenes, and in terms of loss of the relatively volatile Ni and V porphyrins during the extraction-recovery process.

  10. Why is the electroanalytical performance of carbon paste electrodes involving an ionic liquid binder higher than paraffinic binders? A simulation investigation.

    PubMed

    Ghatee, M H; Namvar, S; Zolghadr, A R; Moosavi, F

    2015-10-14

    Recently, carbon paste electrodes (CPE) fabricated using an ionic liquid (IL) binder have shown enhanced electroanalytical performance over conventional paraffinic binders. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of graphite mixed with ionic liquid and with paraffin binder can unravel the potential atomistic factors responsible for such enhancement. Based on an experimentally optimized binder/graphite mass ratio, which has been reported to be crucial for such a performance, comprehensive simulations (at 323 K) are performed with the ensembles involving an ionic liquid binder (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim]PF6) and a paraffin binder (n-C20H42) mixed with graphite comprising large-size hexagonal-shaped double graphene plates. Structural analysis indicates both binders form only a monolayer on the graphite surface, covering the surface locally by IL but all-encompassing by paraffin. With charged and uncharged graphite, the IL monolayer tends to cover mainly the graphite center without approaching the edge planes. On the contrary, a monolayer of the paraffin binder covers uniformly the center, near the center, and the edge planes. Cations and anions of the IL form well-defined two dimensional pentagonal matrixes with characteristic high adsorption energy, almost 2.4 times higher than paraffin adsorption. The cation and anion coordination ability of the IL is responsible for such a local distribution. The simulation of these phenomena under experimental conditions unravels strong two-dimensional coordination properties inherent to the ionic liquid when distributed over the graphite surface. This direct MD simulation comparison of the IL properties with an organic liquid counterpart, made for the first time, can be used to explain the high electroanalytical performance (electron transfer) of CPEs involving an IL binder over paraffin binders.

  11. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-09-01

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted by Western Research Institute (WRI). The ESO residue, have a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{lg_bullet}s at 60{degree}C (140{degree}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, ASD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, which are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a siliceous Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquettes. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquettes. The rheological analyses of the unaged petroleum-derived asphalts and their respective blends indicate that the samples satisfy the rutting requirement. However, the aging indexes for the rolling thin film oven (RTFO)-aged and RTFO/pressure aging vessel (PAV)-aged samples indicate that the blends are stiffer than the petroleum-derived asphalts. This means that when in service the blends will be more prone to pavement embrittlement and fatigue cracking than the petroleum-derived asphalts. Infrared analyses were also conducted on the three petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends before and after RTFO/PAV aging. In general, upon RTFO/PAV aging, the amounts of carbonyls and sulfoxides in the samples increase, indicating that the addition of the ESO residue does not mitigate the chemical aging (oxidation) of the petroleum-derived asphalts. This information correlates with the rheological data and the aging indexes that were calculated for the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends.

  12. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  13. Influence of Mycotoxin Binders on the Oral Bioavailability of Doxycycline in Pigs.

    PubMed

    De Mil, Thomas; Devreese, Mathias; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-16

    Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, making them unavailable for systemic absorption. The antimicrobial drug doxycycline (DOX) is often used in pigs and is administered through feed or drinking water; hence, DOX can come in contact with mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes the effect of four mycotoxin binders on the absorption of orally administered DOX in pigs. Two experiments were conducted: The first used a setup with bolus administration to fasted pigs at two different dosages of mycotoxin binder. In the second experiment, DOX and the binders were mixed in the feed at dosages recommended by the manufacturers (= field conditions). Interactions are possible between some of the mycotoxin binders dosed at 10 g/kg feed but not at 2 g/kg feed. When applying field conditions, no influences were seen on the plasma concentrations of DOX.

  14. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikanova, L.; Volkova, O.; Kudyakov, A.; Sarkisov, Y.; Tolstov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO42- anion NO- are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K2SO4 > Na2SO4 > FeSO4 > MgSO4. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa) is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder's mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.

  15. Evaluation of the benefits of adding waste fiberglass roofing shingles to Hot-Mix asphalt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulshafi, O.; Kedzierski, B.; Fitch, M.G.; Mukhtar, H.

    1997-07-03

    The decreased availability of landfills, growing concern over waste disposal, and rising cost of asphalt cement, resulted in an increased interest in incorporating waste asphalt roofing shingles in the production of asphalt concrete mixes. This project addressed Hot-Mix, surface course asphalt concrete mixes produced with an addition of waste fiberglass asphalt roofing shingles that were obtained from the shingle manufacturing process. A total of twenty-six asphalt concrete mixes were studied. The variables included: aggregate type, shingle producers, level of shingle addition (0, 5, 10, and 15%), and type of shingle size reduction. Properties of the produced asphalt concrete mixes were evaluated based on the results of applicable tests that were performed.

  16. Asphalts and asphaltenes: Macromolecular structure, precipitation properties, and flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassamdana, Hossein

    Depending on rock and fluid properties, more than 50% of reservoir oil in place is normally produced by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. Among the EOR techniques, miscible flooding is one of the most efficient and widely-used methods. However, this method can suffer from the formation and precipitation of asphalt aggregates. In addition, asphalt deposition is also a major hindrance to heavy oil production, and even primary recovery operations. Asphalt deposition can alter the reservoir rock properties, fluid saturation distribution, fluid flow properties, and eventually the ultimate oil recovery. The shortage of studies on the macromolecular structure and growth mechanisms of asphalt particles is the main reason for the unsuccessful modeling of their precipitation properties. The equivocal behavior of asphalt under some specific conditions could be the other reason. In this research we look at the problem of asphalt formation, flow, and precipitation from three different angles. We analyze extensive small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data, precipitation data, and molecular weight distribution measurements, and show that they all suggest conclusively that asphalts and asphaltenes are fractal aggregates, and their growth mechanisms are diffusion-limited particle (DLP) and diffusion-limited cluster-cluster (DLCC) aggregation processes. These results lead us to development of a scaling equation of state for predicting asphalt precipitation properties, such as its onset and amount of precipitation. Another result of our study is an analytical equation for modeling the molecular weight distribution of asphalt and asphaltene aggregates. In addition, asphalt phase behavior in miscible and immiscible injections is studied. The effect of the governing thermodynamic factors, such as the pressure, temperature, and composition of the oil and precipitation agents, on the asphalt aggregation and disaggregation processes are investigated. Finally, a model is developed to

  17. Dermal exposure and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among asphalt roofing workers

    SciTech Connect

    McClean, M.D.; Rinehart, R.D.; Sapkota, A.; Cavallari, J.M.; Herrick, R.F.

    2007-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify significant determinants of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) among asphalt roofing workers and use urinary 1-hydroxyprene (1-OHP) measurements to evaluate the effect of dermal exposure on total absorbed dose. The study population included 26 asphalt roofing workers who performed three primary tasks: tearing off old roofs, putting down new roofs, and operating the kettle at ground level. During multiple consecutive work shifts, dermal patch samples were collected from the underside of each worker's wrists and were analyzed for PACs, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene (BAP). During the same work week, urine samples were collected at pre-shift, post-shift, and bedtime each day and were analyzed for 1-OHP (205 urine samples). Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the dermal measurements for the purpose of identifying important determinants of exposure, and to evaluate urinary 1-OHP measurements for the purpose of identifying important determinants of total absorbed dose. Dermal exposures to PAC, pyrene, and BAP were found to vary significantly by roofing task and by the presence of an old coal tar pitch roof. For each of the three analytes, the adjusted mean dermal exposures associated with tear-off were approximately four times higher than exposures associated with operating the kettle. Exposure to coal tar pitch was associated with a 6-fold increase in PAC exposure, an 8-fold increase in pyrene exposure and a 35-fold increase in BAP exposure. The presence of coal tar pitch was the primary determinant of dermal exposure, particularly for exposure to BAP. However, the task-based differences that were observed while controlling for pitch suggest that exposure to asphalt also contributes to dermal exposures.

  18. Combustion characteristics of blends of lignite and bituminous coal with different binder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    2000-05-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics of blends of a Turkish lignite and a Siberian bituminous coal with and without binder materials were investigated. Sunflower shell, sawdust, and molasses were used as binder materials. The combustion curves of the coal and binder material samples and of the blends were obtained using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The differences observed in the DTA curves of the samples are discussed in detail.

  19. Studies on Nigerian crudes. 3; Analysis of sulfurized asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Oyekunle, L.O.; Onyehanere, L.N. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the residual asphalts obtained from three Nigerian medium crudes chemically treated with elemental sulfur at 210 to 250{degrees} C. The course of the reaction was followed by monitoring the growth of the asphaltene content of the products. The sulfurization reaction led to 5- to 10-fold increases in the asphaltene content of the products. The asphaltene content of one of the samples initially increased with temperature from 210 to 240{degrees}C. and then dropped sharply. The results obtained revealed that the optimum temperature of the sulfurization reaction was 240{degrees}C.

  20. Environmentally-Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Portland cement (PC) is the ubiquitous binding material for constructions works. It is a big contributor to global warming and climate change since its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. Recently there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower greenhouse gas emissions. One such class of binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders use natural or industrial waste raw materials with a very low CO2 footprint from grinding of the starting materials, and some from the production of the activating chemicals. The total CO2 emissions from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/10th - 1/5th of those of PC concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes as raw materials is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time renders their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Silica sand is a natural material containing very high amounts of quartz. Silica fume is a very fine waste from silicon metal production that is mostly non-crystalline silica. This study describes the use of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions to yield mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of portland cement mortars and with better chemical and thermal durability. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in less than 24 h. The consistency of the chemical compositions of these materials and their abundance in several large, developing countries makes silica attractive for producing sustainable concretes with reduced carbon

  1. Microstructure of the combustion zone: Thin-binder AP-polymer sandwiches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, E. W.; Panyam, R. R.; Sigman, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results are summarized for systematic quench-burning tests on ammonium perchlorate-HC binder sandwiches with binder thicknesses in the range 10 - 150 microns. Tests included three binders (polysulfide, polybutadiene-acrylonitrile, and hydroxy terminated polybutadiene), and pressures from 1.4 to 14 MPa. In addition, deflagration limits were determined in terms of binder thickness and pressure. Results are discussed in terms of a qualitative theory of sandwich burning consolidated from various sources. Some aspects of the observed results are explained only speculatively.

  2. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang; Chen, Guang; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst binder and diffusion layer, and compared to cathodes of the same structure having a Nafion binder. With PDMS binder, copper mesh cathodes produced a maximum power of 1710 ± 1 mW m-2, while SS mesh had a slightly lower power of 1680 ± 12 mW m-2, with both values comparable to those obtained with Nafion binder. Cathodes with PDMS binder had stable power production of 1510 ± 22 mW m-2 (copper) and 1480 ± 56 mW m-2 (SS) over 15 days at cycle 15, compared to a 40% decrease in power with the Nafion binder. Cathodes with the PDMS binder had lower total cathode impedance than those with Nafion. This is due to a large decrease in diffusion resistance, because hydrophobic PDMS effectively prevented catalyst sites from filling up with water, improving oxygen mass transfer. The cost of PDMS is only 0.23% of that of Nafion. These results showed that PDMS is a very effective and low-cost alternative to Nafion binder that will be useful for large scale construction of these cathodes for MFC applications.

  3. Size-dependent enrichment of waste slag aggregate fragments abraded from asphalt concrete.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Gardner, Kevin; Kida, Akiko

    2011-10-30

    Authors consider the environmental prospects of using melted waste slag as the aggregate for asphalt pavement. In particular, the enrichment of slag-derived fragments in fine abrasion dust particles originated from slag asphalt concrete and its size dependency were concerned. A series of surface abrasion tests for asphalt concrete specimens, containing only natural aggregates as reference or 30 wt% of substituted slag aggregates, were performed. Although two of three slag-asphalt concretes generated 1.5-3.0 times larger amount of abrasion dust than the reference asphalt concrete did, it could not be explained only by abrasion resistance of slag. The enrichment of slag-derived fragments in abrasion dust, estimated on the basis of the peak intensity of quartz and heavy metal concentrations, had size dependency for all slag-asphalt concretes. Slag-derived fragments were enriched in abrasion dust particles with diameters of 150-1000 μm. Enrichment factors were 1.4-2.1. In contrast, there was no enrichment in abrasion dust particles with diameter less than 75 μm. This suggests that prior airborne-size fragmentation of substituted slag aggregates does not need to be considered for tested slag aggregates when environmental risks of abrasion dust of slag-asphalt pavement are assessed.

  4. Estimates of air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbore, D.C.

    1999-12-31

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act requires the accurate estimation of emissions from all US manufacturing processes, and places the burden of proof for that estimate on the process owner. This paper is published as a tool to assist in the estimation of air emission from hot asphalt storage tanks and asphalt truck loading operations. Data are presented on asphalt vapor pressure, vapor molecular weight, and the emission split between volatile organic compounds and particulate emissions that can be used with AP-42 calculation techniques to estimate air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading operations. Since current AP-42 techniques are not valid in asphalt tanks with active fume removal, a different technique for estimation of air emissions in those tanks, based on direct measurement of vapor space combustible gas content, is proposed. Likewise, since AP-42 does not address carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide emissions that are known to be present in asphalt operations, this paper proposes techniques for estimation of those emissions. Finally, data are presented on the effectiveness of fiber bed filters in reducing air emissions in asphalt operations.

  5. Induction of micronuclei in cultured mammalian cells by fume condensates of roofing asphalt.

    PubMed

    Qian, H W; Ong, T; Whong, W Z

    1996-05-01

    A considerable number of workers in the United States are employed in asphalt industries and are potentially exposed to asphalt fumes. The information regarding the potential carcinogenic hazards of such fumes to exposed workers is still limited. Studies have been conducted to determine the cytogenetic effects of roofing asphalt fume using cultured mammalian cells. Exponentially growing Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) were exposed to different concentrations of condensates of type I and type III roofing asphalt fumes, generated at temperatures similar to actual roofing operation (316 +/- 10 degrees C). The frequencies of micronucleated cells in the treated and control cultures were determined. Additionally, immunofluorescent staining of kinetochore with human anti-kinetochore primary antibody and flouresceinated goat anti-human IgG was used to investigate the potential mechanism of micronucleus formation. The results show that both types of roofing asphalt fume condensates caused a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells, and that 70% of micronucleated cells induced by asphalt fume condensates carried kinetochore-positive micronuclei. These findings indicate that both type I and type III roofing asphalt fumes are capable of causing principally cytogenetic damage by spindle apparatus alterations in cultured mammalian cells.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Lin, Ruiyu; Huang, Yue; Wang, Chao

    2016-03-22

    In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  7. Ice melting properties of steel slag asphalt concrete with microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Sun, Yihan; Liu, Quantao; Fang, Hao; Wu, Shaopeng; Tang, Jin; Ye, Qunshan

    2017-03-01

    The ice on the surface of asphalt pavement in winter significantly influences the road transportation safety. This paper aims at the improvement of the ice melting efficiency on the surface of asphalt pavement. The steel slag asphalt concrete was prepared and the high ice melting efficiency was achieved with the microwave heating. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ice melting performance of steel slag asphalt concrete, including the heating test, ice melting test, thermal conductivity test and so on. The results indicated that the microwave heating of steel slag concrete can improve the efficiency of deicing, mainly because the heating rates of steel slag asphalt mixture are much better than traditional limestone asphalt mixture. According to different thickness lever of ice, the final temperatures of each sample were very close to each other at the end of melting test. It is believed the thickness of the ice has a limited impact on the ice melting efficiency. According to the heating tests results, the bonding of ice and asphalt concrete is defined failure at the moment when the surface temperature of the ice reached 3 °C.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Lin, Ruiyu; Huang, Yue; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase. PMID:27011196

  9. The Potential of Heat Collection from Solar Radiation in Asphalt Solar Collectors in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddu, Salmia; Talib, Siti Hidayah Abdul; Itam, Zarina

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of asphalt solar collectors as a means of an energy source is being widely studied in recent years. Asphalt pavements are exposed to daily solar radiation, and are capable of reaching up to 70°C in temperature. The potential of harvesting energy from solar pavements as an alternative energy source in replace of non-renewable energy sources prone to depletion such as fuel is promising. In Malaysia, the sun intensity is quite high and for this reason, absorbing the heat from sun radiation, and then utilizing it in many other applications such as generating electricity could definitely be impressive. Previous researches on the different methods of studying the effect of heat absorption caused by solar radiation prove to be quite old and inaffective. More recent findings, on the otherhand, prove to be more informative. This paper focuses on determining the potential of heat collection from solar radiation in asphalt solar collectors using steel piping. The asphalt solar collector model constructed for this research was prepared in the civil engineering laboratory. The hot mixed asphalt (HMA) contains 10% bitumen mixed with 90% aggregates of the total size of asphalt. Three stainless steel pipes were embedded into the interior region of the model according to the design criteria, and then put to test. Results show that harvesting energy from asphalt solar collectors proves highly potential in Malaysia due its the hot climate.

  10. Environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with electric arc furnace steel slag.

    PubMed

    Milačič, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Oblak, Tina; Mladenovič, Ana; Ančar, Janez Šč

    2011-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag can be used as an alternative high-quality material in road construction. Although asphalts with slag aggregates have been recognized as environmentally acceptable, there is a lack of data concerning the potential leaching of toxic Cr(VI) due to the highly alkaline media of EAF slag. Leaching of selected water extractable metals from slag indicated elevated concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI). To estimate the environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with slag, leachability tests based on diffusion were performed using pure water and salt water as leaching agents. Compact and ground asphalt composites with natural aggregates, and asphalt composites in which the natural aggregates were completely replaced by slag were prepared. The concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI) were determined in leachates over a time period of 6 mo. After 1 and 6 mo, the concentrations of some other metals were also determined in the leachates. The results indicated that chromium in leachates from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was present almost solely in its hexavalent form. However, the concentrations were very low (below 25 μg L) and did not represent an environmental burden. The leaching of other metals from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was negligible. Therefore, the investigated EAF slag can be considered as environmentally safe substitute for natural aggregates in asphalt mixes.

  11. Quantitative cancer risk assessment for occupational exposures to asphalt fumes during built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) operations.

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Mayfield, David B; Goodman, Julie E; Butler, Eric L; Nascarella, Marc A; Williams, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer qualitatively characterized occupational exposure to oxidized bitumen emissions during roofing as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). We examine chemistry, exposure, epidemiology and animal toxicity data to explore quantitative risks for roofing workers applying built-up roofing asphalt (BURA). Epidemiology studies do not consistently report elevated risks, and generally do not have sufficient exposure information or adequately control for confounders, precluding their use for dose-response analysis. Dermal carcinogenicity bioassays using mice report increased tumor incidence with single high doses. In order to quantify potential cancer risks, we develop time-to-tumor model methods [consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose-response analysis and mixtures guidelines] using the dose-time-response shape of concurrent exposures to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as concurrent controls (which had several exposure levels) to infer presumed parallel dose-time-response curves for BURA-fume condensate. We compare EPA relative potency factor approaches, based on observed relative potency of BURA to B[a]P in similar experiments, and direct observation of the inferred BURA dose-time-response (scaled to humans) as means for characterizing a dermal unit risk factor. We apply similar approaches to limited data on asphalt-fume inhalation and respiratory cancers in rats. We also develop a method for adjusting potency estimates for asphalts that vary in composition using measured fluorescence. Overall, the various methods indicate that cancer risks to roofers from both dermal and inhalation exposure to BURA are within a range typically deemed acceptable within regulatory frameworks. The approaches developed may be useful in assessing carcinogenic potency of other complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic compounds.

  12. Biofiltration of asphalt emissions: Full-scale operation treating off-gases from polymer-modified asphalt production

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, L.L.; Gostomski, P.A.; Apel, W.A.

    1999-09-30

    In response to complaints from nearby residents, a biofilter was designed, installed, and tested for treating odors in one of three odorous emission streams from an asphalt plant producing polymer-modified asphalt. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) was determined to be the most prevalent gaseous reduced sulfur compound and was detected in the emission stream only when polymer material was being added to raw asphalt. Emission stream H{sub 2}S concentrations were quite variable, ranging from 16 to approximately 30,000 ppm (v/v) and considered the likely compound contributing most to the plant's odor complaints. The biofilter was effective in controlling odor from the production process and removed an overall average of 65% of the H{sub 2}S during polymer addition, and for H{sub 2}S concentrations less than 400 ppmv, removal averaged 98%. These removal efficiencies reflect data from the biofilter operating at 2.5-minute empty bed residence time in 1996 and a 6.1-minute empty bed residence time in 1997. The biofilter's bed became increasingly acidified during the plant's 1997 operating season producing a pH gradient through the bed ranging from a high of 6.6 to a low of 3.1. The bed medium moisture content remained constant at about 60% (wet weight basis), but changes were observed in the water potential: no correlation to performance was determined. Changes in the microbial community reflected the bed acidification trend, with acidophiles becoming generally more numerous in the bed's deeper portions and in the mid to late season when the bed was most acidified. Bed acidification did not impact the biofilter's H{sub 2}S removal efficiency.

  13. Asphaltic Concrete Performance Under Heavy Fighter Aircraft Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    compacted to determine the effects of overfilling and underfilling the voids in the aggregate. Density and voids filled with binder are two of the...concrete were also taken at different pass levels to determine the change in air voids with traffic. Damage parameters were defined to provide a...149 I 89 Voids Total Mix Data and Interpolated Values Versus Station .............................................. 150 90 Voids Filled

  14. Glass Transition and Molecular Mobility in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Modified Asphalt.

    PubMed

    Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Rajesh

    2015-11-05

    Asphalt, a soft matter consisting of more than a thousand chemical species, is of vital importance for the transportation infrastructure, yet it poses significant challenges for microscopic theory and modeling approaches due to its multicomponent nature. Polymeric additives can potentially enhance the thermo-mechanical properties of asphalt, thus helping reduce the road repair costs; rational design of such systems requires knowledge of the molecular structure and dynamics of these systems. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the volumetric, structural, and dynamic properties of the neat asphalt as well as styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt systems. The volume-temperature behavior of the asphalt systems exhibited a glass transition phenomenon, akin to that observed in experiments. The glass transition temperature, room temperature density, and coefficient of volume thermal expansion of the neat asphalt systems so evaluated were in agreement with experimental data when the effect of the high cooling rate used in simulations was accounted for. While the volumetric properties of SBR modified asphalt were found to be insensitive to the presence of the SBR additive, the addition of SBR led to an increase in the aggregation of asphaltene molecules. Furthermore, addition of SBR caused a reduction in the mobility of the constituent molecules of asphalt, with the reduction being more significant for the larger constituent molecules. Similar to other glass forming liquids, the reciprocal of the diffusion coefficient of the selected molecules was observed to follow the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) behavior as a function of temperature. These results suggest the potential for using polymeric additives for enhancing the dynamic mechanical properties of asphalt without affecting its volumetric properties.

  15. Habitat heterogeneity - biological association relationships in the asphalt volcano, SW Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, E.; Gaytan, A.

    2007-05-01

    A new class of cold seep, named asphalt volcano, was discovered in the Campeche Knolls region of the southern Gulf of Mexico, supporting chemosynthetic communities alike those lying at similar depth on the Angolan margin and the Barbados Prism suggesting an interesting longitudinal connectivity in the faunal components. The discovery of this novel deep-sea habitat has raised questions about diversity and process dynamics in this novel poorly described milieu. Results from two previous cruises jointly sponsored by German, US and Mexican funding agencies have allowed us to recognize the presence of large densities of background benthic megafauna, mainly represented by sea-cucumbers and galatheid crabs, which occupy diverse habitats in asphalt volcano and feed on microbial assemblages on the asphalt covering extended area. Asphalt displays different degrees of hardness suggesting ongoing activity of asphalt extrusion in the site that is reflected in biological benthic communities in different states succession and complexity. The fresh asphalt and the immediately surrounding soft sediment are colonized by mats of complex microbial assemblages where both background benthic megafauna and chemosynthetic tube worms and mussels aggregate. Our results focus on the diversity of the habitats associated with methane seepage through the example of geological structures in the asphalt volcano considering the small scale with the analysis of the relationships between biological assemblages and habitat heterogeneity assessing the role of the geological structure on biological communities. Bubbling of gas, oil and the content of thermogenic gas and gas hydrate in the asphalt suggests that the asphalt plays an important role as a reservoir of methane in this marginal deep sea.

  16. Group type analysis of asphalt by column liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Yang, J.; Xue, Y.; Li, Y.

    2008-07-01

    An improved analysis method for characterization of asphalt was established. The method is based on column chromatography technique. The asphalts were separated into four groups: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, quantitatively. About 0.1 g of sample was required in each analysis. About 20 mL of n-heptanes was used to separate out saturates first. Then about 35 mL of n-heptanes/dichloromethane (.5, v/v) mixture was used to separate out aromatics. About 30 mL of dichloromethane/tetrahydrofuran (1/3, v/v) mixture was used to separate out resin. The quality of the separation was confirmed by infrared spectra (IR) and {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The model compounds, tetracosan for saturates, dibenz(o)anthracen for aromatics, and acetanilide for resins were used for verification. The IR and {sup 1}H NMR analysis of the prepared fractions from the column liquid chromatography were in good agreement that of pure reagents.

  17. Asphalt volcanism and chemosynthetic life in the Campeche Knolls, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, I R; Bohrmann, G; Escobar, E; Abegg, F; Blanchon, P; Blinova, V; Brückmann, W; Drews, M; Eisenhauer, A; Han, X; Heeschen, K; Meier, F; Mortera, C; Naehr, T; Orcutt, B; Bernard, B; Brooks, J; de Faragó, M

    2004-05-14

    In the Campeche Knolls, in the southern Gulf of Mexico, lava-like flows of solidified asphalt cover more than 1 square kilometer of the rim of a dissected salt dome at a depth of 3000 meters below sea level. Chemosynthetic tubeworms and bivalves colonize the sea floor near the asphalt, which chilled and contracted after discharge. The site also includes oil seeps, gas hydrate deposits, locally anoxic sediments, and slabs of authigenic carbonate. Asphalt volcanism creates a habitat for chemosynthetic life that may be widespread at great depth in the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Asphalt Volcanism and Chemosynthetic Life in the Campeche Knolls, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Bohrmann, G.; Escobar, E.; Abegg, F.; Blanchon, P.; Blinova, V.; Brückmann, W.; Drews, M.; Eisenhauer, A.; Han, X.; Heeschen, K.; Meier, F.; Mortera, C.; Naehr, T.; Orcutt, B.; Bernard, B.; Brooks, J.; de Faragó, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the Campeche Knolls, in the southern Gulf of Mexico, lava-like flows of solidified asphalt cover more than 1 square kilometer of the rim of a dissected salt dome at a depth of 3000 meters below sea level. Chemosynthetic tubeworms and bivalves colonize the sea floor near the asphalt, which chilled and contracted after discharge. The site also includes oil seeps, gas hydrate deposits, locally anoxic sediments, and slabs of authigenic carbonate. Asphalt volcanism creates a habitat for chemosynthetic life that may be widespread at great depth in the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Sasobit SonneWarmix Wax Sonneborn Products Terex Warm Mix Asphalt Foaming system Terex Roadbuilding Thipoave Sulfur Shell TLA-X Trinidad Lake...ER D C/ G SL T R -1 2 -3 Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements G eo te ch n ic al a n d S tr u ct...default. ERDC/GSL TR-12-3 February 2012 (Revised December 2013) Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements

  20. Maturation trend in oils and asphalts of the Jordan Rift: Utilization of detailed vanadylporphyrin analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizenshtat, Zeev; Sundararaman, Padmanabhan

    1989-12-01

    A comparison of analytical methods for porphyrin analysis shows that high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of intact vanadylporphyrins is more advantageous than, or superior to, mass spectral methods and is suited for routine analysis. HPLC has a higher resolving power compared with probe mass spectrometry. Detailed HPLC analysis of the vanadylporphyrins isolated from asphalts and oils from the Dead Sea area shows that the asphalts are products of early generation from an immature source rock. The light oils, Massada oil and Zuk Tamror, are more mature than the asphalts.

  1. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains a minimum of 160 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Jerry

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  3. The Role of Binder in Deflagrating HMX-based Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringe, J. W.; Levie, H. W.; Glascoe, E. A.; Greenwood, D. W.; de Haven, M. R.; Molitoris, J. D.; Springer, H. K.

    2011-06-01

    Deflagration rates are known to be a strong function of temperature and pressure, but chemical reactions facilitated by the explosive's binder can also play an important role. Here we report a study of two HMX-based formulations, PBX-9501 (HMX 95%, estane 2.5%, bdnpa 1.25%, and bdnpf 1.25%) and LX-10 (HMX 95%, Viton-A 5%), which we use to investigate the origins of violence in thermal explosions. We employ flash x-ray radiography to directly image the rates at which reaction fronts proceed in a confined vessel. Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) characterizes the vessel wall motion as a function of time. Our results show that thermal explosions of PBX-9501, with its more reactive binder, are more violent than explosions of LX-10. In LX-10, we observe quenched deflagration and limited violence. In PBX-9501, however, a higher deflagration rate is developed and sustained even after vessel rupture. Thermal explosions of initially-confined PBX-9501 therefore are more complete and significantly more violent. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Binder-free Carbon Nanotube Flexible Solid State Supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu, Kofi; Ma, Danhao; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Lueking, Angela; Randell, Clive

    2015-03-01

    We present a post synthesis self-assemble protocol that transforms the trillions of CNTs in powder form into densely packed flexible, robust and binder-free macroscopic membranes with hierarchical pore structure. The binder-free CNT membranes could be as thin as <10 μm with mass density greater than that of water (1.0g/cc). As the thickness of the CNT membrane is increased, we observed a gradual transition from high flexibility to buckling and brittleness in the flexural properties of the CNT membranes. We have demonstrated the use of the CNT membranes as electrode in two-electrode 1M H2SO4 aqueous double layer supercapacitor that shows very high power density ~ 1040 kW/kg based on the mass of both electrodes and time constant of ~ 15 ms with no degradation in performance even after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, we will show the designing of flexible 3-stack bipolar solid-state ultracapacitor and present results on energy/power densities, voltage, cyclability, temperature stability in relation to flexibility and weight. Preliminary results indicate high temperature stability >85°C and CV voltage ~ 3V with very low leakage current ~ 10nA. This Work is Supported by Penn State Altoona Undergraduate Research Sponsored Program and Penn State Materials Research Institute, University Park

  5. Effect of polymer binder on surface texturing by photoembossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes-Brittain, N. F.; Picot, O. T.; Dai, M.; Peijs, T.; Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

    2012-09-01

    Photoembossing is a simple and versatile technique to create relief structures in polymers using a patterned contact mask exposure and a thermal development step. Typically, the photo-resist consists of a polymeric binder such as poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and a multifunctional monomer in a 50/50 weight ratio and the mixture is a solid and non-tacky material at room temperature. Here, new mixtures for photoembossing are presented, which contain higher monomer content and therefore show greater material flux during photopolymerisation. These mixtures are solid at room temperature even at high monomer contents (60 wt.%), which is achieved by using a polymer binder with a higher glass-transition temperature (Tg) such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). DSC experiments also indicated that the interactions between monomer and PMMA are less strong compared to PBMA. The combined effect of increased monomer content and weakened interactions with PMMA led to a greater mobility of the monomer and an increase in height of the relief structures by a 50%.

  6. Binder-block copolymer micelle interactions in bactericidal filter paper.

    PubMed

    Mansur-Azzam, Nura; Woo, Su Gyeong; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2013-08-06

    We previously produced a bactericidal filter paper loaded with PAA47-b-PS214 block copolymer micelles containing the biocide triclosan (TCN), using cationic polyacryamide (cPAM) as a binder. However, we encountered a very slow filtration, resulting in long bacteria deactivation times. Slow drainage occurred only when the filter paper was left to dry. It appears that the filter paper with cPAM and micelles develops hydrophobic properties responsible for this very slow filtration. Three approaches were taken to accelerate the very slow drainage all based on modification of binder-micelle interactions: (i) keeping the micelles wet, (ii) modification of the corona, and (iii) replacing cPAM with smaller and more highly charged cationic poly(isopropanol dimethylammonium) chloride (PIDMAC). In all cases, the drainage time of bactericidal filter paper became close to that of untreated filter paper, without decreasing its efficiency. Moreover, replacing cPAM with PIDMAC led to a much more efficient bactericidal filter paper that reduced bacteria viability by more than 6 orders of magnitude. In addition to resolving the hydrophobic drainage hurdle, the three solutions also offer a better understanding of the interaction between cPAM and micelles in the filter paper.

  7. The curious case of zeolite-clay/binder interactions and their consequences for catalyst preparation.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Gareth T; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Oord, Ramon; Paalanen, Pasi; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-07-04

    Zeolite-based catalyst bodies are commonly employed in a range of important industrial processes. Depending on the binder and shaping method chosen, vast differences in the reactivity, selectivity and stability are obtained. Here, three highly complementary micro-spectroscopic techniques were employed to study zeolite ZSM-5-binder interactions in SiO2-, Al2O3-, SiO2 : Al2O3- (2 : 1 mix) and kaolinite-bound catalyst pellets. We establish how their preparation influences the zeolite-clay/binder interactions. Using thiophene as an acid-catalyzed staining reaction, light absorbing oligomers produced in each sample were followed. To our surprise, kaolinite decreased the overall reactivity of the sample due to the phase change of the binder, creating a hard impenetrable outer layer. Aluminum migration to the zeolite was observed when Al2O3 was selected as a binder, creating additional Brønsted acid sites, which favored the formation of ring-opened thiophene oligomers compared to the larger oligomer species produced when SiO2 was used as a binder. In the latter case, the interaction of the Si-OH groups in the binder with thiophene was revealed to have a large impact in creating such large oligomer species. Furthermore, the combination of a SiO2 : Al2O3 mix as a binder enhanced the reactivity, possibly due to the creation of additional Brønsted acid sites between the two binder components during pellet preparation. It is evident that, independent of the shaping method, the intimate contact between the zeolite and binder heavily impacts the reactivity and product selectivity, with the type of binder playing a vital role.

  8. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: II. Initiation-promotion assay of Type III built-up roofing asphalt.

    PubMed

    Freeman, James J; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Beazley, S; Burnett, Donald M; Clark, Charles R; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Parker, Craig M; Stewart, Christopher W; Swanson, Mark S; Arp, Earl W

    2011-10-01

    Clark et al. (accepted for publication) reported that a sample of field-matched fume condensate from a Type III built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) resulted in a carcinogenic response in a mouse skin bioassay, with relatively few tumor-bearing animals, long tumor latency and chronic skin irritation. This mouse skin initiation/promotion study was conducted to assess possible mechanisms, i.e., genotoxic initiation vs. tumor promotion subsequent to repeated skin injury and repair. The same Type III BURA fume condensate sample was evaluated in groups of 30 male Crl:CD1® mice by skin application twice per week (total dose of 50 mg/week) for 2 weeks during the initiation phase and for 26 weeks during the promotion phase. Positive control substances were 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 50 μg applied once) as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA, 5 μg, applied twice weekly) during the promotion phase. During the 6 months of study with the asphalt fume condensate, eight skin masses were observed when tested for initiation, five of which were confirmed microscopically to be benign squamous cell papillomas. Only two papillomas were observed when tested for promotion. There was no apparent relationship between skin irritation and tumor development in this study. These results are more indicative of genotoxicity rather than a non-genotoxic mode of action.

  9. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of...

  10. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  11. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of...

  12. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  13. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of...

  14. 7 CFR 30.40 - Class 5; cigar-binder types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 5; cigar-binder types and groups. 30.40 Section... and Groups of Grades § 30.40 Class 5; cigar-binder types and groups. (a) Type 51. That type of cigar... Havana Seed of New York, and Pennsylvania, produced principally in the Big Flats and Onondaga sections...

  15. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.15 Non-premium insurance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-premium insurance-payment of...-premium insurance must be accompanied by the proper binder, payable to the FAA. A binder is not...

  16. Probable case of Binder syndrome in a skeleton from Quarai, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, Dawn M

    2002-08-01

    Binder syndrome (maxillonasal dysplasia) is a not uncommon disorder reported in the clinical literature and is characterized by hypoplastic development of the midface. An extensive review of the paleopathology literature did not reveal any examples of Binder syndrome. In this paper, a probable case of Binder syndrome in a female skeleton, 16-17 years at age of death, from Quarai, New Mexico (ca. AD 1375-1450) is presented. This case was identified during standard documentation prior to repatriation at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. The skull of this individual (381243) exhibits unusual facial features, including an underdeveloped midface, flattened glabella, absent nasal spine, and apparent alveolar prognathism, in addition to a vertebral anomaly. All of these characteristics are consistent with skeletal dysmorphologies associated with Binder syndrome. Measurements of the Quarai skull are compared with published data on Binder patients and normal control groups in order to quantify the nature of the observed morphology. Univariate analysis of craniometric/cephalometric data provides further support for a diagnosis of Binder syndrome, as critical measurements on the Quarai skull are consistent with those reported in Binder patients and significantly different from those reported for normal control groups. In addition to presenting a probable prehistoric case of Binder syndrome, this paper demonstrates the applicability of using direct comparisons of clinical data to help identify unusual conditions in skeletal remains.

  17. The influence of metakaolin substitution by slag in alkali-activated inorganic binders for civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, J.; Rieger, D.; Kovářík, T.; Novotný, P.; Franče, P.; Pola, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this study the effect of metakaolin replacement by milled blast furnace slag in alkali-activated geopolymeric binder was investigated in accordance to their rheological and mechanical properties. It was demonstrated that slag addition into the metakaolin binder can improve mechanical properties of final products. Our investigation was focused on broad interval of metakaolin substitution in the range from 100 to 40 volume per cents of metakaolin so that the volume content of solids in final binder was maintained constant. Prepared binders were activated by alkaline solution of potassium silicate with silicate module of 1.61. The particle size analyses were performed for determination of particle size distribution. The rheological properties were determined in accordance to flow properties by measurements on Ford viscosity cup and by oscillatory measurements of hardening process. For the investigation of hardening process, the strain controlled small amplitude oscillatory rheometry was used in plane-plate geometry. For determination of applied mechanical properties were binders filled by ceramic grog in the granularity range 0-1 mm. The filling was maintained constant at 275 volume per cents in accordance to ratio of solids in dry binder. The mechanical properties were investigated after 1, 7 and 28 days and microstructure was documented by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that slag addition have beneficial effect not only on mechanical properties of hardened binder but also on flow properties of fresh geopolymer paste and subsequent hardening kinetics of alkali-activated binders.

  18. Effects of binders on the electrochemical performance of rechargeable magnesium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; NuLi, Yanna; Su, Shuojian; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jiulin

    2017-02-01

    A comparative study on the effects of different binders on the electrochemical performance of rechargeable magnesium batteries with Mo6S8 cathode is conducted for the first time. The selected binders are commercial organic-soluble polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), gelatin, sodium alginate (SA) and Beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The binders significantly affect the physical properties, thus the electrochemical performance of Mo6S8 cathode. Compared with those using traditional PVDF binder, Mo6S8 electrodes with PAA and PVA exhibit enhanced cycling stabilities and rate capabilities, which are attributed to the improved cohesion among the electrode constituents and adhesion between the electrode laminate and the current collector. In addition, the anodic stability of these binders is not only related to the chemical structure of binders, but also to the uniformity of electrode surface. SA binder shows low anodic stability duo to containing easily oxidized groups. Non-uniform electrode surface decreases the anodic stability of PVDF based Mo6S8 electrode. Gelatin can be used as a binder in the formulation of high voltage cathodes for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

  19. A New Type of Multifunctional Polar Binder: Toward Practical Application of High Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Qian, Tao; Xiong, Jie; Xu, Na; Liu, Xuejun; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Jinqiu; Shen, Xiaowei; Yang, Tingzhou; Chen, Yu; Yan, Chenglin

    2017-03-01

    A new type of amino polar binder with 3D network flexibility structure for high energy Li-S batteries is synthesized and successfully used with commercial sulfur powder cathodes. The binder shows significant performance improvement in capacity retention and high potential for practical application, which arouse the battery community's interest in the commercial application of high energy Li-S battery.

  20. Ductile Binder Phase For Use With Almgb14 And Other Hard Ceramic Materials

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Bruce A.; Russell, Alan; Harringa, Joel

    2005-07-26

    This invention relates to a ductile binder phase for use with AlMgB14 and other hard materials. The ductile binder phase, a cobalt-manganese alloy, is used in appropriate quantities to tailor good hardness and reasonable fracture toughness for hard materials so they can be used suitably in industrial machining and grinding applications.

  1. 46 CFR 308.102 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions; fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions; fees...; terms and conditions; fees. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in the form set forth... the terms, conditions, and warranties contained in the application for war risk hull and...

  2. On the interaction of water-soluble binders and nano silicon particles: alternative binder towards increased cycling stability at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Klamor, S; Schröder, M; Brunklaus, G; Niehoff, P; Berkemeier, F; Schappacher, F M; Winter, M

    2015-02-28

    Silicon based composites are among the most promising negative electrodes for lithium ion battery applications due to their high theoretical capacities. One major drawback of silicon based anodes are their large volume changes during lithiation and delithiation. Although many efforts have been made in view of new binder materials and improved electrolytes, the resulting battery cell suffers from severe capacity fading at ambient or elevated temperatures, respectively. The strong reactivity with the electrolyte is considered to be responsible for the reduced cycle life at elevated temperatures. In this work we introduce silicon composite anodes with a novel composition based on a gellan gum binder material that show an improved cycling performance at ambient temperature and at 60 °C. To elucidate the influence of the binder material, we investigated the structure of the silicon based composite anodes in order to understand the nature of the interaction of the gellan gum based binder polymers with the silicon particles in comparison with a common CMC binder. Also the influence of the choice of binder on the interactions at the interface between electrode surface and electrolyte were studied. A combination of powerful techniques including solid state NMR, TEM and EELS, XPS as well as FTIR were applied.

  3. Evaluation of steel slag coarse aggregate in hot mix asphalt concrete.

    PubMed

    Ahmedzade, Perviz; Sengoz, Burak

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents the influences of the utilization of steel slag as a coarse aggregate on the properties of hot mix asphalt. Four different asphalt mixtures containing two types of asphalt cement (AC-5; AC-10) and coarse aggregate (limestone; steel slag) were used to prepare Marshall specimens and to determine optimum bitumen content. Mechanical characteristics of all mixtures were evaluated by Marshall stability, indirect tensile stiffness modulus, creep stiffness, and indirect tensile strength tests. The electrical sensitivity of the specimens were also investigated in accordance with ASTM D257-91. It was observed that steel slag used as a coarse aggregate improved the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. Moreover, volume resistivity values demonstrated that the electrical conductivity of steel slag mixtures were better than that of limestone mixtures.

  4. A review on using crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement.

    PubMed

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  5. Dunbar Asphalt to Clean up 29-Acre Portion of Sharon Steel Superfund Site, Hermitage, Pa.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (Sept. 14, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced a proposed settlement the government has reached with Dunbar Asphalt Products, Inc., to clean up a 29-acre portion of the Sharon Steel Corporation Superfund Site

  6. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    PubMed Central

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction. PMID:24688369

  7. Determination of the biodegradation rate of asphalt for the Hanford grout vaults. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Li, S.W.

    1993-04-01

    Testing was initiated in March 1991 and completed in November 1992 to determine the rate at which asphalt is biodegraded by microorganisms native to the Hanford Site soils. The asphalt tested (AR-6000, US Oil, Tacoma, Washington) is to be used in the construction of a diffusion barrier for the Hanford grout vaults. Experiments to determine asphalt biodegradation rates were conducted using three separate test sets. These test sets were initiated in March 1991, January 1992, and June 1992 and ran for periods of 6 months, 11 months, and 6 months, respectively. The experimental method used was one originally developed by Bartha and Pramer (1965), and further refined by Bowerman et al. (1985), that determined the asphalt biodegradation rate through the measurement of carbon dioxide evolved.

  8. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani, Reski, Nurhadi; Tahir, Dahlang

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are depending on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.

  9. Investigation of binder distribution in graphite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Marcus; Pfaffmann, Lukas; Jaiser, Stefan; Baunach, Michael; Trouillet, Vanessa; Scheiba, Frieder; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm; Bauer, Werner

    2017-02-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is evaluated regarding its applicability for revealing the binder distribution in lithium-ion battery electrode films. Graphite anodes comprising carbon black and PVDF binder are subject to varying drying conditions during solvent removal in order to adjust different binder distributions; fluorine is used as a marker for the presence of PVDF. For electrodes of about 70 μm thickness the fluorine concentration is detected at the surface of the electrode film as well as at the interface between electrode film and current collector foil. It is clearly visible by EDS that increasing drying temperatures (and drying rates) result in an accumulation of binder at the surface and a corresponding depletion at the interface. It is demonstrated on the basis of ion-milled cross-sections of thick electrodes (ca. 400 μm) that a quantitative mapping of the binder distribution delivers additional information about concentration gradients in dependence of the drying parameters.

  10. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands.

  11. A multiscale model for predicting the viscoelastic properties of asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cucalon, Lorena; Rahmani, Eisa; Little, Dallas N.; Allen, David H.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the accurate prediction of long term performance of asphalt concrete pavement requires modeling to account for viscoelasticity within the mastic. However, accounting for viscoelasticity can be costly when the material properties are measured at the scale of asphalt concrete. This is due to the fact that the material testing protocols must be performed recursively for each mixture considered for use in the final design.

  12. Minimum Thickness Requirements for Asphalt Surface Course and Base Layer in Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    e.g., Donovan and Tutumluer 2008, 2009; Tao et al. 2010), a waterproof surface, protection from foreign object damage (FOD), and a durable surface...mechanisms for premature deterioration, and quantify the service life of thin asphalt concrete pavements. Six sections with different layer...32,500 7,794 The full-scale test data analysis led to a conclusion that the Department of Defense’s (DoD) minimum asphalt concrete thickness

  13. Study of Asphaltic Concrete Produced in Dryer Drum Mixers for Airport Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    STWDARDS-163- w S 4 -- , ,a, i I Report No-c FAA-RD-76-165 STUDY OF ASPHALTIC CONCRETE PRODUCED IN DRYER DRUM MIXERS FOR AIRPORT PAVEMENTS 0 E. T...PREFACE This study was supported by the Systems Research and Development Service of the Federal Aviation Administration. This is a final report presenting...the asphaltic concrete . In September, 1976 the Alaskan Region of FAA reported that the runway pavement had transverse thermal cracks approximately 200

  14. Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  15. The effect of different types of abdominal binders on intra-abdominal pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua-Yu; Liu, Dong; Tang, Hao; Sun, Shi-Jin; Ai, Shan-Mu; Yang, Wen-Qun; Jiang, Dong-Po; Zhang, Lian-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of non-elastic/elastic abdominal binders on intra-vesical pressure (IVP), physiological functions, and clinical outcomes in laparotomy patients at the perioperative stage. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from May to October 2014 at the Trauma Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China. Laparotomy patients were randomly divided into non-elastic abdominal binder group (28 patients), and elastic abdominal binder group (29 patients). Binders were applied for 14 days following the operation, or until discharge. Demographic information, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores (prior to the operation, on the first day after operation, the day IVP measurement was stopped, and one day before discharge), and outcomes were recorded. The IVP was measured before the operation to postoperative day 7. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic information, outcomes, SOFA or APACHE-II scores between the 2 groups. Initial out-of-bed mobilization occurred earlier in the elastic binder group (3.2 ± 2.0 versus 5.0 ± 3.7 days, p=0.028). A greater increase in IVP was observed in the non-elastic binder group than in the elastic binder group (2.9 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 0.7 mm Hg, p=0.000). Conclusion: Elastic binders have relatively little effect on IVP and are more helpful at promoting postoperative recovery than non-elastic binders. Therefore, elastic binders are more suitable for clinical use. PMID:26739977

  16. Recycling of excavated asphalt from gas-pipeline installations to Gas Research Institute. Final report - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lucido, J.; Tobin, A.

    1988-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that over 11,500 miles of gas distribution piping is installed under existing asphalt pavement annually. This estimate includes 25% of all new installations and 60% of all replacement work. As gas distribution systems grow to meet demands, more projects will involve restoration of asphalt pavements. Because gas distribution piping installed and/or replaced under asphalt pavement can be significantly more expensive than an installation in unpaved soil--it is cause for major concern to the gas industry. The Phase I study addressed the concept of on-site recycling of excavated asphalt for gas utility trenching applications. Commercialization of this concept will eliminate the need for disposal of existing asphalt concrete and the importing of new asphalt concrete, creating potentially significant advantages to the industry.

  17. Graphite fluoride as a solid lubricant in a polyimide binder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.; Sliney, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    Polyimide resin (PI) was shown to be a suitable binder material for the solid lubricant graphite fluoride, (CF(1.1))n. Comparisons were made to similar tests using PI-bonded MOS2 films, graphite fluoride rubbed films, and MOS2 rubbed films. The results showed that, at any one specific temperature between 25 and 400 C, the wear life of PI-bonded graphite fluoride films exceeded those of the other three films by at least a factor of 2 and by as much as a factor of 60. Minimum friction coefficients for the PI-bonded films were 0.08 for graphite fluoride and 0.04 for MOS2. The rider wear rates for the two PI-bonded films at 25 C were nearly equal.

  18. Thermal Degradation Studies of A Polyurethane Propellant Binder

    SciTech Connect

    Assink, R.A.; Celina, M.; Gillen, K.T.; Graham, A.C.; Minier, L.M.

    1999-06-12

    The thermal oxidative aging of a crosslinked hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)/isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) based polyurethane rubber, used as a polymeric binder in solid propellant grain, was investigated at temperatures from 25 C to 125 C. The changes in tensile elongation, polymer network properties and chain dynamics, mechanical hardening and density were determined with a range of techniques including modulus profiling, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation and O{sub 2} permeability measurements. We critically evaluated the Arrhenius methodology that is commonly used with a linear extrapolation of high temperature aging data using extensive data superposition and highly sensitive oxygen consumption experiments. The effects of other constituents in the propellant formulation on aging were also investigated. We conclude that crosslinking is the dominant process at higher temperatures and that the degradation involves only limited hardening in the bulk of the material. Significant curvature in the Arrhenius diagram of the oxidation rates was observed. This is similar to results for other rubber materials.

  19. SR Proteins: Binders, Regulators, and Connectors of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sunjoo

    2017-01-01

    Serine and arginine-rich (SR) proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) known as constitutive and alternative splicing regulators. As splicing is linked to transcriptional and post-transcriptional steps, SR proteins are implicated in the regulation of multiple aspects of the gene expression program. Recent global analyses of SR-RNA interaction maps have advanced our understanding of SR-regulated gene expression. Diverse SR proteins play partially overlapping but distinct roles in transcription-coupled splicing and mRNA processing in the nucleus. In addition, shuttling SR proteins act as adaptors for mRNA export and as regulators for translation in the cytoplasm. This mini-review will summarize the roles of SR proteins as RNA binders, regulators, and connectors from transcription in the nucleus to translation in the cytoplasm. PMID:28152302

  20. Plant proteins as binders in cellulosic paper composites.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Yehia; El-Wakil, Nahla A; El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Abou-Zeid, Ragab E; Youssef, M A

    2010-07-01

    Plant proteins are used - for the first time - in this work as bulk binders for cellulosic fibers in paper composites. Soy bean protein and wheat gluten were denatured by two methods, namely by: urea+NaOH and by urea+NaOH+acrylamide. Addition of increased amounts of the denatured proteins resulted in a significant increase in all paper strength properties. Soy protein led, in addition, to a remarkable enhancement in opacity. The use of proteins increased kaolin retention in the paper composites, while keeping the paper strength higher than the blank protein-free paper. The results show that plant proteins are favorable than synthetic adhesives; because they are biodegradable and do not cause troubles in paper recycling i.e. they are environmentally friendly.